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tv   War of 1812 Hero Stephen Decaturs Duel  CSPAN  January 25, 2020 11:15pm-12:01am EST

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warning to all those who plan and wage aggressive war. ♪ [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2020] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you can watch archival films in their entirety our weekly series, real america, saturday at 10 p.m. and sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern here on american history tv. next, on american history tv, u.s. naval academy superintendent sean buck talks about the life and career of stephen decatur, a war of 1812 war hero. a war of 1812 hero later killed in a duel with disgraced fellow naval officer, james perrin. read the officers
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intense correspondence between the men leading up to their face-off. the white house historical association hosted this event to commemorate the dual's 200 anniversary. duel's 200th anniversary. >> good afternoon, everybody. i appreciate giving a few reflections. secretary dalton, secretary ball, secretary nicholson, members of the white house historical association, and also the white house national council on the white house history, and guests,stinguished including descendents of stephen decatur. i would like to thank all of you and all of us for coming to celebrate the life and the legacy of one of our navies most illustrious commanders -- and 80's most -- navy's most
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illustrious commanders. his legacy is one of the most enduring legacies we have in our navy. he helped shape the trajectory of every nation early naval forces, and as a result, accelerated influence in world affairs. he commenced his career in the navy in 1798. that was a critically important time for the united states, as trade opportunities expanded, our country's ambition over the horizon. and at the same time, privacy -- piracy was affecting our commerce.. our rapidly growing naval force was in need of a strong, daring, competent leader to demonstrate decatur sea power, and was the man to fill that void. today, we still have much to learn from his example during this exciting and turbulent time.
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his name is most frequently remembered for his exploits, such as the burning of the uss philadelphia, one of our own, in tripoli harbor, and the capture of the hss macedonian, and also his many tools, whi -- duels, which we were all reminded of as we entered this road. but decatur should also be remarried as a competent and dependen -- dependable naval officer who set a standard. it is the hours and days between exploits as he was executing sometimes mundane tasks of command import and command that see that we discovered his success and the impact he had in developing and professionalizing our young nation's navy and officer corps.
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he's remembered as a kind and generous leader. this is remarkable when you consider this is the age in which the lash was still a commonly used tool for shipboard discipline. instead, he forged his own leadership style, grounded in rigorous train exactinging, standards, and total confidence in rising to the occasion. his men remembered him as a leader, an officer who held the trust and affection of his subordinates. there was one anecdote we read in a book that reflects decatur's leadership style well. upon reporting as the first lieutenant, he gathered the men, newly under his charge, and delivered his expectations. first qualitythe of a good seaman is personal
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call -- personal courage. orders.nd, following two these, may be added, an ardent love of country. gentlemen, i need say no more. i'm confident you all possess these characteristics." as a leader, he forged a contract with his men, grounded in faith in good intentions and vast personal capabilities. decatur held incredibly high standards for his crew and expected everyone to rise to those standards, which they almost inevitably did. as a young commander during the war of 1812, decatur's swift victory over the macedonia reflected his superior leadership and superior seamanship of his crew. decatur, unlike his opponent, was aided by a first lieutenant, or a second in charge, like an
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executive officer, who idolized him as a captain. during the transatlantic passage, the first lieutenant dutifully roused the crew daily at dawn to perform gunnery exercises to perfection. by the time they encounter the macedonian, the crew operated as a well oiled machine that hand lead tenant depth -- demonstrated the ships superior tactics and firepower. of ourted states, one first six ships of the navy, disabled her opponent with astonishing speed, landing 70 broadsides compared to macedonian's 30. decatur returned home to rhode island with the first british naval vessel ever captured by the united states, and established his reputation as a skilled tactician and commander at sea. last but not least, in port, decatur was regarded as one of
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the navy's most dependable and trustworthy officers. in today's parlance, we would say he was brilliant in the basics. it's one thing to be a talented tactician and mariner, which he certainly was, but he offered the full package as a naval officer, applying equal diligence to his considerably less exciting import duties. he carefully x -- inspected his vessels, demanding perfection in the construction and maintenance. the secretary of the navy personally task him to supervise the completion of a new fleet of gunboats that were woefully behind schedule in the shipyards. decatur tackled this task with dedication and zeal, ensuring construction was back on track, according to plan, and on schedule. decatural officer, provided unceasing effort to all that was asked of him, the exciting and the mundane, which is the true sign of an
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exceptional and well-rounded leader. commodore decatur was a larger-than-life naval hero, but he was not a man without shortcomings. his thirst for action border on reckless in many cases. this included a penchant for doing, as we learned at the front of the house, which eventually led to his early death. however, alongside these shortcomings, i ask that we also remember him as a kind and generous leader, a capable and dependable naval officer who inspired loyalty, courage, and perfection to those he led. decatur realized success at sea was dependent on having a well trained and motivated crew. he also acknowledged victory is earned, not only in battle, but in the hard work and preparation leading up to it. it is this legacy that we should celebrate and learn from today. naval our nation's officers serve in complex,
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challenging, and ever evolving conditions much like decatur winsted. his leadership example is worthy for all of us to emulate. thank you all for joining us this afternoon to celebrate the legacy of decatur, and i look forward to what we're about to have for the rest of the program. enjoy your lunch. [applause] to set the stage for our program. if you can imagine, it's the predawn hours of wednesday, march 22, 1820. the park we call lafayette park is still quiet. stephen decatur slips out of his home, leaving susan asleep, comes back to the predecessor of this beautiful, modern carriage
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house, gets his horse and departs, heading north to maryland, who he meets up with his second and they travel to bladensburg, where he will participate in an ill-fated duel. know for sure when he left that day it would be the last day of his life. he had, that week, hosted the wedding party for marie munro, the daughter of the president of the united states. the dark -- the night before, they were hosted by john quincy adams and his wife. on both occasions, people commented he looked a bit distracted. he didn't seem himself. but nobody knew the fate he would face on that wednesday morning. he was a very popular man. you've heard some from admiral buck about his heroism in the navy. you'll hear more about his character in our program today.
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but he was so popular that when he died on the ground for parlors here, news reports said 10,000 people came. 10,000 people in 1820 came to mourn him in front of decatur house. many believed he would follow james monroe as president of the united states. no unfortunatelyw, for the navy admiral, that would have been the first naval veteran to become president. it was not until 1961, a few presidents later, when john kennedy became the first navy president, followed in quick succession by several others, as well. through thee parlors today, i hope you took a few minutes to see the items that we've collected for you in the small exhibit. if you didn't, i hope you'll look at them as you depart. three sources, the gold-medal,
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the gold congressional medal resented to stephen decatur by congress is in the collection that we stupid here. -- stewart hed here. they have longest the actual original handwritten correspondence that you'll hear about today. and the hand of commodore baron and the hand of stephen decatur. letters. four letter from decatur laying out the terms of the dual, logistics. the third is a letter from decatur to baron, saying i didn't challenge you to a duel . and the fourth is the actual challenge that comes from baron that resulted in that fateful day of march 22. collection from the naval academy museum, we're
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grateful to have a set of dueling pistols that belonged to the second of james baron. and it is believed that these were perhaps the actual dueling pistols that were used on that day. not confirmed, but it's believed those may be the dueling pistols. what we do know is the small, round bullet you see is the actual bullet, the actual bar from the gun of james baron that fell commodore stephen decatur. he was brought back here, mortally wounded, and he died later that day in the ground for parlors. that roundledge, left.ullet has not we invite you to see that
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example of american history we have with us today. for today's program, i would like to invite to the platform the voice of stephen decatur, lieutenant hans lawson, presidential communications officer for the united states navy, and white house military social eight. the voice of, or james baron, lieutenant andrew keene, united states navy liaison officer, previously served as a white house military social aid. and narrator will be david spot, correspondent for fox news channel and longtime friend of the association and supporter of our work. gentlemen. [applause] >> our program will begin with the poignant words of the honorable john dalton, the 70th
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secretary of the united states navy, and former board member of historic decatur house, and the white house historical association. >> the following is an interpretive program placed on the volley of letters between, was decatur and baron -- commodores decatur and baron. both decatur and baron established themselves as two of the finest and most capable officers in the united states navy. aron established his conflicting legacy in 1798, where he heroically led the charge to resecure the mast of
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the uss united states during its brutal fight with a storm of cape hatteras. lieutenant baron effectively saved the ship and all the men on board. one of those men, stephen decatur, would proceed to cement his own legacy of the coast of tripoli five years later. where he mounted a successful captured attack on the uss philadelphia without losing a single american life. heroism,lt of his decatur was promoted to the rank of captain at the very young age of 25. history oft in the
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the u.s. navy. 1807, now i commodore, baron dishonorably surrendered the uss chesapeake to the royal british navy off the coast of virginia. stephen decatur would sit on the court-martial that ordered a five-year suspension of the fallen commodore baron. exhibits the complicated relationship between the two naval heroes following commodore baron's suspension from the navy. >> as the sun was still rising over the capital, stephen decatur got himself out of his home. fairly rested after spending a late evening at a cotillion hosted by john quincy adams with adams, he began to trek to the hotel on capitol hill, where he would meet his second, an old friend.
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decatur made a few things known. first, he did not intend to kill commodore james baron, nor did he want to enter his opponent. secondly, he wanted to leave everything to his wife, susan, who is not aware of the duel. the three men hired a carriage to take them to maryland. the carriage made its way toward the battlefield until jesse elliott, commodore baron's second, spotted him., they would finish on foot. they made their way to the open field, surrounded by early spring, which would shelter the field from the nearby roads. cambridge was tasked with loading the prince -- the pistols. he fumbled his way until stephen decatur offered to help. moments later, commodore decatur loaded the gun baron would use to end the dispute between the naval heroes.
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a letter from baron to decatur in june, 1819, six years after baron was relieved from his suspension, broke the 12 year sentence between the men. been accused, "i have informed i could be insulted with impunity. if you said so, you will no doubt a valid. you should have given up the name of the informer. i shall not refused to answer you on that account, but shall be as candid in my communication to you. whatever i thought or said in the brief conversations i had respecting you and your conduct, i never could have been guilty of so much egotism as to say i could insult you with impunity. several gentlemen in norfolk, not your enemies nor actuated by malicious motive, told me such a report was in circulation. the declaration relieves my mind
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from the apprehension you disregarded my character, as i had been induced to allege. >> correspondence, had decatur not felt the need to response, should have ceased. but decatur was compelled to respond. >> you have expressed correct understanding of my letter. i meant no more than to disclaim i could not insult you with impunity. as to the motives of the gentleman in norfolk, your informants, or the rumors that could not be traced to their origin on which their information was founded, or who they are, is a matter of perfect indifference to me, as is also your motive in making such inquiry upon such information. reportport of this coming from the sources it did could not fail to arrest my attention. i had also concluded your rancor told me was satisfied by the court, of which you were a member.
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and after an excel from a country, family and friends of nearly seven years. 1807,early spring of captain decatur received a letter from the royal british navy, demanding the return of four deserters who illegally joined the u.s. navy. they passed the report along until it reached the frigates commander, commodore baron. after a full investigation, parent determined the man in question were americans illegally impressed into the british navy. the men would remain on the uss chesapeake. the following june, the chesapeake set sale as a flagship to the minute. . -- into the mediterranean. the british worship followed closely behind. the leopard never movements, rapidly approaching the flagship. within striking distance, the leopard signaled the american frigate within urgent message.
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darren granted a british representative permission to come aboard to deliver the level failing toneglecting call his crew to quarter, preparing the vessel for conflict. the letter demanded the immediate surge of the uss chesapeake for any deserters. commodore baron, stunned, amazed at the audacity to claim authority, forbade any search. an hour after navy regulations, did baron order has ship to be better wreck -- battle ready. he authorized a full broadside attack on the vessel. two more british broadsides struck the ship before americans managed to fire one can. the american flag lowered. a national theory roared. captain decatur focused on baron's simple navy protocols. 10 days following the attack,
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the secretary of navy officially believed commodore baron of his duty and he would assume control of the ship. wasigure 18th, 1808, baron responsible for the disgraceful surrender. he would be suspended from the navy for five years. baron found the punishment to oo harsh. decatur had differing opinions. correspondence continued. >> with respect to the court-martial, i shall not treat the officers who comprise that court with so much disrespect as to attempt a vindication of their proceedings. implication too members who composed it, saving yourself, which requires you should attempt vindication of the proceedings. a mentor point out the delicacy and conduct in hunting me out as an object for malignant persecution after having acted as one of my judges and giving
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voice in favor of sentence against me, was cruel and unmerited. >> for my conduct, as a member of that court-martial, i do not consider myself in any way accountable to you. the chief magistrate of our country approved them. the nation approved that. and the sentence has been carried into effect. >> it is true the president of the united states did approve that sentence, and that it was carried out into full and complete effect. but i did the nation approved of that sentence, as an appeal appears likely to be made. >> sir, there is a part of my conduct on that occasion where it does not appear relevant in your recollection. i was present at the court of inquiry and heard the evidence. an opinion unfavorable to you. when i was called to act as a member of a court, i begged to be excused on that duty on the
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grounds of my having such an opinion. the honorable secretary was pleased to insist on my serving. i did, prior to taking my seat as a member of the court, communicate to your advocate, the opinion that i had formed in my correspondence with the navy department in order to afford you in opportunity to protest against my being a member on the ground of my not only have informed, but expressed an opinion unfavorable to you. you did not protest against my being a member. duty constrained me, however unpleasant it was, to take my seat as a member, and i. did so -- and i did so. >> under such circumstances, no power could have forced any liberal high-powered man to sit in a case which he had prejudged. i had hoped you would be able to account for with your god and your conscience. >> you, i find, are incapable of underestimating the motives in
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this transaction. you have thought fit to deduce impressions of my conduct as a member of the court-martial, inferences of personal hostilities toward you. >> i am also informed that you have topically and boasting the observed that you would cheerfully meet me in the field and hoped i would act like a man. such conduct on the part of anyone, especially one occupying the influential station under the government which you hold, towards an individual, oppressed as i have been, is unbecoming of you as an officer and a gentleman. i consider you as having given the invitation, which i will accept. i also consider myself entitled to the choice of weapons, place,. and distance myself, there and has never been a personal difference. but i have entertained the opinion that your conduct as an officer, since the affair of the chesapeake, has been such to forever bar your readmission
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into the service. sometime after you had been suspended from the service, you proceeded in a merchant break from norfolk. >> could i, sir, during the period of my suspension gone anywhere on a vessel? i was compelled to resort to that description of my employment. >> in a communication from the late captain lewis, it appears you stated to the british council, with whom you lived, that if the chesapeake had been prepared for action, you would have not resisted the attack. a signing as a reason that you knew there were deserters on board your ship. but the president of the united states new there were deserters on board, and of the intention of the british to take them. and the president caused you to go out in a defenseless estate for the express purpose of having your ship attack and disgraced, thus attained his favorite object of involving the
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united states in war with great britain. >> the whole of this, sir, i pronounced to be a falsehood, a ridiculous, absurd, improbable falsehood which could never be credited by any man who doesn't feel to impress upon the public that i am an idiot. i did not live with him, nor did i hold a conversation with him, so indelicate as the one stated in captain lewis' letter. >> the man capable of making such a communication would not have hesitated or denied. until you can bring forward testimony other than your own, you ought not expect the testimony of those gentlemen will be discredited. >> while baron was serving his suspension, decatur was becoming a prominent figure in the navy. in october of 1812, decatur heroically defeated and captured the macedonian off the coast of africa, just three and a half months later, in february of
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1813, his suspension would be fully served. the war of 1812 would not end for another two years. sir, the affair of the chesapeake incited indignant feeling of the nation toward great britain, did not behoove you to take an active part in the war for your own sake? the urged by your friends to avail yourself to your country during the war. >> i do not hold myself in any way accountable to you. it would be for the government to take notice of my absence, if they deemed it reprehensible. i deny, sir, that i was ever urged by my friends to return home. >> mr. cook of norfolk, their relative, says he wrote to you to that effect. and mr. forbes, then our counsel, said he urged you in person to do so. >> there were incentives, strong
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enough, gardeners, to incite desire to return. and i should've. but for circumstances beyond my control, incumbent upon me not to explain to you. >> there were opportunities which were everyday occurring, privateers, sailing merchant vessels sailing from france and other places to return. >> there were no such circumstances, as you say, were everyday occurring. no, not one within my reach. after the war arrived in denmark, it was not believed it would continue six months. if i received the slightest intonation from the department i should have been employed upon my return, i should have considered no sacrifice to great, no exertion in my power should be omitted. but what hope have i, when my weather for application for service was not honored by an answer? >> you cannot believe that reporting yourself to the
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department at a distance of 4000 miles, when the same conveyance which brought your letter, would have brought yourself, would be received as sufficient zeal to join the arms of your country. you deny that the opportunity was frequent. the customhouse's entries from the single port will show nearly 100 arrivals. and it is well-known it will require only a few days to perform journey from copenhagen to porto. >> discussion of a dual permeated throughout their correspondence in 1819. as the months passed, it became increasingly obvious a duel could not be avoided and the letters became more hostile. >> if every step you have taken, every word you utter, and every line you have written, if your own admission of the frequent and free conversations you have had respecting me and my conduct bear not the plainest stamp of personal hostility, i know not
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the meeting of such harsh terms. does not this manifest the most market personal market against me? >> i never invited you to the field, nor have i expressed a hope that you would call me out. i was informed by gentlemen with whom you had conferred upon the subject that you left norfolk for this place with the intention of calling me out. if you made the call, i would meet you. but on all scores, i should be much better pleased to have nothing to do with you. or any otherve him person reason to understand that my vision -- a visit to washington last spring for the purpose of calling you about, nor did i go there with any such view. how can you reconcile your effecting indifference toward me in the remark that you would be much better pleased to have nothing to do with me? it is true you have never given me a direct, formal, and written
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invitation to you in the fields, such as when gentlemen of honor would send to another. but if your own admissions that you had and cautiously said you would meet me if i had wished, and if you had not put yourself, you would reconsider the subject, and all of this without any provocation on my part. under all the circumstances of the case, i consider you as having thrown down the comet. i have no hesitation in accepting. >> i reiterate to you that i have not challenged, nor do i intend to challenge you. i do not think fighting duels under any circumstance can raise the reputation on any man. it is not even an unerring criteria of personal courage. >> nine years prior to this assertion, decatur instituted a simple regulation on board the uss united states, requiring every midshipman on board pledge
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themselves to neither give nor accept a duel without first attaining his approval. decatur did not seek to abolish dueling, but rather reduce it to those that most. required it the decatur plan was recognized by other naval captains who too saw this policy as a way to combat unnecessary death. >> upon the subject of doing, i perfectly coincide with the opinions you express. i consider it a barbaric practice which ought to be exploded from civilized society. but, sir, there may be cases of arms necessary. i feel myself constrained by every tie that binds me to society, by all that can make life desirable to me, to resort to this motive obtaining that redress at your hands as the only alternative, which now seems to present itself for the preservation of my honor. >> from your manner of
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proceeding, it appears to me that you have come to the determination to fight someone, and that you have selected me for that purpose. your object, which would have been better obtained had you made this decision during our late work, when you're fighting might have benefited your country as well as yourself. >> had you permitted me to remain at rest, i should not have distribute. you hunted me out. you persecuted me and have declared your determination to drive me from the navy if i should make any efforts to be employed. >> if we fight, it must be of your seeking and you must take all the risk and inconvenience, which usually attend the challenger in such cases, as to weapons, place, and distance. if we are to meet, those points will be committed to the front i may select on the occasion -- friend i may select on the
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occasion. i shall not be found fastidious on this point, but will yield any advantage of this kind. >> whenever you will consent to meet me on fair and equal grounds, such as two honorable men consider just and proper, you are at liberty to view this as that call. the tenor of your conduct justifies this course of proceeding on my part. >> i accepted, and i refer you to my friend, who is fully authorized by me to make any arrangement he pleases as regards to weapons, place, or distance. >> on march 22, 1820, the two men laid eyes on each other for the first time since that court-martial 12 years before. 45 minutes after their arrival, the two men finally took their positions. >> i hope,, decatur, that when we meet in another world, we should be better friends than we were in this. >> i have never been your enemy,
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sir. >> the two men not only spoke directly to each other, contradicting the code dwell, they also made the attempt to differences. elliott asserted, gentlemen, your place. present. the pistols rose. bainbridge called out one, two. a simultaneous bang erupted. baron fell to the ground, obviously hit by the ball. >> you must excuse my hitting the ground. i can stand a longer. feet,, but still on his decatur put his hand on the wound and gently remarked. man.lord, i am a dead >> both on the ground, 15 feet away from each other, baron called up. >> gentlemen, everything has
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been conducted in the most honorable manner. decatur, i forgive you from the bottom of my heart. >> decatur weakly responded, agreeing. doctors assessed the damage. barron's wound was serious. but wasn't fatal decatur had a more gruesome diagnosis. severed vital arteries and he only had a few hours to live. soon after, the dying work here hoisted into his carriage. >> god bless you, decatur. >> farewell. farewell, baron. thehortly thereafter, carriage arrived at presidents park. misses decatur, shocked and horrified, received her husband a bloody mess. they unloaded him from the carriage and placed him in one of the house's lower parlors. it was in that room where mr. decatur would take his last breath. as one of the nation's first
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heroes, he was one throughout the city and country. according to news reports, 10,000 more in washington alone. heroism placed him at the center of washington society and established him as a rising star in politics. many believed he could have become president of the united states in the. near future was laid tocatur rest in washington, d.c. lobbied forommittee his remains to be committed to his home city. his wife granted the removal, and he was relocated to the churchyard in philadelphia, where he remains today. sven after the duel, baron' honor was clouded by the treasonous statements he made to the council, and his insufficient efforts to return home during the late work. in 1821, the navy convened a court of inquiry to evaluate
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both charges. the court found no sufficient evidence to prove the treasonous,, effectively clearing him of that charge. but deemed that his absence from the united states during the war of 1812 was contrary to his duty as an officer. but baron was not punished. in 1824, he was, don't -- commandant of a station. we performed a variety of roles, becoming the navy's senior officer. he died in norfolk, virginia in 1851 at the age of 82. [applause] >> with the iowa caucuses days away, we take a look at the
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history of the first in the nation i have a caucuses sunday at 3:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv. > the carter campaign creates this sense that something's going on in iowa and manages partly on the follow-up to apples story about 1972 to convince the national media that what happens in iowa is going to matter. and uses iowa as a springboard, as a way to say this guy from georgia you've never heard of is, in fact, a viable candidate because a bunch of people in iowa who had never heard of him either voted for him. >> a discussion on the history of the iowa caucuses sunday at 3:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv on c-span3. week, american artifacts it takes you to museums and historic places to learn about american history. here's a brief look at what airing this sunday night.
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>> soldier laying on the table. he gets up and his yelling and screaming, everything else. didn't happen. didn't happen. this is what i believe. we had eight stations set out near the battlefield. there was assistant surgeons out there. they were getting morphine to them out there, ease the pain. by the time he came into my operating table, he could be laying over there and they were already giving him. by the time he gets to my table, we don't know where he's at. now i'm going to feed him some more. i'm going to put him to sleep. i'm going to cut his legs off, cut his arms off. now i believe this. when i took my ammonia, i placed it under his nose. he starts waking up, starts getting up. sit him up, get pressure into his lungs. he looks down and there's two leagues missing.
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he's going to yell, scream, and carry on. why? please are country boys. they need their arms and legs to work the farm. what are you going to do now? that's the biggest shock you can have. there's no way. 90% of all the abby tatian's done on the table in the union -- the imputations done on the table. the confederacy had a hard time getting the chloroform because of the blockade wicket had along. the coast the only way they could get it is if they had overrun our wagons. they would get them that way. this, i believe, they did put a stick in her mouth when they operated. they were drugged up. they could feel it. that's why i believe some of them were groaning and moaning. here's another disbelief. there's no way that i researched, or even my assistant surgeon over there, researched anything that came up about biting the bullet.
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the soldier biting the bullet. i put this bullet in his mouth. i start sudden, thinking he's feeling it. what's going to happen? he's going to swallow it and choke to death. we didn't find any documentations where there was, in the civil war, biting on the bullet. out in the field, i found a bullet near a hospital and there's teeth marks on it. this is what i believe. i believe near the hospital and later on, there were pigs running around and the pigs pick them up and bite them and then they drop them. 20 years from now, you come around and you find this bullet. there is a bullet some soldier did on. -- bit on. that's my belief. we had no documents is that said they were biting the bullet.
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historic with us to sites, museums, and archives sunday at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. eastern on our weekly series, american artifacts. this is american history tv, all weekend on c-span three. >> on lectures in history, a class about neutrality and what the concept meant in world war i america. theprofessor explains how u.s. sold to different powers. they also talked about how the u.s. billed itself as a defender of democracy and sought to police certain ethnic groups and yet faced criticism about how treated its own minorities. prof. mathieu: good morning everyone. this morning, we will be talking

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