A case of Plasmodium knowlesi and HIV co-infection is reported in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The 54 year-old patient presented to the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Tübingen with a 11-day history of daily fever and chills. Initial microscopic evaluation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears was suggestive of a mixed infection with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. However, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene revealed a P. knowlesi infection. Parasitaemia was 473 parasites/μl and the platelet count was within the normal range. Oral treatment with Malarone® was initiated and resulted in a fast recovery without any complications.As part of routine screening the patient also underwent HIV testing and was found to be HIV positive with a CD4 cell count of 115/μl and a viral load of 34,799 copies/ml. A follow-up measurement of the viral load seven days after the first quantification revealed an increase to 102,000 copies/ml. Three months after the first quantification the viral load had dropped to 10,000 copies/ml without the initiation of antiretroviral treatment. This suggests the possibility of a P. knowlesi malaria-induced temporary elevation of viral load similar to that reported for P. falciparum and HIV co-infection.