We reinvestigate the generation and accumulation of magnetic flux in optically thin accretion flows around active gravitating objects. The source of the magnetic field is the azimuthal electric current associated with the Poynting-Robertson drag on the electrons of the accreting plasma. This current generates magnetic field loops which open up because of the differential rotation of the flow. We show through simple numerical simulations that what regulates the generation and accumulation of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), QUASARS, COSMOLOGY, MAGNETIC FLUX, ACCRETION DISKS,...

We have achieved all the goals stated in our grant proposal. Specifically, these include: 1. The understanding of the complexity induced nonlinear spatiotemporal coherent structures and the coexisting propagating modes. 2. The understanding of the intermittent turbulence and energization process of the observed Bursty Bulk Flows (BBF's) in the Earth s magnetotail. 3. The development of "anisotropic three-dimensional complexity" in the plasma sheet due to localized merging and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE PLASMAS, NONLINEARITY, MAGNETIC FIELD CONFIGURATIONS,...

The "physics of complexity" in space plasmas is the central theme of this exposition. It is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures arising from the plasma resonances can be the source for the coexistence of nonpropagating spatiotemporal fluctuations and propagating modes. Non-Gaussian probability distribution functions of the intermittent fluctuations from direct numerical simulations are obtained and discussed. Power spectra and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANISOTROPY, INTERMITTENCY, SPACE PLASMAS, TURBULENCE,...

Sporadic and localized interactions of coherent structures arising from plasma resonances can be the origin of "complexity" of the coexistence of non- propagating spatiotemporal fluctuations and propagating modes in space plasmas. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the intermittent character of the non-propagating fluctuations. The technique of the dynamic renormalization-group is introduced and applied to the study of scale invariance of such type of multiscale...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE PLASMAS, TURBULENCE, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, PARTICLE...

Many body effects on conduction and diffusion of electrons and holes in a semiconductor quantum well are studied using a microscopic theory. The roles played by the screened Hartree-Fock (SHE) terms and the scattering terms are examined. It is found that the electron and hole conductivities depend only on the scattering terms, while the two-component electron-hole diffusion coefficients depend on both the SHE part and the scattering part. We show that, in the limit of the ambipolax diffusion...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MANY BODY PROBLEM, QUANTUM WELLS, SEMICONDUCTORS (MATERIALS),...

The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS, BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION,...

Unsteady flowfields of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil are calculated using an implicit, finite-difference, Navier Stokes numerical scheme. Five widely used turbulence models are used with the numerical scheme to assess the accuracy and suitability of the models for simulating the retreating blade stall of helicopter rotor in forward flight. Three unsteady flow conditions corresponding to an essentially attached flow, light-stall, and deep-stall cases of an oscillating NACA 0015 wing...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBULENCE MODELS, UNSTEADY FLOW, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, FINITE...

This viewgraph presentation provides a brief review of two-equation eddy-viscosity models (TEM's) from the perspective of applied CFD. It provides objective assessment of both well-known and newer models, compares model predictions from various TEM's with experiments, identifies sources of modeling error and gives historical perspective of their effects on model performance and assessment, and recommends directions for future research on TEM's.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, EDDY VISCOSITY, TURBULENCE...

This viewgraph presentation discusses (1) turbulence modeling: challenges in turbulence modeling, desirable attributes of turbulence models, turbulence models in FLUENT, and examples using FLUENT; and (2) combustion modeling: turbulence-chemistry interaction and FLUENT equilibrium model. As of now, three turbulence models are provided: the conventional k-epsilon model, the renormalization group model, and the Reynolds-stress model. The renormalization group k-epsilon model has broadened the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION, RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS,...

Bolgiano scaling in Boussinesq turbulence is analyzed using the Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group. For this purpose, an isotropic model is introduced. Scaling exponents are calculated by forcing the temperature equation so that the temperature variance flux is constant in the inertial range. Universal amplitudes associated with the scaling laws are computed by expanding about a logarithmic theory. Connections between this formalism and the direct interaction approximation are discussed. It is...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUSSINESQ APPROXIMATION, FLUID DYNAMICS, FREE CONVECTION,...

The RNG-based algebraic turbulence model, with a new method of solving the cubic equation and applying new length scales, is introduced. An analysis is made of the RNG length scale which was previously reported and the resulting eddy viscosity is compared with those from other algebraic turbulence models. Subsequently, a new length scale is introduced which actually uses the two previous RNG length scales in a systematic way to improve the model performance. The performance of the present RNG...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW, BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION, COMPUTATIONAL...

The main research activities at the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) are described. The research objective of CMOTT is to improve and/or develop turbulence and transition models for propulsion systems. The flows of interest in propulsion systems can be both compressible and incompressible, three dimensional, bounded by complex wall geometries, chemically reacting, and involve 'bypass' transition. The most relevant turbulence and transition models for the above flows are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLOSURE LAW, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, EDDY VISCOSITY,...

Reynolds stress closure models based on the recursion renormalization group theory are developed for the prediction of turbulent separated flows. The proposed model uses a finite wavenumber truncation scheme to account for the spectral distribution of energy. In particular, the model incorporates effects of both local and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are shown to yield a contribution identical to that from the epsilon-renormalization group (RNG), while the local interactions...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BACKWARD FACING STEPS, RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS,...

The advection of a passive scalar by incompressible turbulence is considered using recursive renormalization group procedures in the differential sub grid shell thickness limit. It is shown explicitly that the higher order nonlinearities induced by the recursive renormalization group procedure preserve Galilean invariance. Differential equations, valid for the entire resolvable wave number k range, are determined for the eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity coefficients, and it is shown that...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADVECTION, DIFFUSIVITY, EDDY VISCOSITY, RENORMALIZATION GROUP...

A numerical study of confined jets in a cylindrical duct is carried out to examine the performance of two recently proposed turbulence models: an RNG-based K-epsilon model and a realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The former is of the same form as the standard K-epsilon model but has different model coefficients. The latter uses an explicit quadratic stress-strain relationship to model the turbulent stresses and is capable of ensuring the positivity of each turbulent normal...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DUCTED FLOW, FLUID JETS,...

The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS,...

The Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group is used to analyze the pressure gradient-velocity correlation and return to isotropy terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations. The perturbation series for the relevant correlations, evaluated to lowest order in the epsilon-expansion of the Yakhot-Orszag theory, are infinite series in tensor product powers of the mean velocity gradient and its transpose. Formal lowest order Pade approximations to the sums of these series produce a rapid pressure...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE, ISOTROPY, RENORMALIZATION GROUP...

The Big Viterbi Decoder (BVD), currently under development for the DSN, includes three separate algorithms to acquire and maintain node and frame synchronization. The first measures the number of decoded bits between two consecutive renormalization operations (renorm rate), the second detects the presence of the frame marker in the decoded bit stream (bit correlation), while the third searches for an encoded version of the frame marker in the encoded input stream (symbol correlation). A...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, BIT SYNCHRONIZATION, TRELLIS CODING, VITERBI...

The pressure velocity correlation and return to isotropy term in the Reynolds stress transport equation are analyzed using the Yakhot-Orszag renormalization group. The perturbation series for the relevant correlations, evaluated to lowest order in the epsilon-expansion of the Yakhot-Orszag theory, are infinite series in tensor product powers of the mean velocity gradient and its transpose. Formal lowest order Pade approximations to the sums of these series produce a fast pressure strain model...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), K-EPSILON TURBULENCE MODEL, PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION,...

A two-equation turbulence model of the K-epsilon type was recently derived by using Renormalization Group (RNG) methods. It was later reported that this RNG based model yields substantially better predictions than the standard K-epsilon model for turbulent flow over a backward facing step - a standard test case used to benchmark the performance of turbulence models in separated flows. The improvements obtained from the RNG K-epsilon model were attributed to the better treatment of near wall...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BACKWARD FACING STEPS, K-EPSILON TURBULENCE MODEL,...

Turbulence models are developed by supplementing the renormalization group (RNG) approach of Yakhot and Orszag with scale expansions for the Reynolds stress and production of dissipation terms. The additional expansion parameter (eta) is the ratio of the turbulent to mean strain time scale. While low-order expansions appear to provide an adequate description of the Reynolds stress, no finite truncation of the expansion for the production of dissipation term in powers of eta suffices - terms of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW EQUATIONS, RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS, SHEAR FLOW,...

In a recent paper, the authors compared the performance of a variety of turbulence models including the k-epsilon model and the second-order closure model based on Renormalization Group (RNG) Methods. The performance of these RNG models in homogeneous turbulent shear flow was found to be quite poor, apparently due to the value of the constant C(sub epsilon1) in the modeled dissipation rate equation which was substantially lower than its traditional value. However, recently a correction has been...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), K-EPSILON TURBULENCE MODEL, RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS,...

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May 31, 2011
05/11

May 31, 2011
by
Wei, Chen-Yu; Cho, Kyeong-Jae; Srivastava, Deepa

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Strain rate and temperature dependence of the tensile strength of single-wall carbon nanotubes has been investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. The tensile failure or yield strain is found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and strain rate. A transition state theory based predictive model is developed for the tensile failure of nanotubes. Based on the parameters fitted from high-strain rate and temperature dependent molecular dynamics simulations, the model predicts that a...

Topics: MANY BODY PROBLEM, RENORMALIZATION GROUP METHODS, QUANTUM WELLS, SEMICONDUCTORS (MATERIALS),...