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BENTON HARBOR POWER PLANT LIMNOLOGICAL STUDIES 



PART XXV. PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE SEASONAL SURVEYS OF 1976, OF SEPTEMBER 1970, 
AND PRE- vs. POST-OPERATIONAL COMPARISONS AT COOK NUCLEAR PLANT 



John C. Ayers 



Under Contract with: 

American Electric Power Service Corporation 
Indiana & Michigan Electric Company 



Special Report No. 44 

of the 

Great Lakes Research Division 

The University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 



April 1978 



PREVIOUS PARTS OF THE REPORT SERIES RELATIVE TO THE 
DONALD C. COOK NUCLEAR STATION 



Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological Studies 
Part 
I 
II 



General studies. J. C. Ayers and J. C. K. Huang. April 1967. 31 P- 



Studies of local winds and alongshore currents. J. C. Ayers, A. E. 
Strong, C. F. Powers, and R. Rossmann. December 1967- 45 p. 

Ill . Some effects of power plant waste heat on the ecology of Lake 
Michigan. J. R. Krezoski . June 1969. 78 p. 

IV. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1969. J. C. Ayers, R. F. Anderson, 
N. W. O'Hara, C. Kidd. March 1970. 92 p. 

V. Winter operations, March 1970. N. W. O'Hara, R. F. Anderson, W. L. 
Yocum, J. C. Ayers. April 1970. 17 p. 

VI. Pontoporeia affinis (Crustacea, Amphipoda) as a monitor of radio- 
nuclides released to Lake Michigan. C. C. Kidd. 1970. 71 p. 

VII. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1970. J. C. Ayers, D. E. Arnold, 
R. F. Anderson, H. K. Soo. March 1971. 72 and 13 p. 

VIII. Winter operations 1970-1971. J. C. Ayers, N. W. O'Hara, W. L. Yocum. 
June 1971. 41 p. 

IX. The biological survey of 10 July 1970. J. C. Ayers, W. L. Yocum, 

H. K. Soo, T. W. Bottrell, S. C. Mozley, L. C. Garcia. 1971. 72 p. 

X. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1971. J. C. Ayers, H. K. Soo, W. L. 
Yocum. August 1972. 140 and 12 p. 

XI. Winter operations 1971-1972. J. C. Ayers, W. L. Yocum. September 
1972. 26 p. 

XII. Studies of the fish population near the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power 
Plant, 1972. D. J. Jude, T. W. Bottrell, J. A. Dorr III, T. J. 
Miller. March 1973. 115 p. 

XIII. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1972. J. C. Ayers and E. Seibel 
(eds.). March 1973. 28 1 p. 

XIV. Winter operations 1972-1973. J. C. Ayers, W. L. Yocum, E. Seibel. 
May 1973. 22 p. 

XV. The biological survey of 12 November 1970. J. C. Ayers, S. C. Mozley, 
J. C. Roth. July 1973. 69 p. 

XVI. Psammolittoral investigation 1972. E. Seibel, J C. Roth, J. A. 
Stewart, S. L. Williams. July 1973. 63 p. 



iii 



PREVIOUS REPORTS continued 



XVII. Program of aquatic studies related to the Donald C. Cook Nuclear 
Plant. J. C. Ayers and E, Seibel (eds.). December 1973- 57 p. 

XVIII. Effect of a thermal discharge on benthos populations: Statistical 
methods for assessing the impact of the Cook Nuclear Plant. E. M. 
Johnston. December 1973- 20 p. 

XIX. The seasonal biological surveys of 1971. J. C. Ayers, S. C. Mozley, 
J. A. Stewart. December 197M . l8l p. 

XX. Statistical power of a proposed method for detecting the effect of 
waste heat on benthos populations. E. M, Johnston. December 1974. 
29 p. 

XXI. Bacteria and phytoplankton of the seasonal surveys of 1972 and 1973. 
J. C. Ayers. November 1975. 153 p. 

XXII. Underwater operations in southeastern Lake Michigan near the Donald C. 
Cook Nuclear Plant during 197^. J. A. Dorr III and T.J. Miller. 
December 1975. 32 p. 

XXIII . Phytoplankton of the Seasonal Surveys of 1974 and 1975 and Initial 
Pre- vs. Post-Operational Comparisons at Cook nuclear Plant. J. C. 
Ayers, N. V. Southwick, and D. G. Robinson. June 1977. 279 p. 

XXIV. Entrainment of phytoplankton at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant - 

1975. R. Rossmann, N. M. Miller, and D. G. Robinson. November 1977. 
265 p. 

Seibel, E. and J. C. Ayers (eds.). 1974. The biological, chemical, and 
physical character of Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the Donald C. 
Cook Nuclear Plant. Special Report No. 51 of the Great Lakes Research 
Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 475 p. 

Jude, D. J., F. J. Tesar, J. A. Dorr III, T. J. Miller, P.J. Rago and 

D.J. Stewart. 1975. Inshore Lake Michigan fish populations near the 
Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, 1973. Special Report No. 52 of 
the Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 267 p. 

Seibel, E., C. T. Carlson and J. W. Maresca, Jr. 1975- Lake and shore 
ice conditions on southeastern Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the 
Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant: winter 1973-74. Special Report No. 55 
of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. 62 p. 

Mozley, S. C. 1975. Preoperational investigations of zoobenthos in 
southeastern Lake Michigan near the Cook Nuclear Plant. Special 
Report No. 56 of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 132 p. 



IV 



PREVIOUS REPORTS continued 



Rossmann, R. 1975. Chemistry of nearshore surficial sediments from 

southeastern Lake Michigan. Special Report No. 57 of the Great Lakes 
Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 62 p, 

Evans, M. S. 1975. The 1975 preoperational zooplankton investigations 
relative to the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant. Special Report 
No. 58 of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 187 p. 

Ayers, J. C. 1975. The phytoplankton of the Cook Plant monthly minimal 

surveys during the preoperational years 1972, 1973 and 1974. Special 
Report No. 59 of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 51 p. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
PREVIOUS PARTS OF THE REPORT SERIES RELATIVE 

TO THE DONALD C. COOK NUCLEAR PLANT iii 

FIGURES . viii 

TABLES ix 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..... x 

INTRODUCTION 1 

TECHNIQUES 4 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 6 

The Thermal Bar of 14 April 1976 6 

Phytoplankton Summary Tables 7 

Dominant and Codominant Phytoplankters 10 

Master Lists of Phytoplankters Collected 27 

New Forms in the Phytoplankton since 1972 35 

Appearance and Increase of Cvclotella comensis 36 

Major Algal Group Percentages at 

Plant and Reference Stations, 1970-1976 37 

Inner-Outer Graphical Comparisons: Numbers of Forms 42 

Inner-Outer Graphical Comparisons: Phytoplankton Abundances. . . 54 

Inner-Outer Statistical Comparisons: Phytoplankton Abundances . 8I 

Inner-Outer Graphical Comparisons: Diversity Indices 85 

Inner-Outer Graphical Comparisons: Phytoplankton Redundancies . 91 

CONCLUSIONS 100 

REFERENCES 104 

APPENDIX A: PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS 106 

APPENDIX B: PHYTOPLANKTON COLLECTIONS 126 



vii 



LIST OF FIGURES 



1 The Cook Plant 36-station sampling grid used after 2 
April 1972. 

2 The thermal bar and phytoplankton abundances of 14 8 
April 1976, 

3 Histogram of phytoplankton abundances by 1 C 9 
temperature intervals during the thermal bar 

condition of 14 April 1976. 

4 Major group percentage compositions of the 41 
phytoplankton, July 1970 through October 1976. 

5 Mean numbers of phytoplankton forms collected 51 
in three depth zones and in inner-outer station 

groups, preoperational 1970-1974 and operational 
1975-1976. 

6 Mean abundances of ten categories of phytoplankton 
algae in three depth zones and in inner-outer 
station groups, preoperational 1970-1974 and 
operational 1975- 1976 . 

6a (Desmids) 62 

6b (Filamentous green algae) 63 

6c (Other algae) 64 

6d (Filamentous blue-green algae) 66 

6e (Coccoid blue-green algae) 67 

6f (Coccoid green algae) 68 

6g (Flagellates) 70 

6h (Pennate diatoms) 71 

6i (Centric diatoms) 73 

74 
75 
76 
77 
78 

Mean diversity indices of phytoplankton collections 88 
in three depth zones and in inner-outer station 
groups, preoperational 1970-1974 and operational 
1975-1976. 

Mean redundancies of phytoplankton collections 99 
in three depth zones and in inner-outer station 
groups, preoperational 1970-1974 and operational 
1975-1976. 



6j ( " 


II 


) 


6k ( 


II 


) 


61 (Total 


algae) 




6m ( •' 


" ) 




6n ( " 


" ) 





Vlll 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table Number 2^£§. 

1 Comparison of the original 54-station survey grid 3 
to the 36-station grid used after April 1972. 

2 Phytoplankton summary tables . 1 1 

3 Dominant and codominant phytoplankters in the Cook 22 
Plant seasonal surveys, preoperational 1970-197^ 

and operational 1975-1976. 

4 Master lists of phytoplankters collected in the 28 
Cook Plant seasonal surveys of 1976 and Septemeber 

1970. 

5 Numbers of forms, abundances, and diversity 43 
indices of phytoplankton collections in the Cook 

Plant seasonal surveys of 1976 and September 1970, 

6 Means, standard errors, and sample sizes of 48 
numbers of phytoplankton forms collected in three 

depth zones and in inner-outer station groups 
during the seasonal surveys of 1976 and September 
1970. 

7 Means, standard errors, and sample sizes of 56 
phytoplankton abundances in three depth zones and 

in inner-outer station groups during the seasonal 
surveys of 1976 and September 1970. 

8 Inner-outer statistical comparisons of phyto- 83 
plankton abundances in two depth zones during the 
seasonal surveys of preoperational 1970- 1974 and 
operational 1975-1976. 

9 Means , standard errors, and sample sizes of 86 
phytoplankton diversity indices in three depth 

zones and in inner-outer station groups during 
the seasonal surveys of 1970 and 1976. 

10 Phytoplankton redundancies during the Cook Plant 93 
seasonal surveys in the years 1970 through 1976 . 

11 Means, standard errors, and numbers of obser- 97 
vations of phytoplankton redundancies by seasons 

in three depth zones and in inner-outer station 
groups in the years 1970 through 1976 - 



IX 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Several persons have contributed in different ways to the completion of 
these studies. The identifications and enumerations of the September 1970 
phytoplankton were carried out by Elzbieta Kopczynska, Susan Williams and 
Nancy Schrank; those of the 1976 samples were done by Nancy Southwick, Sally 
Kleinschmidt, Susan Wiley, and Donald Robinson. The author is deeply 
grateful for their efforts in this tedious but necessary work. 

Nancy Southwick and Pairoj Waiquamdee are thanked for drafting and 
computer work which was much appreciated. 

Donald Robinson has provided valued extra assistance at various times. 

The author's thanks are tendered to Gregory Godun for advice and help in 
statistical matters. 

I have received and appreciated field assistance from members of the 
zooplankton, benthos, and fisheries staffs. 

The captain and crew of the R/V MYSIS have, as always, done more than 
their bare duty during the field surveys. 

The manuscript was reviewed by Dr. Curtiss 0. Davis, Dr. Ronald 
Rossmann, and Dr. David S. White; their comments have been helpful and are 
much appreciated. 



INTRODUCTION 

This report extends our reporting of the Lake Michigan phytoplankton by 
adding a previously unreported preoperational survey of September 1970 and by 
adding the surveys of operational 1976. 

Parts of the material presented have been used in the Indiana & Michigan 
Cook Plant Environmental Operating Report for 1977 1 but here other materials 
have been added, including the appendices of physical data and of 
phytoplankton station collections which were not in the company report. 

The strategy for detecting changes in the phytoplankton community near 
the Cook Plant involves comparisons of phytoplankton abundances in three depth 
zones near the plant to abundances in the same three depth zones at distances 
two miles or more away from the plant. In any one survey these comparisons 
are spatial but, repeated over time, they allow temporal comparisons as well. 
The temporal comparisons primarily consist of comparing conditions in 
preoperational years against operational years. Conditions in preoperational 
years provide a measure of natural variation against which variations in 
operational years may be compared to detect possible plant-related 
perturbations. 

This report serves the double purpose of recording the results of 
previously unreported seasonal surveys of September 1970 and of spring, 
summer, and fall of 1976, and of presenting preliminary analyses of possible 
plant effects on the phytoplankton according to the strategy outlined above. 

Figure 1 shows the station positions of the present 36-station sampling 
grid centered on the Cook Plant. This grid, used after April 1972, replaced 
an earlier 54-.station grid. Table 1 compares the two sampling grids and shows 
the stations dropped and stations retained in changing to the 36-station grid. 



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TABLE 1 . Comparison of the original 54-station seasonal sampling grid to 
the 36-station sampling grid which was instituted in the July 1972 seasonal 
survey at Cook Plant. X denotes a retained station. — denotes an omitted 
station. 







54- station 


36-station 




54-station 


36-station 


station 


grid 


grid 


station 


grid 


grid 


DC-1 


X 


X 


NDC-7-3 


X 


X 


DC-2 


X 


X 


NDC-7-4 


X 


— 


DC-3 


X 


X 


NDC-7-5 


X 


X 


DC-4 


X 


X 


SDC-.25-1 


X 


— 


DC-5 


X 


X 


SDC- .5-0 


X 


X 


DC-6 


X 


X 


SDC- .5- 1 


X 


— 


NDC-.25-1 


X 


~ 


SDC- .5-2 


X 


X 


NDC- .5-0 


X 


X 


SDC- .5-3 


X 


— 


NDC-.5-1 


X 


— 


SDC- 1-0 


X 


X 


NDC- .5-2 


X 


X 


SDC- 1- 1 


X 


X 


NDC- .5-3 


X 


— 


SDC- 1-2 


X 


X 


NDC- 1-0 


X 


X 


SDC- 1-3 


X 


— 


NDC- 1-1 


X 


X 


SDC-2-0 


X 


X 


NDC- 1-2 


X 


X 


SDC-2- 1 


X 


X 


NDC- 1-3 


X 


— 


SDC-2-2 


X 


— 


NDC-2-0 


X 


X 


SDC-2-3 


X 


X 


NDC-2-1 


X 


X 


SDC-2-4 


X 


— 


NDC-2-2 


X 


— 


SDC-4-0 


X 


X 


NDC-2-3 


X 


X 


SDC-4-1 


X 


X 


NDC-2-4 


X 


~ 


SDC-4-2 


X 


~ 


NDC-4-0 


X 


X 


SDC-4-3 


X 


X 


NDC-4- 1 


X 


X 


SDC-4-4 


X 


X 


NDC-4-2 


X 


— 


SDC-7- 1 


X 


X 


NDC-4-3 


X 


X 


SDC-7-2 


X 


— 


NDC-4-4 


X 


X 


SDC-7-3 


X 


X 


NDC-7- 1 


X 


X 


SDC-7-4 


X 


— 


NDC-7-2 


X 


— 


SDC-7-5 


X 


X 



At all complete stations in Figure 1 phytoplankton, zooplankton, 
benthos, and physical measurements are collected during the seasonal 
surveys. The physical measurements consist of surface-water temperature, 
water depth, bottom type, Secchi disc water transparency, and water color 
as seen above the white 20-cm Secchi disc, as well as weather conditions 
and wind and wave characteristics. The seasonal physical data are given 
in Appendix A. 



TECHNIQUES 

Phytoplankton samples were collected by Niskin bottle from a depth of 
1 m, with the exception of the nearshore stations. Nearshore collections 
(serial number zero stations) were made by submerging an open 1-liter bottle 
4 inches below the water surface. All samples were 1-liter whole samples. 
Each sample was fixed with Utermchl's iodine fixative immediately after 
collection and stored in an opaque container. 

In the laboratory, each sample was concentrated to 100 ml by settling 
for two days in a 1000-ml graduate cylinder and then siphoning off 900 ml of 
fluid. The concentrated sample was stored in a 100-ml opaque bottle. 

The samples of 1970, 1971, and of April 1972 were prepared and counted 
by the Utermohl technique: placing an aliquot of the concentrated sample in 
a tubular combination settling and counting chamber and allowing the aliquot 
to settle overnight. The counting chamber containing the settled cells was 
then separated from the settling chamber, covered, and placed on the 
microscope. The samples were counted on a binocular inverted microscope at 
1000X magnification. 

Beginning with July 1972, and continuing since, the method of 
concentration for species identification and enumeration has been the 
settle-freeze method (Sanford et al. 1969). This method entails two days' 
settling of 1000 ml of sample in a graduated cylinder. The third day the top 
900 ml are siphoned off and discarded. Part of the remaining 100 ml is used 
for preparation for the microscope slide and the rest is kept for any 
possible further references or back checking. 

The once-settled sample is then diluted if need be and settled again, 
this time in l8-ml cylinders. These cylinders are attached with a small 



amount of stopcock lubricant (to prevent leakage) to the microscope slides 
which rest on an aluminum plate one quarter inch thick. The whole apparatus 
is then secured together mechanically. The microscope slides, prior to 
having the cylinders placed on them, were treated with Dessicote to provide a 
hydrophobic surface to the slide. After the samples have settled overnight, 
the aluminum plate on which they rest is placed on a block of dry ice for 90 
seconds or less. This freezes the bottom 1-1.5 ml. The unfrozen part is 
then discarded and the cylinders are removed from the slides. The slides are 
then placed in an anhydrous ethanol chamber for 2 days, and then in a toluene 
chamber for 2 days. 

The first chamber removes the water and the second prepares the samples 
for their final mounting in toluene-based Permount. One drop of Permount is 
put on the slide, a cover slip is placed over it, and the slide is allowed to 
dry for two days or more. 

The specimens are counted, at 1200X under oil immersion on a Leitz 
Ortholux microscope, to species, variety and form when practical, otherwise 
to genus or group. Only those specimens that appear to have been viable at 
the time of collection are counted. Two sweeps of the slide are made, one 
vertical and one horizontal. This provides an indication of the randomness 
of the species on the slide. 

All species are counted to individual cells, except for filamentous 
blue-green algae with cylindrical trichomes which are counted as individual 
organisms. 

Phytoplankton abundances derived from the counts are calculated as cells 
per liter, but are divided by 1000 in the computer print-outs. 

Prior to July 1972 (erroneously reported as 1973 in Seibel and Ayers 
1974) identification and counting of phytoplankton were carried out by the 



Utermohl settling-tube and inverted microscope method. In July 1972 the 
settle-freeze method was adopted because of the significantly greater numbers 
of phytoplankton forms that can be identified to species by this method. The 
settle-freeze method, however, involves one more settling and decantation 
than does the Utermohl method and organisms are lost by adhering to the sides 
of the settling chambers • In our cross-comparisons of the methods, reported 
in Seibel and Ayers (1974), the Utermohl method gave counts averaging 1.8 
times more than counts by settle- freeze. The low phytoplankton numbers which 
we here report from before July 1972 would have been substantially lower had 
they been done by the settle-freeze method. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

It is believed that coherence is better achieved if presentation of 
results is not separated from discussion of the results. It is anticipated 
that the reader will have no difficulty in distinguishing between the 
objective presentation of the results and the subjective discussion of the 
results . 



The Thermal Bar of 14 April 1976 

Temperature conditions in the waters of the Cook Plant survey grid in 
April are frequently such that the 4 C isotherm passes through the grid. 
The presence of the 4 isotherm defines the presence of the so-called 
thermal bar. Because the thermal bar is a region of convergence and sinking 
lying between warmer water inshore and colder water offshore it is frequently 
cited as being a barrier to the mixing of the waters inshore and offshore 
from it. If convergence along the bar is a truly dominant feature it might 



be expected that the converging surface water movements would carry 
phytoplankton to the bar from both sides and that phytoplankton densities 
there would be higher. For this reason we have made it a policy to report 
thermal bar conditions when they are encountered in Cook Plant April surveys. 

Ayers, Mozley, and Stewart (197^) have reported on a thermal bar 
condition found in the survey grid on 15 April 1971- Ayers, Southwick, and 
Robinson (1977) have reported thermal bar conditions found on 20 April 197^ 
and on 17 April 1975. Thermal bars were not present in the grid in the Aprils 
of 1972 or 1973. 

On 14 April 1976 the thermal bar lay within the lakeward edge of the 
survey grid with water temperatures well below 4 C in the three outermost 
stations and temperatures of 9-10 in stations along the beach. The position 
of the thermal bar and isopleths of phytoplankton densities in cells/ml are 
presented in Figure 2. Isolated pockets of densities in excess of 6000 
cells/ml were present near shore at the northern and southern ends of the grid 
and at station SDC-2-1 two miles south of the plant. Densities decreased away 
from shore, falling to 920 cells/ml at station DC-6 seven miles offshore. 

Figure 3 shows by histograms the mean numbers of phytoplankters by 1 C^ 
temperature intervals across the thermal bar on 14 April 1976 . Numbers within 
each histogram bar show the numbers of samples averaged for that temperature 
interval. The histograms show no concentration of phytoplankton at the 
thermal bar, instead, they show a general increase in densities from the 
coldest water offshore to the warmest near the shore. 

Phytoplankton Summary Tables 

The phytoplankton summary tables employed here are based on the ones 
used by the Michigan Water Resources Commission in reporting their 







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10 II 



FIG 



3. Histogram of averaged phytoplankton densities (cells per ml) by 
1" C water temperature Intervals during the thermal bar condition of lA 
April 1976. Numbers within the bars are the numbers of samples averaged. 



phytoplankton collections. Our summaries differ from theirs in that we count 
the numbers of cells in filamentous and colonial forms (except blue-green 
algae with cylindrical trichomes which are counted as individual organisms), 
while the Commission counts a filament or colony as a single organism. The 
station collection records from which the summaries for September 1970 and 
the three surveys of 1976 were prepared constitute Appendix B. 

The summary table for each seasonal survey presents, station-by-station, 
the surface-water temperature at the time of collection, the numbers per ml 
of each of ten major categories of phytoplanktonic algae, and the dominant 
(and codominant, see below) species or groups. The categories of phyto- 
plankton employed are: coccoid blue-green algae, filamentous blue-green 
algae, coccoid green algae, filamentous green algae, flagellates, centric 
diatoms, pennate diatoms, desmids, other algae, and total algae. The summary 
tables allow quick assessment of the general compositions of the populations 
sampled, the ambient water temperature, and give the dominant and codominant 
species or groups (forms). The summary tables given in Table 2 summarize the 
surveys of September 1970 and April, July, and October 1976. The surveys of 
July and November 1970 have been reported by Ayers ^ ^. (1971) and Ayers, 
Mozley, and Roth (1973). 

Dominant and Codominant Phytoplankters 

In each phytoplankton sample one form (species or group) is typically 
present in greater abundance than the others. We designate these species or 
groups as "dominant." In many samples, however, one or more other species or 
groups will come close to matching the numbers of the dominant form; we 
designate these slightly less abundant forms "codominants" and list them 
along with the dominant in the "Dominant species" column of Table 2 . 



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20 



In Table 3 the dominant and codominant forms in the stations of each 
seasonal survey of 1970 through 1976 have been assembled and the numbers of 
their dominant or codominant occurrences given. This is done to assist the 
reader in sorting the probably important dominants and codominants from the 
rare ones which might be due to the chance occurrence of a single many-celled 
filament or colony. 

Consideration of the dominant and codominant forms in the seasonal 
surveys of preoperational 1970 through 197^ and operational 1975 and 1976 
brings to light the normal variation in seasonal dominants and codominants, 
rather than any effect of 1975 and 1976 operation of the plant. 

The Aprils of all the years show the spring dominance of diatoms and 
flagellates which is expected. 

In July of 1976 the forms having more than one occurrence as dominant or 
codominant (multidominants) were two diatoms, three blue-green algae, a green 
alga, and flagellates. Multidominants in July 1975 were two green algae, one 
blue-green, and flagellates. In the preoperational years, July 197^ had a 
diatom, a blue-green, and flagellates as forms with multiple dominance 
occurrences. Four diatoms and flagellates were the multidominants of July 
1973. The multidominant forms of July 1972 were four diatoms, one green 
alga, one blue-green, and flagellates. In July 1971 the multidominant forms 
were three diatoms, two green algae, and two categories of flagellates. In 
the survey of July 1970 six diatoms, a green alga, and two flagellate 
categories had multiple dominance occurrences . 

If there is anything of significance in this sequence of summer 
dominants it is probably the pronounced drop in the frequency of dominant 
diatoms between the preoperational years 1973 and 1974. The absence of 
dominant diatoms in July 1975 was due to the diatom population crashing a 



21 



TABLE 3. The dominant and codcminant phytoplankters in the Cook Plant 
seasonal surveys of preoperational 1970 through 1974 and operational 
1975 and 1976. 



Survey 



Species or group 



Dominant or 

codominant 

occurrences 



10 JULY 1970 



25 SEPT 1970 



12 NOV 1970 



15 APRIL 1971 



Tabellaria fenestrata (diatom) 40 

Cvclotella sp. (diatom) 9 

Fr^giJ-^ri -a crQtppepgis (diatom) 7 

Melosira sp. (diatom) 3 

Dinobrvon divergens (flagellate) 2 

Flagellates 2 

Melosira granulata (diatom) 2 

Melosira granulata v. angustissima (diatom) 2 

Qocystis solitaria (green alga) 2 
Anabaena circinalis (blue-green alga) 
Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 
Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) 
Melosira islandica (diatom) 
Melosira italica (diatom) 

Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 28 

Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 13 

Dinobryon divergens (flagellate) 10 

Qocvstis sp. (green alga) 10 

Gloeocvstis sp. (green alga) 7 

Melosira granulata (diatom) 7 

Chroococcus limneticus (blue-green alga) 4 

Ochromonas sp. (flagellate) 3 

Melosira granulata v. angustissima (diatom) 2 

Peridinium sp. (flagellate) 2 
Closteriopsis sp. ("other" alga) 
Crvptomonas sp. (flagellate) 
Cvclotella sp. (diatom) 
Tabellaria fenestrata (diatom) 
Tetraedron minimum ("other" alga) 

Ochromonas sp. (flagellate) 33 

Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 19 

Crvptomonas sp. (flagellate) 3 

Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 3 

Crucigenia rectangularis ("other" alga) 1 

Cvclotella sp. (diatom) 1 

Ochromonas sp. (flagellate) 24 

Melosira sp. (diatom) 15 

Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 15 

Tabellaria fenestrata (diatom) 14 

Stephanodiscus sp. (diatom) 13 

Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 9 

Cvclotella sp. (diatom) 6 

Fragilaria sp. (diatom) 1 



22 



TABLE 3 continued 



Survey 



Species or group 



Dominant or 

codominant 

occurrences 



9 JULY 1971 



8 NOV 1971 



12 APRIL 1972 



16 JULY 1972 



15 OCT 1972 



Gloeocvstis sp. (green alga) 
Qoc ystis sp. (green alga) 
Glenodinium sp. (flagellate) 
Dinobrvon divergens (flagellate) 
Tabell aria fenestrata (diatom) 
Cvc lotella sp. (diatom) 
Fragjlar ia crotonensis (diatom) 
Scenedesmus sp. ("other" alga) 
Crucigenia sp. ("other" alga) 
Fragilaria sp. (diatom) 
We stella linearis (green alga) 

Ochronomas sp, (flagellate) 
Tabellaria fenestrata (diatom) 
Fragi laria crotonensis (diatom) 
Gloeocvstis sp. (green alga) 
Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 
Crvptomonas sp. (flagellate) 
Aphanothece sp. (blue-green alga) 
Qocvstis sp. (green alga) 
Fragilaria sp. (diatom) 

Tabellaria fenestrata (diatom) 
Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 
Cvclotella sp. (diatom) 
Stephanodiscus sp. (diatom) 
Gloeocvstis sp . (green alga) 

Tabellaria fenestrata (diatom) 
Gloeocvstis sp. (green alga) 
Chlamvdomonas sp. (flagellate) 
Fragilaria intermedia (diatom) 
Fragilaria caoucina (diatom) 
Frail aria crotonensis (diatom) 
Dinobrvon sp. (flagellate) 
Flagellates 

Anabaena sp. (blue-green alga) 
Glenodinium sp. (flagellate) 
Ooocvsti s sp. (green alga) 

Melosira granulata (diatom) 

Chroococcus limneticus (blue-green alga) 

Flagellates 

Chroococcus sp. (blue-green alga) 



47 

18 

12 

10 

8 

4 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

20 

17 

7 

6 

4 

3 
2 
1 
1 

13 

8 
7 
6 
4 

14 
5 
5 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 

26 
4 

3 
2 



23 



TABLE 3 continued 













Dominant or 


Survey 


Species or group 




codominant 










occurrences 


25 


APRIL 1973 


StephapQcJiscu? minutu? (diatom) 
Flagellates 

Cyclotellg, sp. (diatom) 
Stephanodiscus sp. (diatom) 
Fr9gil9ri9 cr9tonep5is (diatom) 
Gloeocvstis so. (creen alca) 
Chlamvdomonas so. (flaeellate) 
H?lo$ira granwl^tg (diatom) 
T&bellaria fepeetr^ta v. iptermedi?i 


(diatom) 


21 
12 

5 
3 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 


19 


JULY 1973 


§teph?nodi5cvis tepMi?, (diatom) 
Cyclot?ll3 9telliger9 (diatom) 




19 
10 






M?lo?ir& gr^nyiat^ v. apguisti99iin9 


(diatom) 


H 






Chlamydonomas so. (flacellate) 




4 






Cy<?l<?t?Xl? sp. (diatom) 




2 






Cyclotell^ ^tpmys (diatom) 










Anacygtis ipcert? (blue-green alga) 










Flagellates 










Qloepcy^tis sp. (green alga) 










Coccopyjca c(?Qcoid?s (green alga) 






23 


OCT 1973 


MeiQ5ira gr^nvl^t? v. ppgy^tissima 

Flagellates 

Chl^mydQinonas sp. (flagellate) 
Fragilaria crotopep^is (diatom) 
MeJ.o9ira gr^Wl^t? (diatom) 


(diatom) 


20 
9 
3 
2 
1 


20 


APRIL 1974 


Fracilaria crotonensis (diatom) 

Flagellates 

Stephah.9di9Qy? t.epHis (diatom) 

5yp?dr9 filifPrwis (diatom) 




20 
18 
11 

3 






Fr&gilarta interw?di9 v. faii?i?c (di 


atom) 


1 






Meio$ir9 granulate (diatom) 




1 






H?losira italics (diatom) 




1 






Stephap<?di9PWs pipytup (diatom) 




1 


11 


JULY 1974 


Fragilaria crQtQp?p9is (diatom) 

Flagellates 

Apacysti? ipcerta (blue-green alga) 




27 
21 

2 






Apabaeps flog-aquaP (blue-green alga) 


1 






CyclotPlla ?telligera (diatom) 




1 






Tabellaria f?P9Ptrata v. intermedia 


(diatom) 


1 






Thaias5io?ira p^eudppana (diatom) 




1 






Stpphapodispus tenuiP (diatom) 




1 



24 



TABLE 3 continued 



Survey 



Species or group 



Dominant or 

codominant 

occurrences 



9 OCT 1974 



17 APRIL 1975 



17 JULY 1975 



17 OCT 1975 



Anacvstis incerta (blue-green alga) 
Flagellates 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris (blue-green alga) 
Anacvstis thermalis (blue-green alga) 
Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 
Asterionella formosa (diatom) 
Melosira granulata (diatom) 
Stephanodiscus minutus (diatom) 
Steohanodiscus tenuis (diatom) 



Flagellates 
Stephanodiscus tenuis 
Fr^g j iJ-^rJ-a QrQtopep?i$ 
gt^ pl ifinodJLjgCM ^ m inutus 
Cycj-otel].^ ^teUig^rs 
Tabellaria flocculosa 
Tabellaria fenestrata v 



(diatom) 

(diatom) 

(diatom) 
(diatom) 
(diatom) 
. intermedia 



(diatom) 



Melosira islandica (diatom) 
Anacvstis incerta (blue-green alga) 
Fragilaria capucina (diatom) 
Fragilaria intermedia (diatom) 
Svnedra filiformis (diatom) 

Gloeocvstis sp. (green alga) 

Flagellates 

Anabaena flos-aauae (blue-green alga) 

Green coccoid unknown 

Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 

Cvclotella stelligera (diatom) 

Gloeocvstis planctonica (green alga) 

Anacvstis incerta (blue-green alga) 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris (blue-green alga) 

Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 

Flagellates 

Anabaena flos-aquae (blue-green alga) 

Gloeocvstis sp. (green alga) 

Ochromonas sp. (flagellate) 

Svnedra filiformis (diatom) 



22 
21 
11 

•< 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

24 

17 

15 

8 

7 

3 



20 
15 
10 
4 
1 
1 
1 

22 
15 
9 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 



25 



TABLE 3 continued 



Survey 



Species or group 



Dominant or 

codominant 

occurrences 



^^ APRIL 1976 



14 JULY 1976 



14 OCT 1976 



Flagellates 

Fr^Rilgt r J-^ QrQtQP^ngj.s (diatom) 
Asterionella formosa (diatom) 
StephfiPQ<JigQV3g sp. (diatom) 
Anacvstis incerta (blue-green alga) 
Ste pli aPQ(jj.$QUg gutPtUi - g ( diatom) 
PI :ij.ZQgQ;i^pj.9 g r , fic . ilj. .g (diatom) 
Stephanodiscus minutus ( diatom) 
GomphosDhaeria lacustris (blue-green) 
Ulothrix sp. (green alga) 

Flagellates 

GXpeQQygt Jg sp. (green alga) 
Anabaena flos-aquae (blue-green) 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris (blue-green) 
Anacvstis incerta (blue-green) 
C ycjLQteU^ gtej-Uger^ (diatom) 
Fragilaria crotonensis (diatom) 
Gloeocvstis planctonica (green alga) 
Qocystis sp. (green alga) 
Pediastrum duplex ("other" alga) 

Flagellates 

Fr^ jg U^ rJ l fi crQtQ p ^pg j g (diatom) 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris (blue-green) 
Anacvstis incerta (blue-green) 
Cvclotella comensis (diatom) 
Gloeocystis sp. (green alga) 
Anabaena flos-aquae (blue-green) 
Gloeocystis planctonica (green alga) 
M ^J-Q .g J r.^ graPU J-^t^ (diatom) 



23 
18 
16 
8 
4 
4 
2 
2 
1 
1 

24 
12 
9 
4 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 

28 
11 
8 
6 
5 
5 
1 
1 
1 



26 



month earlier than usual; abundances of diatoms in July 1975 were comparable 
to those in the Augusts of 1974 and 1975, while abundances in July 1974 were 
comparable to those in the Junes of 1974 and 1975 . 

In the Novembers of 1970 and 1971 and the Octobers of the other years 
the multidominant forms were: 1970, a diatom and three forms of flagellates; 
1971, two diatoms, a green alga, a blue-green, and three flagellates; 1972, 
two blue-greens, a diatom, and flagellates; 1973, flagellates and two 
diatoms; 1974, three blue-greens, a diatom, and flagellates; 1975, two blue- 
greens, a diatom, and flagellates; and 1976, two diatoms, two blue-greens, a 
green alga, and flagellates. 

In this series, the perhaps significant things are that blue-greens were 
not dominant or codominant in the fall seasons of 1970 and 1973 while they 
were in the autumns of all the other years whether preoperational or 
operational; that the multidominants of operational 1975 were the same as in 
preoperational 1972; and that there were more multidominant blue-greens in 
preoperational 1974 than in operational 1975 and 1976. 

There is no convincing evidence from the analysis of dominant species 
that operation of the Cook Plant has adversely affected the phytoplankton of 
its region. 

Master Lists of Phytoplankters Collected 

Table 4 presents the lists of phytoplankters taken in the seasonal 
surveys of 1976 and of September 1970. Ayers et. al. (1971) list those 
taken in the July survey of 1970 and Ayers, Mozley, and Roth (1973) give 
those of November 1970. Ayers, Mozley, and Stewart (1974) give the species 
collected in the seasonal surveys of 1971. Ayers (1975) presents the lists 
for the surveys of 1972 and 1973. Ayers, Southwick, and Robinson (1977) give 



27 





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34 



the master lists for the surveys of 1974 and 1975. 

Over time, the master lists provide a means by which to watch for 
changes in the phytoplankton community. The master lists of 1972 (when the 
settle- freeze method was adopted) through 1976 have been put to this use in 
the section which follows. 

New Forms in the Phytoplankton Community since 1972 

Ayers, Southwick, and Robinson (1977, pp. 17-20) present the rationale 
for this section. Essentially, newly identified species of previously 
identified genera are not considered "new" in the sense of this section; 
"new" forms are defined as forms which by their unfamiliarity (not seen 
before) have forced themselves into the analysts' attentions. 

The list of "new" forms which have entered the Cook Plant phytoplankton 
community in the years since 1972 is (with X indicating presence): 



Form 



Kind 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



A™?n§llum sp. 


c. b-g 


AcanthPQhlQris sp. 


"other" 


BiQQ^Qi^ paropsis 


flagel 


BitriQhia sp. 


"other" 


Chlor^Ua spp. 


green 


Chrpmulipa spp. 


flagel 


PenticuJa sp. 


diatom 


Eunotia spp. 


diatom 


CypinQdiniuw sp. 


flagel 


Meridion circulare 


diatom 


Pinnuiaria sp. 


diatom 


5QhizQthri;c calQiPola 


f. b-g 


5taurQn§i§ spp. 


diatom 


Stichococcus scoDulinus 


f. grn 



X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 



1976 

X 
X 



X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 



35 



Form Kind 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

Thalassiosira p§?»<j(ppan& diatom X X 

Trachelomonas sp. flagel X X 

Trcpidoneis sp. diatom X 

Ulothrix sp. f . grn X X X X 



It is to be noted here that the "new" forms in this list were not 
necessarily present in all the survey months of the years when they are listed 
as being present. Further, some which had been present earlier were not 
found in 1976; this is taken to indicate that they are still rare, with some 
element of chance being involved in their capture. 

The majority of the new forms appear to be organisms with preferences or 
requirements for water of increased conductivity or elevated organic content. 
The appearance of new forms with such preferences or requirements is 
consistent with the increasing eutrophication of the nearshore waters of Lake 
Michigan which has been well documented by Tarapchak and Stoermer (1976) and 
which was under way for decades before Cook Plant was built. There is no 
evidence that the operation of Cook Plant has had any effect on the trend of 
eutrophication in the lake. 

The Appearance and Increase of Cyclotella comensis 

Cyclotella comensis is a denizen of alpine lakes and is known to have 
produced fall blooms there. Dr. E. F. Stoermer (personal communication) has 
taken it in low numbers in Lake Superior; he has also taken it in most months 
of the year in Lake Huron where in late summer and early fall it has produced 
heavy blooms in the mouth of Saginaw Bay and in the southern part of the 
lake. Stoermer has taken this species in northern and central Lake Michigan 
in all seasons. At his request we examined our master lists of phytoplankton 



36 



collected in the Cook Plant region to see if it was present and, if so, to 
determine when it was first taken in our collections. It became a dominant or 
codominant species in October of 1976 and had been taken in each major survey 
back through October 1975 . Prior to that survey it had never been taken in 
Cook Plant surveys. 

Present information about the appearance and increase of £,. comensis 
can be summarized as follows: 

July '75 October '75 April '76 July '76 October '76 

35 

100 



Number of 










occurrences 





2H 


13 


6 


% of samples 










containing it 





66 


33 


15 


Range of % of 










sample populations 





0-1.77 


0-0.59 


0-0.24 


Mean % of sample 










populations 





0.58 


0.06 


0.02 



6.52 



No. of dominant or co- 
dominant occurrences 



Aside from the fact that it blooms in late summer and early fall, 
nothing is known at present of the preferenda or requirements of this diatom. 
Its presence in Lakes Superior and Huron and in other parts of Lake Michigan 
argue that its appearance and increase in the Cook Plant vicinity are due to 
something in the lake itself, rather than to the operation of the Cook Plant. 

Major Algal Group Percentages at Flant and Reference Stations^ IQyO-lQyd 

Figure 4 is a visual presentation of the year to year variations in the 
primary algal components of the phytoplankton of the Cook Plant region. The 
figure compares mean abundances of five major groups of phytoplankton at four 
inshore stations in front of the plant with those at two inshore reference 



37 



station? located seven miles north and seven miles south of the plant, the 
strategy being to obtain from the preoperational years an idea of the degree 
of natural similarity or dissimilarity in population composition existing at 
stations near the plant and away from it and to look in the operational years 
for dissimilarities that might be attributable to effects of plant operation. 

The plant stations (stations DC-0 , DC-1, NDC-.5-1, and SDC-.5-1) were 
chosen as being shallow water stations close to the plant's cooling water 
discharge where discharged waste heat could be expected to be present more 
often than at others. The reference stations, NDC-7-1 and SDC-7-1, are also 
in shallow water but seven miles from the plant where waste heat should not 
be expected. 

In the computations for the figure, abundances in cells/ml of each of 
ten categories of algae (coccoid blue-greens, filamentous blue-greens, 
coccoid greens, filamentous greens, flagellates, centric diatoms, pennate 
diatoms, desmids, other algae, and total algae) in the two station groups 
have been averaged and the mean abundances expressed as percentages of the 
mean total algae. Coccoid and filamentous blue-greens are combined, as are 
coccoid and filamentous greens, centric and pennate diatoms, and desmids and 
other algae. The percentages are progressively summed in plotting the graphs. 

Extremely cold weather in November 1971 caused cancellation of the 
extreme north and south station lines in which the reference stations were 
contained. Preservation failure caused a lost sample in April 1972. Broken 
samples caused missed data in April 1973 and July 1975. Phytoplankton 
samples at the reference stations were accidently omitted in August of 1976. 

Although the graphs of population composition differ substantially from 
year to year, the graphs for the plant stations and reference stations in any 
one preoperational year show many similarities in the temporal changes of 



38 



population components, especially in the cases of the components making up 
the larger percentages of the population. See, as examples, the decreases in 
diatoms and increases in flagellates between September and November of 1970; 
the peak abundances of desmids and other algae in July 1971 and the large 
proportions of green algae in July and September of that year; the absences 
of summer minima of diatoms in the Julys of 1970, 1972, and 1973; large 
proportions of flagellates in April and July of 1972 which diminished into 
October of that year; very low proportions of blue-green algae throughout 

1973 and decreasing proportions of diatoms from July to October of 1973; peak 
abundances of desmids and other algae and pronounced summer minima of diatoms 
in August 1974; and peak abundances of blue-greens in September 1974. Greens 
and blue-greens taken together showed similar variations in the two station 
groups in 1970 and 1972. 

On the whole, temporal changes in the component parts of the 
phytoplankton at the plant stations and the references stations in each of 
the preoperational years were qualitatively similar. Only in the flagellates 
and green algae in 1973 were the changes directionally different in the two 
station groups. 

Introduction of the reference stations into the monthly short surveys in 

1974 allowed a more detailed presentation of the variations in the population 
components. It showed an earlier spring increase in blue-greens at the 
reference stations than at the plant stations and, in this preoperational 
year, higher and more sustained proportions of these algae in both plant and 
reference stations than had been observed previously. 

Cook Plant began operations in the very early months of 1975 and reached 
81% of full power on 19 April 1975. At the plant stations blue-greens had 
begun to increase by June and peaked in September at very nearly the same 



39 



level as in 1974; at the reference stations the blue-greens had attained a 
substantial level as early as April and peaked in August a month earlier than 
in 1974 though at almost the same level as in 1974. 

At the plant stations in 1975 the diatom minimum lasted from July 
through September and represented diatom proportions no smaller than those of 
August-September 1974, July-September 1971, or November 1970 of the 
preoperational years. In the 1975 reference stations the diatom minimum was 
in July-August and represented diatom proportions smaller than in the plant 
stations but no smaller than had occurred in the reference stations in 
September of preoperational 1971- The onset of the diatom minimum a month 
earlier in 1975 than in 1974 in both the plant and the reference stations is 
attributed to the warmer summer of 1975, rather than to an effect of plant 
operation . 

In both the plant and the reference stations in 1975 flagellates 
represented a greater proportion of the population than in 1974, though not 
so great a one as was observed in September-November 1970 and about the same 
as in July 1972. As a result of the warmer summer, flagellates in both 
station groups reached their greater abundances a month earlier than in 
1974. 

Green algae in both plant and reference stations began to reach their 
greater abundances in July 1975, again an effect of the warmer summer. In 
neither station group did these algae reach the massive proportions of the 
populations that were observed in 1971. 

In 1976 the partitionings of the five components of the phytoplankton 
populations were, in both the plant stations and the reference stations, 
different from those observed in previous years. Blue-green and green algae 
did not exhibit the pronounced maxima or minima of other years. Flagellates 



40 






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41 



in both station groups were generally a higher and more sustained proportion 
of the population than in other years. Desmids and other algae peaked in 
September, which had not been seen before. The summer diatom minimum 
occurred in June in the plant stations and in June and July in the reference 
stations; in both sets of stations the minima were less severe than in 1974 
or 1975. In general, it appears that in 1976 flagellates and desmids and 
other algae increased at the expense of diatoms, greens, and blue-green algae 
in both the plant and the reference stations. 

In the operational years 1975 and 1975 the temporal changes in the 
component parts of the phytoplankton at the plant and reference stations 
continued to be qualitatively similar. No essential dissimilarities which 
can be attributed to plant operation have been found in this analysis. 

Inner-Outer Graphical Comparisons : Numbers of Forms 

In this section the term "forms" includes organisms identified to genus 
and species (e.g. Asterionella formosa )^ organisms identified only to genus 
(e.g. Melosira sp. or spp.), composite groups of unidentified organisms 
(e.g. Flagellates), and the unfamiliar new forms which entered the 
phytoplankton community after 1972. 

Data on the numbers of phytoplanktonic forms in collections from the 
Cook Plant region in the years 1971 through 1975 have been presented and 
discussed by Ayers, Southwick, and Robinson (1977) and for the most part the 
tabulated data in that report are not repeated here. This section concerns 
itself with extending the previous tabulations, figures, and discussions to 
include the major surveys carried out in September 1970 and in 1976. Table 5 
presents these data. 

As was done in the report cited, the data on numbers of forms present in 



42 



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46 



1970 and 1976 are stratified by three depth zones and by inner and outer 
station groups. The depth zones and station groups used are: 

Denth Zone Denth Ranee Inner station group Quter station group 

to 8 m DC-0 NDC-2-0 

DC- 1 NDC-2- 1 

NDC-.5-0 NDC-4-0 

NDC-.5-1 NDC-4-1 

NDC-.5-2 NDC-7-1 

NDC- 1-0 SDC-2-0 

NDC-1-1 SDC-2-1 

SDC-.5-0 SDC-M-0 

SDC-.5-1 SDC-4-1 

SDC-.5-2 SDC-7-1 
SDC-1-0 
SDC- 1- 1 

1 8 to 16 m DC-2 NDC-2-3 

NDC- 1-2 NDC-7-3 

SDC- 1-2 SDC-2-3 

SDC-7-3 

2 16 to 2U m DC-3 NDC-4-3 

DC-U NDC-7-5 

SDC-4-3 
SDC-7-5 



The method consists of dividing the survey stations into groups 
according to depth zones and proximity to the plant. Stations along, or less 
than 2 miles north or south of, a central transect extending 7 miles from the 
Cook Plant perpendicular to shore are defined as "inner" (treatment) stations 
which might be affected by plant operation. Stations 2 miles or more north 
or south of the plant are defined as north and south reference stations or, 
lumped together, as "outer" (control) stations. Zero-to-8 m depths are 
designated "Zone 0"; 8 to 16 m as "Zone 1"; and 16 to 24 m as "Zone 2". For 
each depth zone there are inner and outer station groups. 

Mean numbers of forms and the associated standard errors have been 
computed and are presented in Table 6. 



47 



TABLE 6. Means, standard errors, and numbers of observations of in-lake 
phytoplankton forms by seasons, depth zones, and inner or outer station 
groups in Cook Plank major surveys in preoperational 1970 and operational 
1976 (the intervening years are reported by Ayers, Southwick, and 
Robinson 1977). 





1970 














10 July 


25 Septemlper 


12 NQv^mlper 


Zone 0, 


Inner 










Mean 


31.91 


29.60 


21.80 




S. E. 


2.hH 


1.76 


0.92 




N 


11 


10 


10 




Outer 










Mean 


35.00 


32.20 


23.80 




S. E. 


1 .70 


1.53 


2.02 




N 


9 


10 


10 


Zone 1 , 


Inner 










Mean 


21 .00 


24.67 


23.67 




S. E. 


2.31 


1.77 


2.67 




N 


3 


3 


3 




Outer 










Mean 


29.25 


25.25 


21.00 




S. E. 


5.72 


1.55 


1.08 




N 


4 


4 


4 


Zone 2 , 


Inner 










Mean 


22.00 


25.00 


21.50 




S. E. 


7.00 


1.00 


0.50 




N 


2 


2 


2 




Outer 










Mean 


20.50 


26.75 


19.25 




S. E. 


1.33 


3.04 


2.50 




N 


4 


4 


4 


1976 












,14 April 


1^ July 


13 Oct<?b?r 


Zone , 


Inner 










Mean 


59.58 


65.33 


75.58 




S. E. 


2.78 


3.65 


3.84 




N 


12 


12 


12 




Outer 










Mean 


56.90 


57.60 


75.80 




S. E. 


2.15 


5.86 


4.44 




N 


10 


10 


10 


Zone 1 , 


Inner 










Mean 


50.67 


45.67 


67.00 




S. E. 


1.85 


4.09 


1.73 




N 


3 


3 


3 




Outer 










Mean 


57.50 


34.25 


63.50 




S. E. 


2.90 


5.82 


3.19 




N 


4 


4 


4 



48 



TABLE 6 continued. 





1976 
















1^ April 


14 July 


J3. 


October 


Zcne 2 , 


Inner 












Mean 


53.00 


27.50 




65.00 




S. E. 


3.00 


2.50 




23.00 




N 


2 


2 




2 




Outer 












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48.00 


27.50 




56.50 




S. E. 


2.86 


2.60 




4.77 




N 


4 


4 




4 



49 



Time plots of mean numbers of forms by seasons, by depth zones, and by 
inner and outer station groups are presented in Figure 5. Also included in 
the figure are, for each year, three-seasonal averages of mean numbers of 
forms at inner and outer station groups; these are plotted in July of each 
year and are connected from year to year by a solid line for inner stations 
and a dashed line for outer stations. Three-seasonal averages for 1970 are 
not given because the surveys of that year covered only summer and fall. The 
three-seasonal averages of mean numbers of forms are: 



The annual curves of mean numbers of forms in Figure 5 show substantial 
degrees of parallelism, indicating that the numbers of forms at inner and 
outer station groups have in general varied in the same directions in the 
seasons of each year. The only pronounced failure of parallelism occurred in 
zone 1 in July of 1973 . 

The positions of the annual curves on the graphs and the three-seasonal 
averages of mean numbers of forms both exhibit steadily rising tendencies in 
zone . In zone 1 there was a tendency to plateau in the years 1973 through 
1975, with increase in 1976. Zone 2, well offshore from the plant, showed a 
plateau of three-seasonal averages in 1974 and 1975 in the outer stations 
while the inner stations had a high average in 1975 followed by a decrease in 
1976. 



50 




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53 



In neither zone nor zone 1 was there any consistent superiority in 
numbers of forms between inner and outer stations; zone 2 in all the years 
since 1971 has consistently shown greater three-season averages in the 
stations of the inner group. 

The overall tendency for increase in the number of forms in the Cook 
Plant phytoplankton collections since 1971 is consistent with the 
observations of Stoermer and Yang (1969, pp. 209 and 211) that phytoplankters 
have been introduced into Lake Michigan in recent decades, and that one of 
the effects of nutrient enrichment from man's activities has been to make the 
planktonic environment more accessible to forms that find their primary 
habitat in benthic assemblages. 

There is no convincing evidence from this study of the numbers of 
phytoplanktonic forms that operation of the Cook Plant in 1975 and 1976 has 
had any effect on the phytoplankton community, instead, the general increase 
in numbers of forms both at stations near the plant and at two to seven miles 
away appears to be one of the effects of the eutrophication process in Lake 
Michigan . 

Inner-Outev Graphical Comparisons: Phytoplankton Abundances 

Johnston (1973, pp. 1^-17) illustrated, with benthos data, a method for 
comparing seasonal abundances of phytoplankters in the central region of the 
Cook Plant survey area with those in distant reference regions for each of 
three depth zones (0 - 8 m, 8 - 16 m, and 16 - 24 m) of the Cook Plant survey 
area. The method is here applied to the phytoplankton of the major surveys 
of preoperational 1970 and operational 1976; Ayers, Southwick, and Robinson 
(1977) report the results of applying the method to the intervening years. 

The means and standard errors of phytoplankton abundances at each depth 



54 



zone and station group combination are plotted on a time axis. By this means 
the situation can be followed through successive years and judgement of the 
effect of plant operation can be made on the bases of temporal (preoperational 
vs. operational) and spatial (inner vs. outer) variations in phytoplankton 
abundances. 

The phytoplankton abundances (in cells/ml) used are those of total algae 
and of the nine major algal groups: coccoid blue-greens, filamentous 
blue-greens, coccoid greens, filamentous greens, flagellates, centric diatoms, 
pennate diatoms, desmids, and other algae. The use of major algal groups, 
instead of individual species, bypasses difficulties due to inability to 
always identify to species and is justifiable on the basis that members of 
each group have more or less similar functions in the ecosystem. 

Table 7 presents for the major surveys of 1970 and 1976 the means, 
standard errors, and numbers of observations of abundances of total algae 
and the nine major groups of phytoplankton. These are graphed with the 
intervening years in Figure 6. Data points for each survey are slightly 
offset to avoid overlap. An arrow rising from the horizontal axis indicates 
the beginning of plant operation in early 1975. 

Desmids (Fig. 6a) shewed essentially no changes in abundances between 
preoperational and operational years. 

Filamentous green algae (Fig. 6b) were somewhat increased in April of 
1976 over their levels in the preoperational years and in operational 1975. 
In zones 1 and 2 the increase was about equal in both inner and outer 
stations; whether the larger increase at the inner stations of zone was a 
plant operation effect cannot be determined at present. 

The category of "other algae" (Fig. 6c) was generally increased in all 
zones in 1976, though in each zone similar abundances had been attained in 



55 



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in -<r rH 

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in in -d- 
r^ in 


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<r rH 


in rH 




v£> rH 
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rH 




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CO <t rH 


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cn 


in rH 


<r 


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O rH -d- 


r-^ vD rH 


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CN PN 




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in 00 


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CN ^ 



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co 



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CO 



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in "^d- 


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56 



o 

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o 


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o o 


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in rH 


<r 


o 


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m eg 


rH 


On 


in iH 


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CN ON 




in 


in 


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VO 


CX) 


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<f 




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o in 


<f 


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^t iH 


iH 


r^ 


0\ iH 


m CO 


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m r^ 


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in in 



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in rH rH 


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o m 


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m CM 


CO 


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in 



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m o 



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a 



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o o 

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u 



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g . 

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td 

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u 




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cu 




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57 



o 

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rd do! 

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O tH O 

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CO x-{ 
CO C^ 


CO 


in rH 

CM in 


<r 


O O 
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Csl 


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o o 


O LO 
00 CO 
CN 


408. 
60, 


uo vO 
CNJ 00 
Csl 




vO CO 

rH 00 

CO 




in vD 

1^ CM 

rH 




o^ in 
00 <i- 

CN 


O r^ O 

rH <r rH 


O OJ O 
LO CN .H 


o in 

O CN 


CO 


in CO 
CN as 


<3r 


o o 
in in 


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o ^^ <r 

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in v£) 



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o <J- o 

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tH o 



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CO 



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CD a^ CD 

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r-- CO CO 
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o o 



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vD 00 



in in -^ 



o o 



in C7> <t 

CM rH 



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in in 



rH o 



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in in 



ON o 



cvj in 



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r-v CO CO 

vD CO 



CN O 



in r^ <f 
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in CO <r 
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cu 


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o in 


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CM 


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in T-\ 


208. 
28. 


in <j" 

CM 


cy\ in 




C^ rH 

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in 00 

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CD in CD 

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in CO <3- 

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in in 



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in in <r 

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in CO <r 



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cd o 

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o o 



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in in 



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o 


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PQ 


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CU (U 
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in CO <f 
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w 

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58 



o 

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in v£> <3- 


6335. 
649. 


5377. 
683. 


3170. 
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5403. 
412. 




in 

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1709 
287 


CO 00 CN 
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in 


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in r^ cni 

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r^ 




o. 


<Ts 




CO 


o 




in 


r^ 




vO 


OS 




CJ^ 


<t 




o 


CO 




CD 


O 




CM 


in 




o 


CO 




CM 


vO 




ON 


r^ 




CJ^ 


-<r 




00. 


CO 




<t 


CO 




o 


CM 




tH 


CM 




CO 






r^ 


CM 




<t- 


iH 




CM 






CM 






rH 






iH 



















O CO 

u o 

C Cd 

a) 'H 



<]) 


CO 


bO 


0) 


cd 


^ 


rH 


Cd 


P^ 


rH 




CO 


i 




rH 


0) 


•H 


M 


Pi^ 


W3 



CJN 


CJN 


CNI 


CO 


CO 


O 


CO 


O 


CO 


CO 


vO 


<d- 


o 


O 


CM 


00 


o> 


<J- 


00 


o\ 


iH 


r^ 


CJN 


rH 


CO 


00 




-d- 


vO 




00 


vO 




vO 


<r 










. 


« 




• 


. 




a 


a 




a 


a 




a 


a 




^f 


CO 




vO 


o 




VO 


CO 




<f 


CM 




VO 


<r 




rH 


rH 




rH 


00 




in 


<1- 




CM 


<r 




in 


o 




r^ 


<r 




O 


CM 




CM 


CM 




r^ 


CM 




<y\ 


rH 




in 


CO 




1^ 


CM 




<i- 






Csl 






rH 












rH 


















rH 


r^ 


CM 


VO 


<:r 


o 


r^ 


00 


CO 


o 


00 


<r 


o 


o 


CM 


o 


r^ 


<!■ 


CM 


CO 


rH 


CM 


in 


rH 


vO 


r^ 




VO 


<f 




o 


CO 




CN 


<y\ 




a 


• 




a 


. 




. 


a 




a 


a 




• 


• 




a 


a 




rH 


rH 




<r 


00 




CM 


rv 




<r 


r^ 




r^ 


in 




C3N 


<r 




in 


v£) 




o 


o 




r>- 


CO 




CM 


rH 




00 


o 




<t 


vO 




o 


tH 




rH 


CM 




00 


iH 




in 


Csl 




r>- 


rH 




in 


iH 





00 O CN 

-<f <r iH 


00 vO o 
00 <t iH 


o <r CO 

rH o 


in in <d- 

00 00 


in in CM 

CM CN 


o C7N <r 
CO CO 


CO CO 
r^ in 


in o 
in CO 


<t CO 

vO <t 


oc) 00 
in in 


vO vO 


•<r as 
CO o 



X) 



H 


CO 


O 





O 


Q) 


a 


cu 


o 


u 



U M 



O CM CM 


<i- <r o 


CO <d- CO 


O CO <■ 


in in CM 


CO C3N <f 


<r O rH 


CO in rH 


in <d- 


in o 


vD CO 


VO iH 




a • 


a a 


a a 


a a 


a a 


00 OCD 


O rH 


00 in 


rH VO 


in CM 


CO CO 


<!• CO 


C3> CM 


vO CO 


tH tH 


CO CM 


CM 



cd cj) 

tH I 
•H PQ 



00 rH CM 


00 CJN O 


CO vO CO 


in rH <t 


in in CM 


in CO <f 


O vO iH 


rH 00 tH 


CM CTN 


vO 00 


in vo 


CM O 


a a 


a a 


a a 


a a 


a » 


a a 


CM >d- 


<t 00 


O rH 


00 in 


rH tH 


00 in 


00 rH 


as rH 


VO rH 


as rH 


CM rH 


rH 



0) 

a 

•H 

u 
c 
o 
a 



w 

EH 



•H 

O CJ} 
O I 
O PQ 
O 



U U 
M o 



0) 

o 

CM 



CO <!■ CN 


r>- 00 o 


CO CO CO 


CO 00 


<r 


in in CM 


o -d- <r 


VO CT^ rH 


in o tH 


<f ^ 


as <t 




o o 


r^ CO 


a a 


a a 


a a 


a a 




• a 


. • 


<f CO 


VO <t 


<r <t 


00 ^ 




00 00 


vO CM 


CM in 


<r as 




CM CM 




in in 


r^ r^ 


rH 


rH 




in CO 









vO 

as 



M 



U 



Cd 

is: w ^z: 



u 

4-» 

o 



cd 

CU • 
S en 2:: 



u 
cu 
C 
a 
M c w 



cd 
cu 



cu 



:3 
o 



CO 52: 



W 



en iz; 



cu 
C 
C 



cd 
(U 



cu 



:3 
o 



cd 



en •z: 



cu 



en sz: 



59 



o 



U 0) 

o ^ 



in 


0^ 


Csl 


LO 


m 


o 


CO 


in 


CO 


CO 


in 


•<r 


in 


m 


CM 


CO 


in 


<!■ 


<T 


00 


•H s 


00 


en 


i-H 


<r 


ON 




CO 


o 




vD 


vO 




<f 


r^ 




• 


on 




<}• 


vD 




CO 


r-- 




r^ 


<r 




in 


vO 




rH 


in 




CO 


^ 




00 


LP) 




00 


<f 




vO 


r^ 




r^ 






in 


in 




00 


LT) 




<r 


in 




in 


rH 




r-\ 


iH 




<f 






o 


rH 




CM 






CvJ 






tH 






CN 


iH 




iH 






tH 






rH 


cr> 


CN 


vD 


in 


O 


o 


tH 


CO 


00 


00 


<i- 


in 


in 


Csl 


in 


CNJ 


<}■ 


O 


00 


nH 


(N 


in 


rH 


<i- 


O 




•<r 


<J- 




CO 


o> 




<t 


CN 




o> 


r^ 




<r 


CNJ 




CN 


iH 




<r 


r^ 




vO 


<f 




<r 


iH 




in 


LO 




r^ 


in 




r-- 


CO 




CN 






in 






CM 


iH 




CN 






rH 































U) 




T3 




•H 




6 




W 




d) 




o 




d) 


CO 


4-) 


e 


cd 


o 


C 


u 


C 


cd 


OJ 


•H 


p^ 


T3 



in <i- CM 

CO r^ tH 



Csl O 



tH o o 
■<r r^ iH 



rH O 



O O CO 



o o -d- 

CN CN 



o o 



in in Csl 



o o <f 



csl rH CM 

<r CO rH 


CvJ C3^ O 
C7^ r-. rH 


r^ ON CO 

<|- CN 


CO 00 <r 

rH 0> 


O O CsJ 
Csl O 


o <r 
r-- o 


594. 
195. 


450. 
185. 


<f rH 


CM in 

CO 


00 o 

CM 


00 r^ 



o 


CO 


►H 


B 


U 


o 


4J 


H 


C 


cd 


Q) 


•H 



U T3 



rH 


T-\ 


CM 


in 


0^ 


O 


O 


CJ^ 


CO 


00 


r^ 


•<r 


o 


o 


CN 


00 


^ 


<f 


o 


Csl 


rH 


o 


r^ 


rH 


in 


in 




a^ 


CO 




CO 


^ 




CX) 


CO 




o 


CO 




rH 


r-\ 




in 


r-- 




a> 


vD 




<r 


^ 




<r 


CsJ 




<f 


vO 




vO 


r^ 




CN 


vO 




tH 


rH 




co 






00 


CN 




vD 


r-\ 




r^ 


Csl 




CN 






tH 






r-\ 






rH 







Q) 


CO 


bO 


0) 


cd 


4J 


rH 


Cd 


p^ 


tH 




CO] 


e 


^\ 


Cd 


(U 


rH 


cu 


•H 


^ 


^ 


5^ 


nd 




•H 


CO 


O 


c 


a 


0) 


u 


0) 


o 


v^ 


o 


i>0 



CO 


<f 


CN 


CO 


<D 


o 


o 


CO 


CO 


00 


o 


<r 


in 


in 


CM 


00 


CN 


•<!■ 


in 


CO 


rH 


CJ> 


r-- 


r-] 


CT^ 


<r 




00 


<r 




m 


vD 




r^ 


• 




p>^ 


• 
00 




CJ^ 


CO 




-<r 


<r 




o 


CO 




o 


o 




o> 


O 




CO 


o^ 




o 


in 




o 


CJN 




o> 


tH 




o 


CO 




CO 


CN 




VD 






in 






in 






CO 


rH 




r-- 






<f 


rH 





00 <r 

O CO 



<f rH 



CJ^ 00 
<t CO 



O O CO 



CO CO <r 
o o 



in in CN 



o o <!■ 



r^ 


CM 


CNj 


<f 


o 


O 


CO 


o 


CO 


O 


in 


<r 


in 


in 


CN 


CO 


CT> 


<r 


rH 


in 


tH 


r-i 


o 


tH 


CM 


in 




<r 


C3^ 




o 


CO 




r-^ 


<f 




CM 


CM 




CN 


r^ 




vO 


r^ 




<t 


rH 




CD 


CN 




r^ 


<r 




CXD 




CM 


C7^ 




a> 


<t 




CO 


CO 




in 


CM 




CO 


r^ 




in 






<r 






CN 






Csl 






rH 






CM 










cd o 

rH I 

•H PQ 



O ^ 
O I 
O pq 
O 
U 



o <r CsJ 

<r C3> rH 


sD 


00 


o 


00 


Csl 


CO 


in 
CO 


in 
CO 


•vl- 


o 

C3> 


O 

o 


CM 


in 


C7^ 


O CM 

r^ Csl 


00 


o 

CO 




00 

CO 


CD 
C7^ 




O 

m 

in 


c:> 

CO 




CJs 

CO 


CO 




CO 

in 


O 
CM 


CM a^ CsJ 

in O rH 


Csl 


00 

C7> 


o 

1-^ 


o 

rH 




CO 


CO 

rH 


CM 


<f 


in 


in 

C7^ 


CM 


00 
r-\ 


00 <r 
CO 


o in 
o <r 




CO 




OCD 


CM 




vX5 


CsJ 




<t 


-d" 




CN 

o 

—I 


CM 

in 



o 
a 



w 

pq 

< 



M a w 



Vj 


}- 


^ 


u 




(D 


a,' 


r^ 


0) 




c 


Ui 


CTn 


c 




a 


:3 


i—\ 


a 




M 


o 


S 

P 


M 


cd 


Q) 




•-) 






a 










o 




in 






M 




rH 


o 





c/^ ;z: 



u 

Q) 



:3 

o 



w 



en iz; 






w 



c/^ 2; 






:3 
o 



w 



c/5 13 






Cd 

0) 



w 



c/5 :z: 



cu 



;3 
o 



w 



c/^ ;z: 



60 



o 

H 



M 0) 

rC OOJ 

+J tH 

O cd 



CO 




T3 




»H 




B 




w 




0) 




Q 




<u 


CO 


u 


a 


cd 


o 


C 


•p 


a 


td 


0) 


•H 


PL, 


TJ 



00 00 
CO to 


CnJ 

pH 


CO 


00 
00 


O 

tH 


CO 


00 
CO 


CO 


CO 

C7^ 




>d- 


in 


in 


^ 


r-^ CN CO 
r^ CM 


• • 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• • 


2828 
356 




00 
CO 
00 
CM 


o 




CO 

CN 

CM 


CM 
vO 




O 
CM 


iH 
CO 

CO 




in 

00 
CM 


as 

00 




o in 
o r^ 

rHiH 
CN 


00 in 

<f 00 


CSI 

iH 


o 
in 


CNI 

CO 


o 

iH 


CO 
O 


in 

CO 


CO 


O 


iH 
00 


<t 


O 
00 


o 

tH 


CN 


O vD CO 
CO CO 


• • 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• • 


O CN 
00 <f 
Cvj 




o 
CO 

CSI 


0^ 




CM 

rH 


00 
CO 




C3^ 
in 


ON 
CM 




iH 

CO 

rH 


CM 

00 




vo in 


00 00 
CN CM 


CM 

tH 






O 

iH 








CO 


CO 


<f 











o o 



o o 



O O CO 



o o 



O O CN 



O O CO 



<r CO CN 


in VO o 


CO r^ CO 


O rH 


<t 


o O csl 


CO iH CO 


iH CO rH 


in <!■ rH 


m CO 


iH rH 




-d- in 


CO. Csl 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• • 


, a 


CM CO 


as CO 


vO vO ' 


VO VO 




tH r-- 


rH CN 


rH CO 


in csi 


in CO 


in r-- 




CO 


as CM 


r^ rH 


I^ rH 


<!■ 


r^ rH 




m 


-d-*CN 



O 


CO 


'H 


B 


u 


o 


u 


4-» 


c 


Cd 


<D 


•H 


CJ 


T) 



<r o CM 


vO vO O 


r>* CO 


CO 


in CO 


<r 


in in 


CN 


CO 00 CO 


CM iH iH 


CO -vT tH 


CN a\ 




o in 




r-\ in 




O CO 


• • 


• • 


• » 




• • 




• • 




• • 


iH rH 


00 as 


vo in 




O VO 




CO vO 




rH vO 


r>- 00 


O r-- 


O rH 




r^ 00 




00 CN 




in in 


vO 


vO 


in ^ 




<t 




vO 




in rH 



I 

rH 

Q) CO 

00 0) 

Cd u 

rH Cd 

Pu, rH 



vo in CN 


CO vO O 


CO >d' 


CO 


m as 


<3- 


O O 


CvJ 


r^ r^ CO 


vO O iH 


CM in rH 


r^ vo 




r^ vo 




in <f 




00 rH 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• • 




• • 




• • 


fH vO 


tn 00 


CO rH 




00 CO 




rH VO 




in o 


00 vO 


CO in 


vO O 




O CN 




as in 




00 CO 


<f 


in 


in CM 




00 rH 




as 




in 



• CO 

B C 

Cd (U 

r-i <U 

•H U 



C3> <f CN 
CsJ C3> rH 


VO <r o 

O vO rH 


O CM CO 
vO 00 


00 <t <t 

in 1-i 


in in CN 

iH rH 


CO CO CO 
VO vO 


in vO 

CN 


CD <f 
CN 


rH 


• • 

<f CO 


• • 


vO vO 



•H 

o 
o 



O CU 

o u 

CJ) oc 



vO CN CM 
CO O rH 


in r^ O 

CO tH rH 


r^ CO 


CO 


o o 
<r 00 


<r 


in in 

rH 00 


CM 


r-- <r CO 

rH -d- 


r^ vo 
r^ 00 

CO 


VO C^ 
00 vO 
CN 


in 00 

tH 




00 <r 
-d- CO 

rH 




r- -d- 

CM CN 
CN 




117. 

11. 



B 

Cd o 

rH I 

•H pq 



>d- CO CN 
CN vO rH 



o in 

VO CN 



in cjN o 

rH y>0 r-^ 



m CN 



O O CO 



in m <f 


in in CM 


o o 


00 CM 


r^ r^ 


r^ r-{ 


. a 


. • ■ 


. • 


CN rH 


in in 


CN rg 


y-i »H 


iH rH 


CN CN 



•13 

:3 

c 

•H 
4-» 

o 
o 



w 

PQ 



T3 

•H 

O O 
O I 
O PQ 
O 

O 



U U 
M O 



d) 
c 
o 



CJN rH CM 

vO vO rH 

as as 

r-i vO 
CN 



vO 

as 



w 

PQ 
O 
H 

O 



U 
CU 
C 

C C 
M cd 



w 



CO ^ 



CO r^ o 

rH CM rH 

CO in 

as <r 

CO rH 



CO vO CO 

r^ in 

vo vO 

rH CN 

-d- CO 



u 




M 


Q) 




<D 


4-» 




C 


:3 c w 




C C 


o Cd 




M cd 


OJ . 




0) 


S en 


jz; 


S 



w 



en :z: 



in 00 <t 

Csl CO 

A 0C5 
<f vO 
CM 



U 



:3 
o 



in in CM 

CM CM 
CN CM 



W 



en 5z: 



CO -d" CO 

CO tH 

O r-- 
vo r^ 

CM T-{ 



u 






v^ 






(U 






CU 






a 


. 




u 




. 


a 


C Px3 




:3 


c 


w 


hH 


Cd 




o 


Cd 






<u • 






0) 


. 




S en 


iz: 




S 


en 



61 



:o 



G) 



;< 



II 






UJ 

z 
O 



C\J 
LlI 

z 
O 

N 



O 






o 






O 

CO 



CvJ 



O) 



o 



lO 



lO 

d 

(s,000l) 

lUU/SII^D 



If) 
d 



o 



0] T^ 




>^ U 




Q) cd 




> -a 




u c 




cd 




M 4J 




1 




d U 




a o 




O U-l 




w 




cd r^ 




<U 




CO Q) 




r^ 




r-i 42 




tH CT3 




cd H 




M-l 




QJ 




X) OJ 




a en 




cd 




rv • 




^ CO 




0) V-i 




e cd 




e rQ 




3 




CO V-l 




o 




*> u 




tiC }-i 




Cl! 0) 




•H 




}M T3 




a M 




U) cd 




xj 




0) c 




rC CT3 




4-1 4J 




0} 




C 




•H M-l 




O 




rsi 




to 




1 a 




•H 




o ^ 




d 




CO M 




0) X) 




c 




O CD 




N ^ 




■P 




c 




•H 4-> 




•H 




CO g 




X) V-i 




•H (1) 




e p. 




CO 




Q) 4-» 




-d o 




C 




tw 




O CO 




CD 




CO O 




0) T3 


• 


O 


CO 


c <u 


d) 


cd O 


N 


'T3 cd 


•H 


P. 


CO 


:3 c/3 




rjQ 


<D 


cd 


rH 


• 


p. 


C vo 


6 


cd r>- 


cd 


d) o> 


CO 


:?: rH 






nd 


I 


C 




cd 


cd O 




v£> r-- 


CO 


ON 


}-l 


• rH 


o 


o 


u 


M U-4 


U 


pt, o 


0) 



62 



• o 

eg 



z 

u 
a: 

O 
o 



UJ 

< 



/ 



UJ 

z 
O 

N 



d 



o 



// 



SO 



UJ 

z 

o 



d 

(s,000l) 

|UU/S||2>D 



o 



o 



CD 






O 



o 



N 
o 



O 



CM 






KTi 



o 

CD 



in 
d 



;3 



M-l (1) 

0) 

T3 CO 

Cd 

r. CO 
U U 

I ^ 

o 

00 CD 

a 

4-1 CO 



•H O 






I 



u; o 



[5 

cd 

u 

CO X) 
Q) 

C 0) 

O X 



C 4J 






cd 



O 



o 



CO 



0) 

QJ CO r/D 

>-i 0) OJ 

t)0 O N 

CO 

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preoperational years and the increases were about equally shown by both inner 
and outer stations. 

Filamentous blue-greens (Fig. 6d) showed increases over preoperational 
levels in all three zones in operational 1975 and 1976. It is to be noted, 
however, that in zones and 1 the increases at inner and outer stations were 
essentially equal, or were greater in the outer stations. In zone 2 the 
increases at inner stations were greater than at outer in October 1975 and 
July 1976 . It is doubtful that the increases in these months were 
plant-related for these are offshore stations where the plant's discharge 
plume is present but little of the time. 

Coccoid blue-greens (Fig. 6e) after being present in small amounts 
during most of the preoperational years increased in abundance in the 
Octobers of preoperational 197^ and operational 1975. It is noted that the 
October 1975 increases were nearly equal in inner and outer stations of 
zone 0, while in zone 1 the increase was greater in the outer stations, in 
zone 2 the increase at the inner stations was definitely greater than at the 
outer stations and the above comment about the thermal plume reaching these 
offshore stations also applies here. Operational 1976 exhibited more coccoid 
blue-greens at outer stations in six of the nine cases. In zones and 2 the 
parallelism between inner and outer stations was good. The outstanding 
failure of parallelism was in the greater abundance of these organisms in the 
outer stations in April in zone 1. 

Coccoid green algae (Fig. 6f) in 1975 and 1976 exhibited, in all but one 
case, very good parallelism between the curves for inner and outer station 
groups. The inner stations of zone 2 in October 1976 did not show the autumn 
decline that the outer stations did, but even then the level of these algae 
was not substantially different than these stations exhibited in the Julys of 



65 



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68 



1970 and 1971 or April 197^ of the preoperational years. In zone coccoid 
greens showed somewhat higher levels in all three seasons of 1976 than had 
been the case in the immediately preceding years, but the higher levels were 
present in both the inner and outer stations, and the highest was equalled by 
levels reached in the outer stations in April 1972. 

Flagellates (Fig. 6g) in all three zones showed steadily rising trends 
of abundance in both inner and outer station groups from 1971 through 1976. 
Parallelism between curves for inner and outer stations was generally good in 
all three zones in 1975 and in zone in 1976. Failure of parallelism 
occurred in zone 1 in April and October 1976 when the outer stations showed 
higher flagellate levels than did the inner stations. Parallelism between 
inner and outer station curves in zone 2 in 1976 was good, but the inner 
stations in each season contained higher abundances of flagellates than did 
the cuter stations. The cause of higher abundances in the inner stations of 
this zone cannot at present be determined, but the previous comment about the 
plant's plume seldom reaching these offshore stations can be repeated here. 

Pennate diatoms (Fig. 6h) have, with the exceptions of July 1974 in 
zones and 1 , exhibited good parallelism between the curves for inner and 
outer station groups in all the years studied. High levels of pennates 
attained in April 1975 in both inner and outer stations in all zones, and in 
zones 1 and 2 in April 1976, were not significantly higher than those of 
April 1974. Pennate levels in zone in April 1976 attained 2443 ± 350 in 
the inner stations and 2005 ±. 237 in the outer stations; occurring in both 
station groups, the high levels in this zone are more apt to be an effect of 
spring runoff than of plant operation. The July low levels of pennates in 
all three zones in 1975 and 1976 were not lower than summer "crashes" 
observed in preoperational years. The October levels of pennates in all zones 



69 




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71 



in 1976 were the highest yet observed; if this is a plant effect it could be 
considered a desirable one. 

Centric diatoms (Figs. 6i, 6j, and 6k) have, in all the years studied, 
shown rather good parallelism of the curves for inner and outer stations; 
parallelism was poor in April 1972 in all zones and in zone 2 in the Octobers 
of 1972 and 1973 and April 1975. Zones and 1 showed unusually high 
abundances of centrics in July 1973; this condition was not present in zone 2 
in that month, nor has it occurred since. High levels in the Aprils of 1975 
and 1976 were no higher in zone than had been observed there in the outer 
stations in April 1972, in both sets of stations in October 1972, and in both 
station sets in July 1973, i.e. they are considered to be within the range of 
normal variation. The April levels in zone 1 in 197^ and 1976 were within 
the range of abundances seen in 1973- April abundances in the outer stations 
of zone 2 in 1975 and in both station sets in 1976 were within the abundance 
ranges seen in the Aprils of 1973 and 1974 in this zone; inner station 
abundances in this zone in April 197^ were high, but very similar to levels 
at the inner stations of zone 1 in that month. Protrusion of a water mass 
high in centrics from the inner stations of zone 1 to the inner stations of 
zone 2 is a possible explanation, and indeed is shown in Figure 3 of Ayers, 
Southwick, and Robinson (1977) for this date. 

The July summer minima of centric diatom abundances in operational 1975 
and 1976 were within the abundance ranges of centrics in preoperational 
years. October abundances of centrics in 1975 and 1976 were within ranges 
seen in preoperational years, except that in 1976 in zone 2 the level of 
centrics in the outer stations was the highest yet seen in that station group 
in October. 

Annual curves for abundances of total algae (Figs. 6L, 6m, and 6n) in 



72 



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78 



the three depth zones showed reasonably good parallelism, Indicating that in 
general there were similar directions of abundance changes in the inner and 
outer station groups. Perhaps the most outstanding features of these three 
figures are general trends toward increasing numbers of phytoplankton algae 
since 1971, somewhat erratic in zones and 1 but quite clear and steady in 
zone 2. Similar trends were noted in the graphs for flagellates (Fig. 6g) . 

In zone operational 1975 was characterized by high April levels of 
total algae in both inner and outer station groups, by lowered July values in 
both sets of stations, and by moderately increased numbers in October in both 
station sets; in all three seasons the abundance levels were within ranges 
seen in preoperational years. In April of 1976 both inner and outer stations 
of zone showed the highest mean populations yet observed (6335 ± 649 
cells/ml at the inner stations and 5377 +. 683 at the outer stations), while 
July and October abundances were very similar to those observed in these 
months in 1973. The high April values are not attributed to plant operation 
effects, for they occurred well away from the plant as well as close to it. 

Zone 1 in 1975 showed high levels of total algae abundance in both 
station sets in April, reduced levels in July at both inner and outer 
stations, and moderate increases in both sets of stations in October. 
Considering the uncertainty (standard error) of the April high mean value in 
the inner stations, there is probably no significant difference between inner 
and outer station m.eans in that month, and the levels in the three seasons of 
1975 may be considered to be in the ranges found in preoperational years. 
Zone 1 in 1976 showed, in both station sets, highest values in April, reduced 
abundances in July, and modest recovery in levels in October. Abundance at 
the outer stations in April was much larger than at the inner stations. This 
might be due to some effect of plant operation, but there is also the 



79 



possibility that a water mass high in total algae protruded from the outer 
stations of zone to the outer stations of zone 1 . Perhaps more worthy of 
attention is the fact that in July and October of both 1974 and 1976 the 
inner station group showed lower levels of total algae than did the outer; 
this is a condition not observed in this zone in any preoperational year, and 
will be watched for as a possible plant effect in subsequent years. 

Total algae in zone 2 showed, in both station groups, the expected 
pattern of high levels in April, reduced levels in July, and recovering 
levels in October. April 1975 exhibited in the inner and outer stations the 
highest mean levels of abundance yet seen in this month. 

Abundances in July 1975 were very similar to those of July 1973 in both 
station sets. October 1975 abundances in both inner and outer stations were 
higher than previously found in these stations in this month in this zone. 
The 1976 curves for inner and outer stations of zone 2 showed almost perfect 
parallelism, with the inner stations having greater abundances than the outer 
in each survey. July 1976 abundance levels in the inner stations were the 
highest so far observed in July in zone 2. October values at the outer 
stations were the highest yet found in this month in this zone. October 
inner station abundance was not as great as in October 1975. 

Except for April 1975, abundance values in zone 1 were greatest in the 
outer station group in both 1975 and 1976. Except for July 1974, abundance 
values in zone 2 were greatest in the inner stations in both 1975 and 1976. 
With the plant's discharge plume in zone 1 all or most of the time, it is 
unrealistic to attribute that zone's higher abundances in the outer stations 
to plant plume effects. Conversely, with the plant's plume in zone 2 little 
if any of the time, it is unrealistic to attribute to plant effects the 



80 



generally higher values in the inner stations of zone 2. 

If plant operation results in heat-stimulation of phytoplankton 
reproduction, as has been postulated, and with the plant's plume in zone 1 
most or all of the time, the highest phytoplankton abundances in 1975 and 
1976 should have been in the inner station group. However, in 5 of the 6 
surveys of these years the highest abundances were in the outer stations 
which the plume is not expected to reach. 

If plant operation results in phytoplankton inhibition in the inner 
stations of zone 1, then inhibition there should have been less in 1975 when 
the plant was in the testing and power ascension phase. Instead, the 
three-season abundance levels in the inner stations of zone 1 were on the 
whole higher in 1976 when the plant operated at higher power levels and more 
consistently than in 1975 . 

In the time sequences of phytoplankton abundances there is no convincing 
evidence that Cook Plant operation has affected the local community; the 
changes observed appear to be expressions of progressive eutrophication, 
instead . 

Inner-Outer Statistical Comparisons: Phytoplankton Abundances 

As a first statistical test for plant-caused differences between 
preoperational and operational years, it was decided to compare the seasonal 
mean values of total algal abundances at the inner and outer station groups 
in the three field seasons of each year. The concept behind this approach 
was that if plant-caused effects on the phytoplankton were present they could 
be expected to show as significant differences between abundances at the 
inner (plant effected) stations and the outer (control) stations. Corollary 



81 



to this was the possibility that plant effects might differently affect the 
phytoplankton of shallow and deeper waters, and show as significant 
differences between inner and outer stations in one depth zone but not in the 
other . 

For these tests spring was defined as March, April, and May; summer as 
June, July and August; and fall as September, October, and November. For 
each season all available abundances of total algae were averaged to give a 
seasonal mean abundance at inner and outer stations of each depth zone and 
comparisons were made between inner and outer mean abundances. It was 
considered that lake-caused abundance changes would similarly affect both the 
inner and outer station groups of each zone in each season of each year, 
while plant operation effects could be expected to cause differences between 
the groups in the same season of the same year. 

The method of comparison in each season of each year was the two-sample 
Jb.-test. Table 8 gives for each year, season, and station group the means, 
variance, number of observations, and JL- test of significance in each depth 
zone . 

In only one season was there a significant difference (at the .05 level) 
between the means of the inner and outer stations: in the spring of 1972 the 
outer stations in each depth zone had more cells per ml than did the inner 
stations. No explanation for the differences can be given. 

In the field seasons of the operational years 1975 and 1976 there were 
no significant differences in total phytoplankton abundances between the 
inner and outer station groups of either depth zone, indicating no effect of 
the plant's operations in those years. 



82 



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84 



Inner-Outev Graphical Comparisons: Diversity Indices 

Cook Plant species diversity data for the years 1971 through 1975 have 
been presented and discussed by Ayers, Southwick, and Robinson (1977) and 
tabulated data in that report are for the most part not repeated here. This 
section is concerned with extending the previous discussions, tabulations, 
and figures to include the major surveys carried out in 1970 and in 1976 . 

As was done in the report cited above, the diversity index data for 1970 
and 1976 have been stratified by three depth zones and by inner treatment 
stations (near the plant) and outer control or reference stations groups. 

The diversity index used is, as previously, that of Wilhm and Dorris 

(1968): 

_ S 

d = - Z (n./n) log^ (n^/n) 
1=1 

where S is the number of species, n is the total number of phytoplankton in 
cells/ml, n. is the number of phytoplankton of the i species. 

Mean diversity indices and associated standard errors for each 
depth-zone-station-group combination in 1970 and 1976 have been computed and 
are presented in Table 9 . In Figure 7 the surveys of 1970 and 1976 have been 
added at the ends of the time plots of diversity indices and standard errors 
which were presented by Ayers, Southwick, and Robinson (op. cit.). 

In Figure 7 the annual curves of mean diversity indices generally show 
substantial degrees of parallelism between inner and cuter station groups, 
though parallelism was poor in all zones in 1971 and 1972, in zone in 1974, 
and in zone 1 in 1970 and 1974. Parallelism between the curves for inner 
(treatment) and outer (control) stations indicates that changes in diversity 
from season to season were the same in both sets of stations. Parallelism of 
the curves for inner and outer station groups in the operational years 1975 



85 



TABLE 9. Means, standard errors, and numbers of observations of in-lake 
phytoplankton diversity indices by seasons, depth zones, and inner or outer 
station groups in Cook Plant major surveys in preoperational 1970 and 
operational 1976 (the intervening years are reported by Ayers, Southwick, 
and Robinson 1977). The diversity index used is that of Wilhm and Dcrris 
(1968) based on log 2. Standard errors are computed only when the number 
of observations (N) = 2 or more. 



1970 










10 July 


2"? September 


12 November 


Zcne , Inner 








Mean 


3.62 


3.58 


2.70 


S. E. 


0.11 


0.20 


0.11 


N 


11 


10 


9 


Outer 








Mean 


3.75 


3.65 


2.93 


S. E. 


0.08 


0.13 


0.11 


N 


9 


10 


10 


Zone 1 , Inner 








Mean 


2.33 


3.12 


2.83 


S. E. 


0.61 


0.31 


0.18 


N 


3 


3 


3 


Outer 








Mean 


3.54 


3.22 


2.79 


S. E. 


0.15 


0.09 


0.23 


N 


4 


4 


4 


Zone 2 , Inner 








Mean 


2.68 


3.61 


2.40 


S. E. 


0.81 


0.19 


0.16 


N 


2 


2 


2 


Outer 








Mean 


3.00 


3.56 


2.84 


S. E, 


0.11 


0.14 


0.13 


N 


4 


4 


4 


1976 










14 April 


14 July 


13 October 


Zone , Inner 








Mean 


4.32 


4.40 


4.76 


S. E. 


0.09 


0.08 


0.06 


N 


12 


12 


12 


Outer 








Mean 


4.32 


4.19 


4.67 


S. E. 


0.06 


0.15 


0.08 


N 


10 


10 


10 



86 



TABLE 9 continued. 



1976 

^^ Aprj], 1^ Ju3.y n October 

Zone 1 , Inner 

Mean 4,26 3,68 4,43 

S, E. 0.04 0,06 0,20 

N 3 3 3 

Outer 

Mean 4.32 3.07 4.28 

S. E. 0.08 0.63 0.10 

N 4 4 4 
Zone 2 , Inner 

Mean 4.41 3.08 4.22 

S. E, 0.18 0.15 0.40 

N 2 2 2 

Outer 

Mean 4,11 3.23 3.88 

S. E. 0.14 0.11 0.21 

N 4 4 3 



87 






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90 



and 1976 has been as good as or better than in preoperational years. 

The placement of the annual curves on the graphs shows in all zones a 
trend toward increasing diversity since 1972. Stoermer and Yang (1969, 
p. 212) have pointed out that there is in Lake Michigan a tendency for 
phytoplankton diversity to increase with increasing eutrophication, rather 
than to decrease as might be expected on the basis of theory. The upward 
trends of the diversity curves are compatible with the known increasing 
eutrophication of the lake. 

There is no evidence in the present study of diversity indices that 
operation of Cook Plant has simplified (lowered the diversity of) the local 
phytoplankton community in the operational years 1975 and 1976. Instead, the 
evidence is that the phytoplankton community has in the operational years 
continued to become more diverse than it was in the earlier preoperational 
years . 

Inner-Outev Graphical Comparisons: Phytoplankton Redundancies 

Redundancy values are derived from the diversity index of Wilhm and 

Dorris ( 1968): 

_ S 

d = - E (n./n) log^ (n./n) 
i=l ^ "^ ^ 

where S is the number of species, n is the total number of phytoplankton in 
cells/ml, n. is the number of phytoplankton of the i species. Diversity 
as presented here is not the true diversity since not all forms encountered can 
be identified to the species level. Therefore, this diversity must be viewed 
with caution. However, these diversities will be used to illustrate changes 
occurring within the phytoplankton population from year to year. 



91 



Redundancy is a measure of the dominance of one or a few species within 
a given population. As presented by Wilhra and Dorris (1968) it is: 



d - d 
max 

r = 



d - d . 
max mm 



where d is the observed diversity as calculated above, d is the maximum 

max 

diversity for a particular community, and d . is the minimum possible 

diversity for a particular community, d is calculated using the 

max 



following equation: 



d = (l/n)(log^ n! - s log^ [n/S]!) 
max d d 



and d . is calculated using the equation: 

mm 

d . = (1/n)(log^ n! - s log^ [n-(S-l)]!) 
mm Z d 

The values of r range between and 1 . An r equal to implies that the 
species encountered in a community each have the same number of cells. An r 
equal to 1 implies that one species dominates the community of phytoplankton . 

Table 10 gives, for all the Cook Plant major surveys from July 1970 
through October 1976, the station values of phytoplankton redundancy. 

Table 11 presents the means, standard errors, and numbers of 
observations of redundancies in Cook Plant major surveys in the years 1970 
through 1976 stratified by seasons, depth zones, and inner and outer station 
groups. The means and standard errors are plotted on a time axis in 
Figure 8. 

The plots in Figure 8 show visual evidence of a trend, beginning in 
1973, for redundancies to become somewhat lower since that year. If real, 
the trend would indicate that there has been a tendency for the species in 
the community to become more equally abundant in individuals. 

Perhaps more important is that after 1972 there has been much better 



92 



TABLE 10. 


Phytoplankton 


Station 


Redundancy 


10 JULY 1970 


DC-1 


0.276 


DC -2 


0.229 


DC- 3 


0.283 


DC-^ 


0.551 


DC- 3 


0.181 


DC- 6 


0.317 


NDC-.25-1 


0.277 


NDC-.5-0 


0.276 


NDC-.5-1 


0.298 


NDC-.5-2 


0.246 


NDC-.5-3 


0.296 


NDC-1-0 


0.246 


NDC-l-1 


0.208 


NDC-1-2 


0.650 


NDC-1-3 


0.301 


NDC-l-A 


0.331 


NDC-2-0 


0.172 


NDC-2-1 


0.305 


NDC-2-2 


0.102 


NDC-2-3 


0.205 


Nl)C-2-4 


0.334 


NDC-A-0 


0.202 


NDC-4-2 


0.294 


NDC-4-3 


0.348 


ni.h:-4-4 


0.182 


NDC-7-1 


0.336 


NDC-7-2 


0.822 


NDC-7-3 


0,269 


Nnc-7-4 


0.313 


NDC-7-5 


0.250 


SDC-.25-1 


0.428 


SDC-. S-O 


0.263 


si)(:-.5-i 


0.255 


Sr)C-.5-2 


0.310 


SI)C-l-0 


0.293 


SDC-l-l 


0.302 


SDC-1-2 


0.583 


snc-1-3 


0.324 


S DC- 2-0 


0.310 


Sl)C-2-l 


0.262 


SDC-2-2 


0.311 


SI)C-2-3 


0.215 


SI)C-2-4 


0.370 


SI)C-4-0 


0.262 


S!)C-A-1 


0.285 


SDC-4-2 


0.3S6 


SDC-4-3 


0.324 


SI)C-4-4 


0.24 2 


S])C-7-l 


0.26 3 


Sl)C-7-2 


0.917 


sn(;-7-3 


0.332 


SDC-7-4 


0.331 


sn(;-7-5 


0.339 



method of Wllhm and Dorris (1968), Cook Plant seasonal surveys. 



2 5 SEPTEMBER 19 70 



i)(;-2 









so 2 


DC- 3 









2 50 


DC- 4 









163 


DC-'"i 









19! 


DC- 6 









07 13 


NDC- 


7 '■ 


)-l 





09 71 


NDC- 


5- 


-0 





219 


NDC- 


5- 


-1 





24 3 


NDC- 


5- 


-2 





372 


NDC- 


5- 


-3 





185 



NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC- 

SDC 

SDC- 

SDC' 

SDC 

SDC 

six: 

SDC 

Six: 

SDC 
SDC 
SDC 
SDC 



1-0 
1-1 

1-2 

1-3 

2-0 

2-1 

2-2 

2-3 

2-4 

4-0 

4-1 

4-2 

4-3 

4-4 

7-1 

7-2 

7-3 

7-4 

7-5 

.25-1 

.5-0 

.5-1 

.5-2 

.5-3 

1-0 

1-1 

1-2 

1-3 

■2-0 

■2-1 

■2-2 

■2-3 

■2-4 

-4-0 

■4-1 

-4-2 

-4-3 

-4-4 

-7-1 

-7-2 

-7-3 

-7-4 

-7-5 



Redundantv 



0.118 

0.601 

0.285 

0.217 

0.296 

0.144 

0.343 

0.394 

0.216 

0.378 

0.297 

0.237 

0.337 

0.383 

0.366 

0.311 

0.308 

0.343 

0.418 

0.256 

0.233 

0.255 

0.182 

0.184 

0.299 

0.0857 

0.264 

0.313 

0.124 

0.289 

0.295 

0.217 

0.253 

0.2 50 

0.436 

0.303 

0.21 1 

0.316 

0.152 

0.258 

0.355 

0.134 

0.228 



Station 



12 NOVEMBER 1970 



DC-2 


0.485 


DC- 3 


. ') 5 7 


DC- 4 


0.499 


DC- 5 


0.499 


D(:-6 


0.297 


NDC-.2 5-1 


. 5 5 3 


NDt:-.5-0 


0.504 


NDC-.5-I 


0.4 54 


NDC-. 5-2 


0.49 7 


N DC-. 5-3 


0.4 50 


NDC-1-0 


0.217 


NDC-l-1 


0.527 


N!)(;-l-2 


0.346 


NDC-1- ] 


0.465 


NDC-2-0 


0.495 


NDC-2-1 


0.3 76 


NDC- 2- 2 


0.35 5 


Nl)C-2-3 


0.400 


Nl)C-2-4 


0.429 


NI)C-4-0 


0.266 



NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
NDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 
SDC- 



4-1 
4-2 
4-3 
4-4 
7-1 

;-2 

7-3 
7-4 
7-5 
.25-1 
.5-0 
.5-1 
.5-2 
.5-3 
1-0 
1-1 
1-2 
1-3 
2-0 
2-1 
•2-2 
2-3 
■2-4 
4-0 
•4-1 
■4-2 
-4-3 
•4-4 
■7-1 
■7-2 
-7-3 
-7-4 
-7-5 



Redundancy 



0.425 
0.461 
0.446 
0.270 
0.322 
0.348 
0.315 
0.393 
0.244 
0.466 
0.447 
0.376 
0.412 
0.496 
0.486 
0.364 
0.418 
0.365 
0.253 
0.437 
0.407 
0.313 
0.453 
0.416 
0.397 
0.343 
0.321 
0.329 
0.258 
0.459 
0.500 
0.391 
0.338 



15 APRIL 1971 

DC-1 

DC-2 

DC- 3 

DC- 4 

DC- 5 

DC- 6 

NDC-.25-1 

NDC-.5-0 

NDC-.5-1 

NDC-.5-2 

NDC-.5-3 

NDC-1-0 

NDC-1-2 

NDC- 1-3 

N!)C-2-0 

NDC-2-1 

NDC-2-3 

NDC-2-4 

NDC- 4-0 

NDC-4-1 

NDC-4-3 

NDC-4-4 

NDC-7-2 

NDC- 7-4 

NDC-7-5 

SDC-.25-1 

SDC-. 5-0 

SDC-.5-1 

SDC-.5-2 

SDC-. 5-3 



0.221 
0.257 
0.293 
0.235 
0.216 
0.414 
0.218 
0.273 
0.257 
0.320 
0.29 5 
0.2 74 
0.217 
0.2 33 
0.187 
0.266 
0.221 
0.282 
0.290 
0.244 
0.269 
0.380 
0.310 
0.2 75 
0.18 3 
.317 
0.225 
0.275 
0.328 
0.287 



Station 


Redundancy 


SDC-1-0 


0.280 


SDC-l-l 


0.240 


SDC-1-2 


0.315 


SDC-1-3 


0.227 


SDC-2-0 


0.301 


SDC-2-1 


0.242 


SDC-2-2 


0.234 


SDC- 2- 3 


0.263 


SDC-2-4 


0.380 


SDC-4-0 


0.265 


SDC-4-2 


0.247 


SDC-4-3 


0.304 


SDC-4-4 


0.273 


SDC-7-1 


0.303 


SDC-7-2 


0.286 


SDC-7-3 


0.217 


SDC-7-4 


0.265 


SDC-7-5 


0.335 


9 JULY 1971 


DC-2 


0.807 


DC- 3 


0.365 


DC-4 


0.682 


DC- 5 


0.578 


DC-6 


0.441 


NDC-.25-1 


0.427 


NDC-.5-0 


0.239 


NDC-.5-1 


0.407 


NDC-.5-2 


0.370 


NDC-.5-3 


0.196 


NDC-1-0 


0.266 


NDC-l-1 


0.310 


NDC-1-2 


0.355 


NDC- 1-3 


0.302 


NDC-2-0 


0.443 


NDC-2-1 


0.4 31 


NDC-2-2 


0.378 


NDC-2-3 


0.152 


NDC-2-4 


0.417 


NDC-4-0 


0.339 


NDC-4-1 


0.369 


NDC-4-2 


0.393 


NDC-4-3 


0.267 


NDC-4-4 


0.240 


NDC-7-1 


0.736 


NDC- 7-2 


0.720 


NDC-7-3 


0.721 


NDC-7-4 


0.247 


NDC-7-5 


0.414 


SDC-.2 5-1 


0.236 


Six:-. 5-0 


0.2 30 


SDC-.5-1 


0.169 


SDC-.5-2 


0.240 


SDC-.5-3 


0.184 


SDC-1-0 


0.267 


SDC-l-l 


0.192 


SDC-1-2 


0.266 


SDC-1-3 


0.107 


SDC-2-0 


0.200 


SDC-2-1 


0.192 


SDC-2-2 


0.227 


SDC- 2- 3 


0.295 


SDC-2-4 


0.112 


SDC-4-0 


0.259 


SDC-4-1 


0.222 



93 



TABLE 10. continued. 



Station 



Redundancy 



Stat ion 



Redundancy 



Station 



Redundancy 



Station Redundancy 



9 JULY 1971 cont. 



SDC-4-2 
SDC-A-3 
SDC-A-A 

snc-7-1 

SDC-7-2 
SDC-7-3 
SI)C-7-4 

sr)(:-7-s 



0.150 
0.238 
0.175 
0.382 
0.176 
0.194 
0.143 
0.233 



8 NOVEMBER L971 



DC-- 
DC-=) 
DC- 6 
NDC- . 



2S-1 



NDC-. 5-1 

NDC-.5-2 

NDC-. 5-3 

NDC- 1.-1 

NDC- 1-2 

NDC -1-3 

NDC-2-1 

NDC-2-2 

NDC- 2- 3 

NDC- 2-4 

NDC-4-0 

NI)C-4-l 

NDC- 4- 2 

NDC- 4- 3 

NDC-4-4 

SDC-.2 5-1 

SDC-.5-2 

SD(^-1-1 

SDC-l-3 

S DC- 2-0 

SDC-2-1 

SDC;-2-2 

SDC-:-3 

SDC-2-4 

SDC-4-1 

SI)C-4-4 



0.338 
0.242 
0.320 
0.285 
0.132 
0.233 
0.301 
0.230 
0.221 
0.251 
0.216 
0.242 
0.293 
0.366 
0.149 
0.160 
0.196 
0.351 
0.413 
0. 170 
0.280 
0.302 
0.303 
0. 190 
0.231 
0.233 
0.303 
0.398 
0.333 
0.278 



12 APRIL 19 72 

DC-1 
DC- 2 
DC- 3 
DC- 4 
DC- 5 
DC- 6 

NDC-. 2 5-1 
NDC-. 5-0 
NDC-. 5-1 
NDC-. 5-2 
NDC-. 5-3 
NDC- 1-0 
NDC- 1-1 
NDC- 1-3 
NDC- 2-0 
NDC-2-2 
NDC- 2- 3 
NDC-2-4 
NDC-4-0 
NDC-4-1 
NDC- 4- 2 
NDC-4-3 



0.286 
0.374 
0.425 
0.443 
0.394 
0.397 
0.237 
0.357 
0.34 7 
0.342 
0.34 3 
0.415 
0.325 
0.311 
0.339 
0.250 
0.325 
0.234 
0.382 
0.304 
0.411 
0.294 



NDC-4-4 
NDC- 7-1 
NDC- 7- 2 
NDC- 7- 3 

NDC- 7- 5 



0.363 
0.316 
0.258 
0.286 
0.394 



Preservation failures 



SDC-.5-1 
SDC-7-4 



0.379 
0.170 



.5-0 
.5-2 



16 JULY 1972 

DC-1 

DC- 2 

DC- 3 

DC- 4 

DC- 5 

DC-6 

NDC- 

NDC- 

NDC-1-0 

NDC-1-1 

NDC- 1-2 

NDC- 2-0 

NDC-2-1 

NDC- 2- 3 

NDC-4-0 

NDC-4-1 

NDC-4-3 

NDC-4-4 

NDC- 7-1 

NDC- 7- 3 

NDC- 7- 5 

SDC-.5-2 

SDC-1-0 

SDC-1-1 

SDC-1-2 

S DC- 2-0 

SDC-2-1 

SDC-2-3 

Sl)C-4-0 

SDC-4-1 

SDC-4-3 

SDC-4-4 

SDC-7-2 

SDC-7-3 

SDC-7-5 



5-0 



DC- 2 
DC- 3 
DC- 4 
DC- 5 
DC-6 
NDC- 
NDC- . 5- 
NDC-1-0 
NDC-1-1 
NDC- 1-2 
NDC-2-() 
NDC-2-1 
NDC- 2- 3 
NDC- 4-0 
NDC-4-1 
NDC-4-3 
NDC-4-4 



0.198 
0.343 
0.362 
0.197 
0.341 
0.388 
0.293 
0.153 
0.304 
0.349 
0.463 
0.358 
0.298 
0.196 
0.276 
0.364 
0.482 
0.382 
0.186 
0.460 
0.433 
0.406 
0.308 
0.267 
0.270 
0.278 
0.318 
0.251 
0.342 
0.431 
0.153 
0.185 
0.235 
0.156 
0.159 



15 OCTOBER 1972 



0.4 50 
0.464 
0.476 
0.491 
0.566 
0.4 Jl 
0.492 
0.401 
0.5 76 
0.438 
0.4 13 
0.5 70 
0.479 
0.503 
0.480 
0.39 3 
0.577 



NDC- 7-1 

NDC-7-3 

NDC- 7- 5 

SDC-.5-0 

SDC-.5-2 

SDC-1-0 

SDC-1-1 

SDC-1-2 

SDC-2-0 

SDC-2-1 

SDC-2-3 

SDC-4-0 

SDC-4-1 

SDC-4-3 

SDC-4-4 

SDC-7-1 

SDC-7-3 

SDC-7-5 



0.544 
0.562 
0.452 
0.389 
0.489 
0.598 
0.550 
0.507 
0.496 
0.510 
0.488 
0.369 
0.565 
0.440 
0.576 
0.540 
0.503 
0.587 



25 APRIL 1973 



DC-2 


0.419 


DC- 3 


0.354 


DC-4 


0.360 


DC- 5 


0.446 


DC-6 


0.419 


NDC-.5-0 


0.298 


NDC-.5-2 


0.349 


NDC-1-0 


0.276 


NDC-1-1 


0.362 


NDC-1-2 


0.327 


NDC-2-0 


0.347 


NDC-2-1 


0.310 


NDC-2-3 


0.416 


NDC-4-0 


0.339 


NDC-4-1 


0.30 7 


NDC-4-4 


0.368 


NDC-7~3 


0.342 


NDC-7-5 


0.342 


SDC-.5-0 


0.157 


SDC-.5-2 


0.339 


SDC-1-0 


0.303 


SDC-1-1 


0.355 


SDC-1-2 


0.372 


SDC-2-0 


0.314 


SDC-2-1 


0.321 


SDC-2-3 


0.307 


SDC-4-1 


0.344 


SDC-4-3 


0.337 


SDC-4-4 


0.272 


SDC-7-1 


0.219 


SDC-7-3 


0.329 


SI)C-7-5 


0.376 



19 JULY 197 3 

DC-2 

DC- 3 

DC-4 

DC- 5 

DC-6 

NDC-. 5-2 

NDC-1-0 

NDC-1-1 

NDC-1-2 

NDC-2-0 

NDC-2-1 



0.435 
0.539 
0.339 
0.370 
0.455 
0.389 
0.350 
0.462 
0.3 39 
0.404 
0.470 



NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

NDC 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC' 

SDC 

SDC- 

SDC 

SDC 

SDC- 

SDC- 



2-3 
•4-0 
4-1 
4-3 
4-4 
7-1 
7-3 
7-5 
.5-0 
.5-2 
1-0 
1-1 
1-2 
2-0 
2-1 
2-3 
4-1 
-3 
•4-4 
7-1 
7-3 
7-5 



0.288 
0.463 
0.182 
0.309 
0.553 
0.443 
0.413 
0.341 
0.292 
0.446 
0.227 
0.403 
0.418 
0.220 
0.396 
0.441 
0.420 
0.554 
0.582 
0.442 
0.475 
0.451 



2 3 OCTOBER 197 3 



DC-2 


0.409 


DC- 3 


0.486 


DC-4 


0.336 


DC- 5 


0.456 


DC-6 


0.272 


NDC-.5-0 


0.472 


NDC-.5-2 


0.410 


NDC-1-0 


0.520 


NDC-1-1 


0.563 


NDC-1-2 


0.457 


NDC-2-0 


0.359 


NDC-2-1 


0.476 


NDC-2-3 


0.501 


NDC-4-3 


0.345 


NDC-4-4 


0.468 


NDC- 7-1 


0.509 


NDC-7-3 


0.514 


NDC-7-5 


0.492 


SDC-.5-0 


0.474 


SDC-.5-2 


0.306 


SDC-1-0 


0.499 


SDC-1-2 


0.510 


SDC-2-1 


0.411 


SDC-2-3 


0.454 


SDC-4-0 


0.462 


SDC-4-1 


0.465 


SDC-4-3 


0.408 


SDC-4-4 


0.296 


SDC-7-1 


0.4 31 


SDC- 7- 3 


0.469 


SDC-7-5 


0.309 


20 APRIL 


1974 


DC-1 


0.330 


DC-2 


0.255 


DC- 3 


0.313 


DC-4 


0.22 5 


DC- 5 


0.202 


DC-6 


0.181 


NDC- . 5-0 


0.273 



94 



TABLF. 10. continued. 



St .Jt ion 



Redundancy 



Stat ion 



Redundancy 



Station 



Redundancy 



Station Redundancy 



20 APRIL 19 7A cont . 



nik;-. 5-2 


0.31.0 


nik;- 1-0 


0.249 


nik;- 1-1 


0.268 


nik;- 1-2 


0.254 


nik;-2-o 


0.259 


nik;-2-i 


0.290 


nik;- 2- 3 


0.32 7 


nik;-4-o 


0.26 3 


nik;-/»-i 


0.24 5 


NDC-/.- i 


0.30 5 


NDC-4-A 


0.20 3 


NDC- 7-1 


0.224 


ND(;-7- i 


0.339 


NDC- 7- 5 


0.22 3 


SDC-. 5-0 


0.304 


sik;-.5-2 


0.34 1 


sik;- i-o 


0.26 3 


sik;-i-i 


0.277 


SDC- 1-2 


0.294 


SI)C-2-0 


0.269 


SD(;-2-l 


o.3n 


sik;-2- ] 


0.316 


sik;-'. I) 


0.399 


SDC-\- 1 


0.279 


sik;- . 1 


0.265 


six;- 4- 4 


0.273 


sik;- 7-1 


0.330 


sik;- 7- 3 


0.243 


sik;- 7-5 


0.254 


I 1 idly 1974 




D(;-() 


0.257 


DC- 1 


0.309 


D(;-2 


0.372 


i)(;- ) 


(h 390 


i)<;-4 


0.283 


D(;-5 


0.305 


l)C-h 


0.256 


nik;-. )•-{) 


0.313 


nik;-. 5-1 


0.259 


ND(;-.5-2 


0.282 


nik;- 1-0 


0,289 


nik;- 1-1 


0.243 


nik;- 1-2 


0.325 


nik;-2-o 


0.300 


ND(;-2-l 


0.217 


nik;- 2- '3 


0.359 


nik;-4-o 


0.27 5 


ni)(;-4-i 


0.304 


NDC-4- J 


0.285 


NDC- 4 -4 


0.269 


nik;- 7-1 


0.308 


nix;- 7- 3 


0.371 


ND(;-7-5 


0.314 


sik;-. 5-1 


0.288 


sik;-. 5-2 


0.22 7 


sik;- 1-0 


0.344 


sik;- 1-1 


0.329 


sih:-i-2 


0.4 29 


si)(;-2-o 


. 39 7 


sik;-2-i 


. 306 


sik;-2-3 


0.34 7 


SDC-4-1 


0.312 


SDC- 4 -3 


0.348 



SDC- 4- 4 


0.414 


SDC- 7-1 


0.339 


SDC- 7- 3 


0.345 


SDC-7-5 


0.320 


9 o(;tober 


1974 


DC-0 


0.228 


DC-1 


0.224 


DC- 2 


0.266 


DC- 3 


0.447 


DC- 4 


0.445 


DC- 5 


0.405 


DC-6 


0.519 


nik;-. 5-0 


0.377 


NDC-.5-1 


0.332 


NDC-.5-2 


0.369 


NDC- 1-0 


0.358 


NDC- 1 - 1 


0.464 


NDC- 1-2 


0.359 


NDC- 2-0 


0.302 


NDC-2-1 


0.367 


NDC-2-3 


0.337 


NDC-4-0 


0.234 


NDC-4-1 


0.695 


NDC-4-3 


0.210 


NDC- 4- 4 


0.515 


NDC- 7- I 


0.290 


NDC- 7- 3 


0.459 


NDC- 7- 5 


0.469 


S DC-. 5-0 


0.313 


SD(;-.5-l 


^(}.256 


SD(;-.5-2 


0.290 


SDC- 1 -0 


0.326 


SDC-l-J 


0.418 


SD(;-l-2 


0.414 


SD(;-2-() 


0.284 


stk;-2-i 


0.328 


SI)(;-2-3 


0.318 


SD(;-4-0 


0.228 


SD(;-4-J 


0.320 


SDC-4-3 


0.338 


SDC-4-4 


0.393 


SDC- 7-1 


0.39 3 


SDC-7-3 


0.448 


SDC-7-5 


0.502 


17 APRIL 


1975 


DC-O 


0.223 


DC- 1 


0.258 


DC- 2 


0.236 


DC- 3 


0.224 


DC-4 


0.252 


DC- 5 


0.254 


DC-6 


0.269 


NDC- . 5-0 


0.226 


ND(;-.5-l 


0.233 


NDC-.5-2 


0.267 


nik;- 1-0 


0.221 


ND(;-1-1 


0.194 


nik;-i-2 


0.271 


ND(;-2-0 


0.204 


nik;- 2-1 


0.281 


NDC-2-3 


0.267 



NDC-4-0 

NDC-4-1 

NDC-4-3 

NDC-4-4 

NDC- 7-1 

NDC-7-3 

NDC- 7- 5 

SDC- . 5-0 

SDC-.5-1 

SDC-.5-2 

SDC- 1-0 

SDC- 1-1 

SDC- 1-2 

SDC-2-0 

SDC-2-1 

SDC- 2- 3 

SDC-4-0 

SDC-4-1 

SDC-4-3 

SDC-4-4 

SDC- 7-1 

SDC-7-3 

SDC-7-5 



17 JULY 1975 

DC-0 

DC-1 

DC- 2 

DC- 3 

DC-4 

DC- 5 

DC-6 

NDC-.5-0 

NDC-.5-] 

NDC-.5-2 

NDC- 1-0 

NDC-1-1 

NDC- J -2 

NDC-2-0 

NDC-2-1 

NDC-2-3 

NDC-4-0 

NDC-4-1 

NDC-4-3 

NDC-4-4 * 

NDC-7-3 

NDC- 7-5 

SDC-.5-0 

SDC-.5-1 

SDC-.5-2 

SDC- 1-0 

SDC- 1-1 

SDC-1-2 

SDC-2-0 

SDC-2-1 

SDC- 2- 3 

SDC-4-0 

SDC-4-1 

SDC-4-3 

SDC-4-4 

SDC- 7-1 

SDC-7-3 

SDC-7-5 



0.268 
0.182 
0.272 
0.182 
0.233 
0.244 
0.238 
0.290 
0.266 
0.536 
0.304 
0,249 
0.235 
0,242 
0,289 
0.272 
0.216 
0.239 
0.248 
0.259 
0.227 
0.278 
0.255 



17 OCTOBER 1975 



0.509 
0.433 
0.471 
0.470 
0.356 
0.412 
0.349 
0.500 
0.478 
0.339 
0.428 
0.396 
0.33 7 
0.387 
0.446 
0.359 
0.336 
0.350 
0.382 
0.324 
0.369 
0.414 
0.549 
0.433 
0.337 
0.351 
0.377 
0.271 
0.384 
0.294 
0.283 
0.468 
0.4 39 
0.337 
0.322 
0.514 
0.377 
0.4 56 



DC-0 


0.363 


DC-1 


0.270 


DC-2 


0.344 


DC- 3 


0.403 


DC-4 


0.449 


DC- 5 


0.393 


NDC- . 5-0 


0.399 


NDC-.3-1 


0.353 


NDC-.5-2 


0.458 


NDC-1-0 


0.340 


NDC-1-1 


0.233 


NDC- 1-2 


0.514 


NDC-2-0 


0.456 


NDC-2-1 


0.502 


NDC-2-3 


0.406 


NDC-4-0 


0.363 


NDC-4-1 


0.366 


NDC-4-3 


0.403 


NDC-7-1 


0.236 


NDC-7-3 


0.479 


NDC-7-5 


0.494 


SDC-.5-0 


0.309 


SDC-.5-1 


0.437 


SDC-.5-2 


0.386 


SDC-1-0 


0.340 


SDC-1-1 


0.386 


SDC-1-2 


0.344 


SDC-2-0 


0.305 


SDC-2-1 


0.283 


SDC- 2- 3 


0.302 


SDC-4-0 


0.310 


SDC-4-1 


0.311 


SDC-4-3 


0.377 


SDC- 7-1 


0.338 


SDC-7-3 


0.298 


SDC-7-5 


0.362 


14 APRIL 


1976 


DC-0 


0.299 


DC-1 


0.294 


DC-2 


0.263 


DC- 3 


0.207 


DC-4 


0.251 


DC-5 


0.274 


DC-6 


0.454 


NDC-.5-0 


0.286 


NDC-.5-1 


0.294 


NDC-.5-2 


0.290 


NDC-1-0 


0.327 


NDC-1-1 


0.229 


NDC-1-2 


0.216 


NDC-2-0 


0.232 


NDC-2-1 


0.270 


NDC-2-3 


0.283 


NDC-4-0 


0.241 


NDC-4-1 


0.252 


NDC-4-3 


0.304 


NDC-4-4 


0.481 


ND(;-7-l 


0.309 


NDC-7-3 


0.282 


NDC-7-5 


0.239 


SDC-. 5-0 


0.258 


SDC-.5-1 


0.262 



95 



TABLE 10. continued 



Stat ion 



Redundancy 



Stat ion 



Redundancy 



1 A APRIL 197b cont . 



13-1 A OCTOBER 1976 



sn(:-.3-2 


0.245 


DC-O 


0.231 


sih:-i-o 


0.221 


DC- 1 


0.283 


SDC-l-l 


0.185 


DC- 2 


0.323 


SD(:-l-2 


0.261 


DC- 3 


0.287 


S[)(:-2-o 


0.257 


DC-4 


0.293 


S DC- 2-1 


0.239 


DC- 5 


0.295 


S[)C-2-3 


0.248 


NDC-.5-0 


0.220 


SI)C-/4-{) 


0.258 


NDC-.5-1 


0.190 


Sl)C-A-i 


0.254 


NDC-.5-2 


0.242 


Sl)C-4-'} 


0.288 


NDC- 1-0 


0.202 


SDC-4-4 


0.440 


NDC- 1-1 


0.220 


Si)C-7-l 


0.272 


NDC-1-2 


0.199 


snc-7-3 


0.230 


NDC-2-0 


0.217 


S[)C-7~5 


0.220 


NDC- 2-1 


0.285 








NDC-2-3 


0.221 






NDC-4-0 


0.226 


14- IS JULY 


1976 


NDC-4-1 


0.255 


DC-O 


0.233 


NDC-4-3 


0.346 


1)C-1 


0.253 


NDC-7-1 


0.205 


DC- 2 


0.358 


NDC- 7- 3 


0.326 


DC -3 


0.411 


NDC- 7- 5 


0.365 


DC-4 


0.306 


S DC-. 5-0 


0.213 


DC-') 


0.321 


S DC-. 5-1 


0.225 


DC- 6 


0.2 30 


S DC-. 5-2 


0.299 


NDC-. S-O 


0.231 


SDC- 1-0 


0.219 


NDC-. S-1 


0.265 


SDC-l-l 


0.244 


NDC-. ■'S-2 


0.324 


SDC- 1-2 


0.290 


NDC- 1-0 


0.198 


SDC- 2-0 


0.286 


NDC- 1-1 


0.349 


SDC-2- 1 


0.247 


NDC- 1-2 


0.327 


SDC- 2- 3 


0.245 


NDC-2-0 


0.217 


SDC-4-0 


0.257 


NI)C-2-l 


0.277 


SDC-4-1 


0.218 


NDC- 2- 3 


0.240 


Sl)C-4-3 


0.261 


NDC-4-() 


0.235 


SDC-7-1 


0.296 


NI)C-4-l 


0.303 


SDC-7-3 


0.343 


NI)C-4-3 


0.309 






NDC- 4- 4 


0.339 






NDC-7-1 


0.288 






Nl)C-7-3 


0.277 






NDC-7-'") 


0.394 






SDC-. ")-0 


0.256 






SDC-.S-l 


0.250 






SDC-. 5-2 


0.315 






SDC- 1-0 


0.249 






SDC-l-l 


0.303 






SDC- 1-2 


0.32 3 






S!)C-2-() 


0.293 






SDC-2- 1 


0.280 






SDC- 2- \ 


0.358 






SDC-4-0 


0.284 






SDC-4-1 


.312 






SDC- 4- 3 


0.294 






SDc:-4-4 


0.398 






SDC-7-1 


0.296 






SDC- 7- 3 


0.75 1 






Sl)C-7-S 


0.304 







96 








r-< OO 00 


ON -H O 


lO rH r<> 


00 o> 


H 


cr> <^ 


CTv OJ >— ) 


v£) rsi 


O rH 


u 


^t (Z^ 


<r o 


<t O 


lO o 


o 













vO ON CN 


H 


in r-l r-. 


u 


CO O 


o 





r-» in o 

■^a- CN rH 

ro O 



i-H rv, CO 
O in 
<J- O 



a\ \D m 


^O 00 <j- 


O f^ «N 


f^ 00 <r 


in in 


^o ^ 


00 00 


O 00 


m o 


CN O 


rsi o 


m o 



00 o rsi 


CM ro On 


O a^ ro 


r^ cvj 


CN CNI rH 


O CNJ 


vo in 


<f CN 


<* O 


<r o 


CO o 


m o 



r*^ in 

ON CN 
CO o 



o o 



in r-- 

-H 
O 



in r-- -.3- 

m rH 

ro O 



^X> O CNI 

O CN 

m o 



0> CN 

O 

O 





CN VO (>4 


ffl 


r^ CN rH 


^ 


CN O 



r^ CN ro 

<r -H 

CN O 

O O 



in 00 •<}■ 
vo o 
rg O 



in o 
CN o 



c c 

3 :t3 



rH r^ v£3 

ro c^j 
(N o 



00 in CN 
cr\ o 
CN o 



^ ^ CN 

00 in 
CN o 



C7N .-H CN 
CN CN fH 
CO O 



rH r^ <j- 
ro o 



O r-^ <?• 
00 so 
m o 



00 ^ ' 
(NJ o 

o o 



\0 <o ■ 
in o 
m o 



r^ <t CN 

m in 

ro c 

o o 



r^ CO -<f 
ro o 
O CD 



c^J ro 00 

v£) rH 

r-J O 

O O 



<f <J- ro 

ro rH 

CM O 

o d 



<t CJN rsi 

vX) CM 
OJ O 



r-i r-^ a\ 


00 vO O 


00 ro ro 


■>€) CN 


CTN .H 


00 r-( ,H 


so rH 


O CN 


CN O 


CM O 


rsi o 


ro O 



rg r-- •<)■ 

vO rH 
CN O 





00 


ON 


o 


> 


rsj 


CM 


r—* 


o 


<i- 


o 





VsO O ro 

<t o 


CM in <j- 
00 <r 

ro o 


CO c^ c^j 
rsi CM 
in o 


r^ CN <j- 
ro <t 

ro O 




o d 


d d 


o o 


o d 


O 



in cTi r^ 


C7N C3\ ro 


m <r vt 


•<r rH 


in CN 


00 rH 


<f O 


<t o 


<r o 



ro o 

d o 



(T. 00 
fH ro 
ro O 



CN CN 

CM in 

ro o 



r^ cr> ro 

CJN CN 
ro O 



in o> <t- 
rsi o 



r^ -d- csi 

rH ro 

■<f rH 

O O 



in ro -vj 

rH CN 

ro o 

o o 



ro <J 00 
ro O 

d d 



ror--.ro 
r-- CN 
ro o 

d d 



c^ --d- <t 
<r CM 

ro O 



r>- ro CN 

in o 
ro o 



'N CN ro 

in rH 

ro O 



tT3 M no u ca 

dj • at Qj • v di ' 



c S c/2 2: 4-» ; 



4-1 S CO z 



97 





f-4 a> rv4 


H 


ro O I— t 


CJ 


r^ O 


O 


• 



0> O O rH r-- ro 

<j- rH rH r^ ro 



<r o <f 


O ro fM 


<r cN CO 


00 m 


0^ O 


cNj m 


CM o 


CNJ O 


m o 



0> ro CN 


ON 


a> O 


vD f—t rH 


r^ 


O rH 


CM O 


rsi 


o 



cr\ CM rvj 


LO !r> <r 


in Lo 


CN CN 


ro O 


ro O 



v£> <N CM 


00 r^ 


\D rH i—t 


m O 


^ o 


rsi O 



rH m ^f 


ON CM CM 


O rH 


CM CM 


CM O 


CM O 



c T. ^ "^ iJ^Sc/i^: R^cwz 



0) 01 • 
4J :E CD ! 



98 



o 

LJ 

Z 

o 

ISI 




V 



? o 



Ml 



If) 

d 






^ 




C\J 










in 
d 



o 


(D 


cd 


vD 






Ph 


r^ 




K 




0^ 


-1 




riij 


iH 




0) 


o 
o 


1 


< 


— 


u 


O 






0) 


r-- 






X! 


a^ 






4-» 


iH 






c 


c 


o 


IT) 


•H 


•H 




N 


CO 


CO 


-) 


0) 


o 


o • 






N 


U CO 


< 


^^ 




CjO Q) 






rC 


N 






■p 


(H -H 






a 


O CO 






dJ 


'H 






nd 


4-J Q) 
Cd rH 


o 


^ 


0) 


4J CX 




Q) 


CO e 




(^ 


M 


Cd 






x: 


U CO 


~^ 


O) 


4J 


cu 

4J U 






B 


;3 o 


< 


r- 


o 


O M-^ 






4-1 


C rH 






w 


cd 






c 


Q) 


o 


co 


o 


U tH 






+J 


c cd 




r^ 


a 


a H 






0) 


•H 


~) 


O) 




'a CU 






o 


C crs 


< 


t— 


a 


Cd 






C 


CO • 






o 


C CO 






4-» 


o u 






^ 


CO o 






c 


cd u 


o 


CM 


iH 
Pu 


CO cu 




r^ 


O 


tH Tf 


-> 




4J 


iH M 




0) 


>% 


Cd Cd 






rC 


4-^ TJ 


< 


•~ 


Oi 


Td cd 






M-l 


a 4J 






o 


cd CO 






W 


». CD 


z 




(U 


U rC 


^— 


•H 


QJ 4J 






O 


g 




h^ 


a 


6 :^ 






cd 


:3 o 


-> 


o 


Td 


CO rC 

CO 






p 


*\ 


< 


'*"" 


X) 


W) CO 




<D 


a u 






U 


•H cd 






a 


cu 






cd 


CO rH 


z 


O 


0) 


Cd 


fO 


N 




^ H 
4-J 


v/l 


G) 


00 




•n 




, 


O > 
•H 






o 


W) 0) 






H 


CD X3 






P4 


J-i H 



ADNVQNnaBd 



99 



parallelism between the annual curves of redundancies at the inner (treatment) 
and outer (control) station groups, i.e. changes in redundancies of collections 
at the inner and outer stations have been much more alike that was the case in 
the earlier preoperational years. Beginning in the preoperational years and 
continuing in the operational years, the tendency for improved parallelism must 
be attributed to some cause in the lake itself, rather than to the operation of 
the plant. 

There is nothing in this analysis of redundancy to indicate that Cook 
Plant operation has had any deleterious effect on the phytoplankton 
community. 

CONCLUSIONS 

During the thermal bar condition of 14 April 1976 there was no evidence 
of concentration of phytoplankton at the convergence in the bar, instead 
there was progressive increase in phytoplankton density from the coldest 
water offshore to the warmest water near the shore. 

From July 1970 through October 1976 the dominant and codominant 
phytoplankters in Cook Plant major surveys have shown typical seasonal 
successions. There is no convincing evidence from analysis of dominant and 
codominant species that operation of the plant has adversely affected the 
quality of the local phytoplankton community. 

Since 1972, a total of 18 new phytoplankton forms (excluding newly 
identified species of previously identified genera) have appeared in Cook 
Plant seasonal collections. The new forms appear to be organisms with 
preferences or requirements for water of increased conductivity or elevated 
organic content; their appearances are attributed to the eutrophication of 



100 



,the lake, rather than to operation of the Cook Plant. 

The centric diatom, Cyclotella comensis , first appeared in Cook Plant 
collections in October 1975 and has been present since; it attained dominant or 
codcrainant status at five stations in October 1976 and was present at all 
stations in that month. Known earlier from collections in Lakes Superior and 
Huron and from other parts of Lake Michigan, its appearance and increase at 
Cook Plant are probably due to some change in the lake, rather than operation 
of Cook Plant . 

Percentage compositions of the phytoplankton by five major algal groups 
(blue-greens, greens, flagellates, diatoms, and desmids-and-others) at four 
inshore stations in front of the plant and at two inshore reference stations 
distant from the plant have been compared over the years 1970 - 1976. The 
proportions of the major groups have varied substantially from year to year but 
in any one year the temporal changes at the two sets of stations have shown 
many similarities. 

In the operational years 1975 and 1976 the partitionings of the five major 
groups were different than in the preoperational years, but in each of these 
two years they were similar at the plant stations and the reference stations. 
No essential dissimilarities between plant and reference stations which could 
be attributed to plant operation have been found. 

The numbers of phytoplankton forms taken in the Cook Plant seasonal 
surveys have shown increasing trends since 1971 in both station groups and in 
all three depth zones. The increases are attributed to the lake's 
eutrophication process, rather than to plant operation effects. 

Of the nine major algal groups (separately, not combined to five as was 
done for percentage composition of the community) and total algae, only 
filamentous blue-greens have shown postoperational increases limited to 1975 



101 



ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 



and 1976. Coccoid blue-greens showed increased numbers in 1975 and 1976, but 
the increase first appeared in preoperational 1974 and has not been 
particularly higher since. 

The changes in mean abundances of the other major groups in both station 
groups and all three depth zones have been: 



Desmids essentially no change 
Filamentous greens 
Other algae 
Coccoid greens 

Flagellates increasing trend since 1970 
Pennate diatoms " " " " 

Centric diatoms " " " " * 

Total algae " " " " 

* Very high values in zone in 1972 and 1973 and in zone 1 in 1973 



On the whole, the trends toward higher abundances are attributable to 
the lake's eutrophication since 1970, rather than to effects of plant 
operations • 

Two-sample i-tests of significance of differences between seasonal 
mean abundances of total algae at treatment and control station groups in 
shallow (zone 0) and deeper (zone 2) water, showed significant differences 
(at the .05 level) between treatment and control station group means only in 
the spring of 1972 when significant differences occurred in both depth zones. 

The Wilhm and Dorris diversity indices of phytoplankton collections 
taken during the seasonal surveys of 1970 - 1976 have tended to become higher 
since 1972. The increases have taken place in both inner and outer station 
groups and in all three depth zones. The higher indices indicate a more 
diverse phytoplankton community now than in the earlier preoperational years. 
The increased diversity is attributed to the eutrophication of the lake, 
rather than to plant operation. 

Values of phytoplankton redundancy for the seasonal surveys of 1970 - 

102 



1976 have been calculated. The plots of these values against time show 
visual evidence of a trend, beginning in 1973, for redundancies to become 
somewhat lower. If real, the trend would indicate a tendency for the species 
in the community to have become more equal in numbers of individuals. 

Beginning in 1972 there has been much better parallelism between the 
annual curves of redundancy at the inner and cuter station groups, i.e. 
changes in redundancy in the two station groups have become much more alike 
than was the case in the earlier preoperational years. Beginning in the 
preoperational years and continuing in the operational years, the tendency 
for improved parallelism must be attributed to some cause in the lake itself, 
rather than to operation of the Cook Plant. 



103 



REFERENCES 



Ayers, J. C. 1975. Bacteria and phytoplankton of the seasonal surveys of 
and 1973. Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological Studies. Part XXI. 
Special Report No. 44, Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 153 pp. 

Ayers, J. C, S. C. Mozley, and J. C. Roth. 1973- The biological survey of 
12 November 1970. Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological Studies. Part 
XV. Special Report No. 44, Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 69 pp - 

Ayers, J. C, S. C. Mozley, and J. A. Stewart. 1974. The seasonal biological 
surveys of 1971. Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological Studies. Part 
XIX. Special Report No, 44, Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 18 1 pp. 

Ayers, J. C. and E. Seibel. 1973. Cock Plant preoperational studies 1972. 
Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological Studies. Part XIII. Special 
Report No. 44, Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. 28 1 pp. 

Ayers, J. C, N. V. Southwick, and D. G. Robinson. 1977. Phytoplankton of 

the seasonal surveys of 1974 and 1975 and initial pre- vs post-operational 
comparisons at Cook Nuclear Plant. Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological 
Studies. Part XXIII. Special Report No. 44, Great Lakes Research 
Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 279 pp. 

Ayers, J. C, W. L. Yocum, H. K. Soo, T. W. Bottrell, S. C. Mozley, and L. C. 
Garcia. 1971. The biological survey of 10 July 1970. Benton Harbor 
Power Plant Limnological Studies. Part IX. Special Report No. 44, Great 
Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
72 pp. 

Johnston, E. M. 1973- Effect of a thermal discharge on benthos populations: 
statistical methods for assessing the impact of the Cook Nuclear Plant. 
Benton Harbor Power Plant Limnological Studies. Part XVIII. Special 
Report No. 44, Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. 20 pp. 

Sanford, G. R., A. Sands, and C. R. Goldman. 1969. A settle-freeze method 
for concentrating phytoplankton in quantitative studies. Limnol. 
Oceanogr., 14: 790-794. 

Seibel, E. and J. C. Ayers (eds.). 1974. The biological, chemical, and 

physical character of Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the Donald C. Cook 
Nuclear Power Plant. Special Report No. 51, Great Lakes Research 
Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 475 pp. 

Stoermer, E. F. and J.J. Yang. 1969. Plankton diatom assemblages in Lake 
Michigan. Special Report No. 47, Great Lakes Research Division, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 268 pp. 



104 



Tarapchak, S.J. and E. F. Stcermer. 1976. Phytoplankton of Lake Michigan. 
Environmental Status of the Lake Michigan region. Vol. 4. Argcnne 
National Laboratory, Argonne , 111. ANL/ES Vol. 4. 

Wilhm, J. L. and T. C. Dcrris. 1968. Biological parameters for water quality 
criteria. Bioscience 18 (6): 447-481. 



105 



APPENDIX A 
Physical Measurements 



106 



u 

0) u 

iH CO 

U :2 



X 



m 




CN 




1 


CN 


CJ 


iH 







52; 


iH 





1 


00 
csj 




u 


r^ 




Q 


iH 









r^ 


in 


m 


OS 


1 





T-\ 





r^ 







!H 


u 






Q) 






r^ 






B 






Q) 






4-J 






CX 






OJ 


<r 


r^ 


C/^ 


1 


>d- 







vD 


in 


Q 


tH 


CN 







M 


CO 


CX) 


Q 


1 


CO 


^ 


u 


in 


w 


Q 


.H 


p-l 






p-l 






<^ 








CN 



Csl 




CJ 


VO 




Q 


iH 



CO g 

iH CO 

u :2 



>-l 




CO 


e 


Q) 


u 


iH 


CO 


CJ 


1^ 


J-i 




CO 


g 


CU 


H 


iH 


CO 


CJ 


^2 



in 



CO B 

Q) u 

iH CO 

U IS 



CO e 

^ CO 
O 12: 



U 

CO e 

0) U 

iH CO 

CJ ^2 



CO 

•H 

>> d 4-i c 

iH O t>0 0) 
1^ ^ rH WD 





4J 


C 




rC Q) 


CU 


in 


GO 3 


0) 


• 


•H rH 


V^ 


in 


hJ rO 


60 




4-J 


a 


m 


rC Q) 


(U 


r^ 


bO :3 


<u 


• 


•H rH 


>-» 


<1- 


hJ ^ 


GO 



•H iH 3 (U 
nH -H tH M 

c/3 B 4:1 W) 



CO 



>% 

^ 






S rTi GO 



CO 
•H 

>% d 4J c 

in iH O GO <D 
-d- S rQ tH GO 







>. 


r* 







vO 


4J 


CU § 


T3 


• 


• 


tH 


d 


d 





iH 


•H 


•H ^ 


CO 


CNJ 


rH 


C/D 
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rH cd 

O ^2 



cd g 
cu u 

rH Cd 



Cd g 
iH cd 



Cd e 

tH Cd 
u 1^ 



cd e 

M cd 



cd e 

iH cd 

o :2 



Cd S 

cu J-i 

rH cd 

o :3 





rC >. 




a 




bO r^ 


CU 


0) 


CvJ 


•H rH 


:3 


CU 


• 


rH -H 


rH 


j-i 


in 


CO e 

CO 

•H 


,D 


C>0 




■p d 


JH 






rd S 


OJ 




o 


tJO o 


Q) 




• 


•H V^ 


M 




CO 


CO 
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W) 






4H d 


a.. 






rC 1^ 


0) 




o 


&0 O 


(U 




• 


•H M 


M 




CO 


h:i rl=l 


00 





in 



CX) 



CM 

00 



o 

00 



^ CU T3 

O C C 

^ -H Cd 

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o 

u 



rH O 

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CO ^ 



CU nd 
a a 

•H cd 
«H CO 



CO 
Q) ^ X^ >>> Pu 

a c -j-j Cd e 

•H cd -H rH :3 

IH CO t^ a rH 



M 






>^ -u 


a 






!>^ C 






nd 






cd 


g 




Ai ^ (U 


<D 


CM 


CT\ 


U 3 


CU 


Id 


CU ^ 


0) 


>^ >. 


QJ 


J^ 


o 


rH w) :3 


(U 


• 


• 


rH O 


C 


c 


X u 


c 


Q) Cd 


rH 


cd 




•H 'H iH 


V-i 


CJ> 


rH 


•H U 


•H 


cd 


•H 'H 


•H 


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u 


^2 


in 


S rH ^ 


W) 


rH 


CM 


CO ^ 


MH 


CO 


e ;? 


iH 


bO O 





+-» >^ 


c 


in 


rC M 


(U 


r^ 


00 T-^ 


CU 


• 


•H -H 


u 


CO 


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CO 
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00 




■U jH 


c 




rd 5 


CU 


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00 o 


CU 


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M 


CNl 


CO 
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00 




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c 




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(U 


o 


00 o 


QJ 


• 


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u 


CM 


hJ ^ 


00 







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VD 


VD 


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CU 


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• 


• 


rH O 


c 


c 


00 


<r 


•H M 


•H 


Cd 


r-\ 


rH 


CO ^ 


14H 


CO 







>. c 




in 




4-J 3 


<u Td 




CO 


rH O 


a c 


00 


• 


•H V-i 


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r-{ 


r^ 


CO ^ 


IH CO 







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CU 








rC >. a 


CO 




o 




00 4H 5 


U 


TJ 


• 


C7^ 


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Cd 


C 


00 


• 


fH 'H M 


o 


Cd 


1-\ 


<J- 


CO CO XI 


o 


CO 









(0 










■p 








o 


^ 


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•H 










-p 


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r\ 






o 


xJ 


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Fh 


Q) 


Q) 


x: 




ffl 


U 


CD 


tiO 


c 


•H 


Oh 


•H 


o 




n 


CO 





•H 


•\ 






:i: 


4^ 


CD 


TJ 


^ 




ctJ 


n 


C 


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cd 


-P 


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Q) 


CO 


^ 


r^ 


:^ 


CO 










o 


^ 


CO 


o 


•H 


rH 


Q 


O 




o 


•H 




x: 


^ 


o 


CD 


o 


-P 


Q) 


S^ 


CO 


^ 



u 

G) 

I 



o 
o 



CD 

-P 

(D Cd 
o U 

cd CD 







CO E-» 



s 




•\ 




^ 


o 


-p 


a 


CD 


^ 


o 






^ 


u 


o 


o 


-p 


+3 


-p 


cj 


o 


•^ 


m 



112 





LO 






1 


<r 




O 


CM 




o 


csj 




c/^ 


fH 


• 
T3 






0) 






P 


<r 




C 


1 




•H 


r^ 




4J 


1 


00 


c 


O 


O 


o 


O 


CN 


U 


c/^ 


rH 


0>> 






o 






t^ 






C7^ 


CO 




iH 


r^ 




U 


I 


in 


0) 


CJ 


in 


r^ 


o 


iH 


g 


CO 


rH 


OJ 






+J 






a 






OJ 


CM 




C/5 


1 




LO 


1 


LO 


CNJ 


U 


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o 


rH 


#* 


CO 


rH 


<: 






XJ 






M 


1 




PM 


1 


vO 


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rH 




c/^ 


T-H 




•<1- 






1 


LO 




a 


in 




Q 


CN 




C/3 


rH 



CO 



















rC 




















T3 -U 


>^ 


















a -H 


<D 


















d ^ 


U 


















CO 


00 


(U 

rH 


CO 




cd 0) 




o 


rH 




:$ 0) (D 


0) >. 


in 


cu 3 


0) 


• 


• 


rH 


OCX 


HI m 




tH rH 


M 


o> 


o 


•H 


U -H 'H 


•H iH 


O 


:3: 


in 


CJ JQ 


to 


rH 


CNI 


CO 


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IH O 



Cd 

iH 


Cd 
3 






<3- 


m 




(U XI ,£2 CU >% 


rH 


rH Q) 




• 


rH O 


^ S ^ 5 ^ 




•H U 


00 


in 


•H J-i 


•H Cd "H 'H rH 


U 


<t 


S W) 


r-\ 


rH 


CO ^ 


m 03 1^ MH O 



u 

cd 6 

rH Cd 

CJ :5: 



CO 



u 

cd e 

(U J-J 

rH Cd 



Cd e 

in 0) M 

rH Cd 

o 0:2 





>^ 


c 




^ 


<u 


in 


iH 


0) 


• 


•H 


J-l 


-d- 


X 


bO 







>^ d 






00 


vO 


4J ^ 


<D 


X) 


• 




rH 


C 


C 


00 


<r 


•H U 


•H 


Cd 


rH 


rH 


CO ^ 


MH 


w 



M 






>^ J-J d 






>. p 




cd 


e 




ri*i rC QJ 


00 




+j 1? 


0) T) 


(1) 


}-i 





iH CO) CU 


• 


vO 


t-^ 


C c 


,— ^ 


cd 




•H -H M 


00 


• 


•H }-( 


•H Cd 


CJ 


:2 


<!■ 


:e: rH 00 


rH 


r^ 


CO ^ 


M-l CO 





4J >^ 


c 




X! ^ 


0) 


CN 


00 rH 


Q) 


• 


•H -H 


J-i 


CO 


h3 e 


00 





u 




C 




cd 


a> 


0) 


in 


cu 


:3 


CU 


• 


iH 


rH 


u 


in 


CJ 


J=l 


00 








^ 


15 (U 


'O 


• 


vO 


rH 


C 


c 


o^ 


• 


•H 


U -H 


cd 


rH 


<r 


CO 
CO 


c 

•H 


JD ^H 

>^ 

U 
00 


CO 





CTn 


Cd 


^ >^ 






• 


rH 


u cd 




c:h 


CN 


CU 


cd rH 




rH 


00 


CJ 


113 a 











w 










-p 











Jg 








•H 










-p 


•N 


•^ 









TZJ 


-p 




Eh 


CD 


CU 


rC 


c 


f9 


•^ 




CI, 


-^ 







« 


CO 


(D 


•H 


•\ 






ix: 


4^ 


0) 


XJ 


XJ 




Cd 
4^ 


•H 


5 


•1 


cd 


CO 


e-i 


rs 


rs 


CO 













^ 


CO 





•H 


r-{ 


« 










•^. 


^ 





G) 





-P 


Q) 


<t3 


CO 


:s 













e 




•^ 


•\ 




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^ 


Q) 


-p 


<D 


CX 


cd 


n 




Jh 




B 


cd <D 


u 





M a. 


(D 


•P 


u e 


-p 


-P 


;:j 0) 


A 





CO E-* 


^. 


PQ 



113 



CN 

ON 

o 






vD (J4 CO 



O 



vD 



N 

cd 
o X 



LO 



CO 



O 
U 
PQ 






0^ 



CO 



o 
o 








1 


CO 

en 




vO 


U 


^ 


13 


r-» 


Q 


rH 


crj 


0^ 

rH 








rH 


in 


vO 




•H 


1 


CnJ 




u 


u 


r«. 


rs 


a 


o 


rH 


en 


<; 








<t 








rH 


-d- 


lO 


e 




1 


CM 


rH 


rs 


u 


rH 


oj 


< 


o 


tH 


O 


X 








M 








g 


m 


c^ 




M 


1 


-4- 




P-i 


o 


o 




Ph 


Q 


rH 


C/D 



cd 



O 



cd 

CJ) 



cd 



cd 



W) N 
•H cd 

1-1 rC 



N 
CO 



cd 



O 

in 



o 



o 

CN 



C30 
CN 



O (U 

?-< u 

PQ W) 



0) 

o 



a 
cu 

o 



0) 

cu 
u 



cu 

(U 

o 







(U 


XI 




CO 


<J- 


C 


c 




• 




•H 


cd 




r^ 


O 


P-i 


CO 




0^ 


• 








• 


CO 








CNJ 










CN 


• 








• 


in 








v£) 


CN 










o 


>. 


cu 


^ 


rH 


• 


U 


a 


a 


• 


T-\ 


(U 


•H 


cd 


m 


CN 


> 


U-l 


CO 




CO 


•H 


X) 




iH 


• 


Xt 


c 






(DO 


ii 


cd 




<o 


rH 


:^ 


CO 





CM 

1 


co 






rH 


u 


o 


:2 




Cd 


Q 


rH 


C/5 


00 


o 



CO 
•H 



C 
(U 

b cu 
u u 





1^ 


(U nd 


o 


• 


C C 




CO 


•H cd 


r^ 


tH 


pL^ CO 



tH 


CO 


1 


04 


U 


O 


Q 


rH 



o 

•H 

•P 
CO 



a 



0) 

H 

•H 
Eh 







e 


>^ 






iH 


N 






Cd 


cd 


c/^ 




u 


x 


o 


5 


-p 




•H 








-P 


•\ 


•\ 




o 


XJ 


i£ 




Q> 


Q) 


^ 




U 


O 


tO) 




•H 


O, 


•H 


u 


« 


CO 


CD 


<D 






tx: 


^ 


T5 


T^ 




-t^ 


5 


•1 


cd 

CD 


cd 


:5 


:^ 


CO 


:5: 



00 



CO 
•H 



a 

CU 

o cu 
u u 

PQ 60 







o 


u 


CO 


o 


•H 


rH 


Q 


O 




O 


•^ 


5-1 


O 


<D 


o 


-P 


(D 


cd 


CO 


^ 



o 
o 
u 

<D •^ 
43 Q) 

CD Cd 
O U 

cd (D 







CU X) 

•H cd 
Pm CO 



CO E-t 



s 




•^ 




x: 


CD 


4^ 


cx 


CD 


^ 


p 






e 


^ 


o 


o 


+> 


4^ 


4^ 


Cd 


O 


:2: 


PQ 



114 



CO 




1 




1 


C30 


u 


.— 1 


Q 


<J\ 


ts 


rH 



en 



Ii3 



in 



in 



C/3 M-4 Cfl 





1 


<r 




O 


CO 




o 


(JN 




^ 


tH 




^ 






1 


vO 




u 


O 




Q 


00 


• 


;z: 


T-H 


T3 






QJ 






:3 






C 


rO 




•H 


1 




4-J 


-d- 




C 




rH 


O 


CJ 


CO 


a 


Q 


00 




:z: 


o 


«\ 






vO 






r-^ 


rH 




as 






^-^ 


•<r 


r^ 


M 


u 


o 


•H 




00 


J-i 


iz 


o 


Cu 






<: 






<f 


ro 




r-l 


1 




.^ 


1 


CN 


<c 


O 


in 




o 


00 


X 


^ 


o 


M 






g 






(JJ 


r-\ 




C1-. 


1 




Ph 


rsl 




<: 


1 


r^ 




o 


o 






a> 
o 




CM 






rH 


cr. 




U 


CO 




P 


ON 




:z 


1 o 



US 
en 
en 



3: 
en 



en 



en 



en 



^ tH Td 

N M O 
Cd d rH 



N 

re 



vD 



00 



N 
CO 



N 

cd 



CsJ 



N 


o 


cd 


• 


td 


CNJ 



0) TU 
•H cd 



a* 


• 








• 


00 








CM 


<r 


(U 
en 


e 

lU 








u 


•H 


xj 


O 


CM 


cd TJ 


TJ 


C 




• 


o C 


0) 


cd 


in 


CO 


a cd 


6 


CO 



in 

o 



N 

Cd 





Q) 


na 


in 


C 


c 




•H 


Cd 


m 


Pt4 


CO 


<f 


•H 


XI 




13 


c 


r-- 


OJ 


Cd 


rH 


S 


en 



CJN 



in 


in 






• 


• 






r^ 


in 




CO 






Q) 


a; 






CO 


^ rH 




00 


U 


T3 ^ 


o 


• 


Cd 


C X> 


• 


CM 


o 


Cd 0) 


r-^ 


rH 


u 


CO Pu 









CO 










-p 








o 


5 


^ 






•H 










-P 


•\ 


•% 






O 


-d 


-p 




EH 


<U 


a> 


x^ 


C 


a 


•H 






O 




« 


CO 


5i 


•H 


•\ 






:x: 


-P 


CD 


-d 


^3 




cd 

4^ 




.s 


•1 


cd 


CO 


EH 


:5 


^ 


CO 






6 




o 


^^ 


(0 


o 


•H 


r-\ 


n 


O 




O 


•^ 


):h 


o 


(D 


o 


43 


(D 


i5 


CO 


:s 



o 






o 


e 




0) •* 


•s 




4^ CD 


eC 





4^ 


<D 




<D Cd 


« 




O U 




e 


cd o 


J^ 


o 


ch O, 


O 


4^ 


u e 


4^ 


-P 


?J 0) 


j5 


O 


CO Eh 


^ 


CQ 



115 



















JC 






tH 














CO 
•H 






«<f 


iH 








>. 




CU 3 






U 


LO 








N 


r^ 


CU O 







o 


CO 




tH 




Cd 


• 


U U 


• 




C/3 


iH 


en 


tH 


iH 


ffi 


rH 




CJ^ 




m 














CO 
•H 






1 


CNJ 






B 


:^ 




0) 






CJ 


tH 






tH 


N 


O 


0) 


CO 




Q 


CO 


:2 




cd 


Cd 




u 






zn 


iH 


CO 


CM 


CJ 


PC 


eg 




00 




rH 














CO 
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CN 














C P 






1 


OJ 


f3 


B 


B 


>^ 




Qi 5 


in 




CJ 


ro 


.H 


rH 


tH 


N 


in 


0) O 


• 




o 


CO 


cd 


Cd 


Cd 


Cd 




u u 







C/5 


rH 


u 


CJ 


CJ 


P^ 


tH 




rH 


Md 


CvJ 














CO 




Q) 


1 














•H 




:3 


rH 














C c 




d 


1 


vO 






B 


>. 




0) § 




•H 


CJ 


in 






iH 


N 


00 


CU O 


rH 


4J 


Q 


CN 


^ 




Cd 


Cd 


• 


>-i U 


• 


a 


c/^ 


rH 


c/: 


<t 


o 


rc 


tH 


O r£5 


1^ 


o 




















o 
















4: 




#t 


.H 














CO 




vD 


1 














•H :5 




r^ 


tH 














c 




a^ 


1 


LO 


e 


e 


e 






(D rH 




iH 


u 


-d" 


tH 


tH 


rH 




CX) 


CU rH 


in 




Q 


Csl 


cd 


cd 


Cd 






U CU 




tH 


CO 


iH 


u 


u 


CJ 




rH 


>. 


OC) 


•H 




















^ 




















a. 






















1 














CO 




tH 


• 














a 






1 


vD 


e 


e 


B 


>^ 




(U tH 




#\ 


u 


<r 


rH 


rH 


tH 


N 


CX) 


(U rH 


CM 


<: 


Q 


iH 


cd 


Cd 


Cd 


Cd 


• 


M (U 






c/: 


r-\ 


CJ 


u 


CJ 


ffi 


tH 


>. 


o> 


X 




















M 




















Q 




















S2; 


rH 














x: 




w 


1 














CO 




Pm 


m 














•H 




^ 


,' 


CD 






B 


>^ 




0) § 






u 


CO 






tH 


N 


00 


(U 


in 




o 


CNJ 


w 




Cd 


Cd 




u u 


• 




lO 


tH 


CO 


CM 


u 


ffi 


iH 


,n 


CT> 



in 



4-i Td 

rH C 

•H Cd 

CO CO 



C tH 
Cd 'H 
C/^ CO 



a iH 

cd -H 

CO CO 



>. 




T^ 


4-» 


C 


tH 


Cd 


•H 


in 


CO 


Q) 




CO 




v^ 


T3 


Cd 


C 





Cd 


u 


CO 



(U TJ 

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00 



:2 



N 

cd 



vO 





>^ 




vD 


4J (U 


TJ 


• 


th a 


a 


in 


•H -H 


Cd 


CN 


CO U-l 


CO 









w 










p 








§ 


5 


p 






•H 










-P 


»* 


•\ 









XJ 


-p 




en 


Q) 





^ 


c 


a 




0) 









Q 


CO 


(D 


•H 


•% 






:n 


-P 


Q) 


XJ 


XJ 




cd 
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•H 


.3 


1 


cd 


CO 


EH 


:2 


^ 


CO 



CD 

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u 


(0 





•H 


rH 


Q 










■A 


U 





CD 





-P 


CD 


05 


CO 


^ 



u 

CD 

I 



O 

o 



CD 
<D Cd 

o U 

cd CD 



ch 

u 




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APPENDIX B 
Phytoplankton Collections 



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