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BENTON HARBOR POWER PLANT LIMNOLOGICAL STUDIES 



PART XXVI. ENTRAINMENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON AT THE DONALD 
C. COOK NUCLEAR PLANT - 1976 



RONALD ROSSMANN 

LINDA D. DAMASKE 

NANCY M. MILLER 



Under Contract With 

American Electric Power Service Corporation 
Indiana & Michigan Electric Company 



John C. Ayers, Project Director 



Special Report No. 44 
Great Lakes Research Division 
The University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

January 1979 



PREVIOUS PARTS OF THE REPORT SERIES RELATIVE TO THE 
DONALD C. COOK NUCLEAR STATION 



Benton Harbor Power Plant Limno logical Studies 

Part 

I. General studies. J. C. Ayers and J, C. K. Huang. April 1967. 31 pp. 

II. Studies of local winds and alongshore currents. J. C. Ayers, A. E. 
Strong, C. F. Powers, and R. Rossmann. December 1967. 45 pp. 

III. Some effects of power plant waste heat on the ecology of Lake 
Michigan. J. R. Krezoski. June 1969. 78 pp. 

IV. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1969. J. C. Ayers, R. F. Anderson, 
N. W. O'Hara, C. Kidd. March 1970. 92 pp. 

V. Winter operations, March 1970. N. W. O'Hara, R. F. Anderson, W. L. 
Yocum, J. C. Ayers. April 1970. 17 pp. 

VI. Pontoporeia affinis (Crustacea, Amphipoda) as a monitor of radio- 
nuclides released to Lake Michigan. C. C. Kidd. 1970. 71 pp. 

VII. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1970. J. C. Ayers, D. E. Arnold, 
R. F. Anderson, H. K. Soo. March 1971. 72 and 13 pp. 

VIII. Winter operations 1970-1971. J. C. Ayers, N. W. O'Hara, W. L. Yocum. 
June 1971. 41 pp. 

IX. The biological survey of 10 July 1970. J. C. Ayers, W. L. Yocum, 

H. K. Soo, T. W. Bottrell, S. C. Mozley, L. C. Garcia. 1971. 72 pp. 

X. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1971. J. C. Ayers, H. K. Soo, W. L. 
Yocum. August 1972. 140 and 12 pp. 

XI. Winter operations 1971-1972. J. C. Ayers, W. L. Yocum. September 
1972. 26 pp. 

XII. Studies of the fish population near the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power 
Plant, 1972. D. J. Jude, T. W. Bottrell, J. A. Dorr III, T. J. 
Miller. March 1973. 115 pp. 

XIII. Cook Plant preoperational studies 1972. J. C. Ayers and E. Seibel 
(eds.). March 1973. 281 pp. 

XIV. Winter operations 1972-1973. J. C. Ayers, W. L. Yocum, E. Seibel. 
May 1973. 22 pp. 

XV. The biological survey of 12 November 1970. J. C. Ayers, S. C. Mozley, 
J. C. Roth. July 1973. 69 pp. 

XVI. Psammolittoral investigation 1972. E. Seibel, J C. Roth, J. A. 
Stewart, S. L. Williams. July 1973. 63 pp. 



in 



PREVIOUS REPORTS continued 



XVII. Program of aquatic studies related to the Donald C. Cook Nuclear 
Plant. J. C. Ayers and E. Seibel (eds.). December 1973. 57 pp. 

XVIII. Effect of a thermal discharge on benthos populations: Statistical 
methods for assessing the impact of the Cook Nuclear Plant. E. M. 
Johnston. December 1973. 20 pp. 

XIX. The seasonal biological surveys of 1971 . J. C. Ayers, S. C. Mozley, 
J. A. Stewart. December 1974 • 1 81 pp. 

XX. Statistical power of a proposed method for detecting the effect of 
waste heat on benthos populations. E. M. Johnston. December 1974. 
29 PP. 

XXI. Bacteria and phytoplankton of the seasonal surveys of 1972 and 1973. 
J. C. Ayers. November 1975. 153 pp. 

XXII. Underwater operations in southeastern Lake Michigan near the Donald C. 
Cook Nuclear Plant during 1974. J. A. Dorr III and T. J. Miller. 
December 1975. 32 pp. 

XXIII. Phytoplankton of the Seasonal Surveys of 1974 and 1975 and Initial 
Pre- vs. Post-Operational Comparisons at Cook nuclear Plant. J. C. 
Ayers, N. V. Southwick, and D. G. Robinson. June 1977. 279 pp. 

XXIV. Entrainment of phytoplankton at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant - 

1975. R. Rossmann, N. M. Miller, and D. G. Robinson. November 1977. 
265 pp. 

XXV. Phytoplankton of the seasonal surveys of 1976, of September 1970, and 
pre- vs. post-operational comparisons at Cook Nuclear Plant. J. C. 
Ayers. April 1978. 258 pp. 

Seibel, E. and J. C. Ayers (eds.). 1974. The biological, chemical, and 
physical character of Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the Donald C. 
Cook Nuclear Plant. Special Report No. 51 of the Great Lakes Research 
Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 475 pp. 

Jude, D. J., F. J. Tesar, J. A. Dorr III, T. J. Miller, P. J. Rago and 

D. J. Stewart. 1975. Inshore Lake Michigan fish populations near the 
Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, 1973. Special Report No. 52 of 
the Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 267 pp. 

Seibel, E., C. T. Carlson and J. W. Maresca, Jr. 1975. Lake and shore 
ice conditions on southeastern Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the 
Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant: winter 1973-74. Special Report No. 55 
of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. 62 pp. 



IV 



PREVIOUS REPORTS continued 



Mozley, S. C. 1975. Preoperational investigations of zoobenthos in 
southeastern. Lake Michigan near the Cook Nuclear Plant. Special 
Report No. 56 of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 132 pp. 

Rossmann, R. 1975. Chemistry of nearshore surficial sediments from 

southeastern Lake Michigan. Special Report No. 57 of the Great Lakes 
Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 62 
pp. 

Evans, M. S. 1975. The 1975 preoperational zooplankton investigations 
relative to the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant. Special Report 
No. 58 of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 187 pp. 

Ayers, J. C. 1975. The phytoplankton of the Cook Plant monthly minimal 
surveys during the preoperational years 1972, 1973 and 1974. Special 
Report No. 59 of the Great Lakes Research Division, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 51 pp. 

M. S. Evans, T. E. Wurster, and B. E. Hawkins. 1978. The 1975 and 1976 

operational zooplankton investigations relative to the Donald C. Cook 
Nuclear Power Plant with preoperational tests (1971-1976) for plant 
effects. Special Report No. 64 of the Great Lakes Research Division, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 192 pp. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

PREVIOUS PARTS OF THE REPORT SERIES RELATIVE 

TO THE DONALD C. COOK NUCLEAR PLANT iii 

LIST OF FIGURES ix 

LIST OF TABLES xi 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii 

INTRODUCTION . 1 

Previous Studies at the Cook Plant 2 

SAMPLE HANDLING AND ANALYSIS 3 

Phytoplankton 5 

Chlorophylls and Phaeophytin a 6 

Nutrients 8 

CONDITIONS AT TIME OF COLLECTION 8 

Temperature 8 

Physical 10 

Chlorination 10 

Nutrients 10 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 12 

Phytoplankton 12 

Monthly Variations of Entrained Major 

Phytoplankton Groups 14 

Monthly Variations of Phytoplankton Community 

Structure 28 

Relative Proportion of Total Algae 

that Each Major Group Comprises 28 

Occurrences of Dominant and Co-dominant Forms 28 

Numbers of Forms, Diversity, and 

Redundancy 37 

Numbers and Biomass of Phytoplankton Passing 

Through the Plant 44 

Chlorophylls and Phaeophytin a 44 

Percentage of Change Detectable at the 

0.05 Level of Significance 46 

Grinding Versus Sonification of Samples 49 

Time Variation of Samples 52 

Assessment of Damage to Phytoplankton 52 

Monthly Variation of the Chlorophylls 

and Phaeophytin a 82 



VII 



Page 

CONCLUSION 84 

LITERATURE CITED 86 

NOTE: Appendices are on microfiche cards located inside back cover 
APPENDIX 1: Density of Each Major Group of Phytopiankton by Slide- . 89 
APPENDIX 2: Density of Phytopiankton Taxa for Each Sample by Slide • 93 



Vlll 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure Number Page 

1 Sampling locations in the Donald C. Cook 

Nuclear Plant screenhouse 4 

2 Variation of coccoid blue-green algae 

numbers during 1976 16 

3 Variation of filamentous blue-green algae 

numbers during 1976 17 

4 Variation of coccoid green algae numbers 

during 1976 19 

5 Variation of filamentous green algae 

numbers during 1976 20 

6 Variation of flagallated algae numbers 

during 1976 21 

7 Variation of centric diatom numbers during 

1976 22 

8 Variation of pennate diatom numbers during 

1976 23 

9 Variation of desmid numbers during 1976 25 

10 Variation of other algae numbers 

during 1976 26 

11 Variation of total algae numbers during 

1976 27 

12 Variation of number of forms of phytoplankton 

during 1976 ' 39 

13 Variation of phytoplankton diversity 

during 1976 40 

14 Variation of phytoplankton redundancy 

during 1976 . . 41 

15 Chlorophyll a concentrations measured in 6 groups 
of 3 consecutive samples, formed from a set of 18 
samples drawn in succession from the intake forebay 
during a 5-minute period. The mean + standard 

error is plotted for each group of 3 53 

ix 



Figure Number 
16 



Chlorophyll b concentrations measured in 
6 groups of 3 consecutive samples, formed 
from a set of 18 samples drawn in succession 
from the intake forebay during a 5-minute 
period. The mean + standard error is 
plotted for each group of 3 



Page 



54 



17 



Chlorophyll c concentrations measured in 
6 groups of 3 consecutive samples, formed 
from a set of 18 samples drawn from the 
intake forebay during a 5-minute period. 
The mean + standard error is plotted for each 
group of 3 , 



3D 



18 



Phaeophytin a concentrations measured in 6 
groups of 3 consecutive samples, formed from 
a set of 18 samples drawn in succession from 
the intake forebay during a 5-minute period. 
The mean + standard error is plotted for each 
group of 3 



56 



19 



21 



22 



23 



24 



Variation of the phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a 

ratio during a 5-minute sampling period for 6 

groups of 3 consecutive samples, formed from 

a set of 18 samples drawn in succession from 

the intake forebay. The mean + standard error 

is plotted for each group of 3 57 

Variation of chlorophyll a concentrations 

during 1976 77 

Variation of chlorophyll b concentrations 

during 1976 78 

Variation of chlorophyll a concentrations 

during 1976 79 

Variation of phaeophytin a concentrations 

during 1976 80 

Variation of the phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a 

ratio during 1976 81 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table Number Page 

1 Intake and discharge entrainment temperatures 

at the time of sampling 9 

2 Chlorination times on the days of phytoplankton 
entrainment 11 

3 Monthly variation of nutrients during 1976 13 

4 Comparison of phytoplankton major group 

percentages for 1975 and 1976 29 

5 Occurrence of dominant forms in January 1975 

and 1976 30 

6 Occurrence of dominant forms in February 1975 

and 1976 30 

7 Occurrence of dominant forms in March 1975 

and 1976 31 

8 Occurrence of dominant forms in April 1975 

and 1976 . . . ' 31 

9 Occurrence of dominant forms in May 1975 

and 1976 32 

10 Occurrence of dominant forms in June 1975 

and 1976 32 

11 Occurrence of dominant forms in July 1975 

and 1976 33 

12 Occurrence of dominant forms in August 1975 

and 1976 33 

13 Occurrence of dominant forms in September 1975 

and 1976 34 

14 Occurrence of dominant forms in October 1975 

and 1976 34 

15 Occurrence of dominant forms in November 1975 

and 1976 35 



xx 



Table Number Page 

16 Occurrence of dominant forms in December 1975 

and 1976 35 

17 Number of forms of phytoplankton for 1975 

and 1976 42 

18 Diversity of phytoplankton for 1975 and 1976 42 

19 Redundancy of phytoplankton for 1975 and 1976 43 

20 Phytoplankton entrained by the plant during 

1976 45 

21 o (least detectable true difference) for 
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b 9 chlorophyll c 9 
phaeophytin a, and the phaeophytin a to 

chlorophyll a ratio 47 

22 Bonification versus grinding for sample 

preparation (July 1976) 48 

23 Grinding versus sonification for sample 

preparation (November 1976) 51 

24 Mean chlorophyll a concentrations (milligrams 
per cubic meter) with standard errors and 
comparison of means using one-way analysis of 

variance 58 

25 Mean chlorophyll b concentrations (milligrams 
per cubic meter) with standard errors and 
comparison of means using one-way analysis of 

variance 61 

26 Mean chlorophyll a concentrations (milligrams 
per cubic meter) with standard errors and 
comparison of means using one-way analysis of 

variance 64 

27 Mean phaeophytin a concentrations (milligrams 
per cubic meter) with standard errors and 
comparison of means using one-way analysis of 

variance 67 

28 Mean phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a ratio with 
standard errors and comparison of means using 

one-way analysis of variance 70 



XII 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Thanks are extended to Max Anderson, Nancy V, Southwick, Donald G. 
Robinson, Sarah H. Kleinschmidt, Susan Wiley, and William L. Yocum for 
their help with the collection and laboratory analysis of samples. Thanks 
to John C. Ayers, David White, and Eugene F. Stoermer for critical review 
of this manuscript. 



Xlll 



The Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant is a 2200 Megawatt steam electric 
generating station situated on the southeastern shore of Lake Michigan about 

18 km south of St. Joseph, Michigan. At full operation, the plant will use 

""3 ""i 
roughly 6300 m min of lake water in once- through cooling of its condensers. 

Waste heat is returned to the lake in cooling water heated to a maximum of 
12-13C° above intake temperature for unit #1 and 9-10C° above lake tempera- 
ture for unit #2 as stated in the Technical Specifications for the plant. 
The plant uses chlorination twice daily for chemical defouling of heat 

exchangers and turbine condensers. At the time of sampling, only unit #1 

~3 "1 
of the plant was operating. It uses roughly 2700 m min of lake water for 

once-through cooling. 

The Environmental Technical Specifications of the plant require an 

assessment of phytoplankton abundance, viability, and species composition 

to be made on a monthly basis on samples collected in the early morning, at 

mid-day, and in late evening. 

INTRODUCTION 

Past studies have shown that phytoplankton may suffer inhibition or 
even death due to entrainment and condenser passage. In addition, changes in 
community structure have been noted. Various authors have concluded that 
temperature rises which can be tolerated range from 8C° to 11C°. The actual 
delta-T permissible is related to the intake water temperature. The lower 
the intake water temperature the greater the tolerable temperature rise. If 
chlorination is also taking place, the phytoplankton may be killed outright or 
suffer varying degrees of inhibition. 

1 



At elevated temperatures, communities have been observed to exhibit de- 
creased diversity promoted by a shift from a diatom dominated community to 
one dominated by either green algae or blue-green algae in heated waters. 

Finally, some evidence exists which suggests that the phytoplankton may 
be mildly stimulated by mechanical pumping (Gurtz and Weiss 1972). 

Previous Studies at the Cook Plant 

In response to the above possible alterations of the phytoplankton 
community in the vicinity of the Plant, two major studies have been initiated. 
The first began in 1968. It is directed at determining the long-term effect 
of the plant on the phytoplankton. This study includes the counting and 
identification of phytoplankton species at both plant- influenced and non- 
influenced stations. These data have been used to establish pre-operational 
phytoplankton trends and variations in the lake against which operational 
data can be compared. The results of these studies have been reported by 
Ayers et al. (1970), Ayers et at. (1971), Ayers et at. (1972), Ayers 
and Seibel (1973), Ayers et at. (1974), Ayers and Kopczynska (1974), 
Ayers (1975a), Ayers (1975b), Ayers et at. (1977), and Ayers (1978). 

The second study is being used to ascertain the immediate effect of the 
plant on the entrained phytoplankton. It will also be used to monitor 
long-term changes in the phytoplankton. Results of this continuing study 
for the year 1976 are presented here. The monitoring results for 197 5 are 
found in Rossmann et at* (1977). 



SAMPLE HANDLING AND ANALYSIS 

Studies pertaining to entrained phytoplankton at the Donald C. Cook 
Nuclear Power Plant unit #1 began in February 1975 and continue at present. 
Investigation of plant impact on phytoplankton viability, abundance, and 
species composition has been made in accordance with the Environmental 
Technical Specifications for the plant. Sampling was conducted on a monthly 
basis with three approximately one-half hour sampling periods in a 24 hour 
span: after evening twilight, before morning twilight, and at noon, 
respectively. During each sampling period, ten samples were collected, five 
from the intake forebay and five from the discharge forebay (Figure 1) . Of 
each five, two samples were preserved for microscopic investigation of 
abundance and species composition, and the remaining three were used for spectro- 
photometry determination of chlorophylls a 3 b 3 and c and phaeophytin a with 
subsequent calculation for the phaeophytin a/ chlorophyll a ratio as an 
indicator of phytoplankton viability. During the first sampling period, 
three additional samples were collected from both the intake and discharge 
forebays. These six samples were incubated at the intake temperature for 
approximately 36 hours and then treated in the same manner as non- incubated 
samples for analysis of the chlorophylls and phaeophytin a. 

Throughout 1976, samples were collected at intake grate MTR 1-5 from a 
depth of 5.5 m. A study horizontal and vertical phytoplankton concentra- 
tions in the intake forebay has confirmed our choice of MTR 1-5 at a depth 
of 5.5 m as a representative sampling point (Rossmann et al. 1977). 

Water was collected through hoses at a rate of roughly 227 1/min by 
diaphragm pumps. As the water was pumped, the intake and discharge water 



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temperatures were measured and samples were collected in one liter polyethylene 

6 -1 
bottles. Since unit #1 uses 2.7 x 10 1 min ^ for cooling, the samples 

collected during a one-half hour sampling time represent approximately 

— f) 
4 x 10 % of the water passing through the plant for the chlorophylls and 

—6 
2 x 10 % of the water passing through the plant for the microscopic phyto- 

plankton analysis. 

Phytoplankton 

Phytoplankton samples were collected from both the intake and discharge 
forebays (Figure 1). They were, for the most part, collected in duplicate 
in twice rinsed one liter brown polyethylene bottles and fixed with 6 ml of 
Lugols 1 iodine-potassium iodide-glacial acetic acid solution. Slide prepara- 
tion was similar to the settle-freeze method of Sanford et at. (1969). One 
liter samples were settled in graduated cylinders for two days, after which 
time 900 ml of supernatant was siphoned off. The remaining 100 ml was then 
agitated to resuspend the settled matter and 18 ml poured into a cylindrical 
plexiglass settling chamber with a microscope slide at its base. Various 
dilutions were used to facilitate enumeration and identification when there 
were high concentrations of suspended material. The chambers were secured to 
the slides with a minimal amount of stopcock grease on their ends, and the 
cylinder-slide combinations were held by clamps onto a quarter inch thick 
aliminum plate. Freezing of the bottom 1.5 ml was accomplished by placing the 
entire apparatus on a block of dry ice for approximately 85 seconds. The 
supernatant was poured off and when the ice at the bottom of the chamber had 
melted sufficiently, the chamber was removed from the slide and the slide with 
its thin wafer of ice and water was dehydrated in an anhydrous alcohol chamber 



for two days. This was followed by two days in a toluene chamber to prepare 
the sample for permanent mounting under a cover slip in Permount. 

All counting was done on a Leitz Ortholux microscope at 1250X with a 
stage micrometer calibrated field width of 90 urn. Identification of specimens 
was carried to species and variety when possible. Enumeration was all in 
cells per milliliter except for blue-green filaments with cylindrical trichomes 
which were in filaments per milliliter. Two complete transects were made 
on each slide, one horizontal and one vertical, to help offset any patchiness 
that could occur in distribution. A minimum of 500 cells was counted for 
each slide to insure reasonable group percentages, more transects and/or higher 
counts being necessary if a fairly large number of proportion of the cells were 
in colonial formations. 

Chlorophylls and Phaeophytin a 

The samples selected for incubation were immediately placed in an incubator 
with the bottle caps removed and allowed to incubate for 36 hours at the 
intake temperature. Following this they were filtered and treated in the same 
manner as the non- incubated samples, a modification of the method described by 
Strickland and Parsons (1972). Each water sample was passed through a 4.25 cm 
diameter Whatman GF/C glass fiber filter positioned in a 250 ml Millipore 
filtering apparatus with plastic-tipped forceps. After most of the water had 
passed into the filtering flask, 1 ml of saturated MgC0 3 was added (1 g MgCO^ 
4H 0/100 g distilled water). The filters were rolled up with the forceps and 
placed in 12 ml screw cap centrifuge tubes whose caps were teflon lined. 
Following this, 10 ml of 90% acetone was added using a tilting repipet and 
the samples were refrigerated. The 90% acetone was prepared by swirling 



reagent grade acetone with anhydrous Na ? CO and passing it through a Whatman 
#4 filter containing some additional Na^CO^. The acetone was filtered a 
second time into a volumetric flask containing the appropriate amount of 
distilled water for a 90% solution (v/v) . 500 to 1000 ml portions were made 
fresh for each month's sampling. 

After sampling was completed the extracts were packed on ice in a styrofoam 
chest and returned to the laboratory. Upon arrival they were inverted three 
times and then sonified by placing the tubes, six at a time, in a large 
beaker of crushed ice and water and sonifying at 70% power (Bransolik III 
sonifier) for 45 seconds. The samples were then allowed to further extract 
for at least another 15 hours under refrigeration. The tubes with the extracts 
were again shaken to break up the filters somewhat and then placed in ice 
water in 22 x 130 mm conical centrifuge tubes. The samples were centrifuged 
for two minutes at 2100 rpm, to separate the extract from filter fibers and 
MgCO . The extract was then decanted into clean tubes using disposable 
pipets and recentrifuged under the same conditions. This second centrif ugation 
was performed to minimize the problem of filter fibers interfering with the 
spectrophotometer measurements. Samples were then returned to the refrigerator 
and taken out individually to warm to room temperature in a small, light- 
tight centrifuge prior to analysis. 

A Beckman model DU spectrophotometer was used for all chlorophyll analyses. 
Wavelength calibration was made using holmium oxide glass at 453.4 nm. A set 
of four 10 cm silica cuvettes (5 ml volume) was used for the analyses. Percent 
transmittance of the extracts relative to 90% acetone was measured at 665, 645, 



630, and 750 run. Four drops (0.1 ml) of 30% HC1 were added to the sample in 
the cuvette with thorough mixing, and percent transmit tance was again measured 
at 665 and 750 nm after four minutes. Data were converted to absorbances and 
quantities of the various species were calculated using the Strickland and 
Parsons (1972) equations for chlorophylls h and c and the Lorenzen equations 
(Strickland and Parsons 1972) for chlorophyll a and phaeophytin a. Results 
were expressed as milligrams per cubic meter for each species. 

Nutrients 

All samples for orthophosphate, dissolved silica, nitrate, and nitrite 
analysis were filtered through 0.45 urn pore size membrane filters immediately 
after collection. Orthophosphate was complexed as phosphomolybdate and 
extracted into isobutanol using the methodology described by Sutherland 
et at. (1966). Dissolved silica was reacted with ammonium molybdate in an 
acid medium following the methodology of Sutherland et al. (1966). Analysis 
for nitrate and nitrite followed the methodology of Strickland and Parsons , 
(1972). By this method, samples for nitrite analysis were measured after 
reaction with. sulfanilamide and N(l- napthyl) ethylene diamine dihydrochloride, 
Samples for nitrate analysis were first passed through a cadmium column to 
reduce the nitrate to nitrite. These were then treated in the same manner as 
the nitrite samples. 

CONDITIONS AT TIME OF COLLECTION 

Temperature 

Water temperatures at time of sample collection are presented in Table 1. 



TABLE 1. Entrainment temperatures for 1976. 





Date 


Time 


Intake, °C 


Time 


Discharge, °C 


January 13, 197 6 

14 
14 


-1915 

0608-0616 

1220-1232 


2.1 
1.8 
2.8 


-1930 

0622-0628 

1235-1242 


13.0 
13.0 
13.7 


February 10, 1976 
11 
11 


2000-2011 
0600-0610 
1220-1235 


2.0 
1.9 
1.8 


2014-2023 
0615-0620 
1222-1230 


14.1 
14.3 

2.2 


March 9, 1976 
10 
10 


2030-2045 
0505-0515 
1218-1223 


4.3 
3.8 
3.5 


2048-2100 
0518-0523 
1225-1228 


13.1 

15.0 
15.0 


April 5, 1976 
6 
6 


2101-2109 
0600-0605 
1215-1220 


8.2 
7.1 
7.0 


2113-2120 

0605-0630 

1206 


18.5 
17.1 
17.5 


May 10, 1976 
11 

11 


2120-2133 
0345 
1115 


12.1 
12.0 
12.8 


2130 
0330 
1105 


17.9 
19.9 
21.3 


June 14, 1976 
15 
15 


2315 
0340-0345 
1120-1130 


20.4 
20.0 
20.0 


2240 
0330-0335 
1131-1136 


31.1 
31.0 
30.9 


July 12, 1976 
13 
13 


2250-2255 

0340 
1220-1230 


16.0 
14.5 
15.1 


2255 
0348 
1230 


24.0 
26.2 
23.2 


August 9, 1976 
10 
10 


2150 
0405-0415 
1230-1235 


21.0 
20.5 
21.0 


2135 
0350-0400 
1210-1220 


32.5 
32.0 
32.1 


September 22, 1976 
23 
23 


2130-2138 
0555-0604 
1155-1210 


19.0 
18.3 
18.9 


2142-2150 

0607 
1143-1149 


29.1 
28.8 
29.2 


October 11, 1976 
12 
12 


1930-1945 
0524-0529 
1226-1232 


16.0 
15.1 
15.3 


1940-1945 
0530-0535 
1217-1222 


26.2 
26.0 
26.0 


November 3, 1976 
9 
9 


1845-1850 
0800-0805 
1317-1325 


7.4 
6.9 
6.7 


1855-1900 
0807-0812 
1310-1315 


18.0 
16.8 
16.9 


December 15, 1976 
16 
16 


1920-1925 
0735-0740 
1320-1330 


5.8 
3.0 
3.0 


1912-1917 
0725-0730 
1310 


15.0 
13.0 
13.1 



In addition, this table contains dates and times of collection. In 1976, 
Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the D. C. Cook Plant began to stratify in 
May. The lake returned to isothermal conditions during the fall overturn in 
late October. Deicing of the plant T s intakes by recirculating heated water 
out through the center intake pipe began in January and ended in March. 

Physical 

Throughout 1976 several other physical events occurred which can affect 
phytoplankton abundances and community composition. These were upwellings 
and storms, occurring during the period of thermal stratification. Known 
storms at the time of our sampling occurred on May 11, June 16, October 12, and 
November 9 through 12. Upwellings were observed June 19 through 22, June 30 
through July 1, July 12 through 14, July 31 through August 3, September 2 
through 3, and September 9 through 10. Each upwelling transported a new 
water mass with its intrained phytoplankton and higher nutrient concentrations 
to the nearshore region. Each storm mixed the epilimnion and may have entrained 
some of the hypolimnion. This gives rise to a new mixed phytoplankton 
population and higher nutrient concentrations. 

Chlorination 

Chlorination occurs twice daily at the Cook Plant. In each case, the 
period of chlorination is one-half hour. Table 2 is a compilation of the 
chlorination times for those days the plant was operating in 1976. At no 
time did our normal sampling coincide with the chlorination times. 

Nutrients 

- The monthly variation of nutrient concentrations reflects spring runoff, 
storm activity, upwellings, and nutrient uptake by phytoplankton. During 197 6, 

10 



TABLE 2. Chlorination times on the days of 
phytoplankton entrainment . 



Date 



Time, EST 



January 


13 




14 


February 


10 




11 


March 9 




10 




April 5 




6 




May 10 




11 




June 14 




15 




July 12 




13 




August 9 




10 




September 22 




23 


October 


11 




12 


November 


8 




9 


December 


15 




16 



1000, 2200 
1000 

1000,2200 
1000,2200 



0700, 1900 
0700, 1900 



0700, 1900 
0700, 1900 

1900 
0700 

1000, 2200 
1000, 2200 

1000, 2200 
1000, 2200 



11 



the nutrients measured the entire year were orthophosphate and dissolved 
silica. Nitrate was measured during September through December, Table 3 
contains results of these measurements. Both orthophosphate and dissolved 
silica were high during January through March reflecting spring runoff. In 
April, decreases in both occured during increased phytoplankton uptake, 
primarily by diatoms. During May, storm activity gave rise to an increase in 
orthophosphate. In July, August, and September upwellings continued to con- 
tribute to increased orthophosphate and dissolved silica concentrations. In 
October through December, storms and a return to isothermal conditions provided 
some nutrients. It appears that nutrient regeneration in the hypolimnion occured 
only during periods of most intense thermal stratification. Nutrient concen- 
trations increased in the hypolimnion during quiescent periods and were re- 
leased to the epilimnion as pulses during upwellings or strong storm occurrences. 
Thus in September, a strong pulse of both nutrients to the system was noted. 

Nitrate utilized by algae decreased during September and October. 
With cessation of thermal stratification, nitrate concentration increased 
in December. Thus, as phytoplankton data are interpreted, the monthly 
availability of nutrients must be also considered. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Phytoplankton 

Each of the conditions discussed in the previous section can have an 

impact upon the abundances and community structure of the phytoplankton. When 

they are believed to be important to the interpretation of observed variations 



TABLE 3. Monthly variation of nutrients during 1976, 



Month 


Orthoptic 
ppb 

M 1 


Dsphate 

P 


Dissolved Silica 
ppm Si02 




Nitrate 
ppm NO 3 




SE 2 


M 1 


SE 2 




M 1 


SE 2 


January- 


2.88 


0.200 


1.23 


0.0361 








February 


1.62 


0.0869 


0.949 


0.0926 








March 


1.22 


0.0578 


1.21 


0.0200 








April 


0.701 


0.0478 


0.849 


0.0 








May 


2.06 


0.0742 


0.246 


0.00400 








June 


0.809 


0.0424 


0.0495 


0.0140 








July 


1.89 


0.234 


0.918 


0.0176 








August 


2.36 


0.722 


0.745 


0.0312 


0. 


.994 


0.0492 


September 


1.53 


0.368 


1.03 


0.0577 


0. 


.628 


0.0174 


October 


0.908 


0.0 


0.845 


0.0377 


0. 


.717 


0.0144 


November 


1.41 


0.179 


0.615 


0.108 


0. 


.855 


0.0307 


December 


0.869 


0.0610 


0.428 


0.0153 


1 


.07 


0.0645 



mean 



"standard error 



13 



in the phytoplankton community, further discussion will be necessary. The 
complete compiled results of the 1976 entrainment phytoplankton microscopic 
counts are contained in Appendices 1 and 2. For the ease of the reader, 
these data have been tabulated in several ways to provide: 1) an overview 
of monthly variations of major groups of phytoplankton, of taxonomic dominance, 
and of community structure and 2) a comparison of these results with those 
of 1975. 

Monthly Variations of Entrained Major Phytoplankton Groups 

The number of phytoplankton in a particular major group goes through a 
predictable succession throughout a calendar year. The major groups considered 
are coccoid blue-green algae, filamentous blue-green algae, flagellates, 
centric diatoms, pennate diatoms, desmids, other algae, and total algae. The 
succession of diatoms, blue-green algae, green algae, and flagellates is of 
importance. Diatom concentrations are relatively high from January through 
their peak spring concentrations in April or May. After thermal stratification, 
usually in May, dissolved silica becomes depleted, water temperature rises, and 
diatom numbers decrease. These low concentrations continue until October or 
November when decreasing water temperature and mixing processes return the 
lake to an isothermal condition. Concomittant with the decrease in temperature 
is an increase in dissolved silica, other nutrients, and diatom concentrations. 
Diatoms reach peak winter concentrations during December through January. 

Green algae concentrations are low during January through May or June. 



14 



They reach peak concentrations during the warm water months of May through 
September. Concentrations decline during October through December. 

Blue-green algae are low in abundance during January through April 
or July. Numbers are highest during June through October when water temperatures 
are relatively high. Numbers decrease in November and December with decreased 
water temperature. 

Flagellates are relatively low in concentration during January through 
March or April. Highest concentrations are reached in April or May with 
relatively high concentrations continuing through December. 

These idealized successions are seldom found to completely match those 
found in a near shore region of Lake Michigan where lake warm-up can vary 
in time or degree from year to year, large storms mix the near shore zone, and 
upwellings occur. In addition, thermal effluents from power generation 
plants may alter or offset the "normal" succession. 

Coccoid blue-green algae had high concentrations in January and de- 
creased through July (Figure 2). Numbers were consistently high in August 
through December. This was different from what was observed in 1975. In 
1975, the months May, July, September, and October had the highest counts and 
the concentrations varied greatly from month to month (Rossmann et ah. 1977). 
In general concentrations were lower in 1976 than 1975. 

With the exception of May, filamentous blue-green algae had consistently 
low concentrations in 1976 (Figure 3). This was somewhat similar to the 1975 
results. In 1975, this peak concentration was reached in June rather than 
May (Rossmann et at. 1977). Concentrations in 1976 were similar to those of 
1975. 



15 



o 
o 



COCCOID BLUE-GREEN flLGRE 



MEANS AND STANDARD ERRORS 




MAY JUN 



DEC 



1976 



FIG. 2. Variation of coccoid blue-green algae numbers during 1976 



16 



o 
o 



FILAMENTOUS BLUE-GREEN RLGAE 



MEflNS AND STANOARD ERRORS 




JflN FEB MflR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 3. Variation of filamentous blue-green algae numbers during 1976. 



17 



The 1976 coccoid green algae concentrations were low throughout the 
months of January through June (Figure 4). Peak numbers occured in July 
through September with slightly elevated concentrations in October through 
December. The 1975 results were similar with the exception that peak 
numbers occurred only in July with slightly elevated concentrations in August 
through December (Rossmann et. al. 1977). Concentrations were similar for 
the two years. 

Filamentous green algae had relatively high concentrations in January 
and in May through July in 1976 (Figure 5). In 1975, relatively high concen- 
trations occurred in March and June (Rossmann et al. 1977). Concentrations 
were about the same for 1975 and 1976. 

During 197 6, flagellates reached a peak concentration in May (Figure 6). 
Concentrations were consistently near 500-600 cells /ml in June through 
December. In 1975, no distinct peak concentration was observed; instead 
concentrations were 800 cells/ml in April and consistently decreased to 
400 cells/ml in December (Rossmann et al. 1977). With the exception the 
peak concentration in May of 1976, concentrations of flagellates were similar 
in 1975 and 1976. 

In 1976, centric diatom concentrations peaked in July (Figure 7). This 
peak was coincident with an upwelling event. Minor peak concentrations appeared 
in January and perhaps May. In 1975, the peak concentration occurred in 
April with a minor peak in December (Rossmann et al. 1977). Concentrations 
during these two years were quite similar. 

Like the centric diatoms and for the same reason, pennate diatoms 
reached maximum abundance in July (Figure 8). Minor peaks occurred in 



18- 



o 

o 

• 

o 
o 

CO 



COCCOID GREEN ALGAE 

MEflNS flNO STflNDflRD ERRORS 




JflN FEB Hflfi APR MflY JUN JUL RUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 4. Variation of coccoid green algae numbers during 1976. 



19 



FILAMENTOUS GREEN ALGflE 



MEANS AND STANDARO ERRORS 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV 

1976 

FIG. 5. Variation of filamentous green algae numbers during 1976. 



DEC 



20 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 

CD- 



O 
O 

o 
o 



O 
O 

o 
o 

CM 



erg 

UJo> 



o 
o 

o 
o 

CO 



o 
o 

o 
o 

CO 



o 
o 



FLAGELLATES 



MEflNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 




■+■ 



+ 



■+■ 



+ 



+ 



■+■ 



4- 



-+■ 



+ 



H 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 6. Variation of flagellate numbers during 1976. 



21 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
io« 



o 

o 

• 

o 

CO 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
o 

CO 



■o 
■o 



CENTRIC DIATOMS 



MEflNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 



OCcQ 
LUcj 

CD 



.o 

o 

o 

o 
in 



o 
o 

9 

O 

r» 



o 

o 




■+■ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



■4- 



4- 



■+■ 



+■ 



■+■ 



+ 



-\ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 7. Variation of centric diatom numbers during 1976. 



.22 



PENNflTE DIATOMS 



O 
O 

• 

o 
o 

in. 

CO 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
o. 

CO 



o 
o 

« 

o 
o 
to- 

C\J 



o 
o 

o 

1° 
— lo 

\ 

en 
en . 

UJo 

2:0 

ZD° 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 



O 
O 

« 

o 
o 
in 



o 
o 



MEfiNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 




+ 



■+■ 



+ 



+ 



■+■ 



+ 



■4- 



+ 



H 



1 h- 

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 8. Variation of pennate diatom numbers during 1976. 



23 



January, April, September, and December. In 1975, peak abundance occurred in 
May with a minor peak in February (Rossmann et at. 1977). In general, 
concentrations were higher in 1976 than 1975. 

Desmids were consistently low throughout 1976 (Figure 9). Peak concentra- 
tion was reached in May. In 1975, peak concentration was also reached in 
May (Rossmann et at. 1977). Concentrations were similar in 1976 and 1975. 

All other algae reached peaked abundances in September with a secondary 
peak in July (Figure 10). This was very similar to the 1975 monthly abundances, 
with the exception that in 1975 there was no distinct peak abundance (Rossmann 
et at. 1977). Concentrations in 1976 were somewhat higher than those of 1975. 

Total numbers of all algae reach a peak concentration in July coincident 
with an upwelling event (Figure 11) . Secondary concentration peaks were 
evident for the months of January, May and September. In 1975, the peak 
concentration occurred in May with a secondary peak in July (Rossmann et al. 
1977). In 1976, concentrations were similar to those of 1975. 

The major differences between the years 1975 and 1976 were: 1) increased 
concentrations of pennate diatoms and other algae in 1976; 2) decreased 
concentrations of coccoid blue-green algae; 3) shifts in the months of peak 
concentrations which varied by no more than one month, between the two years; 
4) the obvious impact of an upwelling in July 1976; and 5) the relatively high 
concentrations of coccoid blue-green algae during the early months of 1976. 
High coccoid blue-green concentrations during these months may be the result 
of deicing and/or recirculation of cooling water by the Donald C. Cook Nuclear 
Plant. Elevated winter concentrations of coccoid blue-green algae should be 
monitored closely in the future. 



24 



DESMIDS 



MEANS AND STANDARD ERRORS 




JAN FEB MflR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 9. Variation of desmid numbers during 1976. 



25 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 

CO 



o 
o 

« 

o 
o 

in 



o 
o 

o 
o 



UJco 



o 
o 

• 

o 

o 

CM 



O 

o 

o 

o 



OTHER RLGflE 



MEANS AND STANDARD ERRORS 



o 

o 




+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



■+■ 



+ 



+ 



■+■ 



+ 



+■ 



+ 



4 



JflN FEB MflR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 10. Variation of other algae numbers during 1976. 



26 



o 
o 

■ 

o 
o 

o 

CO 



o 
o 

• 

o 
o 
in 



o 
o 

• 
o 
o 
o 

CO 



21° 

\°. 

V)0 

LjS 
CD 

2: 



.0 
o 

• 

o 

O 
O 
CO 



O 
O 

• 

o 
o 
in 



TOTAL ALGAE 



HERNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 



o 
o 




+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



4- 



4- 



4- 



H 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 11. Variation of total algae numbers during 1976. 



•27 



Monthly Variations of Phytoplankton Community Structure 

Community structure is discussed in terms of 1) relative proportion of 
total algae that each major group comprises, 2) occurrences of dominant and 
co-dominant forms, 3) number of forms occurring, 4) diversity, and 5) redundancy. 

Relative Proportion of Total Algae that Each Major Group Comprises 

During 1976, diatoms were dominant or co-dominant during each month 
(Table 4). They were dominant January through Hay and July through December. 
In June, they were co-dominant with the flagellates. This dominance by the 
diatoms was quite different from what was observed in 1975 £Table 4). In 1975, 
diatoms were dominant in February through June, co-dominant with blue-green and 
green algae in July, and dominant again in November and December. In August, 
flagellates were dominant. In September and October, blue-green algae were 
dominant. Thus in 1976, the Lake Michigan phtoplankton community in the vicinity 
of the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant was considerably different from that of 1975. 

Occurrences of Dominant and Co-dominant Forms 

Though large scale differences were not noted for the major groups, 
changes in community composition between 1975 and 1976 are evident. Tables 5 
through 16 contain the number of times a dominant or co-dominant form occurred 
for each month of the years 1975 and 1976. During 1976, the number of dominant 
or co-dominant occurrences of Anacystis incerta , Anacystis thermalis , 
Stephanodiscus tenuis , Cyclotella stelligera , Cyclotella comensis , Tabeliaria 
fenestrata v. intermedia , Dictyosphaerium pulchellum , Chromulina parvula , 
and Gomphosphaeria lacustris decreased. In 1976, the number of dominant or 
co-dominant occurrences of Stephanodiscus minutus, flagellates, Fragilaria 



28 



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2 

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29 



TABLE 5. 
1976. 



Occurrence of dominant forms in January 1975 and 



Form 



Occurrences 
1975 197* 



Centric Diatom, unknown 
Cyclotella stelligera 
Fragilaria crotonensis 
Gomphosphaeria aponina 
Stephanodiscus minutus 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris 
Anacystis incerta 
Cyclotella sp. 
Gomphosphaeria aponina v. delicatula 






o 
2: 



TABLE 6, 
1976. 



Occurrence of dominant forms in February 1975 and 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



Anacystis incerta 

Stephanodiscus minutus 

Coccochloris sp. 

Flagellates 

Centric diatom, unknown 

Cyclotella sp. 

Ochromonas sp. 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris 

Gomphosphaeria sp. 

Cyclotella stelligera 

Fragillaria crotonensis 

Tabeliaria fenestrata v. intermedia 

Fragilaria capucina 

Fragilaria intermedia 

Stephanodiscus sp. 






u 





6 





1 





8 










1 





1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


4 





4 





7 





1 





1 





3 






30 



TABLE 7. Occurrence of dominant forms in March 1975 and 1976, 



Form 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



Anacystis incerta 

Cyclotella stelligera 

Flagellates 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris 

Cyclotella sp. 

Asterionella formosa 

Blue green, unknown cells 

Tabellaria fenestrata v. intermedia 

Centric diatom, unknown 

Stephanodiscus sp. 

Fragillaria crotonensis 






5 


4 


6 


1 


9 


2 


3 





3 





1 





1 


9 





6 





3 





1 






TABLE 8. 
1976. 



Occurrence of dominant forms in April 1975 and 



Form 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



Cyclotella stelligera 
Flagellates 

Fragilaria crotonensis 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris 
Stephanodiscus minutus 
Stephanodiscus tenuis 
Anacystis incerta 
Asterionella formosa 
Flagellates 
Rhizosolenia gracilis 
Green colony, unknown 
Fragilaria intermedia v. fallax. 



5 


i 


6 





1 


6 


1 





1 





2 





1 


3 





12 





4 





3 





1 





1 



31 



TABLE 9. Occurrence of dominant forms in May 1975 and 1976, 

Occurrences 
Form 1975 1976 



Anacystis incerta 

Fragilaria crotonensis 

Tabellaria fenestrata v. intermedia 

Flagellates 

Ochromonas sp . 

Centric diatom, unknown 

Oscillatoria limnetica 

Rhizosolenia gracilis 

Cyclotella sp. 

Asterionella formosa 

Stephanodiscus subtilis 



4 





4 





5 





4 


11 





. 5 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 





1 



TABLE 10 • Occurrence of dominant forms in June 1975 and 
1976, 



Form 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



Flagellates 

Tabellaria fenestrata v. intermedia 

Fragilaria capucina 

Stephanodiscus tenuis 

Oscillatoria limnetica 

Anacystis incerta 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris 

Fragilaria crotonensis 

Chlorella sp. 

Diatoma tenue v. eiongatum 

Dinobryon bavaricum 

Dinobryon divergens 



32 



9 


11 


10 





1 





2 





2 





1 





2 


1 


2 








1 





1 





5 





9 



TABLE 11. Occurrence of dominant forms in July 1975 and 
1976. 



Occurrences 
Form 1975 1976 



Anacystis incerta 
Cyclotella sp. 
Cyclotella stelligera 
Dictyosphaerium pulchellum 
Gloeocystis sp. 
Merismopedia tennuissima 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris 
Flagellates 

Green coccoid, unknown 
Gloeocystis planctonica 
Stephanodiscus sp. 
Centric diatom, unknown 
Fragilaria crotonensis 
Sphaerocystis sp. 
Stephanodiscus subtilis 



2 





2 





9 





.0 





9 


1 


1 





1 





4 





1 





1 








1 





5 





5 





1 





1 



TABLE 12. Occurrence of dominant forms in August 1975 and 
1976. 



Occurrences 
Form 1975 1976 



Anacystis incerta 
Chromulina parvula 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris 
Cyclotella stelligera 
Gloeocystis sp. 
Flagellates 
Synura sp. 

Fragilaria crotonensis 
Gloeocystis planctonica 
Chrysophycean flagellate sp. 

33 



8 


3 


9 





3 


2 


4 





5 


4 


3 


5 


1 






n 


11 


u 



1 



TABLE 13. Occurrence of dominant forms in September 1975 
and 1976. 



Form 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



Anacystis incerta 
Fragilaria crotonensis 
Gomphosphaeria lacustris 
Flagellates 
Anacystis thermalis 
Ochromonas sp . 
Gloeocystis sp. 
Sphaerocystis sp. 
Chrysophycean flagellate sp. 



2 


8 


5 





6 


1 


4 





2 








5 





1 





1 



TABLE 14. Occurrence of dominant forms in October 1975 
and 1976. 



Form 



Anacystis incerta 
Fragilaria crotonensis 
Flagellates 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris 
Ochromonas sp. 
Cyclotella comensis 
Gloeocystis plane tonica 
Chrysophycean flagellate sp, 
Gloecystis sp . 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



10 


5 


1 


2 


8 


9 


6 


2 


3 








2 





1 





2 





1 



34 



TABLE 15. Occurrence of dominant forms in November 1975 
and 1976. 



Occurrences 
1975 1976 



Flagellates , ,78 

Anacystis incerta 7 5 

Chrysophycean flagellate sp. - 2 

Fragilaria crotonensis 6 4 

Agmenellum quadruplicatum 1 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris 4 

Centric diatom, unknown 2 

Stephanodiscus sp. 1 

Sphaerocystis schroeteri 1 

Cyclotella comensis 10 

Cyclotella sp . 7 

Tabellaria fenestrata v. intermedia 1 

Asterionella formosa 2 

Gloeocystis sp. i 



TABLE 16. Occurrence of dominant forms in December 1975 
and 1976- 



Occurrences 
Form 1975 1976 



Centric diatom, unknown 

Cyclotella stelligera 

Ochromonas sp. 

Sphaerocystis schroeteri 

Gomphosphaeria lacustris 

Stephanodiscus minutus 

Stephanodiscus sp. 

Cyclotella comensis 

Cyclotella sp. 

Anacystis incerta 

Fragilaria crotonensis 

Flagellates 

Fragilaria capucina v. lanceolata 

Anabaena flos-aqaue 

Gloeocystis planctonica 



9 





9 





3 





1 





1 


1 


1 





1 





1 


1 


1 





1 


3 





12 





6 





1 





1 





2 



35 



crotonensis , Asterionella formosa , Rhizosoienia gracilis , Dinobryon bavaricum , 

and Dinobryon divergens increased. On the whole in 1976, the dominant or co-dominant 

occurrences of blue-green algae decreased from 80 in 1975 to 48, green algae 

decreased from 26 in 1975 to 19, diatoms decreased slightly from 129 in 1975 

to 104, Chrysophycean flagellates increased from 11 in 1975 to 24, and flagellates 

incresed from 48 in 1975 to 68. These numbers do not indicate any trend with 

regard to the trophic status of Lake Michigan in the vicinity of the Donald 

C. Cook Nuclear Plant. 

Combining the list of diatoms indicative of tropic conditions compiled 
by Tarapchak and Stoermer (1976) with the results contained in Tables 5 
through 16, a continuing eutrophication of Lake Michigan in this region is 
indicated. The diatoms species used are Stephanodiscus minutus , Cyclotella 
stelligera , Fragilaria crotonensis , Tabellaria f enestrata v. intermedia , 
Fragilaria capucina , Fragilaria intermedia , Asterionella f ormosa , Stephanodiscus 
tenuis , Stephanodiscus subtilis , and Diatoma tenue v. elongatum . The compari- 
son yields an increase in dominant or co-dominant occurrences of eutrophic 
species from 6 in 1975 to 9 in 1976, an increase in occurrences of meso trophic 
species tolerant of moderate nutrient enrichment from 55 in 1975 to 65 in 
1976, and a decrease in occurrences of meso trophic species not tolerant of 
nutrient enrichment from 31 in 1975 to 7 in 1976. Clearly this comparison 
shows that the lake has become more eutrophic in 197 6 than 197 5. This change 
is not limited strictly to the plant site but appears to be occurring in the 
entire region of this section of Lake Michigan (Avers 1976). 



36 



Numbers of Forms, Diversity 3 and Redundancy 

Diversity is calculated using the formula presented by Wilhm and Dorris 
(1968): 

_ s 

d = -E (n ± /n) log 2 (n /n) 

i-1 
where S is the number of species, n is the total number of phytoplankton in 

t*"h 

cell/ml, n. is the number of phytoplankton of the i species. Diversity as 
presented here is not the true diversity since not all forms encountered can 
be identified to the species level. Therefore, this diversity must be viewed 
with caution. However, it will be used to illustrate changes eeeuring 
within the phytoplankton' population, form year to year. Number of 
forms is self-explanatory and will be used to indicate changes which may occur 
in the overall structure of the phytoplankton community. Redundancy is a 
measure of the dominance of one or a few species within a given population. 
As presented by Wilhm and Dorris (1968) it is: 

d - d 
r = max 



d - d . 
max mm 



where d is the observed diversity as calculated above, d is the maximum 



max 

diversity for a particular community, and d . is the minimum possible diver- 

mm 

sity for a particular community. d is calculated using the following 
J r J max 

equation: 



d = (l/n)(log n! - s log 9 [n/S]!) 



and d . is calculated using the equation: 
mm ° 



d . = (l/n)(iog„ n! -s log 9 [n-(S-l)]!) 
mm l i 



37 



The possible values of r range between and 1. An r equal to implies that 
all the species encountered in a cotumunity each have the same abundance of 
cells. An r equal to 1 implies that one species dominates the community 
of phytoplankton. Figures 12, 13, and 14 contain monthly means and associated 
standard errors for each month for number of forms, diversity and redundancy. 

Throughout 1976 the number of forms was consistently around 60 with the 
exception of higher numbers in July and September (Table 17) . These increases 
are attributed to upwelling events occurring before or during sampling. For 
each month of 1976, the number of forms was greater than that of the same 
month in 1975. 

In 1976, diversity was high in July and September and low in August 
(Table 18) . The high diversities in July and September most likely were a 
result of the upwelling events. The very low diversity in August was 
similar to that observed in August and September of 1975. For 1975 and 1976, 
the diversities started somewhere around 4.5 and decreased throughout the year 
to roughly 3.9 with the exception the anomolous highs and lows already 
discussed. Except for the high diversities associated with upwelling, the 
diversities for 1975 and 1976 were nearly the same. 

Redundancy was quite consistent in 1976 with the exception of August, 
November, and December (Table 19). During these months, it exceeded 0.3. In 
July and September, it dropped below 0.23 due to upwelling which provided 
nutrients and a considerably different phytoplankton community to the nearshore 
region of Lake Michigan that was sampled. The remainder of the year it varied 
from 2.1 to 2.3. Redundancies for 1975 and 1976 were quite similar and show 
no long-term trends. 



38 



o 
o 

o 



O 
O 



o 
o 

• 

o 

00 



en 

z: 
az 
o 

°£ 

OC 
LU 
OQ 

is 

o 

CO 



o 
o 

« 

o 

LO 



o 
o 



NUMBER OF FORMS 



MEflNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 




■+■ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



■+- 



+ 



+ 



+■ 



+ 



H 



JflN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 12. Variation of number of forms of phytoplankton during 1976. 



39 



DIVERSITY 



CJ 



O 

o 

LO 



in 



o 
in 



cnK3 



o -• 



o 
o 



MEflNS AND STflNDflRD ERRORS 



in 
r- 

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IT) 
CO 



LO 
CM 

• 
CO 




■+■ 



■+■ 



4- 



JflN FEB MflR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV OEC 



1976 

FIG. 13. Variation of phytoplankton diversity during 1976. 



40 



REDUNDANCY 



MEANS AND STRNDflRD ERRORS 



o 
m 



o 



o 
C_)o 
CE 

o 



Qo 

UJOJ 



o 

f 

o 



o 
o 




+ 



+ 



+ 



■+■ 



■i 



JRN FEB MflR RPR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 14. Variation of phytoplankton redundancy during 1976. 



41 



TABLE 17. 
and 1976. 



Number of forms of phytoplankton for 1975 



1975 



1976 









Standard 






Standard 


Month 


N 


Mean 


Error 


N 


Mean 


Error 


January 


— 


— 


— 


11 


59.4 


2.79 


February 


9 


51.1 


1.90 


12 


57.3 


1.64 


March 


9 


51.7 


1.89 


12 


59.3 


1.59 


April 


9 


48.3 


1.38 


12 


56.1 


1.43 


May 


9 


47.4 


1.78 


12 


60.3 


2.84 


June 


12 


49.2 


1.77 


12 


65.8 


1.77 


July 


12 


51.6 


0.892 


12 


87.8 


3.78 


August 


12 


44.5 


2.32 


12 


53.4 


3.31 


September 


10 


44.1 


3.12 


12 


84.8 


4.30 


October 


12 


54.9 


2.18 


12 


58.8 


2.77 


November 


12 


50.3 


2.11 


12 


57.2 


1.74 


December 


11 


50.3 


1.74 


12 


56.5 


1.81 

















TABLE 18. Diversity of phytoplankton for 1975 and 
1976. 









1975 




1976 






, 


Standard 






Standard 


Month 


N 


Mean 


Error 


N 


Mean 


Error 


January 


— 


— 


— 


11 


4.29 


.0547 


February 


9 


4.35 


.0473 


12 


4.47 


.0591 


March 


9 


4.30 


.0544 


12 


4.34 


.0633 


April 


9 


4.21 


.0569 


12 


4.30 


.0446 


May 


9 


3.76 


.288 


12 


4.37 


.112 


June 


12 


4.17 


.0809 


12 


4.67 


.0616 


July 


12 


3.93 


.0654 


12 


5.08 


.0380 


August 


12 


3.58 


.163 


12 


3.50 


.114 


September 


10 


3.36 


.189 


12 


4.92 


.0973 


October 


12 


3.96 


.133 


12 


4.48 


.0823 


November 


12 


4.02 


.199 


1 o 


3.97 


.0608 


December 


11 


3.33 


.0982 


12 


3.96 


.0963 



TABLE 19. 
1976. 


Redundancy 


of phytoplankton 


for 1975 and 








1975 




1976 


Month 


N 


Mean 


Standard 
Error 


N 


Mean 


Standard 
Error 


January 


— 


— 


— 


11 


.270 


.0114 


February- 


9 


.230 


.00916 


12 


.231 


.0111 


March 


9 


.243 


.00781 


12 


.263 


.0106 


April 


9 


.246 


.00879 


12 


.260 


.00667 


May 


9 


.327 


.0540 


12 


.259 


.0150 


June 


12 


.258 


.00973 


12 


.223 


.0101 


July 


12 


.310 


.0114 


12 


.210 


.00759 


Augus t 


12 


.353 


.0262 


12 


.393 


.0172 


September 


10 


.389 


.0290 


12 


.227 


.0127 


October 


12 


.317 


.0212 


12 


.232 


.0141 


November 


12 


.289 


.0196 


12 


.322 


.0106 


December 


11 


.325 


.0173 


12 


.322 


.0175 



43 



Numbers and Biomass of Phytoplankton Passing Through the Plant 

3 -1 
With only unit one operating, the plant uses roughly 2700 in min 

for once-through cooling. Using the means of total phytoplankton 

densities as representative for each month, an estimate of the numbers 

and weight of phytoplankton passing through the plant for each month can 

be made (Table 20) . The weight of an individual phytoplankter has been given 

-9 
by Ayers and Seibel (1973) as 0.57 x 10 gm for inshore phytoplankton. 

18 9 

Thus 4.84 x 10 phytoplankton cells or 2.76 x 10 gm of phytoplankton were 

18 
entrained during 1976. These quantities were similar to 4.24 x 10 

9 
phytoplankton cells or 2.41 x 10 gm of phytoplankton entrained in 1975. 

Note must be made that these calculations assumed the plant be operating 
100% of the time. This is known not to be true. Since no figures of 
approximate percentage of phytoplankton destroyed during condenser passage 
are available because of little observed plant impact, no suppositions con- 
cerning removal of numbers and weights of viable phytoplankton from the in- 
shore regions near the plant will be made. 

Chlorophylls and Phaeophytin a 

Chlorophyll and phaeophytin a data have been used 1) to monitor monthly 
changes in these variables with respect to observed phytoplankton densities, 
2) to determine the change in these variables that would be detectable at 
the .05 level of significance, 3) to measure short-term sampling variations, 

4) to assess immediate impact of entrainment on phytoplankton viability, and 

5) to assess impact of entrainment on phytoplankton hours after entrainment. 
When phytoplankton pass through the plant, several possible alterations of 
the population's viability may occur. Among these are killing or damage to 



44 



TABLE 20. Phytoplankton entrained by the plant during 1976. 



Month 



Numbers Entrained 



Weight Entrained, gms 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



4.25 x 10 

1.59 x 10 
2.22 x 10 
3.49 x 10 

5.45 x 10 
1.81 x 10 
9.57 x 10 
3.79 x 10 
5.89 x 10 
3.28 x 10 

3.60 x 10 

3.46 x 10 



17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 



2.42 


X 


10 


9.06 


X 


io y 


1.27 


X 


io 8 


1.99 


X 


io 8 


3.11 


X 


io 8 


1.03 


X 


io 8 


5.45 


X 


io 8 


2.16 


X 


io 8 


3.36 


X 


io 8 


1.87 


X 


io 8 


2.05 


X 


io 8 


1.97 


X 


io 8 



TOTAL 



4.84 x 10 



18 



2.76 x 10' 



45 



the organism during periods of chlorination, destruction or inhibition from 
the mechanical and heat effects of passage, and stimulation o£ "productivity 
due to increased temperatures. 

Percentage of Change Detectable at the 0.05 Level of Significance 

To establish the least change in each of the chlorophylls, phaeophytin a, 
and the phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a ratio that is detectable with 95% 
power by analysis of variance, the equation derived by Johnston (1974) from 
an equation of Sokal and Rohlf (1969, p. 247) was used. It is 

— (t r ,4- t n/ _ _ w .) where 
n a[v] 2(1-P) [v]' 

o = least detectable true difference 

a = true error standard deviation 

v = degrees of freedom of the error mean square 

n = typical number of observations for each case 

t = student's t 

a - significance level 

? = power (the desired probability that a difference will be found significant) . 

For a = 0.05 and P = 0.95, o may be calculated. The calculated 6 T s for 

chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, phaeophytin a, and the phaeophytin a 

to chlorophyll a ratio based on 92 cases consisting of 3 observations each are 

presented in Table 21. Compared to 1975, the 1976 6 for each variable was 

less (Rossmann et al. 1977). The large changes necessary to detect an impact 

on the phytoplankton have led us to modify our methodology (January 1, 1977). 

Instead of sonif ication, the samples are now ground to break up the cells for 

extraction into 90% acetone. 

.46 



TABLE 21. 6 (least detectable true difference) for 
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b 9 chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a, 
and the phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a ratio. *• 









o, True Error Standard 




Variable 


Mean 


Deviation 


5 


Chlorophyll a 


4.44 


0.506 


2.11 


Chlorophyll b 


0.0990 


0.0209 


0.430 


Chlorophyll a 


1.14 


0.136 


1.10 


Phaeophytin a 


0.984 


0.426 


1.94 


Phaeophytin aj 


0.240 


0.0480 


0.651 


Chlorophyll a 









0.95 probability that the differences will be signifi- 
cantly different at the 0.05 level. 



47 



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Grinding Versus Bonification of Samples 

Sonif ication was initially chosen as the technique to break up phyto- 
plankton cells for extraction of the cell contents. A recent comparison be- 
tween grinding and sonification for sample preparation suggests that this 
was the wrong choice and that the samples should be ground using a tissue 
grinder to break up the cells* Comparison of these sample preparation 
alternatives was made in both September and November of 1976, In September, 
three sets of samples were collected in triplicate. One set served as a control; 
the sample was simply extracted into 10 ml of 09% acetone. The second set 
was handled as normal; that is, sonification in 10 ml of 90% acetone for 
45 seconds. The last set was ground for three minutes with a tissue grinder 
in 10 ml of 90% acetone. Table 22 contains the results of this study. Using 
a Student's t-test to compare the ground to sonified samples, significant dif- 
ferences between the two preparation methods were found. Chlorophyll a and 
chlorophyll a were higher in the ground sample set. This result was alarming 
enough to warrant a second study. 

Because of the apparent incomplete extraction of the chlorophylls from 
samples prepared by sonification, a second set of 24 samples was collected in 
November 1976 to further investigate the problem. These samples were divided into 
six groups: 1) a control set of 6 samples with no preparation, 2) a set of 6 sam- 
ples that was sonified for a period of 45 seconds in an ice bath, 3) another set 
of 2 samples that was sonified in an ice bath for 45 seconds and shaken vigorously, 

4) a fourth set of 3 samples that was sonified for three minutes in an ice bath, 

5) a set of 5 samples that was ground for three minutes, and 6) a last set of 2 
samples that was ground for three minutes in an ice bath. With the hope that 
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll o concentrations similar to those for ground 



49 



samples could be obtained by either increasing the sonification time or by 
vigorous shaking, three different groups were sonified. When the first group 
was ground for three minutes, some of the samples warmed considerably. Because 
some of the chlorophyll may have been destroyed due to this heating, a second 
set was ground in an ice bath to prevent this problem. Table 23 contains the 
results of this study. 

At this time, no judgment can be made about the variability of chlorophyll 
b extraction with sample handling technique because the phytoplankton possessing 
this chlorophyll, green algae, were not abundant when these samples were col- 
lected. The highest mean chlorophyll a concentrations were yielded by grind- 
ing and by sonification with shaking. Grinding increased the extractability of 
chlorophyll a. , The control and the sonified (45 sec.) gave the highest 
phaeophytin a measured. Sonification with shaking and a longer sonification 
time decreased the amount of phaeophytin a extracted. The lowest phaeophytin 
a to chlorophyll a ratio was obtained from samples ground in an ice bath. 
Using a Student's t-test to determine what significant differences exist 
between our current technique of sonifying for 45 seconds versus our pro- 
posed technique of grinding for 3 minutes, significant (0.01 level of signifi- 
cance) differences between the two were found. Both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll 
3 were extracted more completely using the grinding technique of sample prepara- 
tion. Differences between these two sets of samples is believed to result 
from incomplete destruction of diatom tests and release of cell contents 
during sonification and from preferential extraction of cell contents from 
dead or dying phytoplankton when the samples are sonified. Because of these 
results, samples will be ground beginning in Januar37 1977. This is warranted 



50 



u 

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0) 

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a 



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51 



because a greater and more consistent recovery of the chlorophylls and less 
degradation of chlorophyll a to phaeophytin a will be obtained. This will 
permit a more accurate assessment of phytoplankton viability. Additional 
comparisons between sonified samples and samples* ground will be made 
to more completely document this extraction problem. 

Time Variation of Samples 

Eighteen samples were collected in the intake forebay during a five- 
minute time span to investigate whether or not significant natural variations 
in phytoplankton viability occurred during sampling due to patchiness of the 
phytoplankton. These were collected in July 1976. These samples were 
arranged into six groups of three consecutive samples, yielding six cases. 

Figures 15 through 19 summarize the variability of the six cases 
representing the collection time span of five minutes. Standard error bars 
are associated with each mean. For chlorophyll a, case 3 was lower than case 
1. Chlorophyll b for case 1 was relatively low. Chlorophyll ° for case 3 
was lower than that of case 5. Phaeophytin a and the phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a 
ratio were lower for case 1 relative to cases 5 and 6. Therefore, within a 
five-minute time period, it was possible to collect two groups of samples 
that were different. This illustrates that heterogeneity can exist in samples 
collected during our normal 15 to 30-minute collection period in the intake 
and discharge forebays. 

Assessment of Damage to Phytoplankton 

Results of monthly sampling for chlorophyll analyses are found in 
Tables 24 through 28. Those times when chlorophyll a was significantly 



52 



CHLOROPHYLL fl 



MEANS AND STANDARD ERRORS 



3 



LU 

J— 

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FIG. 15. Chlorophyll a concentrations measured in 6 groups of 3 consecutive 
samples, formed from a set of 18 samples drawn in succession from the intake 
forebay during a 5-minute period. 



53 



CHLOROPHYLL B 



MEflNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 



<r 

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FIG. 16* Chlorophyll b concentrations measured in 6 groups of 3 consecu- 
tive samples, formed from a set of 18 samples drawn in succession from 
the intake forebay during a 5-minute period, 

54 



CHLOROPHYLL C 



MEANS AND STANDARD ERRORS 



oo _ 



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tive samples, formed from a set of 18 samples drawn from the intake fore- 
bay during a 5-minute period. 



55 



PHREOPHYTIN fl 



MEANS AND STflNDflRO ERRORS 



co_ 




GROUP NUMBER 

FIG. 18. Phaeophytin a concentrations measured in 6 groups of 3 consecutive 
samples, formed from a set of 18 samples drawn in succession from the intake 
forebay during a 5-minute period. 

56 



PHflEOPHTTIN ft / CHLOROPHYLL A 



MEflNS AND STRNORRD ERRORS 




GROUP NUMBER 

FIG. 19. Variation of the phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a ratio during a 
5-minute sampling period for 6 groups of 3 consecutive samples, formed 
from a set of 18 samples drawn in succession from the intake forebay. 

57 



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different at the 0.05 level of significance between intake and discharge 
were: 1) 11 February 1976 at 1215 EST with hours incubation the intake 
had lower concentrations than the discharge; 2) 9 August 1976 at 2145 EST 
with hours incubation the intake had higher concentrations than the dis- 
charge; 3) 9 August 1976 at 2145 EST with 36 hours incubation, the intake 
had higher concentrations than the discharge; 4) 10 August 1976 at 0355 EST 
with hours incubation, the intake had higher concentrations than the 
discharge; 5) 10 August 1976 at 1205 EST with hours incubation, the intake 
had higher concentrations than the discharge; and 6) 9 November 1976 at 
1310 EST with hours incubation, the intake had lower concentrations than 
the discharge. Differences between intake and discharge concentrations of 
chlorophyll b occurred on the following days: 1) 8 November 1976 at 1900 EST 
with hours incubation, the intake had lower concentrations than the dis- 
charge; and 2) 15 December 1976 at 1920 f EST with hours incubation the 
intake concentrations were lower than those of the discharge. Chlorophyll ? 
concentrations at the intake were different from those at the discharge on 
13 January 1976 at 1945 EST with 38 hours incubation, the intake had higher 
concentrations than the discharge. Phaeophytin a differences between intake 
and discharge concentrations (0.05 level of significance) were noted for the 
following days: 1) 13 January 1976 at 1945 EST with 38 hours incubation, 
the intake had a lower concentration than the discharge; 2) 14 January 1976 
at 1245 EST with hours incubation the intake had a lower concentration than 
the discharge; 3) 11 February 1976 at 1215 EST with hours incubation, the 
intake had a higher concentration than the discharge; 4) 8 November 1976 at 
1900 EST with 41 hours incubation, the intake had a lower concentration than 



73- 



the discharge; and 5) 9 November 1976 at 1310 EST with hours incubation, 
the intake had a higher concentration than the discharge. For the ratio of 
phaeophytin a to chlorophyll a the following significant differences (0.05 
level of significance) were noted: 1) 13 January 1976 at 1945 EST with 38 
hours incubation, the discharge ratio was greater than that of the intake; 
2) 14 January 1976 at 1245 EST with hours incubation the discharge ratio 
was largest; 3) 11 February 1976 at 1215 EST with hours incubation the 
intake ratio was the largest; 4) 11 May 1976 at 1200 EST with hours incuba- 
tion, the intake had a higher ratio than the discharge; 5) 10 August 1976 
at 0355 EST with hours incubation, the intake had a lower ratio than the 
discharge; 6) 8 November 1976 at 1900 EST with 41 hours incubation, the intake 
had a lower ratio than the discharge; and 7) 9 November 1976 at 1310 EST 
with hours incubation, the intake had a higher ratio than the discharge. 
Thus for 21 of a possible 240 comparisons a significant difference between 
intake and discharge was observed. Twelve of these showed inhibition of 
the phytoplankton and nine enhancement of the phytoplankton. Five occurrences 
were in January, three in February, one in May, five in August, six in 
November, and one in December. 

Relative to the intake, the decrease in chlorophyll c at the discharge 
on 13 January at 1945 EST coincided with a decrease in the numbers of diatoms; 
the increase in the phaeophytin a and the phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio 
on 13 January at 1945 EST at the discharge coincided with a small decrease 
in total phytoplankton numbers, an increase in flagellates and a decrease in 
diatoms; the increase in phaeophytin a and increase in the ratio coincided 
with decreased concentrations of total phytoplankton, diatoms, and coccoid 
blue-green algae. On 11 February at 1215 EST, a decrease in phaeophytin a 

74 ' 



and the ratio and an increase in chlorophyll <* coincided with a decrease in the 
number of diatoms and coccoid blue-green algae and an increase in coccoid green 
algae and flagellates at the discharge relative to the intake. A decrease in 
the phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio at the discharge relative to the intake 
on 11 May at 1200 EST was coincident with a decrease in the total number of 
phytoplankton at the discharge. A decrease in chlorophyll a at the discharge 
on 9 August at 2145 coincided with a similar decrease in total phytoplankton 
numbers. On 10 August at 0355, decreases in chlorophyll a and an increase 
in the ratio occurring between the intake and discharge coincided with 
increases in total phytoplankton, diatoms, and coccoid green algae and 
decreases in coccoid blue-green algae and flagellates. A decrease in chlorophyll 
a between the intake and discharge on 10 August at 1205 EST coincided with 
increases in total phytoplankton, diatoms, and coccoid green algae and 
decreases in flagellate numbers. A decrease in phaeophytin a and the phaeo- 
phytin a/chlorophyll a ratio and an increase in chlorophyll a on 9 November 
at 1310 EST corresponded to increased numbers at the discharge of total phyto- 
plankton primarily as diatoms and coccoid green algae. Increased numbers at 
the discharge of total phytoplankton, diatoms, flagellates, coccoid green 
algae, and coccoid blue-green algae corresponded to an increase in chlorophyll 
b, phaeophytin a, and the ratio. On 15 December at 1920 an increase in 
chlorophyll b at the discharge coincided with decreases of coccoid green algae, 
flagellates, diatoms, coccoid blue-green algae, and total phytoplankton 
numbers. The above discussion illustrates how apparent changes in viability 
reflected by chlorophyll a and phaeophytin a measurements can be influenced 
by n short-term ,! changes in the phytoplankton community being sampled. The 



75 . 



phytoplankton were so heterogenous that sampling of different populations 
could account for all the significant changes in viability observed through 
chlorophyll and phaeophytin a measurements. This variation was similar to 
that found in the short-term variation discussed in the previous section. 
There is no way to ascertain whether differences noted were a result of natural 
community changes or plant impact on the phytoplankton. Therefore, the worst 
possible case will be assumed; namely that the changes noted were all related 
to operation of the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant. Using this assumption, 
21 changes in chlorophyll a, phaeophytin a, and the phaeophytin al chlorophyll a 
ratio occurred in 1976. With 240 comparisons being made, a possible measure- 
able plant impact occurred a maximum of 8.75% of the time with 5% being 
inhibition and 3.75% being enhancement of the phytoplankton. These results 
were slightly higher than those "for 1975 which were 3.6% and 1.8% respectively. 
This excludes periods of chlorination when some damage may possibly occur. 
A discussion of chlorination impact will appear in the report on the 1977 
data. 

The results presented by us are somewhat similar to those reported by 
others for thermal impact studies on the Great Lakes. For the Palisades 
nuclear power plant, Benda, Gulvas and Neal (197 5) and Benda and Gulvas 
(1976) reported 32.7% loss in primary productivity for heated discharge waters 

and a 17.9% loss for a non-heated discharge. Thus approximately one-half 

14 
of the decrease in primary productivity measured using the C method was 

due to mechanical stress. The Palisades plant is located 26 km north of 

Benton Harbor, Michigan. 

For the Zion nuclear plant located 5 km south of the Wisconsin-Illinois 



76 



o 

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o 



CHLOROPHYLL fl 



MEflNS AND STANDARD ERRORS 




JAN FEB MAR APR HAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 20. Variation of chlorophyll a concentrations during 1976. 



77 



CHLOROPHYLL B 



MEANS AND STRNOARO ERRORS 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAT JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV 

1976 

FIG. 21. Variation of chlorophyll b concentrations during 1976. 



OEC 



78 



CHLOROPHYLL C 



O 

o 

CO 



MEANS AND STRNDflRD ERRORS 



o 
m 



UJ 
lUg 

O 
I— « 

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1976 

FIG. 22. Variation of chlorophyll a concentrations during 1976. 



DEC 



79 



PHflEOPHTTIN fl 



MEflNS AND STflNDflRD ERRORS 




JflN FEB MflR RPR MAY JUN JUL RUG SEP OCT NOV 

1976 

FIG. 23. Variation of phaeophytin a concentrations during 1976. 



DEC 



80 



PHflEOPHTTIN fl/CHLOROPHYLL ft 



MEflNS AND STANOARD ERRORS 




JflN FEB MflR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

1976 

FIG. 24. Variation of the phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio during 1976. 



81 



state line, Yaguchi (1977) found growth rates of phytoplankton in the 

plant . warm-water plume in Lake Michigan were greater than those at central 

stations only during upwelling. 

Wiersma et al. (1974) found little or no effect of heated discharge 
water on primary productivity for phytoplankton populations impacted by a 
fossil fuel power plant located at the confluence on the Fox River with Green 
Bay. 

Fenton et al. (1971) found that addition of heat to Lake Erie at Nine 
Mile Point had no significant affect on primary production. 

Beeton and Barker (1974) found that temperature increases of 2-7 °C 
caused no changes in chlorophyll levels. However, entrainment was shown 
to increase primary productivity as much as 64%. 

Monthly Variation of the Chlorophylls and Phaeophytin a 

Figures 20 through 24 illustrate the variation of chlorophyll a, 

chlorophyll b, chlorophyll o, phaeophytin a, and the phaeophytin al chlorophyll a 

ratio during 1976 at the intake forebay of the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant. 

Chlorophylls a and e were high during January, April, May, July, and December. 

Chlorophyll b was high during May, July, and September. Phaeophytin a 

exhibited peaks in its concentration during May, July, and perhaps September. 

The phaeophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio was highest in January and steadily 

decreased through June. The ratio was erratic during July through September, 

but it progressively decreased. 

Peak concentrations of the chlorophylls and phaeophytin a during April 

and May were associated with the normal spring phytoplankton bloom. Peaks 

during January and December were representative of the normal winter phytoplankton 



bloom. Peaks in July and September were a direct result of upwelling events 
occurring during those months at or before the time of sample collection. 
The 1976 results were somewhat similar to those of 1975. During 1975, the 
spring bloom commenced in April and continued in June. In 1975, upwellings 
were noted in September and October. 

Variation of chlorophylls, phaeophytin a, and the phaeophytin a/ 
chlorophyll a ratio can be further interpreted in terms of nutrient supply. 
Referring to Table 3, orthophosphate and dissolved silica concentrations were 
high January through March. With the beginning of the spring bloom of 
pennate diatoms (Figure 8) in April, orthophosphate decreased dramatically 
and dissolved silica decreased. At the peak of the spring centric diatom 
(Figure 7), filamentous blue-green algae (Figure 3), filamentous green 
algae (Figure 5), flagellate (Figure 6), and total algae (Figure 11) blooms 
in May, dissolved silica concentrations greatly decreased and continued to 
decrease through June. May storms during sampling elevated orthophosphate 
concentrations. Upwelling in July increased both orthophosphate and dissolved 
silica concentrations resulting in high cocoid green algae (Figure 4), centric 
diatom (Figure 7), pennate diatom (Figure 9), other algae (Figure 10), and 
total phytoplankton (Figure 11) concentrations. These concentrations remained 
relatively high through November due to upwellings in July, August, and Sept- 
ember and due to storms in October and November which served to return the 
lake to isothermal conditions. These high concentrations maintained peak 
concentrations of coccoid blue-gree algae (Figure 2), coccoid green algae 
(Figure 4), and other algae (Figure 10). In December commencement of the 
winter bloom of pennate diatoms (Figure 8) lowered orthophosphate concen- 
tration and continued the decrease in dissolved silica. 



83 



CONCLUSION 

Phytoplankton entrained by the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant during 
1976 exhibited expected responses to natural stimuli which may include 
nutrient supply, mixing processes, temperature, and other factors. The winter 
diatom bloom occurred in January when nutrients were plentiful. By February, 
it ceased until April and May. During these months with relatively high 
nutrient concentrations available and the onset of thermal stratification, 
the spring diatom bloom occured, flagellates reached peak concentrations, 
filamentous blue-green algae reached peak abundance, and filamentous green 
algae began their late spring - early summer bloom. In June when dissolved 
silica concentrations were low, diatom concentrations decreased and dilamentous 
green algae continued their summer bloom. In July, an upwelling displaced 
the existing water mass with one rich in nutrients and having a different 
phytoplankton community. During this month, diatoms reached peak concentrations, 
coccoid green algae and other algae began a summer bloom, and filamentous 
green algae concentrations were on the wain. In August and September, con- 
tinued storms and upwelling maintained relatively high nutrient concentrations. 
During these months, pennate diatoms were relatively abundant, other algae 
and coccoid green algae continued to be found at high concentrations, and 
coccoid blue-green algae began their fall and early winter bloom. During 
October through December with the return to isothermal conditions, nutrient 
concentrations continued to be relatively high, coccoid green algae returned 
to low concentrations, coccoid blue-green algae continued their bloom, and 
pennate diatoms began their winter bloom. Of greatest importance was the high 
concentration of blue-green algae in January. This could be related to plant 

84 



operation. However, additional data will be needed to confirm or deny this 
observation. 

Community structure changed between 1975 and 1976. The number of 
dominant or co-dominant occurrences of mesotrophic species not tolerant of 
nutrient enrichment decreased, of mesotrophic species tolerant of moderate 
nutrient enrichment increased, and of eutrophic species increased. In 1976, 
an increased number of forms was evident. All these changes appear to be 

characteristic of this region of Lake Michigan. 

18 
During 1976, an estimated maximum of 4.84 x 10 plankton cells 

9 
equivalent to roughly 2.76 x 10 grams of phytoplankton were entrained by the 

Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant. Of these, a maximum of 8.75% may be measureably 

impacted by the plant, with 5% being inhibited and 3.75% being enhanced. 

These estimates exclude those impacted by chlorination. 



85 



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