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How to Plan for 
Workplace Emergencies 
and Evacuations 



U.S. Department of Labor 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration 

OSHA 3088 
2001 (Revised) 






Report Documentation Page 


Report Date 

Report Type 

Dates Covered (from... to) 

00002001 

N/A 

- 


Title and Subtitle 

How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and 
Evacuations 


Author(s) 


Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) 

U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health 
Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, 

DC 20210 

Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name(s) and 
Address(es) 

Distribution/Availability Statement 

Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 

Supplementary Notes 
Abstract 

Nobody expects an emergency or disaster especially one that affects them, their employees, and their 
business personally. Yet the simple truth is that emergencies and disasters can strike anyone, anytime, and 
anywhere. You and your employees could be forced to evacuate your company when you least expect it. 
This booklet is designed to help you, the employer, plan for that possibility. The best way to protect 
yourself, your workers, and your business is to expect the unexpected and develop a well-thought-out 
emergency action plan to guide you when immediate action is necessary. 


Subject Terms 


Report Classification 

unclassified 

Classification of this page 

unclassified 

Classification of Abstract 

unclassified 

Limitation of Abstract 

UU 


Contract Number 
Grant Number 
Program Element Number 
Project Number 
Task Number 
Work Unit Number 

Performing Organization Report Number 

OSHA 3088 

Sponsor/Monitor’s Acronym(s) 
Sponsor/Monitor’s Report Number(s) 


Number of Pages 

25 






This booklet provides a generic overview of a standards- 
related topic. This publication does not alter or determine 
compliance responsibilities, which are described in the 
OSHA standards and the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act. Because interpretations and enforcement 
policy may change over time, the best sources for 
additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements 
are current administrative interpretations and decisions 
by the Occupational Safety and Health Review 
Commission and the courts. This publication is in the 
public domain and may be reproduced fully or partially 
without permission. Source credit is requested but not 
required. 

OSHA will make this information available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Call (202) 693-1999. 


How to Plan for 
Workplace Emergencies 
and Evacuations 



U.S. Department of Labor 
Elaine L. Chao, Secretary 

John L. Henshaw, Assistant Secretary 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 

OSHA 3088 
2001 (Revised) 



Contents 


Page 


Introduction. 

W hat is a workplace emergency?. 

How do you protect yourself, your employees, and your business? 

W hat is an emergency action plan? . 

W hat should your emergency action plan include?. 

H ow do you alert employees to an emergency?. 

H ow do you develop an evacuation policy and procedures?. 

U nder what conditions should you call for an evacuation?. 

W hat is the role of coordinators and evacuation wardens during an emerg 

H ow do you establish evacuation routes and exits?. 

H ow do you account for employees after an evacuation?. 

H ow should you plan for rescue operations? . 

W hat medical assistance should you provide during an emergency? .... 

W hat role should employees play in your emergency action plan?. 

W hat employee information should your plan include?. 

W hat type of training do your employees need?. 

H ow often do you need to train your employees? . 

W hat does your plan need to include about hazardous substances? ... 

W hat special equipment should you provide for emergencies?. 

H ow do you choose appropriate respirators and other equipment?.... 

W ho should you coordinate with when drafting your emergency action 

W hat are 0 SH A's requirements for emergencies?. 

What other 0 SHA standards address emergency planning requirements? 

W hat assistance does 0 SH A provide?. 

W hat education and training does 0 SH A offer?. 

W hat other publications does 0 SH A offer? . 

W hat electronic services does 0 SH A provide?. 

W hat free onsite consultation does 0 SH A provide?. 

W hat are the Voluntary Protection Programs?. 

W hat partnership opportunities does 0 SH A provide? 

W hat is the value of a good safety and health program? 

W hat is the role of state programs?. 

W hat other groups or associations can help me?. 


nc 


plan? 


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A ppendices: 

1. O SH A Regional and A rea 0 ffice Directory 

2. 0 SH A -A pproved Safety and H ealth Plans. 

3. 0 SH A Consultation 0 ffices. 


17 

20 

20 


V 


















































Introduction 


What is a 

workplace 

emergency? 


N obody expects an emergency or disaster - especially one that 
affects them, their employees, and their business personally. 

Yet the simple truth is that emergencies and disasters can strike 
anyone, anytime, and anywhere. You and your employees could 
be forced to evacuate your company when you least expect it. 

This booklet is designed to help you, the employer, plan for that 
possibility. The best way to protect yourself, your workers, and your 
business is to expect the unexpected and develop a well-thought- 
out emergency action plan to guide you when immediate action is 
necessary. 

A workplace emergency is an unforeseen situation that threatens 
your employees, customers, or the public; disrupts or shuts 
down your operations; or causes physical or environmental damage. 
Emergencies may be natural or manmade and include the following: 

■ Floods, 

■ H urricanes, 

■ Tornadoes, 

■ Fires, 

■ Toxic gas releases, 

- Chemical spills, 

■ Radiological accidents, 

■ Explosions, 

■ C ivil disturbances, and 

■ W orkplace violence resulting in bodily harm and trauma. 



How do you 
protect yourself, 
your employees, 
and your 
business? 


What is an 
emergency action 
plan? 


T he best way is to prepare to respond to an emergency before 
it happens. Few people can think clearly and logically in a crisis, 
so it is important to do so in advance, when you have time to be 
thorough. 

Brainstorm the worst-case scenarios. A sk yourself what you would 
do if the worst happened. W hat if a fire broke out in your boiler 
room? 0 r a hurricane hit your building head-on? 0 r a train carrying 
hazardous waste derailed while passing your loading dock? 0 nee 
you have identified potential emergencies, consider how they would 
affect you and your workers and how you would respond. 

A n emergency action plan covers designated actions employers 
and employees must take to ensure employee safety from fire 
and other emergencies. N ot all employers are required to establish 
an emergency action plan. See the flowchart on page 11 to 
determine if you are, Even if you are not specifically required to do 
so, compiling an emergency action plan is a good way to protect 
yourself, your employees, and your business during an emergency. 

Putting together a comprehensive emergency action plan that deals 
with all types of issues specific to your worksite is not difficult. 


l 




What should 
your emergency 
action plan 
include? 


You may find it beneficial to include your management team and 
employees in the process. Explain your goal of protecting lives and 
property in the event of an emergency, and ask for their help in 
establishing and implementing your emergency action plan. Their 
commitment and support are critical to the plan's success. 

W hen developing your emergency action plan, it's a good idea 
to look at a wide variety of potential emergencies that could 
occur in your workplace. It should be tailored to your worksite and 
include information about all potential sources of emergencies. 
Developing an emergency action plan means you should do a hazard 
assessment to determine what, if any, physical or chemical hazards in 
your workplaces could cause an emergency. If you have more than 
one worksite, each site should have an emergency action plan. 

A t a minimum, your emergency action plan must include the 
following: 

■ A preferred method for reporting fires and other emergencies: 

■ A n evacuation policy and procedure; 

■ Emergency escape procedures and route assignments, such as floor 
plans, workplace maps, and safe or refuge areas; 



■ N ames, titles, departments, and telephone numbers of individuals 
both within and outside your company to contact foradditional 
information orexplanation of duties and responsibilities under the 
emergency plan; 

« Procedures for employees who remain to perform or shut down 
critical plant operations, operate fire extinguishers, or perform 
other essential services that cannot be shut down for every 
emergency alarm before evacuating; and 

■ Rescue and medical duties for any workers designated to perform 
them. 

You also may want to consider designating an assembly location 

and procedures to account for all employees after an evacuation. 


2 




































































How do you 
alert employees 
to an 

emergency? 


How do you 
develop an 
evacuation policy 
and procedures? 


In addition, although they are not specifically required by 0 SH A, 
you may find it helpful to include in your plan the following: 

■ The site of an alternative communications center to be used in the 
event of a fire or explosion; and 

■ A secure on- or offsite location to store originals or duplicate 
copies of accounting records, legal documents, your employees' 
emergency contact lists, and other essential records. 

Y our plan must Include a way to alert employees, including 
disabled workers, to evacuate or take other action, and how to 
report emergencies, as required. A mong the steps you must take 
are the following: 

- M ake sure alarms are distinctive and recognized by all employees 
as a signal to evacuate the work area or perform actions identified 
in your plan; 

■ M ake available an emergency communications system such as a 
public address system, portable radio unit, or other means to 
notify employees of the emergency and to contact local law 
enforcement, the fire department, and others; and 

■ Stipulate that alarms must be able to be heard, seen, or otherwise 
perceived by everyone in the workplace. You might want to 
consider providing an auxiliary power supply in the event that 
electricity is shut off. (2 9 CFfi 1910.165(b)(2) offers more 
information on alarms.) 

A Ithough it is not specifically required by 0 SH A, you also may 
want to consider the following: 

■ U sing tactile devices to alert employees who would not otherwise 
be able to recognize an audible or visual alarm; and 

■ Providing an updated list of key personnel such as the plant 
manager or physician, in order of priority, to notify in the event of 
an emergency during off-duty hours. 

A disorganized evacuation can result in confusion, injury, and 
property damage. That is why when developing your 
emergency action plan it is important to determine the following: 

- C onditions under which an evacuation would be necessary; 

■ A clear chain of command and designation of the person in your 
business authorized to order an evacuation or shutdown. You may 
want to designate an "evacuation warden" to assist others in an 
evacuation and to account for personnel; 

■ Specific evacuation procedures, including routes and exits. Post 
these procedures where they are easily accessible to all 
employees; 

■ Procedures for assisting people with disabilities or who do not 
speak English; 

■ Designation of what, if any, employees will continue or shut down 
critical operations during an evacuation. These people must be 


3 



Under what 
conditions 
should you call 
for an 

evacuation? 


What is the 
role of 
coordinators 
and evacuation 
wardens 
during an 
emergency? 


capable of recognizing when to abandon the operation and 
evacuate themselves; and 

■ A system for accounting for personnel following an evacuation. 

C onsider employees' transportation needs for community-wide 
evacuations. 

I n the event of an emergency, local emergency officials may order 
you to evacuate your premises. In some cases, they may instruct 
you to shut off the water, gas, and electricity. If you have access to 
radio ortelevision, listen to newscasts to keep informed and follow 
whatever official orders you receive. 

In other cases, a designated 
person within your business 
should be responsible for making 
the decision to evacuate or shut 
down operations. Protecting the 
health and safety of everyone in 
the facility should be the first 
priority. In the event of a fire, an 
immediate evacuation to a 
predetermined area away from 
the facility is the best way to 
protect employees. 0 n the other 
hand, evacuating employees may 
not be the best response to an 
emergency such as a toxic gas 
release at a facility across town 
from your business. 

The type of building you work in may be a factor in your decision. 

M ost buildings are vulnerable to the effects of disasters such as 
tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, or explosions. The extent of the 
damage depends on the type of emergency and the building's 
construction. M odern factories and office buildings, for example, are 
framed in steel and are structurally more sound than neighborhood 
business premises may be. In a disaster such as a major earthquake 
or explosion, however, nearly every type of structure will be 
affected. Some buildings will collapse and others will be left with 
weakened floors and walls. 

W hen drafting your emergency action plan, you may wish to 
select a responsible individual to lead and coordinate your 
emergency plan and evacuation, It is critical that employees know 
who the coordinator is and understand that person has the authority 
to make decisions during emergencies. 

The coordinator should be responsible forthe following: 

■ A ssessing the situation to determine whether an emergency exists 
requiring activation of your emergency procedures; 

■ Supervising all efforts in the area, including evacuating personnel; 



4 



How do you 
establish 
evacuation 
routes and 
exits? 


How do you 
account for 
employees 
after an 
evacuation? 


■ Coordinating outside emergency services, such as medical aid and 
local fire departments, and ensuring that they are available and 
notified when necessary; and 

■ Directing the shutdown of plant operations when required. 

You also may find it beneficial to coordinate the action plan with 
other employers when several employers share the worksite, 
although 0 SH A standards do not specifically require this. 

In addition to a coordinator, you may want to designate evacuation 
wardens to help move employees from danger to safe areas during 
an emergency. G enerally, one warden for every 2 0 employees 
should be adequate, and the appropriate number of wardens should 
be available at all times during working hours. 

Employees designated to assist in emergency evacuation procedures 
should be trained in the complete workplace layout and various 
alternative escape routes. A II employees and those designated to 
assist in emergencies should be made aware of employees with 
special needs who may require extra assistance, how to use the 
buddy system, and hazardous areas to avoid during an emergency 
evacuation. 

W hen preparing your emergency action plan, designate primary 
and secondary evacuation routes and exits. To the extent 
possible under the conditions, ensure that evacuation routes and 
emergency exits meet the following conditions: 

■ C learly marked and well lit; 

■ W ide enough to accommodate the number of evacuating 
personnel; 

■ U nobstructed and clear of debris at all times; and 
■ U nlikely to expose evacuating personnel to additional hazards. 

If you prepare drawings that show evacuation routes and exits, post 
them prominently for all employees to see. 

A ccounting for all employees following an evacuation is critical. 

C onfusion in the assembly areas can lead to delays in rescuing 
anyone trapped in the building, or unnecessary and dangerous 
search-and-rescue operations. To ensure the fastest, most accurate 
accountability of your employees, you may want to consider 
including these steps in your emergency action plan: 

■ Designate assembly areas where employees should gather after 
evacuating; 

- Take a head count after the evacuation, Identify the names and last 
known locations of anyone not accounted for and pass them to the 
official in charge; 

- Establish a method for accounting for non-employees such as 
suppliers and customers; and 


5 



How should you 
plan for rescue 
operations? 


What medical 
assistance 
should you 
provide during 
an emergency? 


What role 
should 

employees play 
in your 
emergency 
action plan? 


■ Establish procedures for further evacuation in case the incident 
expands. This may consist of sending employees home by normal 
means or providing them with transportation to an offsite location. 

I t takes more than just willing hands to save lives. U ntrained 
individuals may end anger themselves and those they are trying to 
rescue. For this reason, it is generally wise to leave rescue work to 
those who are trained, equipped, and certified to conduct rescues. 

If you have operations that take place in permit-required confined 
spaces, you may want your emergency action plan to include rescue 
procedures that specifically address entry into each confined space. 
(See also 0 SH A Publication 3138, Permit-Required Confined 
Spaces, and the N ational Institute for 0 ccupational Safety and 
H ealth (N10 SH) Publication 8 0-1 0 6, Criteria fora Recommended 
Standard, ,, 1/1/ orking in C onfined Spaces.) 

I f your company does not have a formal medical program, you may 
want to investigate ways to provide medical and first-aid services. 

If medical facilities are available near your worksite, you can make 
arrangements for them to handle emergency cases. Provide your 
employees with a written emergency medical procedure to minimize 
confusion during an emergency. 

If an infirmary, clinic, or hospital is not close to your workplace, 
ensure that onsite person(s) have adequate training in first aid. The 
A merican Red Cross, some insurance providers, local safety 
councils, fire departments, or other resources may be able to 
provide this training. Treatment of a serious injury should begin 
within 3 to 4 minutes of the accident. 

Consult with a physician to order appropriate first-aid supplies for 
emergencies. M edical personnel must be accessible to provide 
advice and consultation in resolving health problems that occur in the 
workplace. Establish a relationship with a local ambulance service so 
transportation is readily available for emergencies. 

T he best emergency action plans include employees in the 
planning process, specify what employees should do during an 
emergency, and ensure that employees receive proper training for 
emergencies. W hen you include your employees in your planning, 
encourage them to offer suggestions about potential hazards, worst- 
case scenarios, and proper emergency responses. A fteryou develop 
the plan, review it with your employees to make sure everyone 
knows what to do before, during and after an emergency. 

Keep a copy of your emergency action plan in a convenient location 
where employees can get to it, or provide all employees a copy. If 
you have 10 or fewer employees, you may communicate your plan 
orally. 


6 



What employee 
information 
should your plan 
include? 


I n the event of an emergency, it could be important to have ready 
access to important personal information about your employees. 
This includes their home telephone numbers, the names and 
telephone numbers of their next of kin, and medical information. 


What type of 
training do your 
employees 
need? 


E ducate your employees about the types of emergencies that may 
occur and train them in the proper course of action. The size of 
your workplace and workforce, processes used, materials handled, 
and the availability of onsite or outside resources will determine your 
training requirements. Be sure all your employees understand the 
function and elements of your emergency action plan, including 
types of potential emergencies, reporting procedures, alarm systems, 
evacuation plans, and shutdown procedures. Discuss any special 
hazards you may have onsite such as flammable materials, toxic 
chemicals, radioactive sources, or water-reactive substances. C learly 
communicate to your employees who will be in charge during an 
emergency to minimize confusion. 

G eneral training for your employees should address the following: 

■ Individual roles and responsibilities: 

■ Threats, hazards, and protective actions; 

■ N otification, warning, and communications procedures; 

■ M eans for locating family members in an emergency; 

■ Emergency response procedures; 

■ Evacuation, shelter, and accountability procedures; 

■ Location and use of common emergency equipment; and 
■ Emergency shutdown procedures. 

You also may wish to train your employees in first-aid procedures, 
including protection against bloodborne pathogens; respiratory 
protection, including use of an escape-only respirator; and methods 
for preventing unauthorized access to the site. 

0 nee you have reviewed your emergency action plan with your 
employees and everyone has had the proper training, it is a good 
idea to hold practice drills as often as necessary to keep employees 
prepared, Include outside resources such as fire and police 
departments when possible. A fter each drill, gather management and 
employees to evaluate the effectiveness of the drill. Identify the 
strengths and weaknesses of your plan and work to improve it. 


7 




How often do 
you need to 
train your 
employees? 


What does your 
plan need to 
include about 
hazardous 
substances? 


R eview your plan with all your employees and consider requiring 
annual training in the plan. A Iso offer training when you do the 
following: 

■ Develop your initial plan; 

■ H ire new employees; 

- Introduce new equipment, materials, or processes into the 
workplace that affect evacuation routes; 

■ C hange the layout or design of the facility; and 
■ Revise or update your emergency procedures. 


N o matter what kind of business you run, you could potentially 
face an emergency involving hazardous materials such as 
flammable, explosive, toxic, noxious, corrosive, biological, 
oxidizable, or radioactive substances. 

The source of the hazardous substances could be external, such as a 
local chemical plant that catches on fire or an oil truck that overturns 
on a nearby freeway. The source may be within your physical plant. 
Regardless of the source, these events could have a direct impact on 
your employees and your 
business and should be 
addressed by your emergency 
action plan. 

If you use or store hazardous 
substances at your worksite, 
you face an increased risk of 
an emergency involving 
hazardous materials and should 
address this possibility in your emergency action plan. 0 SH A's 
H azard CommunicationStandard (29 CFR 1 9 1 0.1 2 0 0) requires 
employers who use hazardous chemicals to inventory them, keep the 
manufacturer-supplied M aterial Safety Data Sheets (M SDSs) for 
them in a place accessible to workers, label containers of these 
chemicals with their hazards, and train employees in ways to protect 
themselves against those hazards. A good way to start is to 
determine from your hazardous chemical inventory what hazardous 
chemicals you use and to gather the M SDSs for the chemicals. 

M SDSs describe the hazards that a chemical may present, list the 
precautions to take when handling, storing, or using the substance, 
and outline emergency and first-aid procedures. 

For specific information on how to respond to emergencies involving 
hazardous materials and hazardous waste operations, refer to 2 9 
CFR, Part 1910.120(q) and 0 SH A Publication 3114, 

H azardous Waste and Emergency Response 0 perations. Both are 
available online at www.osha.gov. 



8 



What special 
equipment 
should you 
provide for 
emergencies? 


How do you 

choose 

appropriate 

respirators 

and other 

equipment? 


Who should you 
coordinate with 
when drafting 
your emergency 
action plan? 


Y our employees may need personal protective equipment to 
evacuate during an emergency. Personal protective equipment 
must be based on the potential hazards in the workplace. A ssess 
your workplace to determine potential hazards and the appropriate 
controls and protective equipment for those hazards. Personal 
protective equipment may include items such as the following: 

■ Safety glasses, goggles, 
or face shields for eye 
protection; 

■ H ard hats and safety 
shoes for head and 
foot protection; 

■ Proper respirators; 

■ C hemical suits, gloves, 
hoods, and boots for 
body protection from 
chemicals; 

■ Special body protection for abnormal environmental conditions 
such as extreme temperatures; and 

■ A ny other special equipment or warning devices necessary for 
hazards unique to your worksite. 

C onsult with health and safety professionals before making any 
purchases. Respirators selected should be appropriate to the 
hazards in your workplace, meetO SHA standards criteria, and be 
certified by the N ational Institute for 0 ccupational Safety and 
H ealth. 

Respiratory protection may be necessary if your employees must 
pass through toxic atmospheres of dust, mists, gases, or vapors, or 
through oxygen-deficient areas while evacuating. There are four 
basic categories of respirators for use in different conditions. A II 
respirators must be N10 SH -certified under the current 29 CFR 
1910.134. See also 0 SH A's Small Entity Compliance 6 uide for 
Respiratory Protection, 1 99 9, onlineatwww.osha.gov. 

A lthough there is no specific 0 SH A requirement to do so, 
you may find it useful to coordinate your efforts with any 
other companies or employee groups in your building to ensure the 
effectiveness of your plan, In addition, if you rely on assistance from 
local emergency responders such as the fire department, local 
H A ZM AT teams, or other outside responders, you may find it 
useful to coordinate your emergency plans with these organizations. 
This ensures that you are aware of the capabilities of these outside 
responders and that they know what you expect of them. 



9 









What are OSHA's 
requirements for 
emergencies? 


S ome of the key 0 SH A requirements for emergencies can be 
found in the following sections of the agency's G eneral Industry 
0 ccupational Safety and H ealth Standards(29 CFR 1910). 

Subpart E - M eans of Egress 

1910.37 M eans of egress 

1910.38 Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans 
Appendix M eans of egress 

Subpart H - H azardous M aterials 

1910.119 Processsafety management of highly hazardous chemicals 
1910.120 H azardous waste operations and emergency response 

Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment 

1910.133 Eye and face protection 

1910.134 Respiratory protection 

1910.135 O ccupational head protection 

1910.136 O ccupational foot protection 

1910.138 H and protection 

SubpartJ - G eneral Environmental Controls 

1910.146 Permit-required confined spaces 
1910.147 C ontrol of hazardous energy sources 

Subpart K - M edical and First A id 

1910.151 M edical services and first aid 


Subpart L - Fire Protection 

1910.155-15 6 Fire protection and fire brigades 

1910.157 -163 Fire suppression equipment 

1910.164 Fire detection systems 

1910.165 Employee alarm systems 
A ppendices A -E of Subpart L 


Subpart R - Special Industries, Electrical PowerG eneration, 
Transmission, and Distribution 


10 


Subpart Z - Toxic and H azardous Substances 

1910.1030 Bloodborne pathogens 

1910.1200 FI azard communication 



What other 

OSHA standards 

address 

emergency 

planning 

requirements? 


I n addition to 2 9 CFR 1910.38 (a), several other 0 SH A 
standards address emergency planning requirements. These include 
the2 9 CFR 1910.120(q), H azardousWasteO perationsand 
Emergency Response; 2 9 C FR 1910.15 6, Fire Brigades ; and 2 9 
CFR 1910.146(k), Permit-Required Confined Spaces. The 
OSHA Publication 312 2, Principal Emergency Response and 
Preparedness Requirements in 0 SHA Standards and G uidance for 
Safety and FI ealth Problems, provides a broad view of emergency 
planning requirements across OSHA standards, 


Standards That Refer to 1910.38(a) Emergency Action Plan (EAP) 

and Additional Emergency Planning Procedures 


Do you need 
under 1910. 


an EAP 
38(a)? 


f 


Are you required 
to comply with 
1910.157 
Portable Fire 
Extinguishers? 


I 


Do you use a 
fixed fire 
suppression 
system? 


Are you required 
to comply with 
1910.119 
Process Safety 
Management for 
Highly Hazardous 
Chemicals? 


If all of your 
employees 
evacuate 
during afire 
emergency... 


If some 
employees 
fight fires, 
but others 
evacuate 
during a fire 
emergency... 


f 


If you have 
a total 
flooding 
system 
where the 
extinguishing 
agent's 

concentrations 
exceed levels 
discussed in 
1910.162(b)(5) 
and (b)(6)... 


Develop an EAP and 
comply with 1910.157 (c), 
(e), (f), (g)(3) and (g)(4). 


1 


If the 
alarms or 
devices 
initiated by 
fire detector 
actuation are 
delayed >30 
seconds... 


Are you required 
to comply with 
1910.1047 
Ethylene Oxide, 
1910.1050 
Methylenedianiline, 
or 1910.1051 
1,3-Butadiene? 


Develop an EAP and 
include procedures for 
handling small releases, 
plus you may be subject 
to 1910.120(a), (p) and (q). 


z 


Are you required 
to comply with 
1910.120 
Hazardous Waste 
Operations and 
Emergency 
Response 
paragraphs (1), 
(p)(8), or (q)? 


Are you required 
to comply with 
1910.272 
Grain Handling 
Facilities? 


If all 

employees 

evacuate 

and 

none 

provide 

emergency 

response... 


Develop an EAP and 
address the delay in it. 


Develop an EAP. 


Develop an EAP. 


Develop an EAP. 


Develop an EAP. 


Develop an EAP and a 
Fire Prevention Plan under 
1910.38(b), plus you may 
have to comply with 
1910.157(e) and (f). 


11 

























































What assistance 
does OSHA 
provide? 


What education 
and training 
does OSHA 
offer? 


OSHA provides a wide range of references and services to help 
employers and employees improve workplace health and safety and 
comply with regulatory requirements. These include the following: 

■ Education and training opportunities, 

■ Publications, 

■ Electronic services, 

■ Free onsite consultation services, and 

■ Participation in the Voluntary Protection Programs. 

To file a complaint, report an emergency, or seek OSHA advice, 
assistance, or products, call 1-8 0 0-3 2 1 0 SH A or your nearest 
regional office, listed in A ppendix 1. The teletypewriter (TTY) 
number is 1 -8 7 7 -8 8 9-5 6 2 7. 

Information on these and other OSHA programs and services is 
posted on the agency website at www.osha.gov. 

0 SHA area offices offer a variety of information services including 
publications, audiovisual aids, technical advice, and speakers for 
special engagements. 

In addition, 0 SH A'sTraining Institute in Des Plaines, IL, provides 
basic and advanced courses in safety and health for federal and state 
compliance officers, state 
consultants, federal agency 
employees, and private-sector 
employers, employees, and their 
representatives. 

Due to the high demand for 
OSHA Training Institute courses, 

OSHA Training Institute 
Education Centers also offer them 
at sites throughout the U nited 
States. These centers are nonprofit colleges, universities, and other 
organizations selected through a competitive process. 

OSHA also provides grants to nonprofit organizations to conduct 
specialized workplace training and education not available from other 
sources. G rants are awarded annually. Recipients contribute 2 0 
percent of the total grant cost. 

For more information on grants, training, and education, contact the 
0 SH A Training Institute, 0 ffice of Training and Education by mail 
at 1 5 5 5 Times Drive, Des Plaines IL 6 0 0 1 8; by phone at 
(84 7) 2 9 7-48 1 0, o r by fax at (8 4 7 ) 2 9 7 -4 8 74. 



12 







What other 
publications 
does OSHA 
offer? 


What electronic 
services does 
OSHA provide? 


0 SHA offers more than 100 documents, including brochures, fact 
sheets, posters, pocket cards, flyers, technical documents, and a 
quarterly magazine. These documents are available online at 
www.osha.gov or by calling (202) 693-1888. A mong the titles 
are the following: 

- A ccess to M edical and Exposure Records - OSHA 3110 

- A IIA boutO SHA - O SHA 2056 

■ C hemical H azard C ommunication - OSHA 3084 

- C onsultation Services for the Employer - OSHA 3047 

■ C ontrolling Electrical H azard s - OSHA 3075 

■ Employer Rights and Responsibilities Following an O SHA 
Inspection - O SHA 3000 

■ Employee 1/1/ orkp lace Rights - O SHA 302 1 

■ H azard ous 1/1/ aste and Emergency Response - OSHA 3114 

■ 1 ob H azard A nalysis - OSHA 3071 

■ OSHA H and book for Small Business - OSHA 2 209 

- Personal Protective Equipment - OSHA 3 077 

- Respirator Protection - OSHA 3 07 9 

O SH A standards, interpretations, directives, and additional 
information are posted on the agency's website at www.osha.gov. 

V isits to the site continue to increase, with nearly 1.4 million visitors 
using the site each month for a total of 2 3 million hits. 

A mong the popular Internet offerings are electronic tools to help 
small businesses understand and comply with OSHA regulations and 
promote safety and health in their workplaces. These e-Tools include 
the Expert A dvisors, interactive software programs that help 
businesses identify workplace hazards. By answering a few simple 
questions on their computer screens, employers get reliable answers 
on how OSHA regulations apply to their unique work sites. 

A nother popular Internet product is eC A TS, 0 SH A's electronic 
Compliance A ssistance Tools, which help businesses identify and 
correct workplace hazards. A totally new generation of e-Tools 
coming soon will combine both decision tree logic software and 
graphics, giving users enhanced capabilities and the best of both 
worlds. 

In addition, a wide variety of 0 SH A materials including standards, 
interpretations, directives, and more can be purchased on CD-RO M 
from the G overnment Printing 0 ffice. To order, write to 
Superintendent of Documents, U ,S. G overnment Printing 0 ffice, 

W ashington, DC 2 0 4 0 2. Specify 0 SHA Regulations, Documents 
and Technical Information on CD-RO M , (0 RDT), S/N 7 2 9 - 
1 3 0 0 0 0 0 -5. The price is $45 per year ($ 5 7.5 0 overseas); single 
copy $17 ($21.25 overseas). 


13 




What free onsite 
consultation 
services does 
OSHA provide? 


What are the 
Voluntary 
Protection 
Programs? 


T he 0 SH A C onsultation Service offers free onsite safety and 
health consultation services to help employers establish and 
maintain safe and healthful workplaces. The service is funded largely 
by 0 SH A and is delivered by professional safety and health 
consultants within state governments. Developed primarily for smaller 
employers with more hazardous operations, the service includes an 
appraisal of all mechanical systems, physical work practices, 
environmental workplace hazards, and all aspects of the employer's 
job safety and health program. 

The onsite consultation program is separate from 0 SH A's 
inspection efforts. No penalties are proposed or citations issued for 
safety or health problems identified by an 0 SH A consultant. The 
service is confidential. The employer's and firm's name, and any 
information about the workplace, including any unsafe or unhealthful 
working conditions the consultant identifies, are not reported 
routinely to the OSHA inspection staff. The employer, however, is 
obligated to correct any serious job safety and health hazards 
identified in a timely manner, and commits to do so when 
requesting the service. 

For more information, see A ppendix 3 for a list of contact 
telephone numbers. 

T he Voluntary Protection Programs, orV PPs, recognize and 
promote effective safety and health program management. 

C ompanies in the V PP have strong safety and health programs, 
implemented and managed cooperatively by their management and 
laborforces in cooperation with OSHA. Sites approved forV PP's 
three programs - Star, M erit, and Demonstration - meet and 
maintain rigorous standards. Benefits to participants include the 
following: 

■ Lost-workday case rates generally 60 to 8 0 percent below 
industry averages; 

■ Reduced workers' compensation and other injury- and illness- 
related costs; 

■ Improved employee motivation to work safely, leading to better 
quality and productivity; 

■ Positive community recognition and interaction; 

■ Further improvement and revitalization of already good safety and 
health programs; and 

■ Partnership with 0 SH A . 

For more information, contact the V PP manager in your OSHA 
regional office, visit 0 SH A's website, or see A ppendix 1 for a list 
of telephone numbers, 


14 



What 

partnership 
opportunities 
does OSHA 
provide? 


What is the value 
of a good safety 
and health 
program? 


What is the role 
of state 
programs? 


What other 
groups or 
associations can 
help me? 


0 SH A has initiated partnerships with employers, employees, and 
employee representatives in a wide range of industries to encourage, 
assist, and recognize efforts to eliminate workplace hazards. 
Participants work together to identify a common goal, develop plans 
to achieve it, and implement those plans in a cooperative way. 
Partnerships can transform relationships between OSHA and an 
employer or entire industry. Former adversaries recognize that 
working together to solve workplace safety and health problems is to 
everyone's advantage. 

For more information, contact your OSHA regional office. See 
A ppendix 1 for a list of telephone numbers. 

A good, effectively managed worker safety and health program 
can be a big factor in reducing work-related injuries and 
illnesses and their related costs. OSHA offers voluntary guidelines 
to help employers and employees in workplaces it covers develop 
effective safety and health programs. Safety and H ealth Program 
M anagement G uidelines (Federal Registers 4 (1 8): 3 9 0 8 -3 9 1 6, 

J anuary 2 6,1 9 8 9) identifies four general elements critical to a 
successful safety and health management program. These are: 

■ M anagement leadership and employee involvement; 

■ A n analysis of worksite hazards; 

- U se of hazard prevention and control initiatives; and 
■ Safety and health training. 

These guidelines are posted on the OSHA website at 
www.osha-slc.gov/FedReg_osha_data/FED 1 9 8 9 0 1 2 6.html. See 
also 0 SH A's Safety and H ealth M anagement Systems eC A T at 
w w w. osha-slc. gov/S LT C /safetyhealthecat/ind ex. html. 

T he 0 ccupational Safety and H ealth A ct of 1 9 70 encourages 
states to develop and operate their own job safety and health 
plans. States that do so must adopt standards and enforce 
requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements. 
Twenty-four states and two territories have adopted their own plans, 
three of which cover only public employees. For more information, 
visit 0 SH A's website and see A ppendix 2 for a listing of states and 
territories with approved plans. 

V arious organizations can provide you with safety and health 
information that may help you in formulating your emergency 
action plan. A few are listed here. 

Safety Data Sheets, G uides and M anuals 

- A IH A Hygienic G uide Series. A merican Industrial H ygiene 
A ssociation, 2 7 0 0 Prosperity A venue, Fairfax, V A 2 2 0 3 1. 

• ANSI Standards, 111 Series, A cceptable Concentrations of 
Toxic Dusts and G ases. A merican N ational Standards Institute, 

11W est 4 2 nd Street, New York, NY 1 0 0 3 6. 


15 



■ A STM Standards and Related M aterial. A merican Society for 
Testing and M aterials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 
19103. 

Safety Standards and Specifications G roups 

■ A merican N ational Standards Institute, 11 West42 nd Street, 

N ew York, N Y 1 0 0 3 6. C oordinates and administers the federal 
voluntary standardization system in the U nited States. 

- A merican Society for Testing and M aterials, 1916 Race Street, 
Philadelphia, PA 19103. The world's largest source of voluntary 
consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services. 

Fire Protection 0 rganizations 

■ Factory Insurance A ssociation, 85 W oodland Street, H artford, 

CT 0 6 1 0 5. Composed of capital stock insurance companies that 
provide engineering, inspection, and loss-adjustment services. 

■ Factory M utual System, 1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike, 

N orwood, M A 0 2 0 6 2. A n industrial fire protection, 
engineering, and inspection bureau established by mutual fire 
insurance companies. 

■ N ational Fire Protection A ssociation, 4 7 0 Batterymarch Park, 

Q uincy, M A 0 2 2 6 9. A clearinghouse for information on fire 
protection and prevention as well as N FPA standards. 

■ U nderwriterLaboratories, Inc., 2 0 7 East O hio Street, Chicago, 

IL 6 0 6 1 1. A nonprofit organization that publishes annual lists of 
manufacturers that provide products meeting appropriate standards. 



Appendices 


A ppendixl 

0 SH A Regional and A rea 0 ffice Directory 

0 SH A Regional 0 ffices 

REG 10 N I 

(CT,* M E, M A , N H, Rl, VT*) 
j FK Federal Building, Room E340 
Boston, M A 0 2 2 0 3 
(6 1 7 ) 5 6 5 -9 8 6 0 

REG 10 N II 

(N J ,* PR,* VI*) 

2 01 VarickStreet, Room67 0 
N ew York, N Y 10014 
( 2 1 2 ) 3 3 7 -2 3 7 8 

REG 10 N III 

(DE, DC, M D,* PA ,* VA ,* W V) 

The Curtis Center 
170 S. Independence M all W est 
Suite 7 4 0 West 

Philadelphia, PA 1 9 1 0 6-3 3 0 9 
(2 1 5 ) 8 6 1 -4 9 0 0 

REG 10 N IV 

(A L, FL, G A , KY,* M S, N C,* SC,* TN *) 

A tlanta Federal C enter 
61 Forsyth Street, SW, Room 6T5 0 
A tlanta, G A 3 0 3 0 3 
(4 04 ) 5 6 2 -2 3 0 0 

REG 10 N V 

(IL, IN ,* M I,* M N ,* 0 H , W I) 

2 3 0 South Dearborn Street, Room 3 2 44 
Chicago, IL 6 0 6 04 
( 3 1 2 ) 3 5 3 -2 2 2 0 

REG 10 N VI 

(A R, LA , N M ,* 0 K, TX) 

5 2 5 G riffin Street, Room 60 2 

Dallas, TX 7 5 2 0 2 

(2 1 4 ) 7 6 7 -4 7 3 1 or 4 7 3 6 x2 2 4 

REG 10 N VII 

(IA ,* KS, M 0 , N E) 

City Center Square 
110 0 M ain Street, Suite 80 0 
Kansas City, MO 64105 
(8 1 6 ) 4 2 6 -5 8 6 1 

REG 10 N VIII 

(CO , M T, N D, SD, UT,* W Y*) 

1 9 9 9 Broadway, Suite 1690 
Denver, CO 8 0 2 0 2 -5 7 1 6 
(3 0 3 ) 844 -1 6 0 0 


17 




REG 10 N IX 

(A merican Samoa, AZ,* CA,* HI, N V*) 

71 Stevenson Street, Room420 
San Francisco, CA 94105 
(4 1 5 ) 9 7 5 -4 3 1 0 

REG 10 N X 

(A K,* ID, 0 R,* W A *) 

1111 Third A venue, Suite 715 
Seattle, WA 9 8 1 0 1 -3 2 1 2 
( 2 0 6 ) 5 5 3 -5 9 3 0 

* These states and territories operate their own 0 SH A -approved job 
safety and health programs (C onnecticut, N ew j ersey, and N ew York 
plans cover public employees only). States with approved programs 
must have a standard that is identical to, or at least as effective as, the 
federal standard. 


0 SH A A rea 0 ffices 

Birmingham, A L. 

M obile, A L. 

A nchorage, A K. 

Phoenix, A Z. 

Little Rock, A R. 

San Diego, CA. 

Sacramento, C A . 

Denver, CO . 

Englewood, CO . 

Bridgeport, CT. 

H artford, CT. 

W ilmington, DE. 

Fort Lauderdale, FL. 

j acksonville, FL. 

Tampa, FL. 

Savannah, G A. 

Smyrna, G A . 

Tucker, G A . 

Boise, ID . 

Calumet City, IL. 

Des Plaines, IL. 

Fairview H eights, IL. 

N orth A urora, IL. 

Peoria, IL. 

Indianapolis, IN . 

DesM oines, IA . 

W ichita, KS. 

Frankfort, KY. 

Baton Rouge, LA. 

Bangor, M E. 

Portland, M E. 

A ugust, M E. 

Linthicum, M D. 


.(2 0 5 ) 7 3 1 -1 5 3 4 

. (3 3 4) 44 1 -6 1 3 1 

. ( 9 0 7 ) 2 7 1 -5 1 5 2 

.(60 2 ) 640-2 348 

.(5 0 1 ) 3 24-62 9 1(5 8 1 8) 

.(6 1 9) 5 5 7-5 909 

.(9 1 6) 5 66-7 47 1 

.(3 0 3 ) 844-5 2 85 

.(3 0 3 ) 843-4 5 0 0 

.( 2 0 3 ) 5 7 9-5 5 8 1 

.(86 0) 2 40-3 1 5 2 

.( 3 0 2 ) 5 7 3 -6 5 1 8 

.(95 4) 4 24-0 24 2 

.(904) 2 3 2-2 89 5 

. (8 1 3 ) 6 2 6-1 1 7 7 

.(9 1 2 ) 6 5 2-4 3 9 3 

.(7 7 0) 9 84-8 7 0 0 

. (7 7 0) 49 3-6644/67 42 

.(2 0 8) 3 2 1 -2 96 0 

.(7 0 8) 8 9 1 -3 80 0 

.(84 7 ) 8 03 -4 80 0 

. (6 1 8) 6 3 2 -8 6 1 2 

.(63 0) 8 96-8 7 0 0 

.(3 0 9) 6 7 1 -7 03 3 

. ( 3 1 7 ) 2 2 6 -7 2 9 0 

. (5 1 5 ) 2 84-4 7 94 

.(3 1 6) 2 69-6 644 

.( 5 0 2 ) 2 2 7 -7 0 2 4 

.(2 2 5 ) 3 89-04 74/04 3 1 

.(2 0 7 ) 94 1 -8 1 7 7 

.( 2 0 7 ) 7 8 0 -3 1 7 8 

.(2 0 7 ) 6 2 2 -84 1 7 

.(4 1 0) 8 65-2 0 5 5/2 0 5 6 








































Braintree, M A . 

(6 1 7) 5 65 -6 92 4 

M ethuen, M A. 

(6 1 7) 5 65 -8 1 1 0 

Springfield, M A . 

(4 1 3) 7 85 -0 1 2 3 

Lansing, M 1. 

(5 1 7 ) 3 2 7 -0 9 0 4 

M inneapolis, M N . 

(6 1 2) 6 64-5 46 0 

J ackson, MS. 

(6 0 1) 9 65 -4 60 6 

Kansas C ity, M 0 . 

(8 1 6) 4 83 -9 5 3 1 

St. Louis, MO . 

(3 14) 4 2 5 -4 2 8 9 

Billings, M T. 

(4 06) 2 47 -7 494 

Raleigh, N C. 

(9 1 9) 8 5 6 -4 7 7 0 

0 maha, N E. 

(4 02) 2 2 1 -3 1 8 2 

Carson City, N V. 

(7 7 5) 8 85 -6 96 3 

Concord, N H . 

(6 03) 2 2 5 -1 62 9 

A venel, N j . 

(7 3 2 ) 7 5 0 -3 2 7 0 

H asbrouck H eights, N J . 

(2 0 1) 2 88-1 7 0 0 

M arlton, N j . 

(6 09) 7 5 7 -5 1 8 1 

Parsippany, N j . 

(9 7 3) 2 63 -1 00 3 

A Ibuquerque, N M . 

(5 05) 2 48 -5 3 0 2 

A Ibany, NY. 

(5 1 8) 4 64-4 3 3 8 

Bayside, NY. 

(7 1 8) 2 7 9-9 06 0 

Bow mansville, NY. 

(7 1 6) 6 84-3 89 1 

N orth Syracuse, NY. 

(3 1 5) 4 5 1 -0 80 8 

Tarrytown, NY . 

(9 14) 5 24-7 5 1 0 

W estbury, NY. 

(5 1 6) 3 34-3 344 

Bismark, N D. 

(7 0 1) 2 5 0 -4 5 2 1 

Cincinnati,OH . 

(513) 841-4132 

Cleveland,OH . 

( 2 1 6 ) 5 2 2 -3 8 1 8 

Columbus,OH . 

(6 14) 4 69-5 5 8 2 

Toledo, 0 H . 

(4 1 9) 2 5 9-7 54 2 

0 klahoma C ity, OK. 

(4 0 5 ) 2 3 1 -5 3 5 1 /5 3 8 9 

Portland, 0 R. 

( 5 0 3 ) 3 2 6 -2 2 5 1 

A llentown, PA . 

(6 1 0) 7 7 6-05 9 2 

Erie, PA . 

(8 14) 8 3 3 -5 7 5 8 

H arrisburg, PA. 

( 7 1 7 ) 7 8 2 -3 9 0 2 

Philadelphia, PA . 

(2 1 5) 5 97 -495 5 

Pittsburgh, PA . 

(4 1 2) 3 95 -490 3 

Wilkes-Barre, PA. 

(5 7 0) 8 2 6 -6 5 3 8 

G uaynabo, PR. 

(7 8 7 ) 2 7 7 -1 5 6 0 

Providence, Rl. 

(4 0 1) 5 2 8 -466 9 

Columbia, SC. 

(8 03) 7 65 -5 904 

N ashville, TN. 

(6 1 5) 7 8 1 -542 3 

A ustin, TX. 

(5 1 2 ) 9 1 6 -5 7 8 3/5 7 8 8 

CorpusChristi, TX. 

(5 1 2) 888-342 0 

Dallas, TX. 

(2 14) 3 2 0-2 40 0/2 5 5 8 

El Paso, TX. 

(9 1 5) 5 34-62 5 1 

Fort W orth, TX . 

(8 1 7) 42 8 -247 0 
(48 5 -7 64 7 ) 

H ouston, TX. 

(2 8 1) 5 9 1 -2 43 8/2 7 87 

H ouston, TX. 

(2 8 1) 2 86-0 5 8 3/0 5 84 

Lubbock, TX. 

(8 06) 4 7 2 -7 68 1/7 685 

Salt Lake C ity, UT. 

(8 0 1) 5 3 0-690 1 


19 




















































N orfolk, VA . 

(7 5 7) 44 1 -3 8 2 0 

Bellevue, W A . 

(2 0 6 ) 5 5 3 -7 5 2 0 

C harleston, W V . 

(3 04) 34 7-5 9 3 7 

A ppleton, W 1. 

(9 2 0) 7 3 4-45 2 1 

EauClaire, W 1. 

( 7 1 5 ) 8 3 2 -9 0 1 9 

M adison, W 1. 

(6 08) 2 64-5 3 88 

M ilwaukee, W 1. 

(4 14 ) 2 9 7-3 3 1 5 


A ppendix 2 

0 SH A -A pproved Safety and H ealth Plans 


j uneau, A K. 

Phoenix, A Z. 

San Francisco, C A . 

W ethersfield, CT. 

H onolulu, HI. 

Indianapolis, ID. 

Des M oines, IA . 

Indianapolis, IN . 

Frankfort, KY. 

Baltimore, M D. 

Lansing, M I. 

St. Paul, M N . 

Raleigh, N C. 

Trenton, N j . 

Santa Fe, N M . 

C arson C ity, N V. 

A Ibany, NY. 

Salem, OR. 

H ato Rey, PR. 

Columbia, SC. 

N ashville, TN. 

Salt Lake City, UT. 

Richmond, VA. 

Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 
M ontpelierVT. 

0 lympia, W A. 

C heyenne, W Y. 


... (9 07) 46 5-2 7 00 
... (6 02) 54 2-5 7 95 
... (4 1 5) 7 0 3-5 0 5 0 
... (8 60) 5 6 6-5 1 2 3 
... (8 08) 5 8 6-8844 

... ( 3 1 7 ) 2 3 2 -2 3 7 8 
... (5 1 5) 2 8 1-3447 
... ( 3 1 7 ) 2 3 2 -3 3 2 5 
... (5 02) 5 64-3 0 7 0 
... (4 1 0) 7 6 7-2 2 1 5 

... ( 5 1 7 ) 3 7 3 -7 2 3 0 
... (6 5 1) 2 9 6-2 3 42 
... (9 1 9) 80 7 -2 9 00 
... (6 09) 2 9 2 -2 9 7 5 
... ( 5 0 5 ) 8 2 7 -2 8 5 0 

... ( 7 7 5 ) 6 8 7 -3 0 3 2 
... (5 1 8) 4 5 7-2 74 1 
... (5 0 3 ) 3 7 8-3 2 7 2 
... ( 7 8 7 ) 7 5 4-2 1 1 9 
... (8 03) 89 6-43 00 

... (6 1 5) 74 1-2 5 82 
... (8 0 1) 5 3 0-69 0 1 
... (8 04) 7 8 6-2 3 7 7 
... (3 40) 7 7 3 -1 9 90 
... (8 02) 82 8-2 2 88 

... (3 60) 90 2-42 00 
(3 60) 90 2-54 3 0 
... ( 3 0 7 ) 7 7 7 -7 7 8 6 


A ppendix 3 

Q SH A Consultation Q ffices 


A nchorage, A K. 
Tuscaloosa, A L . 
Little Rock, A R. 
Phoenix, A Z .... 
Sacramento, C A 

Fort C ollins, C O 
W ethersfield, CT 
W ashington, DC 
W ilmington, DE. 


(9 0 7 ) 2 6 9 -4 9 5 7 
(2 0 5 ) 3 4 8 -3 0 3 3 
(5 0 1 ) 6 8 2 -4 5 2 2 
(6 0 2 ) 5 4 2 -1 6 9 5 
(9 1 6 ) 5 7 4 -2 5 5 5 

(9 7 0 ) 4 9 1 -6 1 5 1 
(8 6 0 ) 5 6 6 -4 5 5 0 
(2 0 2 ) 5 4 1 -3 7 2 7 
( 3 0 2 ) 7 6 1 -8 2 1 9 















































































































Tampa, FL. 

A tlanta, G A .... 

Tiyam, G U. 

H onolulu, HI.... 
Des M oines, IA 

Boise, ID. 

Chicago, IL. 

Indianapolis, IN 
Topeka, KS. 


Baton Rouge, LA. 

W est N ewton, M A . 

Laurel, M D. 

A ugusta, M E. 

Lansing, M I. 

Saint Paul, M N . 

j efferson C ity, M 0 . 

j ackson, M S. 

H elena, M T. 

Raleigh, N C. 

Bismarck, N D. 

Lincoln, N E. 

Concord, N H. 

Trenton, N j . 

Santa Fe, N M . 

A Ibany, N Y. 

H enderson, N V . 

Columbus, OH . 

0 klahoma C ity, 0 K. 

Salem, 0 R. 

Indiana, PA . 

H ato Rey, PR. 

Providence, Rl. 

Columbia, SC. 

Brookings, SD. 

N ashville, TN . 

A ustin, TX. 

Salt Lake City, UT. 

M ontepilier, VT. 

Richmond, V A . 

C hristiansted St. C roix, VI 

0 lympia, W A . 

M adison, W I. 

W aukesha, W I. 

C harleston, W V . 

Cheyenne, W Y. 


... (8 1 3 ) 9 7 4-9 9 6 2 
... (4 0 4 ) 8 9 4-2 64 3 
... 9 -1 -(6 7 1 ) 4 7 5 -1 1 0 1 
... (8 0 8 ) 5 8 6-9 1 0 0 
... ( 5 1 5 ) 2 8 1 -7 6 2 9 

... (2 0 8 ) 4 2 6-3 2 8 3 
... (3 1 2 ) 8 1 4-2 3 3 7 
... ( 3 1 7 ) 2 3 2 -2 6 8 8 
... (7 8 5 ) 2 9 6-7 4 7 6 
... (5 0 2 ) 5 6 4-6 8 9 5 

... (2 2 5 ) 3 4 2 -9 6 0 1 
... ( 6 1 7 ) 7 2 7 -3 9 8 2 
... (4 1 0 ) 8 8 0-4 9 7 0 
... (2 0 7 ) 6 2 4-6 4 6 0 
... ( 5 1 7 ) 3 2 2 -1 8 0 9 

... ( 6 5 1 ) 2 9 7 -2 3 9 3 
... (5 7 3 ) 7 5 1 -3 4 0 3 
... (6 0 1 ) 9 8 7 -3 9 8 1 
... (40 6 ) 444-64 1 8 
... (9 1 9 ) 8 0 7 -2 9 0 5 

... ( 7 0 1 ) 3 2 8 -5 1 8 8 
... (4 0 2 ) 4 7 1 -4 7 1 7 
... (6 0 3 ) 2 7 1 -2 0 2 4 
... (6 0 9 ) 2 9 2 -3 9 2 3 
... ( 5 0 5 ) 8 2 7 -4 2 3 0 

... ( 5 1 8 ) 4 5 7 -2 2 3 8 
... (7 0 2 ) 4 8 6-9 1 4 0 
... (6 1 4 ) 64 4-2 6 3 1 
... (4 0 5 ) 5 2 8-1 5 0 0 
... ( 5 0 3 ) 3 7 8 -3 2 7 2 

... ( 7 2 4 ) 3 5 7 -2 3 9 6 
... ( 7 8 7 ) 7 5 4 -2 1 7 1 
... (4 0 1 ) 2 2 2 -2 4 3 8 
... (8 0 3 ) 7 3 4-9 6 1 4 
... (6 0 5 ) 6 8 8-4 1 0 1 

... (6 1 5 ) 7 4 1 -7 0 3 6 
... (5 1 2 ) 8 0 4-4 64 0 
... (8 0 1 ) 5 3 0-6 9 0 1 
... (8 0 2 ) 8 2 8-2 7 6 5 
... (8 04 ) 7 8 6-6 3 5 9 

... ( 8 0 9 ) 7 7 2 -1 3 1 5 
... (3 6 0 ) 9 0 2 -5 6 3 8 
... (6 0 8 ) 2 6 6-9 3 8 3 
... ( 2 6 2 ) 5 2 3 -3 0 4 4 
... ( 3 04 ) 5 5 8-7 8 9 0 
... ( 3 0 7 ) 7 7 7 -7 7 8 6 


21