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Training Requirements 
in OSHA Standards 


and Training Guidelines 


U.S. Department of Labor 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration 


OSHA 2254 
1998 (Revised) 





































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Supplementary Notes 

Abstract 

Many standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) explicitly 
require the employer to train employees in the safety and health aspects of their jobs. Other OSHA 
standards make it the employers responsibility to limit certain job assignments to employees who are 
certified, competent, or qualifiedmeaning that they have had special previous training, in or out of the 
workplace. The term designated personnel means selected or assigned by the employer or the employers 
representative as being qualified to perform specific duties. These requirements reflect OSHAs belief that 
training is an essential part of every employers safety and health program for protecting workers from 
injuries and illnesses. Many researchers conclude that those who are new on the job have a higher rate of 
accidents and injuries than more experienced workers. If ignorance of specific job hazards and of proper 
work practices is even partly to blame for this higher injury rate, then training will help to provide a 
solution. 

Subject Terms 

Report Classification 

unclassified 

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This informational booklet is intended to 
provide a generic, non-exhaustive overview of 
a particular standards-related topic. This 
publication does not itself alter or determine 
compliance responsibilities, which are set forth 
in OSHA standards themselves, and the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of1970. 
Moreover, because interpretations and 
enforcement policy may change over time, for 
additional guidance on OSHA compliance 
requirements, the reader should consult 
current administrative interpretations and 
decisions by the Occupational Safety and 
Health Review Commission and the courts. 

Material contained in this publication is in the 
public domain and may be reproduced, fully or 
partially, without the permission of the Federal 
Government. Source credit is requested but 
not required. 


This information will be made available to 
sensory impaired individuals upon request. 
Voice phone: (202) 219-8615; 
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Training Requirements 
in OSHA Standards 
and Training Guidelines 

U.S. Department of Labor 
Alexis M. Herman, Secretary 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
Charles N. Jeffress, Assistant Secretary 

OSHA 2254 
1998 (Revised) 



Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Page 



•iT^^ 



Introduction.iii 

Voluntary Training Guidelines.1 

Index of Training Requirements.9 

General Industry Training Requirements, 29 CFR Part 1910.9 

Maritime Training Requirements, 29 CFR Parts 1915,1917,1918 .... 12 

Construction Training Requirements, 29 CFR Part 1926. 15 

Agricultural Training Requirements, 29 CFR Part 1928 . 18 

Federal Employee Programs Training Requirements, 29 CFR 

Part 1960 . 19 

General Industry Training Requirements.20 

Maritime Training Requirements.55 

Shipyard Employment.55 

Marine Terminals.65 

Longshoring.68 

Construction Training Requirements.69 

Agricultural Training Requirements.86 

Federal Employee Programs Training Requirements.88 

Suggested Readings in Industrial Safety and Flealth Training 

and Other Resources.91 

States with Approved Plans.92 

OSFIA Consultation Project Directory.94 

OSFIA Area Offices.95 

OSFIA Regional Offices.96 


Contents 






























Introduction 



Many standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Admin¬ 
istration (OSHA) explicitly require the employer to train employees in the safety 
and health aspects of their jobs. Other OSHA standards make it the employer’s 
responsibility to limit certain job assignments to employees who are “certified,” 
“competent,” or “qualified”—^meaning that they have had special previous 
training, in or out of the workplace. The term “designated” personnel means 
selected or assigned by the employer or the employer’s representative as being 
qualified to perform specific duties. These requirements reflect OSHA’s belief 
that training is an essential part of every employer’s safety and health program 
for protecting workers from injuries and illnesses. Many researchers conclude 
that those who are new on the job have a higher rate of accidents and injuries 
than more experienced workers. 

If ignorance of specific job hazards and of proper work practices is even partly 
to blame for this higher injury rate, then training will help to provide 
a solution. 

As an example of the trend in OSHA safety and health training requirements, 
the Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals standard (Title 
29 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910.119) contains several training require¬ 
ments. This standard was promulgated under the requirements of the Clean Air 
Act Amendments of 1990. The Process Safety Management Standard requires 
the employer to evaluate or verily that employees comprehend the training given 
to them. Tliis means that the training to be given must have established goals and 
objectives regarding what is to be accomplished. Subsequent to the training, an 
evaluation would be conducted to verify that the employees understood the 
subjects presented or acquired the desired skills or knowledge. If the established 
gods and objectives of the training program were not achieved as ejq^ected, the 
employer than would revise the training program to make it more effective, or 
conduct more frequent refresher training or some combination of these. The 
requirements of the Process Safety Management Standard follow the concepts 
embodied in the OSHA training guidelines contained in this booklet. 

The length and complexity of OSHA standards may make it difficult to find 
all the references to training. So, to help employers, safely and health profession¬ 
als, training directors, and others with a need to know, OSHA’s training-related 
requirements have been excerpted and collected in this booklet. Requirements 
for posting information, warning signs, labels, and the like are excluded, as are 
most references to the qualifications of people assigned to test workplace condi¬ 
tions or equipment. 

It is usually a good idea for the employer to keep a record of all safety 
and health training. Records can provide evidence of the employer’s good faith 
and compliance with OSHA standards. Documentation can also supply an 
answer to one of the first questions an accident investigator will ask: 

“Was the injured employee trained to do the job?” 

Training in the proper performance of a job is time and money well spent, and 
the employer might regard it as an investment rather than an expense. An 
effective program of safely and health training for workers can result in fewer 
injuries and illnesses, better morale, and lower insurance premiums, among other 
benefits. 

Readers with questions concerning worker safety and health training should 
contact their OSHA Regional or Area office listed at the end of this publication. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 


Introduction 




V 


Voluntary Training Guidelines 


I. Introduction.1 

A. Training Model.1 

B. Review Commission Implications.1 

II. Training Guidelines.2 

A. Determining If Training is Needed.2 

B. Identifying Training Needs. 3 

C. Identifying Goals and Objectives. 

D. Developing Learning Activities ... 

E. Conducting the Training. 

F. Evaluating Program Effectiveness 

G. Improving the Program. 


III. Matching Training to Employees . 

A. Identifying Employees at Risk 

B. Training Employees at Risk .... 

IV. Conclusion.8 


Voluntary Training Guidelines 




















il Voluntarv Training Guidelines 




I. Introduction 



The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 
does not address specifically the responsibility of 
employers to provide health and safety information 
and instruction to employees, although Section 5(a)(2) does require that each 
employer .. shall comply with occupational safety and health standards pro¬ 
mulgated under this Act.” However, more than 100 of the Act’s current standards 
do contain training requirements. 


Therefore, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has developed 
voluntary training guidelines to assist employers in providing the safety and 
health information and instmction needed for their employees to work at minimal 
risk to themselves, to fellow employees, and to the public. 

The guidelines are designed to help employers to: (1) determine whether a 
worksite problem can be solved by training; (2) determine what training, if any, is 
needed; (3) identify goals and objectives for the training; (4) design learning 
activities; (5) conduct training; (6) determine the effectiveness of the training; and 
(7) revise the training program based on feedback from employees, supervisors, 
and others. 


The development of the guidelines is part of an agency-wide objective to 
encourage cooperative, voluntary safety and health activities among OSHA, the 
business community, and workers. These voluntary programs include training and 
education, consultation, voluntary protection programs, and abatement assistance. 


A. Training Model The guidelines provide employers with a model for designing, conducting, 

evaluating, and revising training programs. The training model can be used to 
develop training programs for a variety of occupational safety and health hazards 
identified at the workplace. Additionally, it can assist employers in their efforts to 
meet the training requirements in current or future occupational safety and health 
standards. 

A training program designed in accordance with these guidelines can be used to 
supplement and enhance the employer’s other education and training activities. 
The guidelines afford employers significant flexibility in the selection of content 
and training and program design. OSHA encourages a personalized approach to 
the informational and instmctional programs at individual worksites, thereby 
enabling employers to provide the training that is most needed and applicable to 
local working conditions. 

Assistance with training programs or the identification of resources for training 
is available through such organizations as OSHA full-service Area Offices, State 
agencies which have their own OSHA-approved occupational safety and health 
programs, OSHA-funded State onsite consultation programs for employers, local 
safety councils, the OSHA Office of Training and Education, and OSHA-funded 
New Directions grantees. 


B. Review Comission OSHA does not intend to make the guidelines mandatory. And they should not 
ImpIications be used by employers as a total or complete guide in training and education 

matters which can result in enforcement proceedings before the Occupational 
Safety and Health Review Commission. However, employee training programs 
are always an issue in Review Commission cases which involve alleged viola¬ 
tions of training requirements contained in OSHA standards. 


Voluntary Training Guidelines 




II. Training Guidelines 


A. Determining if 
Training is Needed 


The adequacy of employee training may also become an issue in contested 
cases where the affirmative defense of unpreventable employee misconduct is 
raised. Under case law well-established in the Commission and the courts, an 
employer may successfully defend against an otherwise valid citation by demon¬ 
strating that all feasible steps were taken to avoid the occurrence of the hazard, 
and that actions of the employee involved in the violation were a departure from 
a uniformly and effectively enforced work rule of which the employee had either 
actual or constructive knowledge. 

In either type of case, the adequacy of the training given to employees in 
connection with a specific hazard is a factual matter which can be decided only 
by considering all the facts and circumstances surrounding the alleged violation. 
The general guidelines in this publication are not intended, and cannot be used, 
as evidence of the appropriate level of training in litigation involving either the 
training requirements of OSHA standards or affirmative defenses based upon 
employer training programs. 

OSHA’s training guidelines follow a model that consists of: 

A. Determining if Training is Needed 

B. Identifying Training Needs 

C. Identifying Goals and Objectives 

D. Developing Learning Activities 

E. Conducting the Training 

F. Evaluating Program Effectiveness 

G. Improving the Program 

The model is designed to be one that even the owner of a business with very 
few employees can use without having to hire a professional trainer or purchase 
expensive training materials. Using this model, employers or supervisors can 
develop and administer safety and health training programs that address prob¬ 
lems specific to their own business, fulfill the learning needs of their own em¬ 
ployees, and strengthen the overall safety and health program of the workplace. 


The first step in the training process is a basic one: to determine whether a 
problem can be solved by training. Whenever employees are not performing 
their jobs properly, it is often assumed that training will bring them up to stan¬ 
dard. However, it is possible that other actions (such as hazard abatement or the 
implementation of engineering controls) would enable employees to perform 
their jobs properly. 

Ideally, safety and health training should be provided before problems or 
accidents occur. This training would cover both general safety and health rules 
and work procedures, and would be repeated if an accident or near miss incident 
occurred. 

Problems that can be addressed effectively by training include those that arise 
from lack of knowledge of a work process, unfamiliarity with equipment, or 
incorrect execution of a task. Training is less effective (but still can be used) for 
problems arising from an employee’s lack of motivation or lack of attention to 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




3 


B. Identifyinq Traininq 
Needs 


C. Identifying Goals and 
Objectives 


the job. Whatever its purpose, training is most effective when designed in 
relation to the goals of the employer’s total safety and health program. 


If the problem is one that can be solved, in whole or in part, by training then 
the next step is to determine what training is needed. For this, it is necessary to 
identify what the employee is expected to do and in what ways, if any, the 
employee’s performance is deficient. This information can be obtained by 
conducting a job analysis which pinpoints what an employee needs to know in 
order to perform a job. 

When designing a new training program, or preparing to instruct an em¬ 
ployee in an unfamiliar procedure or system, a job analysis can be developed by 
examining engineering data on new equipment or the safety data sheets on 
unfamiliar substances. The content of the specific Federal or State OSHA stan¬ 
dards applicable to a business can also provide direction in developing training 
content. Another option is to conduct a Job Hazard Analysis (see OSHA 3071, 
same title, 1981). This is a procedure for studying and recording each step of a 
job, identifying existing or potential hazards, and determining the best way to 
perform the job in order to reduce or eliminate the risks. Information obtained 
from a Job Hazard Analysis can be used as the content for the training activity. 

If an employer’s learning needs can be met by revising an existing training 
program rather than developing a new one, or if the employer already has some 
knowledge of the process or system to be used, appropriate training content can 
be developed through such means as: 

1. Using company accident and injury records to identify how accidents occur 
and what can be done to prevent them from recurring. 

2. Requesting employees to provide, in writing and in their own words, de¬ 
scriptions of their jobs. These should include the tasks performed and the tools, 
materials and equipment used. 

3. Observing employees at the worksite as they perform tasks, asking about 
the work, and recording their answers. 

4. Examining similar training programs offered by other companies in the 
same industry, or obtaining suggestions from such organizations as the National 
Safety Council (which can provide information on Job Hazard Analysis), the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, OSHA approved State programs, OSHA full service 
Area Offices, OSHA-funded State consultation programs, or the OSHA Office of 
Training and Education. 

The employees themselves can provide valuable information on the training 
they need. Safety and health hazards can be identified through the employees’ 
responses to such questions as whether anything about their jobs frightens them, 
if they have had any near-miss incidents, if they feel they are taking risks, or if 
they believe that their jobs involve hazardous operations or substances. 


Once the kind of training that is needed has been determined, it is equally 
important to determine what kind of training is not needed. Employees should 
be made aware of all the steps involved in a task or procedure, but training 
should focus on those steps on which improved performance is needed. This 
avoids unnecessary training and tailors the training to meet the needs of the 
employees. 


Voluntary Training Guidelines 






D. Developing Learning 
Activities 


Once the employees’ training needs have been identified, employers can then 
prepare objectives for the training. Instructional objectives, if clearly stated, will 
tell employers what they want their employees to do, to do better, or to stop 
doing. 

Learning objectives do not necessarily have to be written, but in order for the 
training to be as successful as possible, clear and measurable objectives should 
be thought out before the training begins. For an objective to be effective it 
should identify as precisely as possible what the individuals will do to 
demonstrate that they have learned, or that the objective has been reached. They 
should also describe the important conditions under which the individual will 
demonstrate competence and define what constitutes acceptable performance. 

Using specific, action-oriented language, the instructional objectives should 
describe the preferred practice or skill and its observable behavior. For example, 
rather than using the statement: “The employee will understand how to use a 
respirator” as an instructional objective, it would be better to say: “The em¬ 
ployee will be able to describe how a respirator works and when it should be 
used.” Objectives are most effective when worded in sufficient detail that other 
qualified persons can recognize when the desired behavior is exhibited. 


Once employers have stated precisely what the objectives for the training 
program are, then learning activities can be identified and described. Learning 
activities enable employees to demonstrate that they have acquired the desired 
skills and knowledge. To ensure that employees transfer the skills or knowledge 
from the learning activity to the job, the learning situation should simulate the 
actual job as closely as possible. Thus, employers may want to arrange the 
objectives and activities in a sequence which corresponds to the order in which 
the tasks are to be performed on the job, if a specific process is to be learned. For 
instance, if an employee must learn the beginning processes of using a machine, 
the sequence might be: (1) to check that the power source is connected; (2) to 
ensure that the safety devices are in place and are operative; (3) to know when 
and how to throw the switch; and so on. 

A few factors will help to determine the type of learning activity to be incor¬ 
porated into the training. One aspect is the training resources available to the 
employer. Can a group training program that uses an outside trainer and film be 
organized, or should the employer personally train the employees on a one-to- 
one basis? Another factor is the kind of skills or knowledge to be learned. Is the 
learning oriented toward physical skills (such as the use of special tools) or 
toward mental processes and attitudes? Such factors will influence the type of 
learning activity designed by employers. The training activity can be group- 
oriented, with lectures, role play, and demonstrations; or designed for the 
individual as with self-paced instruction. 

The determination of methods and materials for the learning activity can be as 
varied as the employer’s imagination and available resources will allow. The 
employer may want to use charts, diagrams, manuals, slides, films, viewgraphs 
(overhead transparencies), videotapes, audiotapes, or simply blackboard and 
chalk, or any combination of these and other instructional aids. Whatever the 
method of instruction, the learning activities should be developed in such a way 
that the employees can clearly demonstrate that they have acquired the desired 
skills or knowledge. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




E. Conducting the With the completion of the steps outlined above, the employer is ready to 

Training begin conducting the training. To the extent possible, the training should be 

presented so that its organization and meaning are clear to the employees. To do 
so, employers or supervisors should: (1) provide overviews of the material to be 
learned; (2) relate, wherever possible, the new information or skills to the 
employee’s goals, interests, or experience; and (3) reinforce what the employees 
learned by summarizing the program’s objectives and the key points of informa¬ 
tion covered. These steps will assist employers in presenting the training in a 
clear, unambiguous manner. 

In addition to organizing the content, employers must also develop the struc¬ 
ture and format of the training. The content developed for the program, the 
nature of the workplace or other training site, and the resources available for 
training will help employers determine for themselves the frequency of training 
activities, the length of the sessions, the instructional techniques, and the 
individual(s) best qualified to present the information. 

In order to be motivated to pay attention and learn the material that the em¬ 
ployer or supervisor is presenting, employees must be convinced of the impor¬ 
tance and relevance of the material. Among the ways of developing motivation 
are: (1) explaining the goals and objectives of instruction; (2) relating the train¬ 
ing to the interests, skills, and experiences of the employees; (3) outlining the 
main points to be presented during the training session(s); and (4) pointing out 
the benefits of training (e.g., the employee will be better informed, more skilled, 
and thus more valuable both on the job and on the labor market; or the employee 
will, if he or she applies the skills and knowledge learned, be able to work at 
reduced risk). 

An effective training program allows employees to participate in the training 
process and to practice their skills or knowledge. This will help to ensure that 
they are learning the required knowledge or skills and permit correction if 
necessary. Employees can become involved in the training process by participat¬ 
ing in discussions, asking questions, contributing their knowledge and expertise, 
learning through hands-on experiences, and through role-playing exercises. 


F. Evaluating Program To make sure that the training program is accomplishing its goals, an evalua- 
Effectiveness tion of the training can be valuable. Training should have, as one of its critical 

components, a method of measuring the effectiveness of the training. A plan for 
evaluating the training session(s), either written or thought-out by the employer, 
should be developed when the course objectives and content are developed. It 
should not be delayed until the training has been completed. Evaluation will help 
employers or supervisors determine the amount of learning achieved and 
whether an employee’s performance has improved on the job. Among the 
methods of evaluating training are: (1) Student opinion. Questionnaires or 
informal discussions with employees can help employers determine the rel¬ 
evance and appropriateness of the training program; (2) Supervisors’ observa¬ 
tions. Supervisors are in good positions to observe an employee’s performance 
both before and after the training and note improvements or changes; and (3) 
Workplace improvements. The ultimate success of a training program may be 
changes throughout the workplace that result in reduced injury or accident rates. 


Voluntary Training Guidelines 



G. Improving the 
Program 


III. Matching Training to 
Employees 


A. Identifying 

Employees at Risk 


However it is conducted, an evaluation of training can give employers the 
information necessary to decide whether or not the employees achieved the 
desired results, and whether the training session should be offered again at some 
future date. 


If, after evaluation, it is clear that the training did not give the employees the 
level of knowledge and skill that was expected, then it may be necessary to 
revise the training program or provide periodic retraining. At this point, asking 
questions of employees and of those who conducted the training may be of some 
help. Among the questions that could be asked are: (1) Were parts of the content 
already known and, therefore, unnecessary? (2) What material was confusing or 
distracting? (3) Was anything missing from the program? (4) What did the 
employees learn, and what did they fail to learn? 

It may be necessary to repeat steps in the training process, that is, to return to 
the first steps and retrace one’s way through the training process. As the program 
is evaluated, the employer should ask: (1) If a job analysis was conducted, was it 
accurate? (2) Was any critical feature of the job overlooked? (3) Were the impor¬ 
tant gaps in knowledge and skill included? (4) Was material already known by 
the employees intentionally omitted? (5) Were the instructional objectives 
presented clearly and concretely? (6) Did the objectives state the level of accept¬ 
able performance that was expected of employees? (7) Did the learning activity 
simulate the actual job? (8) Was the learning activity appropriate for the kinds of 
knowledge and skills required on the job? (9) When the training was presented, 
was the organization of the material and its meaning made clear? (10) Were the 
employees motivated to learn? (11) Were the employees allowed to participate 
actively in the training process? (12) Was the employer’s evaluation of the 
program thorough? 

A critical examination of the steps in the training process will help employers 
determine where course revision is necessary. 


While all employees are entitled to know as much as possible about the safety 
and health hazards to which they are exposed, and employers should attempt to 
provide all relevant information and instruction to all employees, the resources 
for such an effort frequently are not, or are not believed to be, available. Thus, 
employers are often faced with the problem of deciding who is in the greatest 
need of information and instruction. 

One way to differentiate between employees who have priority needs for 
training and those who do not is to identify employee populations which are at 
higher levels of risk. The nature of the work will provide an indication that such 
groups should receive priority for information on occupational safety and health 
risks. 


One method of identifying employee populations at high levels of occupa¬ 
tional risk (and thus in greater need of safety and health training) is to pinpoint 
hazardous occupations. Even within industries which are hazardous in general, 
there are some employees who operate at greater risk than others. In other cases 
the hazardousness of an occupation is influenced by the conditions under which 
it is performed, such as noise, heat or cold, or safety or health hazards in the 
surrounding area. In these situations, employees should be trained not only on 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



B. Training Employees 
at Risk 


how to perform their job safely but also on how to operate within a hazardous 
environment. 

A second method of identifying employee populations at high levels of risk is to 
examine the incidence of accidents and injuries, both within the company and within 
the industry. If employees in certain occupational categories are experiencing higher 
accident and injury rates than other employees, training may be one way to reduce 
that rate. In addition, thorough accident investigation can identify not only specific 
employees who could benefit from training but also identify company-wide training 
needs. 

Research has identified the following variables as being related to a disproportion¬ 
ate share of injuries and illnesses at the worksite on the part of employees: 

1. The age of the employee (younger employees have higher incidence rates). 

2. The length of time on the job (new employees have higher incidence rates). 

3. The size of the firm (in general terms, medium-size firms have higher incidence 
rates than smaller or larger firms). 

4. The type of work performed (incidence and severity rates vary significantly by 
SIC Code). 

5. The use of hazardous substances (by SIC Code). 

These variables should be considered when identifying employee groups for 
training in occupational safety and health. 

In summary, information is readily available to help employers identify which 
employees should receive safety and health information, education and training, and 
who should receive it before others. Employers can request assistance in obtaining 
information by contacting such organizations as OSHA Area Offices, the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics, OSHA approved State programs. State onsite consultation 
programs, the OSHA Office of Training and Education, or local safety councils. 


Determining the content of training for employee populations at higher levels of 
risk is similar to determining what any employee needs to know, but more emphasis 
is placed on the requirements of the job and the possibility of injury. One useM tool 
for determining training content from job requirements is the Job Hazard Analysis 
described earlier. This procedure examines each step of a job, identifies existing or 
potential hazards, and determines the best way to perform the job in order to reduce 
or eliminate the hazards. Its key elements are: (1) job description; (2) job location; 
(3) key steps (preferably in the order in which they are performed); (4) tools, ma¬ 
chines and materials used; (5) actual and potential safety and health hazards associ¬ 
ated with these key job steps; and (6) safe and healthful practices, apparel, and 
equipment required for each job step. 

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) can also provide information for training 
employees in the safe use of materials. These data sheets, developed by chemical 
manufacturers and importers, are supplied with manufacturing or constmction 
materials and describe the ingredients of a product, its hazards, protective equipment 
to be used, safe handling procedures, and emergency first-aid responses. The infor¬ 
mation contained in these sheets can help employers identify employees in need of 
training (i.e., workers handling substances described in the sheets) and train employ¬ 
ees in safe use of the substances. Material Safety Data Sheets are generally available 
from suppliers, manufacturers of the substance, large employers who use the sub¬ 
stance on a regular basis, or they can be developed by employers or trade 


Voluntary Training Guidelines 



IV. Conclusion 


associations. MSDS are particularly useful for those employers who are developing 
training on chemical use as required by OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard. 

In an attempt to assist employers with their occupational health and safety 
training activities, OSHA has developed a set of training guidelines in the form 
of a model. This model is designed to help employers develop instructional 
programs as part of their total education and training effort. The model addresses 
the questions of who should be trained, on what topics, and for what purposes. It 
also helps employers determine how effeetive the program has been and enables 
them to identify employees who are in greatest need of education and training. 
The model is general enough to be used in any area of oceupational safety and 
health training, and allows employers to determine for themselves the content 
and format of training. Use of this model in training aetivities is just one of many 
ways that employers can comply with the OSHA standards that relate to training 
and enhance the safety and health of their employees. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




9 


Index of Training Requirements 


Subpart E 
Subpart F 

Subpart G 

Subpart H 


Subpart I 

Subpart J 

Subpart K 



General Industry Training Requirements 
29 CFR Part 1910 

Page 


Means of Egress.20 

Employee Emergency Plans and Fire Prevention Plans.20 

Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms.20 

Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance—Operations-Training.20 

Care and use Appendix C, Section 1 .21 

Occupational Health and Environmental Control.21 

DipTanks—Personal Protection.21 

Inspection, Maintenance, and Installation.21 

Hearing Protection.21 

Training Program.21 

Hazardous Materials.22 

Flammable and Combustible Liquids.22 

Explosives and Blasting Agents.22 

Bulk Delivery and Mixing Vehicles.22 

Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases.22 

Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals.22 

Contract Employer Responsibilities.23 

Mechanical Integrity.23 

Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response.23 

Hazardous Waste Cleanup Workers.25 

New Technology Programs.26 

Hazardous Waste—Emergency Responders.26 

Personal Protective Equipment.30 

Personal Protective Equipment.30 

Respiratory Protection.30 

Respiratory Protection for M Tuberculosis.31 

General Environmental Controls.32 

Temporary Labor Camps.32 

Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs and Tags.32 

Permit Required Confined Spaces.32 

The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout).33 

Lockout or Tagout Devices Removed.34 

Outside Personnel.34 

Medical Services and First Aid.34 

Medical Services and First Aid.34 


Index of Training Requirements 





































10 


Subpart L 


Subpart N 


Subpart 0 


Subpart Q 


Subpart R 


Subpart S 
Subpart T 


Page 


Fire Protection.34 

Fire Protection.34 

Fire Brigades.34 

Training and Education.35 

Portable Fire Extinguishers.35 

Fixed Extinguishing Systems.35 

Fire Detection Systems.36 

Employee Alarm Systems.36 

Materials Handling and Storage.36 

Servicing of Multi-Piece and Single-Piece Rim Wheels.36 

Powered Industrial Trucks.38 

Moving the Load.38 

Crawler Locomotives and Truck Cranes.38 

Machinery and Machine Guarding.38 

Mechanical Power Presses.38 

Mechanical Power Presses—Instructions to Operators.38 

Training of Maintenance Personnel.38 

Operator Training.39 

Forging Machines.39 

Welding, Cutting, and Brazing.39 

General Requirements.39 

Oxygen—Fuel Gas Welding and Cutting.39 

Arc Welding and Cutting.39 

Resistance Welding.39 

Special Industries.39 

Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills.39 

Laundry Machinery and Operating Rules.40 

Sawmills.40 

Logging.40 

Telecommunications.41 

Derrick Trucks.41 

Cable Fault Locating.41 

Guarding Manholes.41 

Joint Power and Telecommunication Manholes.42 

Tree Trimming—Electrical Hazards.42 

Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution.42 

Grain Handling Facilities.43 

Entry Into Bins, Silos, and Tanks.43 

Contractors.43 

Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices.44 

Content of Training.44 

Commercial Diving Operations.44 

Qualifications of Dive Team.44 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 












































Page 


Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances.44 

Asbestos.44 

4-Nitrobiphenyl.45 

Alpha-Naphthylamine.45 

Methyl Chloromethyl Ether.45 

3, 3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts).45 

Bis-Chloromethyl Ether.45 

Beta-Napthylamine.45 

Benzidine.45 

4-Aminodiphenyl.45 

Ethyleneimine.45 

Beta-Propiolactone.45 

2-Acetylaminofluorene.45 

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.45 

N-Nitrosodimethylamine.45 

Vinyl Chloride.46 

Inorganic Arsenic.46 

Lead.47 

Cadmium.47 

Benzene.48 

Coke Oven Emissions.49 

Bloodborne Pathogens.49 

Cotton Dust.51 

l,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane.51 

Acrylonitrile (Vinyl Cyanide).52 

Ethylene Oxide.52 

Formaldehyde.53 

4, 4' Methylenedianiline.53 

Ionizing Radiation Testing.54 

Posting.54 

Hazard Communication.54 

Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.54 


Index of Training Requirements 



































12 1 Maritime Training Requirements* 


Page 


Part 1915 Shipyard 
Employment 

Subpart A 

Subpart B 


Subpart C 


Subpart D 


Subpart E 
Subpart F 

Subpart G 


Subpart H 


Subpart I 


29 CFR Parts 1915,1917,1918 

General Provisions .55 

Commercial Diving Operations.55 

Competent Person.55 

Explosive and Other Dangerous Atmospheres .56 

Confined and Enclosed Spaces.56 

Precautions Before Entering.57 

Cleaning and Other Cold Work.58 

Certification Before Hot Work Is Begun.58 

Maintaining Gas Free Conditions, Ship Repairing.58 

Surface Preparation and Preservation .58 

Painting.58 

Flammable Liquids.59 

Welding, Cutting, and Heating .59 

Fire Prevention.59 

Welding, Cutting, and Heating in Way of Preservative Coatings.59 

Welding, Cutting and Heating of Hollow Metal Containers 

and Structures Not Covered by 1915.12.60 

Gas Welding and Cutting.60 

Arc Welding and Cutting.60 

Uses of Fissionable Material.61 

Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working Surfaces. 61 

Scaffolds or Staging.61 

General Working Conditions. 61 

Work On Or In The Vicinity of Radar and Radio.61 

First-Aid.61 

Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling. 61 

Ropes, Chains, and Slings.61 

Use of Gear.61 

Qualifications of Operators.61 

Tools and Related Equipment. 61 

Powder Actuated Fastening Tools.61 

Internal Combustion Engines, Other Than Ships’ Equipment.62 

Personal Protective Equipment .62 

General Requirements.62 

Respiratory Protection.63 

Personal Fall Arrest Systems.63 

Positioning Device Systems.63 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





































Page 


Subpart K Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums, and Containers, 

Other than Ships’ Equipment.63 

Portable Air Receivers and Other Unfired Pressure Vessels.63 

Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances.63 

Asbestos.63 

13 Carcinogens.64 

Vinyl Chloride.64 

Inorganic Arsenic.64 

Lead.64 

Cadmium.64 

Benzene.64 

Bloodborne Pathogens.64 

l,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane.65 

Acrylonitrile.65 

Ethylene Oxide.65 

Formaldehyde.65 

Methylenedianiline.65 

Ionizing Radiation.65 

Hazard Communication.65 

Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.65 

Part 1917 Marine 
Terminals 

Subpart A Scope and Definitions.65 

Commercial Diving Operations.65 

Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices.65 

Grain Handling Facilities.65 

Hazard Communication.65 

Ionizing Radiation.65 

Hearing Protection.65 

Respiratory Protection.65 

Servicing Multi-Piece and Single-Piece Rim Wheels.65 

Toxic and Hazardous Substances.66 

Subpart B Marine Terminal Operations.66 

Hazardous Atmospheres and Substances.66 

Fumigants, Pesticides, Insecticides, and Hazardous Preservatives.66 

Personnel.66 

Hazard Communication.66 

Emergency Action Plans.67 

Subpart C Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment.67 

General Rules Applicable to Vehicles.67 

Subpart D Specialized Terminals.67 

Terminal facilities—Handling Menhaden and Similar Species of Fish.67 


Maritime Training Requirements 









































Page 

Related Terminal Operations and Equipment.67 

Welding, Cutting, and Heating (Hot Work).67 

Part 1918 Longshoring 

Subpart A Scope and Definitions.68 

Commercial Diving Operations.68 

Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices.68 

Hazard Communication.68 

Ionizing Radiation.68 

Hearing Protection.68 

Respiratory Protection.68 

Toxic and Hazardous Substances.68 

Subpart H Handling Cargo.68 

Containerized Cargo Operations—Fall Protection systems.68 

Subpart I General Working Conditions.68 

Hazardous Atmospheres and Substances.68 

Ventilation and Atmospheric Conditions and Fumigants.68 

First-Aid and Life Saving Facilities.68 

Qualifications of Machinery Operators.68 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



















15 1 Construction Training Requirements^ 


29 CFR Part 1926 


Page 


Subpart C General Safety and Health Provisions.69 

General Safety and Health Provisions.69 

Safety Training and Education.69 

Employee Emergency Action Plans.70 

Subpart D Occupational Health and Environmental Controls.70 

Medical Services and First-Aid.70 

Ionizing Radiation.70 

Nonionizing Radiation.70 

Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists.70 

Hazard Communication.70 

Methylenedianiline.71 

Lead in Construction.71 

Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals.72 

Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response.72 

Subpart E Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment.72 

Hearing Protection.72 

Respiratory Protection.72 

Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention.72 

Fire Protection.72 

Subpart G Signs, Signals, and Barricades.72 

Signaling.72 

Subpart I Tools—Hand and Power.72 

Powder-Operated Hand Tools.72 

Woodworking Tools.73 

Subpart J Welding and Cutting.73 

Gas Welding and Cutting.73 

Arc Welding and Cutting.74 

Fire Prevention.75 

Welding, Cutting, and Heating In Way of Preservative Coatings.75 

Subpart K Electrical.75 

Ground Fault Protection.75 

Subpart L Scaffolding.75 

Scaffolding—Training Requirements.75 

Subpart M Fall Protection.76 

Fall Protection—Training Requirements.76 


Construction Training Requirements 




































Subpart N Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors.76 

Cranes and Derricks.76 

Material Hoists, Personnel Hoists, and Elevators.77 

Subpart 0 Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Eqnipment, and Marine Operations.77 

Material Handling Equipment.77 

Site Clearing.77 

Subpart P Excavations.77 

General Protection Requirements.77 

Subpart Q Concrete and Masonry Construction.78 

Concrete and Masonry Construction.78 

Subpart R Steel Erection.78 

Bolting, Riveting, Fitting-up, and Plumbing-up.78 

Subpart S Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and 

Compressed Air.78 

Underground Construction.78 

Compressed Air.80 

Subpart T Demolition.80 

Preparatory Operations.80 

Chutes.81 

Mechanical Demolition.81 

Subpart U Blasting and Use of Explosives.81 

General Provisions.81 

Blaster Qualifications.81 

Surface Transportation of Explosives.81 

Firing the Blast.82 

Subpart V Power Transmission and Distribution.82 

General Requirements.82 

Overhead Lines.83 

Underground Lines.83 

Construction in Energized Substations.83 

Subpart X Stairways and Ladders.83 

Ladders.83 

Training Requirements.83 

Subpart Y Diving.84 

Commercial Diving Operations.84 

Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances.84 

Asbestos.84 

13 Carcinogens.84 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 







































Page 


Subpart Z Vinyl Chloride.85 

Inorganic Arsenic.85 

Cadmium.85 

Benzene.85 

Coke Oven Emissions.85 

l,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane.85 

Acrylonitrile.85 

Ethylene Oxide.85 

Formaldehyde.85 

Methylene Chloride.85 


Construction Training Requirements 















1 Aqricultural Training Requirements 

a 


'■_ 1 


29 CFR Part 1928 


Page 


Subpart B Applicability of Standards. 86 

Temporary Labor Camps.86 

Logging.86 

Hazard Communication.86 

Cadmium.86 

Subpart C Roll-Over Protective Structures. 86 

Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in 
agricultural operations.86 

Subpart D Safety for Agricultural Equipment. 86 

Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.86 

Subpart M Occupational Health .87 

Cadmium.87 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 














191 Federal Employee Programs Training Reguirement: 


Page 


29 CFR Part 1960 


Subpart B Financial Management.88 

Subpart D Inspection and Abatement.88 

Qualifications of Safety and Health Inspectors and Agency Inspections.88 

Subpart E General Services Administration and Other Federal Agencies.88 

Safety and Health Services.88 

Subpart F Occupational Safety and Health Committees.88 

Agency Responsibilities.88 

Subpart H Training of: 

Top Management.88 

Supervisors.88 

Safety and Health Specialists.89 

Safety and Health Inspectors.89 

Collateral Duty Safety and Health Personnel and Committee Members.89 

Employees and Employee Representatives.89 

Training Assistance.90 

Subpart K Federal Safety and Health Councils.90 

Role of the Secretary.90 

Objectives of Field Councils.90 


Federal Employee Programs Training Requirements 



















The following training reqnirements have been excerpted from Title 29, 
Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910. Note that additional training 
reqnirements may appear in certain other standards (ANSI, NFPA, etc.) 
adopted by reference in Part 1910 and therefore mandatory. 


Snbject and Standard Training Requirement 
Number 


Employee Emergency 
Plans and Fire 
Prevention Plans 
1910.38(a)(5)(i), (ii)(a) 
through (c) and (iii) 


1910.38(b)(4)(i) and (ii) 


Powered Platforms 
for Building 
Maintenance- 
Operations Training 
1910.66(i), (ii) and 

(ii) (A) through (E), and 

(iii) through (v) 


(i) Before implementing the emergeney aetion plan, the employer shall desig¬ 
nate and train a sufficient number of persons to assist in the safe and orderly 
emergency evacuation of employees. 

(ii) The employer shall review the plan with each employee covered by the 
plan at the following times: 

(a) Initially when the plan is developed, 

(b) Whenever the employee’s responsibilities or designated actions under the 
plan change, and 

(c) Whenever the plan is changed. 

(iii) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial assignment 
those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect the employee 
in the event of an emergency. The written plan shall be kept at the workplace 
and made available for employee review. For those employers with 10 or fewer 
employees the plan may be communicated orally to employees and the 
employer need not maintain a written plan. 

(i) The employer shall apprise employees of the fire hazards of the materials 
and processes to which they are exposed. 

(ii) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial assignment 
those parts of the fire prevention plan which the employee must know to protect 
the employee in the event of an emergency. The written plan shall be kept in the 
workplace and made available for employee review. For those employers with 
10 or fewer employees, the plan may be communicated orally to employees and 
the employer need not maintain a written plan. 

(i) Working platforms shall be operated only by persons who are proficient in 
the operation, safe use and inspection of the particular working platform to be 
operated. 

(ii) All employees who operate working platforms shall be trained in the 
following: 

(A) Recognition of, and preventive measures for, the safety hazards 
associated with their individual work tasks. 


(B) General recognition and prevention of safety hazards associated with the 
use of working platforms, including the provisions in the section relating to the 
particular working platform to be operated. 

(C) Emergency action plan procedures required in paragraph (e)(9) of this 
section. 


(D) Work procedures required in paragraph (i)(l)(iv) of this section. 

(E) Personal fall arrest system inspection, care, use and system performance. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 







Care and Use Appendix 
C, Sec. 1(e)(9) 


Dip Tanks—Personal 

Protection 

1910.94(d)(9)(i) 

1910.94(d)(9)(vi) 

Inspection, 
Maintenance and 
Installation 
1910.94(d)(11)(v) 


Hearing Protection 
1910.95(i)(4) 

Training Program 
1910.95 (k)(1) through 
(3)(i) through (iii) 


(iii) Training of employees in the operation and inspeetion of working 
platforms shall be done by a competent person. 

(iv) Written work procedures for the operation, safe use and inspection of 
working platforms shall be provided for employee training. Pictorial methods of 
instruction, may be used, in lieu of written work procedures, if employee com¬ 
munication is improved using this method. The operating manuals supplied by 
manufacturers for platform system components can serve as the basis for these 
procedures. 

(v) The employer shall certify that employees have been trained in operating 
and inspecting a working platform by preparing a certification record which 
includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the 
person who conducted the training and the date that training was completed. The 
certification record shall be prepared at the completion of the training required in 
paragraph (i)(l)(ii) of this section, and shall be maintained in a file for the 
duration of the employee’s employment. The certification record shall be kept 
readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant 
Secretary’s representative. 

(9) Before using a personal fall arrest system, and after any component or 
system is changed, employees shall be trained in accordance with the 
requirements of paragraph 1910.66(i)(l), in the safe use of the system. 

(9) Personal protection, (i) All employees working in and around open- 
surface tank operations must be instructed as to the hazards of their respective 
jobs, and in the personal protection and procedures applicable to these hazards. 

(vi) Respirators shall be used in accordance with § 1910.134, and persons who 
may require them shall be trained in their use. 

(v) If, in emergencies, such as rescue work, it is necessary to enter a tank 
which may contain a hazardous atmosphere, suitable respirators, such as self- 
contained breathing apparatus; hose mask with blower, if there is a possibility of 
oxygen deficiency; or a gas mask, selected and operated in accordance with 
paragraph (d)(9)(vi) of this section, shall be used. If a contaminant in the tank 
can cause dermatitis, or be absorbed through the skin, the employee entering the 
tank shall also wear protective clothing. At least one trained standby employee, 
with suitable respirator, shall be present in the nearest uncontaminated area. The 
standby employee must be able to communicate with the employee in the tank 
and be able to haul him out of the tank with a lifeline if necessary. 

(4) The employer shall provide training in the use and care of all hearing 
protectors provided to employees. 

(1) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are 
exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour time weighted average of 85 deeibels, 
and shall ensure employee participation in such program. 

(2) The training program shall be repeated annually for eaeh employee in- 
eluded in the hearing conservation program. Information provided in the training 
program shall be updated to be consistent with changes in proteetive equipment 
and work processes. 

(3) The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the 
following: 

(i) The effects of noise on hearing; 


General Industry Training Requirements 




22 


Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids 
1910.106(b)(5)(v)(2) 
and (3) 


Explosive and Blasting 
Agents 

1910.109(d)(3)(i) and 
(iii) 


1910.109(g)(3)(iii)(a) 


1910.109(g)(6)(ii) 


Bulk Delivery and 

MixingVehicles 

1910.109(h)(3)(d){iii) 

Storage and Handling of 
Liquefied Petroleum 
Gases 1910.110(b)(16) 
and 1910.110(d)(12)(i) 

1910.111(b)(13)(ii) 


Process Safety 
Management of Highly 
Hazardous Chemicals 


1910.119(g)(1)(i) and 

(ii) 


(ii) The purpose of hearing protectors, the advantages, disadvantages, and 
attenuation of various types, and instructions on selection, fitting, use, and care; 
and 

(iii) The purpose of audiometric testing, and an explanation of the test 
procedures. 

(2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergencies are 
properly posted. 

(3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry out such 
instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation of such valves 
and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements. 

(i) Vehicles transporting explosives shall only be driven by and be in the charge of 
a driver who is familiar with the traffic regulations. State laws, and the provisions of 
this section. 

(iii) Every motor vehicle transporting any quantity of Class A or Class B explo¬ 
sives shall, at all times, be attended by a driver or other attendant of the motor carrier. 
This attendant shall have been made aware of the class of the explosive material in 
the vehicle and of its inherent dangers, and shall have been instmcted in the mea¬ 
sures and procedures to be followed in order to protect the public from those dan¬ 
gers. He shall have been made familiar with the vehicle he is assigned, and shall be 
trained, supplied with the necessary means, and authorized to move the vehicle when 
required. 

(iii)(a) The operator shall be trained in the safe operation of the vehicle together 
with its mixing, conveying, and related equipment. The employer shall assure that 
the operator is familiar with the commodities being delivered and the general 
procedure for handling emergency situations. 

(ii) Vehicles transporting blasting agents shall only be driven by and be in charge 
of a driver in possession of a valid motor vehicle operator’s license. Such a person 
shall also be familiar with the States vehicle and traffic laws. 

(iii) The operator shall be trained in the safe operation of the vehicle together with 
its mixing, conveying, and related equipment. He shall be familiar with the com¬ 
modities being delivered and the general procedure for handling emergency 
situations. 

(16) Instructions. Personnel performing installation, removal, operation, and 
maintenance work shall be properly trained in such functions. 

(i) When standard watch service is provided, it shall be extended to the LP-Gas 
installation and personnel properly trained. 

(ii) The employer shall insure that unloading operations are performed by reliable 
persons properly instructed and given the authority to monitor careful compliance 
with all applicable procedures. 

(g) Training. (1) Initial training, (i) Each employee presently involved in operat¬ 
ing a process, and each employee before being involved in operating a newly as¬ 
signed process, shall be trained in an overview of the process and in the operating 
procedures as specified in paragraph (f) of this section. The training shall include 
emphasis on the specific safety and health hazards, emergency operations including 
shutdown, and safe work practices applicable to the employee’s job tasks. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



23 


1910.119(g)(2) 


1910.119(g)(3) 


Contract Employer 
Responsibilities 
1910.119(h)(3)(i) 
through (iv) 


Mechanical Integrity 
191O.1190)(3) 


Hazardous Waste 
Operations and 
Emergency Response 
1910.120(e)(1)(i) and 
(ii); (2)(i) through (vii); 

(3) (i) through (iv) and 

(4) through (9) 


(ii) In lieu of initial training for those employees already involved in operating a 
process on May 26,1992, an employer may certify in writing that the employee has 
the required knowledge, skills, and abilities to safely carry out the duties and 
responsibilities as specified in the operating procedures. 

(2) Refresher training. Refresher training shall be provided at least every 
three years, and more often if necessary, to each employee involved in operating 
a process to assure that the employee understands and adheres to the current 
operating procedures of the process. The employer, in consultation with the 
employees involved in operating the process, shall determine the appropriate 
frequency of refresher training. 

(3) Training documentation. The employer shall ascertain that each employee 
involved in operating a process has received and understood the training required 
by this paragraph. The employer shall prepare a record which contains the 
identity of the employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify that 
the employee understood the training. 

(3) Contract employer responsibilities, (i) The contract employer shall assure 
that each contract employee is trained in the work practices necessary to perform 
his/her job. 

(ii) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee is in¬ 
structed in the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to 
his/her job and the process, and the applicable provisions of the emergency 
action plan. 

(iii) The contract employer shall document that each contract employee has 
received and understood the training required by this paragraph. The contract 
employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of the contract 
employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify that the employee 
understood the training. 

(iv) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee follows 
the safety rules of the facility including the safe work practices required by 
paragraph (f)(4) of this section. 

(3) Training for process maintenance activities. The employer shall train 
each employee involved in maintaining the ongoing integrity of process equip¬ 
ment in an overview of that process and its hazards and in the procedures appli¬ 
cable to the employee’s job tasks to assure that the employee can perform the job 
tasks in a safe manner. 

(e) Training (1) General (i) All employees working on site (such as but not 
limited to equipment operators, general laborers and others) exposed to hazard¬ 
ous substances, health hazards, or safety hazards and their supervisors and 
management responsible for the site shall receive training meeting the require¬ 
ments of this paragraph before they are permitted to engage in hazardous waste 
operations that could expose them to hazardous substances, safety, or health 
hazards, and they shall receive review training as specified in this paragraph. 

(ii) Employees shall not be permitted to participate in or supervise field activi¬ 
ties until they have been trained to a level required by their job function and 
responsibility. 


General Industry Training Requirements 



(2) Elements to be covered. The training shall thoroughly cover the 
following: 

(i) Names of personnel and alternates responsible for site safety and health; 

(ii) Safety, health and other hazards present on the site; 

(iii) Use of personal protective equipment; 

(iv) Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from hazards; 

(v) Safe use of engineering controls and equipment on the site; 

(vi) Medical surveillance requirements, including recognition of symptoms 
and signs which might indicate overexposure to hazards; and 

(vii) The contents of paragraphs (G) through (J) of the site safety and health 
plan set forth in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section. 

(3) Initial training, (i) General site workers (such as equipment operators, 
general laborers and supervisory personnel) engaged in hazardous substance 
removal or other activities which expose or potentially expose workers to haz¬ 
ardous substances and health hazards shall receive a minimum of 40 hours of 
instruction off the site, and a minimum of three days actual field experience 
under the direct supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor. 

(ii) Workers on site only occasionally for a specific limited task (such as, but 
not limited to, ground water monitoring, land surveying, or geophysical survey¬ 
ing) and who are unlikely to be exposed over permissible exposure limits and 
published exposure limits shall receive a minimum of 24 hours of instruction off 
the site, and the minimum of one day actual field experience under the direct 
supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor. 

(iii) Workers regularly on site who work in areas which have been monitored 
and fully characterized indicating that exposures are under permissible exposure 
limits and published exposure limits where respirators are not necessary, and the 
characterization indicates that there are no health hazards or the possibility of an 
emergency developing, shall receive a minimum of 24 hours of instruction off 
the site and the minimum of one day actual field experience under the direct 
supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor. 

(iv) Workers with 24 hours of training who are covered by paragraphs 
(e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii) of this section, and who become general site workers or 
who are required to wear respirators, shall have the additional 16 hours and two 
days of training necessary to total the training specified in paragraph (e)(3)(i)(4). 

(4) Management and supervisor training. Onsite management and supervi¬ 
sors directly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged in, hazardous 
waste operations shall receive 40 hours initial training, and three days of super¬ 
vised field experience the training may be reduced to 24 hours and one day if the 
only area of their responsibility is employees covered by paragraphs (e)(3)(ii) 
and (e)(3)(iii) and at least eight additional hours of specialized training at the 
time of job assignment on such topics as, but not limited to, the employer’s 
safety and health program and the associated employee training program, per¬ 
sonal protective equipment program, spill containment program, and health 
hazard monitoring procedure and techniques. 

(5) Qualifications for trainers. Trainers shall be qualified to instruct employ¬ 
ees about the subject matter that is being presented in training. Such trainers 
shall have satisfactorily completed a training program for teaching the subjects 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



25 



Hazardous Waste 
Cleanup Workers 
1910.120 Appendix C 



they are expected to teach, or they shall have the academic credentials and 
instructional experience necessary for teaching the subjects. Instructors shall 
demonstrate competent instructional skills and knowledge of the applicable 
subject matter. 

(6) Training certification. Employees and supervisors that have received and 
successfully completed the training and field experience specified in paragraphs 
(e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section shall be certified by their instructor or the 
head instructor and trained supervisor as having successfully completed the 
necessary training. A written certificate shall be given to each person so 
certified. Any person who has not been so certified or who does not meet the 
requirements of paragraph (e)(9) of this section shall be prohibited from 
engaging in hazardous waste operations. 

(7) Emergency response. Employees who are engaged in responding to 
hazardous emergency situations at hazardous waste cleanup sites that may 
expose them to hazardous substances shall be trained in how to respond to such 
expected emergencies. 

(8) Refresher training. Employees specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this 
section, and managers and supervisors specified in paragraph (e)(4) of this 
section, shall receive eight hours of refresher training annually on the items 
specified in paragraph (e)(2) and/or (e)(4) of this section, critiques of incidents 
that have occurred in the past year that can serve as training examples of any 
related work, and other relevant topics. 

(9) Equivalent training. Employers who can show by documentation or 
certification that an employee’s work experience and/or training has resulted in 
training equivalent to that training required in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(4) of 
this section shall not be required to provide the initial training requirements of 
those paragraphs to such employees. However, certified employees or employ¬ 
ees with equivalent training new to a site shall receive appropriate, site specific 
training before site entry and have appropriate supervised field experience at the 
new site. Equivalent training includes any academic training or the training that 
existing employees might have already received from actual hazardous waste 
site work experience. 

However, certified employees or employees with equivalent training new to a 
site shall receive appropriate, site specific training before site entry and have 
appropriate supervised field experience at the new site. Equivalent training 
includes any academic training or the training that existing employees might 
have already received from actual hazardous waste site work experience. 

2. Training. The training program for employees subject to the requirements 
of paragraph (e) of this standard should address: the safety and health hazards 
employees should expect to find on hazardous waste clean up sites; what control 
measures or techniques are effective for those hazards; what monitoring proce¬ 
dures are effective in characterizing exposure levels; what makes an effective 
employer safety and health program; what a site safety and health plan should 
include; hands-on training with personal protective equiipment and clothing they 
may be expected to use; the contents of the OSHA standards relevant to the 
employee’s duties and functions; and, employee’s responsibilities under OSHA 
and other regulations. 


General Industry Training Requirements 




New Technology 

Programs 

1910.120(o)(i) 


Hazardous Waste 
Operations—Emer¬ 
gency Responders 
1910.120(p)(8)(iii)(A) 
through (C) 


1910.120(p)(7)(i) 
through (Hi) 


(i) The employer shall develop and implement procedures for the introduction 
of effective new technologies and equipment developed for the improved protec¬ 
tion of employees working with hazardous waste clean up operations, and the 
same shall be implemented as part of the site safety and health program to assure 
that employee protection is being maintained. 

(iii) Training. (A) Training for emergency response employees shall be com¬ 
pleted before they are called upon to perform in real emergencies. Such training 
shall include the elements of the emergency response plan, standard operating 
procedures the employer has established for the job, the personal protective 
equipment to be worn and procedures for handling emergency 
incidents. 

Note: Exception #1: An employer need not train all employees to the degree 
specified if the employer divided the work force in a manner such that a sufficient 
number of employees who have responsibility to control emergencies have the 
training specified, and all other employees, who may first resond to an emergency 
incident, have sufficient awareness training to recognize that an emergency response 
situation exists and that they are instmcted in that case to summon the fully trained 
employees and not attempt control activities for which they are not trained. 

Note: Exception #2: An employer need not train all employees to the degree 
specified if arrangements have been made in advance for an outside fully trained 
emergency response team to respond in a reasonable period and all employees, who 
may eome to the ineident first, have sufficient awareness training to recognize that an 
emergeney response situation exists and they have been instmcted to call the 
designated outside, fully trained emergency response team for assistance. 

(B) Employee members of TSD facility emergency response organizations shall 
be trained to a level of competnce in the reconition of health and safety hazards to 
proteet themselves and other employees. This would include training in the methods 
used to minimize the risk from safety and health hazards; in the safe use of control 
equipment; in the selection and use of appropriate personal protective equipment; in 
the safe operating procedures to be used at the incident scene; in the teclmiques of 
coordination with other employees to minimize risks; in the appropriate response to 
overexposure from health hazards or injury to themselves and other employees; and 
in the recognition of subsequent symptoms which may result from overexposures. 

(C) The employer shall certify that each covered employee has attended and 
successfully completed the training required in paragraph (p)(8)(iii) of this section, or 
shall certify the employee’s competency at least yearly. The method used to demon¬ 
strate competency for certification of training shall be recorded and maintained by 
the employer. 

(i) New employees. The employer shall develop and implement a training pro¬ 
gram, which is part of the employer’s safety and health program, for employees 
exposed to health hazards or hazardous substances at TSD operations to enable the 
employees to perform their assigned duties and functions in a safe and healthful 
manner so as not to endanger themselves or other employees. The initial training 
shall be for 24 hours and refresher training shall be for eight hours annually. Employ¬ 
ees who have received the initial training required by this paragraph shall be given a 
written certificate attesting that they have successfully completed the necessary 
training. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




27 



1910.120(p)(8)(iii)(A) 


1910.120(q)(4) 


1910.120(q)(5) 


1910.120(q)(6)(i)(A) 
through (F); (iii)(A) 
Through I; (iv)(A) 
through (I); (v)(A) 
through (F) 



(ii) Current employees. Employers who can show by an employee’sprevious work 
experience and/or training that the employee has had training equivalent to the initial 
training required by this paragraph, shall be considered as meeting the initial training 
requirements of this paragraph as to that employee. Equivalent training includes the 
training that existing employees might have already received from actual site work 
experience. Current employees shall receive eight hours of refresher training 
annually. 

(iii) Trainers. Trainers who teach initial training shall have satisfactorily com¬ 
pleted a training course for teaching the subjects they are expected to teach or they 
shall have the academic credentials and insfruction experience necessary to 
demonstrate a good command of the subject matter of the courses and competent 
instructional skills. 

(iii) Training. (A) Training for emergency response employees shall be com¬ 
pleted before they are called upon to perform in real emergencies. Such training 
shall include the elements of the emergency response plan, standard operating 
procedures the employer has established for the job, the personal protective 
equipment to be worn, and procedures for handling emergency incidents. 

(4) Skilled support personnel. Personnel, not necessarily an employer’s own 
employees, who are skilled in the operation of certain equipment, such as mecha¬ 
nized earth moving or digging equipment or crane and hoisting equipment, and 
who are needed temporarily to perform immediate emergency support work that 
cannot reasonably be performed in a timely fashion by an employer’s own 
employees, and who will be or may be exposed to the hazards at an emergency 
response scene, are not required to meet the training required in this paragraph 
for the employer’s regular employees. However, these personnel shall be given 
an initial briefing at the site prior to their participation in any emergency re¬ 
sponse. The initial briefing shall include instruction in the wearing of appropriate 
personal protective equipment, what chemical hazards are involved, and what 
duties are to be performed. All other appropriate safety and health precautions 
provided to the employer’s own employees shall be used to assure the safety and 
health of these personnel. 

(5) Specialist employees. Employees who, in the course of their regular job 
duties, work with and are trained in the hazards of specific hazardous substances, 
and who will be called upon to provide technical advice or assistance at a haz¬ 
ardous substance release incident to the individual in charge, shall receive train¬ 
ing or demonstrate competency in the area of their specialization annually. 

(6) Training. Training shall be based on the duties and function to be per¬ 
formed by each responder of an emergency response organization. The skill and 
knowledge levels required for all new responders, those hired after the effective 
date of this standard, shall be conveyed to them through training before they are 
permitted to take part in actual emergency operations on an incident. Employees 
who participate, or are expected to participate in emergency response, shall be 
given training in accordance with the following paragraphs: 

(i) First responder awareness level. First responders at the awareness level 
are individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance 
release and who have been trained to initiate an emergency response sequence by 
notifying the proper authorities of the release. First responders at the awareness 


General Industry Training Requirements 





level shall have sufficient training or have had sufficient experience to 
objectively demonstrate competency in the following areas: 

(A) An understanding of what hazardous substances are, and the risks 
associated with them in an incident. 

(B) An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an emergency 
created when hazardous substances are present. 

(C) The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous substances in an 
emergency. 

(D) The ability to identify the hazardous substances, if possible. 

(E) An understanding of the role of the first responder awareness individual in 
the employer’s emergency response plan including site security and control and 
the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Emergency Response Guidebook. 

(F) The ability to realize the need for additional resources, and to make 
appropriate notifications to the communications center. 

(ii) First responder operations level. First responders at the operations level 
are individuals who respond to releases or potential releases of hazardous sub¬ 
stances as part of the initial response to the site for the purpose of protecting 
nearby persons, property, or the environment from the effects of the release. 
They are trained to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to stop 
the release. Their function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it 
from spreading, and prevent exposures. First responders at the operational level 
shall have received at least eight hours of training or have had sufficient experi¬ 
ence to objectively demonstrate competency in the following areas in addition to 
those listed for the awareness level and the employer shall so certify: 

(A) Knowledge of the basic hazard and risk assessment techniques. 

(B) Know how to select and use proper personal protective equipment 
provided to the first responder operational level 

(C) An understanding of basic hazardous materials terms. 

(D) Know how to perform basic control, containment and/or confinement 
operations within the capabilities of the resources and personal protective 
equipment available with their unit. 

(E) Know how to implement basic decontamination procedures. 

(F) An understanding of the relevant standard operating procedures and 
termination procedures. 

(iii) Hazardous materials technician. Hazardous materials technicians are 
individuals who respond to releases or potential releases for the purpose of 
stopping the release. They assume a more aggressive role than a first responder 
at the operations level in that they will approach the point of release in order to 
plug, patch or otherwise stop the release of a hazardous substance. Hazardous 
materials technicians shall have received at least 24 hours of training equal to the 
first responder operations level and in addition have competency in the following 
areas and the employer shall so certify: 

(A) Know how to implement the employer’s emergency response plan. 

(C) Be able to function within an assigned role in the Incident Command 
System 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





(D) Know how to select and use proper specialized chemical personal 
protective equipment provided to the hazardous materials technician. 

(E) Understand hazard and risk assessment techniques. 

(F) Be able to perform advance control, containment, and/or confinement 
operations within the capabilities of the resources and personal protective 
equipment available with the unit. 

(G) Understand and implement decontamination. 

(H) Understand termination procedures. 

(I) Understand basic chemical and toxicological terminology and behavior 

(iv) Hazardous materials specialist. Hazardous materials specialists are 
individuals who respond with and provide support to hazardous materials techni¬ 
cians. Their duties parallel those of the hazardous materials technician, however, 
those duties require a more directed or specific knowledge of the various sub¬ 
stances they may be called upon to contain. The hazardous materials specialist 
would also act as the site liaison with Federal, state, local and other government 
authorities in regards to site activities. Hazardous materials specialists shall have 
received at least 24 hours of training equal to the technician level and in addition 
have competency in the following areas and the employer shall so certify: 

(A) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan. 

(B) Understand classification, identification and verification of known and 
unknown materials by using advanced survey instruments and equipment. 

(C) Know of the state emergency response plan. 

(D) Be able to select and use proper specialized chemical personal protective 
equipment provided to the hazardous materials specialist. 

(E) Understand in-depth hazard and risk techniques. 

(F) Be able to perform specialized control, containment, and/or confinement 
operations within the capabilities of the resources and personal protective 
equipment available. 

(G) Be able to determine and implement decontamination procedures. 

(H) Have the ability to develop a site safety and control plan. 

(I) Understand chemical, radiological and toxicological terminology and 
behavior. 

(v) On scene incident commander. Incident commanders, who will assume 
control of the incident scene beyond the first responder awareness level, shall 
receive at least 24 hours of training equal to the first responder operations level 
and in addition have competency in the following areas and the employer shall 
so certify: 

(A) Know and be able to implement the employer’s incident command 
system. 

(B) Know how to implement the employer’s emergency response plan. 

(C) Know and understand the hazards and risks associated with employees 
working in chemical protective clothing. 

(D) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan. 


General Industry Training Requirements 




30 


1910.120(q)(7) 


Personal Protective 
Equipment 
1910.132(f)(1)(i) 
through (v); (2), (3)(i) 
through (iii) and (4) 


Respiratory Protection 
1910.134(k)(1)(i) 
through (vii); (2), (3), 
and (5)(i) through (iii) 


(E) Know of the state emergency response plan and of the Federal Regional 
Response Team. 

(F) Know and understand the importance of decontamination procedures. 

(7) Trainers. Trainers who teach any of the above training subjects shall have 
satisfactorily completed a training course for teaching the subjects they are 
expected to teach, such as the courses offered by the U.S. National Fire Acad¬ 
emy, or they shall have the training and/or academic credentials and instructional 
experience necessary to demonstrate competent instructional skills and a good 
command of the subject matter of the courses they are to teach. 

(f) Training. (1) The employer shall provide training to each employee who is 
required by this section to use PPE. Each such employee shall be trained to 
know at least the following: 

(1) When PPE is necessary; 

(ii) What PPE is necessary; 

(iii) How to properly don, doff, adjust and wear PPE; 

(iv) The limitations of the PPE; and, 

(v) The proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal of the PPE. 

(2) Each affected employee shall demonstrate an understanding of the training 
specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section and the ability to use PPE properly 
before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE. 

(3) When the employer has reason to believe that any affected employee who 
has already been trained does not have the understanding and skill required by 
paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the employer shall retrain each such employee. 
Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, 
situations where: 

(i) Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete, or 

(ii) Changes in the types of PPE to be used render previous training obsolete; or 

(iii) Inadequacies in an affected employee’s knowledge or use of assigned PPE 
indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill. 

(4) The employer shall verify that each affected employee has received and 
understood the required training through a written certification that contains the 
name of each employee trained, the date(s) of training, and that identifies the 
subnject of the certification. 

(k) Training and information. (1) The employer shall ensure that each 
employee can demonstrate knowledge of at least the following: 

(i) Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, or 
maintenance can compromise the protective effect of the respirator; 

(ii) What the limitations and capabilities of the respirator are; 

(iii) How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including 
situations in which the respirator malfunctions; 

(iv) How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the seals of the 
respirator; 

(v) What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of the respirator; 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



Respiratory Protection 
for M Tuberculosis 
1910.139(a)(3) 
1910.139(b)(3) 

1910.139(e)(2) through 
(4) and (5)(i) 


(vi) How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent 
the efFective use of respirators; and 

vii) The general requirements of this section. 

(2) Training shall be conducted in a manner that is understandable to the 
employee. 

(3) The employer shall provide the training prior to requiring the employee to 
use a respirator in the workplace. 

(5) Retraining shall be administered annually and when the following 
situations occur: 

(1) Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator render previous training 
obsolete; 

ii) Inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use of the respirator indicate that 
the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill; or 

(iii) Any other situation arises in which retraining appears necessary to ensure safe 
respirator use. 

(3) The employee shall use the provided respiratory protection in accordance with 
instructions and training received. 

(3) The user shall be instmcted and trained in the proper use of respirators and 
their limitations. 

(2) the correct respirator shall be specified for each job. The respirator type is 
usually specified in the work procedures by a qualified individual supervising 
the respiratory protective program. The individual issuing them shall be ad¬ 
equately instructed to insure that the correct respirator is issued. Each respirator 
permanently assigned to an individual should be durably marked to indicate to 
whom it was assigned. This mark shall not affect the respirator performance in 
any way. The date of issuance should be recorded. 

(3) Written procedures shall be prepared covering safe use of respirators in 
dangerous atmospheres that might be encountered in normal operations or in 
emergencies. Personnel shall be familiar with these procedures and the available 
respirators. 

(4) Respiratory protection is no better than the respirator in use, even though it 
is worn conscientiously. Frequent random inspections shall be conducted by a 
qualified individual to assure that respirators are properly selected, used, 
cleaned, and maintained. 

(5) For safe use of any respirator, it is essential that the user be properly 
instructed in its selection, use, and maintenance. Both supervisors and workers 
shall be so instructed by competent persons. Training shall provide the men an 
opportunity to handle the respirator, have it fitted properly, test its face-piece-to- 
face seal, wear it in normal air for a long familiarity period, and, finally, to wear 
it in a test atmosphere. 

(i) Every respirator wearer shall receive fitting instructions including demon¬ 
strations and practice in how the respirator should be worn, how to adjust it, and 
how to determine if it fits properly. Respirators shall not be worn when eondi- 
tions prevent a good face seal. Such conditions may be a growth of beard, 
sideburns, a skull cap that projects under the facepiece, or temple pieces on 
glasses. Also, the absence of one or both dentures ean seriously affect the fit of a 


General Industry Training Requirements 





Temporary Labor Camps 
1910.142(k)(1)and (2) 


Specifications for 
Accident Prevention 
Signs and Tags 
1910.145(c)(1)(ii), 
(2)(ii) and (3) 


Permit Required 
Confined Spaces 
1910.146(g)(1) and 
(2)(i) through(iv)(3) 
and (4)and (k)(1)(i) 
through (iv) 


facepiece. The worker’s diligence in observing these factors shall be evaluated 
by periodic check. To assure proper protection, the facepiece fit shall be checked 
by the wearer each time he puts on the respirator. This may be done by following 
the manufacturer’s facepiece fitting instructions. 

(1) Adequate first-aid facilities approved by a health authority shall be main¬ 
tained and made available in every labor camp for the emergency treatment of 
injured persons. 

(2) Such facilities shall be in charge of a person trained to administer first-aid 
and shall be readily accessible for use at all times. 

(1) (ii) All employees shall be instructed that danger signs indicate immediate 
danger and that special precautions are necessary. 

(2) (ii) All employees shall be instructed that caution signs indicate a possible 
hazard against which proper precautions should be taken. 

(3) Safety instruction signs. Safety instruction signs shall be used where there 
is a need for general instructions and suggestions relative to safety measures. 

(g) Training (1) The employer shall provide training so that all employees 
whose work is regulated by this section acquire the understanding, knowledge, 
and skills necessary for the safe performance of the duties assigned under this 
section. 

(2) Training shall be provided to each affected employee: 

(i) Before the employee is first assigned duties under this section; 

(ii) Before there is a change in assigned duties; 

(iii) Whenever there is a change in permit space operations that presents a 
hazard about which an employee has not previously been trained; 

(iv) Whenever the employer has reason to believe either that there are devia¬ 
tions from the permit space entry procedures required by paragraph (d)(3) of this 
section or that there are inadequacies in the employees’ knowledge or use of 
these procedures. 

(3) The training shall establish employee proficiency in the duties required by 
this section and shall introduce new or revised procedures, as necessary, for 
compliance with this section. 

(4) The employer shall certify that the training required by paragraphs (g)(1) 
through (g)(3) of this section has been accomplished. The certification shall 
contain each employee’s name, the signatures or initials of the trainers, and the 
dates of training. The certification shall be available for inspection by 
employees and their authorized representatives. 

(k) Rescue and Emergency Services. (1) The following requirements apply 
to employers who have employees enter permit required confined spaces to 
perform rescue services. 

(i) The employer shall ensure that each member of the rescue service is 
provided with, and is trained to use properly, the personal protective equipment 
and rescue equipment necessary for making rescues from permit required 
confined spaces. 

(ii) Each member of the rescue service shall be trained to perform the as¬ 
signed rescue duties. Each member of the rescue service shall also receive the 
training required of authorized entrants under paragraph (g) of this section. 

(iii) Each member of the rescue service shall practice making permit space 
rescues at least once every 12 months, by means of simulated rescue operations 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




The Control of 
Hazardous Energy 
(lockout/tagout) 
1910.147(a)(3)(ii); 
(4)(i)(D); (7)(i)(A) 
through (C); (ii)(A) 
through (F); (Hi)(A) 
through (C)(iv) and (8) 


in which they remove dummies, mannekins, or aetual persons from the aetual 
permit spaees or from representative permit spaees. Representative permit spaees 
shall, with respeet to opening size configuration, and accessibility, 
simulate the types of permit spaces from whieh reseue is to be performed. 

(iv) Eaeh member of the rescue serviee shall be trained in basie first-aid and in 
eardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). At least one member of the reseue serviee 
holding eurrent eertification in first-aid and in CPR shall be available. 

(ii) When other standards in this part require the use of lookout or tagout, they 
shall be used and supplemented by the proeedural and training requirements of 
this seetion. 

(4) Energy con trol procedure, (i) Proeedures shall be developed, doeumented 
and utilized for the control of potentially hazardous energy when employees are 
engaged in the activities covered by this seetion. 

(D) Where tagout is used for energy eontrol, the periodie inspeetion shall 
include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affeeted em¬ 
ployee, of that employee’s responsibilities under the energy eontrol proeedure 
being inspected, and the elements set forth in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this seetion. 

(7) Training and communication, (i) The employer shall provide training to 
ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are under¬ 
stood by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe 
application, usage, and removal of energy controls are required by employees. 
The training shall include the following: 

(A) Each authorized employee shall reeeive training in the reeognition of 
applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of the energy 
available in the workplace, and the methods and means neeessary for energy 
isolation and control. 

(B) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the 
energy control procedure. 

(C) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area 
where energy control procedures may be utilized, shall be instructed about the 
procedure, and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize 
machines or equipment which are locked out or tagged out. 

(ii) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the 
following limitations of tags: 

(A) Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating deviees, 
and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a 
lock. 

(B) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be re¬ 
moved without authorization of the authorized person for it, and it is never to be 
bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated. 

(C) Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, 
affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may 
be in the area, in order to be effective. 

(D) Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials whieh will 
withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplaee. 


General Industry Training Requirements 








Lockout or Tagout 
Devices Removed 
1910.147(e)(3) 


Outside Personnel 
1910.147(f) (2) (i) 

Medical Services and 
First-Aid 

1910.151(a) and (b) 


Fire Protection 
1910.155(c)(iv)(41) 


Fire Brigades 
1910.156(b)(1) 


(E) Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be 
understood as part of the overall energy control program. 

(F) Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they 
cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use. 

(iii) Employee retraining. (A) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized 
and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a 
change in machines, equipment or processes that present a new hazard, or when 
there is a change in the energy control procedures. 

(B) Additional retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspec¬ 
tion under paragraph (c)(6) of this section reveals, or whenever the employer has 
reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the 
knowledge or use of the energy control procedures. 

(C) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and introduce new 
or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary. 

(iv) The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished 
and is being kept up to date. The certification shall contain each employee’s 
name and dates of training. 

(8) Energy isolation. Implementation of lockout or the tagout system shall be 
performed only by authorized employees. 

(3) Lockout or tagout devices removal. Each lockout or tagout device shall be 
removed from each energy isolating device by the employee who applied the 
device. Exception to paragraph (e)(3) ‘. When the authorized employee who 
applied the lock-out or tagout device is not available to remove it, that device 
may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided that specific 
procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented and 
incorporated into the employer’s energy control program. The employer shall 
demonstrate that the specific procedure provides equivalent safety to the removal 
of the device by the authorized employee who applied it. 

(i) The on-site employer shall ensure that his/her personnel understand and com¬ 
ply with restrictions and prohibitions of the outside employer’s energy control 
procedures. 

(a) The employer shall ensure the ready availability of personnel for advice and 
consultation on matters of plant health. 

(b) In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, or hospital in near proximity to the 
workplace which is used for the treatment of all injured employees, a person or 
persons shall be adequately trained to render first-aid. First-aid supplies 
approved by the consulting physician shall be readily available. 

(41) “Training” means the process of making proficient through instruction and 
hands-on practice in the operation of equipment, including respiratory protection 
equipment, that is expected to be used and in the performance of assigned duties. 

(b) Organization — (1) Organizational statement. The employer shall prepare and 
maintain a statement or written policy which establishes the existence of a fire 
brigade; the basic organizational structure; the type, amount, and frequency of 
training to be provided to fire brigade members; the expected number of members in 
the fire brigade; and the functions that the fire brigade is to perform at the work¬ 
place. The organizational statement shall be available for inspection by the 
Assistant Secretary and by employees or their designated representatives. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Training and Education 
1910.156(c)(1) through 
(4) 


Portable fire 
Extinguishers 
1910.157(g)(1), (2), and 
(4) 


1910.158(e)(2)(vi) 

Fixed Extinguishing 

Systems 

1910.160(b) (10) 


(c) Training and education. (1) The employer shall provide training and 
education for all fire brigade members commensurate with those duties and 
functions that fire brigade members are expected to perform. Such training and 
education shall be provided to fire brigade members before they perform fire 
brigade emergency activities. Fire brigade leaders and training instructors shall 
be provided with training and education which is more comprehensive than that 
provided to the general membership of the fire brigade. 

(2) The employer shall assure that training and education is conducted fre¬ 
quently enough to assure that each member of the fire brigade is able to perform 
the member’s assigned duties and functions satisfactorily and in a safe manner so 
as not to endanger fire brigade members or other employees. All fire brigade 
members shall be provided with training at least annually. In addition, fire 
brigade members who are expected to perform interior structural firefighting 
shall be provided with an education session or training at least quarterly. 

(3) The quality of the training and education program for fire brigade members 
shall be similar to those conducted by such fire training schools as the Maryland 
Fire and Rescue Institute; Iowa Fire Service Extension; West Virginia Fire 
Service Extension; Georgia Fire Academy; New York State Department, Fire 
Prevention and Control; Louisiana State University Firemen Training Program; 
or Washington State’s Fire Service, Training Commission for 

Vocational Education, (for example, for the oil refinery industry, with its unique 
hazards, the training and education program for those fire brigade members shall 
be similar to those conducted by Texas A & M University, Lamar University, 
Reno Fire School, or the Delaware State Fire School). 

(4) The employer shall inform fire brigade members about special hazards 
such as storage and use of flammable liquids and gases, toxic chemicals, radioac¬ 
tive sources, and water reactive substances, to which they may be exposed 
during fire and other emergencies. The fire brigade members shall also be ad¬ 
vised of any changes that occur in relation to the special hazards. The employer 
shall develop and make available for inspection by fire brigade members, written 
procedures that describe the actions to be taken in situations involving the 
special hazards and shall include these in the training and education 

program. 

(g) Training and education. (1) Where the employer has provided portable 
fire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall also 
provide an educational program to familiarize employees with the general prin¬ 
ciples of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved with incipient stage 
firefighting. 

(2) The employer shall provide the education required in paragraph (g)(1) of 
this section upon initial employment and at least annually thereafter. 

(4) The employer shall provide the training required in paragraph (g)(3) of this 
section upon initial assignment to the designated group of employees and at least 
annually thereafter. 

(vi) The employer shall designate trained persons to conduct all inspections 
required under this section. 

(10) The employer shall train employees designated to inspect, maintain, 
operate, or repair fixed extinguishing systems and annually review their training 
to keep them up-to-date in the functions they are to perform. 


General Industry Training Requirements 







Fire Detection Systems 
1910.164(c)(4) 


Employee Alarm 

Systems 

1910.165(d)(5) 

Servicing of Multi-Piece 
and Single-Piece Rim 
Wheels 

1910.177(c)(1)(i) 
through (iiij; (2)(i) 
through (viii) and (3) 
Includes single piece 
wheels per Federal 
Register of February 3, 
1984 (pp. 4338-4352) 
but not automobile or 
truck tires marked "LT." 


1910.177(f)(1); (2)(i) 
and (ii) and (3) through 
( 11 ) 


(4) The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of 
fire detection systems, including cleaning and necessary sensitivity adjustments, 
are performed by a trained person knowledgeable in the operations and functions 
of the system. 

(d) Maintenance and testing. (5) The employer shall assure that the servic¬ 
ing, maintenance, and testing of employee alarms are done by persons trained in 
the designed operation and functions necessary for reliable and safe operation of 
the system. 

(c) Employee training. (1) The employer shall provide a training program to 
train all employees who service rim wheels in the hazards involved in servicing 
those rim wheels and the safety procedures to be followed. 

(1) The employer shall assure that no employee services any rim wheel unless 
the employee has been trained and instructed in correct procedures of servicing 
the rim type being serviced, and in procedures described in paragraphs (f) and 
(g) of this section. 

(ii) Information to be used in the training program shall include at a mini¬ 
mum, the applicable data contained in the charts, rim manuals, and the contents 
of this standard. 

(iii) Where an employer knows or has reason to believe that any of his em¬ 
ployees is unable to read and understand the charts or rim manual, the employer 
shall assure that the employee is instructed concerning the contents of the charts 
and rim manual in a manner which the employee is able to understand. 

(2) The employer shall assure that each employee demonstrates and maintains 
the ability to service multi-piece rim wheels safely, including performance of the 
following tasks: 

(i) Demounting of tires (including deflation); 

(ii) Inspection and identification of rim wheel components; 

(iii) Mounting of tires (including inflation within a restraining device or other 
safeguards required by this section); 

(iv) Use of the restraining device or barrier, and other equipment required by 
this section; 

(v) Handling of rim wheels; 

(vi) Inflation of tire when a single piece rim wheel is mounted on a vehicle; 

(vii) An understanding of the necessity of standing outside the trajectory both 
during the inflation of the tire and during inspection of the rim wheel following 
inflation; and 

(viii) Installation and removal of rim wheels. 

(3) The employer shall evaluate each employee’s ability to perform these 
tasks and to service rim wheels safely and shall provide additional training as 
necessary to assure that each employee maintains his or her proficiency. 

(f) Safe operating procedure — multi-piece rim wheels. The employer shall 
establish a safe operating procedure for servicing multi-piece rim wheels and 
shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The 
procedure shall include at least the following elements: 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





1910.177(g)(1) through 
( 12 ) 


(1) Tires shall be completely deflated before demounting by removal of the 
valve core. 

(2) Tires shall be completely deflated by removing the valve core before a rim 
wheel is removed from the axle in either of the following situations: 

(i) When the tire has been driven underinflated at 80% or less of its 
recommended pressure, or 

(ii) When there is obvious or suspected damage to the tire or wheel 
components. 

(3) Rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and rim mating surfaces during 
assembly of the wheel and inflation of the tire, unless the tire or wheel 
manufacturer recommends against it. 

(4) If a tire on a vehicle is underinflated but has more than 80% of the recom¬ 
mended pressure, the tire may be inflated while the rim wheel is on the vehicle 
provided remote control inflation equipment is used, and no employees remain 
in the trajectory during inflation. 

(5) Tires shall be inflated outside a restraining device only to a pressure 
sufficient to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge and create an airtight seal with 
the tire and bead. 

(6) Whenever a rim wheel is in a restraining device the employee shall not 
rest or lean any part of his body or equipment on or against the restraining 
device. 

(7) After tire inflation, the tire and wheel components shall be inspected while 
still within the restraining device to make sure that they are properly seated and 
locked. If further adjustment to the tire or wheel components is necessary, the 
tire shall be deflated by removal of the valve core before the adjustment is made. 

(8) No attempt shall be made to correct the seating of side and lock rings by 
hammering, striking or forcing the components while the tire is pressurized. 

(9) Cracked, broken, bent or otherwise damaged rim components shall not be 
reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated. 

(10) Whenever multi-piece rim wheels are being handled, employees shall 
stay out of the trajectory unless the employer can demonstrate that performance 
of the servicing makes the employee’s presence in the trajectory necessary. 

(11) No heat shall be applied to a multi-piece wheel or wheel component. 

(g) Safe operating procedure—single piece rim wheels. The employer shall 
establish a safe operating procedure for servicing single piece rim wheels and 
shall assure that employees are instructed in and follow that procedure. The 
procedure shall include at least the following elements: 

(1) Tires shall be completely deflated by removal of the valve core before 
demounting. 

(2) Mounting and demounting of the tire shall be done only from the narrow 
ledge side of the wheel. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads 
while mounting tires on wheels. Tires shall be mounted only on compatible 
wheels of matching bead diameter and width. 

(3) Nonflammable rubber lubricant shall be applied to bead and wheel mating 
surfaces before assembly of the rim wheel, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer 
recommends against the use of any rubber lubricant. 


General Industry Training Requirements 






38 


Powered Industrial 

Trucks 

1910.178(1) 

Moving the Load 
1910.179(n)(3)(ix) 


1910.179(o)(3) 

Crawler Locomotives 
and Truck Cranes 
1910.180(i)(5)(ii) 

Mechanical Power 

Presses 

1910.217(e)(3) 

1910.217(f)(2) 


Mechanical Power 
Presses—Instructions 
to Operators 
1910.217(e)(2) 

Training of Maintenance 

personnel 

1910.217(e)(3) 


(4) If a tire changing machine is used, the tire shall be inflated only to the 
minimum pressure necessary to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge while on 
the tire changing machine. 

(5) If a bead expander is used, it shall be removed before the valve core 
installed and as soon as the rim wheel becomes airtight (the tire bead slips onto 
the bead seat). 

(6) Tires may be inflated only when contained within a restraining device, 
positioned behind a barrier or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully 
tightened. 

(7) Tires shall not be inflated when any flat, solid surface is in the trajectory 
and within one foot of the sidewall. 

(8) Employees shall stay out of the trajectory when inflating a tire. 

(9) Tires shall not be inflated to more than the inflation pressure stamped in 
the sidewall unless a higher pressure is recommended by the manufacturer. 

(10) Tires shall not be inflated above the maximum pressure recommended by 
the manufacturer to seat the tire bead firmly against the rim flange. 

(11) No heat shall be applied to a single piece wheel. 

(12) Cracked, broken, bent, or otherwise damaged wheels shall not be 
reworked, welded, brazed, or otherwise heated. 

(1) Operator training. Only trained and authorized operators shall be permit¬ 
ted to operate a powered industrial truck. Methods shall be devised to train 
operators in the safe operation of powered industrial trucks. 

(ix) When two or more cranes are used to lift a load, one qualified responsible 
person shall be in charge of the operation. He shall analyze the operation and 
instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and 
the movements to be made. 

(3) Fire extinguishers. The employer shall insure that operators are familiar 
with the operation and care of fire extinguishers provided. 

(ii) Operating and maintenance personnel shall be made familiar with the use 
and care of the fire extinguishers provided. 


(3) Training of maintenance personnel. It shall be the responsibility of the 
employer to insure the original and continuing competence of personnel caring 
for, inspecting, and maintaining power presses. 

(2) Instruction to operators. The employer shall train and instruct the operator 
in the safe method of work before starting work on any operation covered by this 
section. The employer shall insure by adequate supervision that correct operating 
procedures are being followed. 

(2) Instruction to operators. The employer shall train and instruct the operator 
in the safe method of work before starting work on any operation covered by this 
section. The employer shall insure by adequate supervision that correct operating 
procedures are being followed. 

(3) Training of Maintenance personnel. It shall be responsibility of the 
employer to insure the original and continuing competence of personnel caring 
for, inspecting, and maintaining power presses. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Operator Training 
1910.217(H)(13)(i)(A) 
through (E) and (ii) 


Forging Machines 
1910.218(a)(2)(iii) 


Welding, Cutting, and 
Brazing—General 
Requirements 
1910.252(a)(2)(xiii)(C) 

Oxygen—Fuel Gas 
Welding and Cutting 
1910.253(a)(4) 


Arc Welding and Cutting 
1910.254(a)(3) 


Resistance Welding 
1910.255(a)(3) 

Pulp, Paper, and 
Paperboard Mills 
1910.261 (h)(3)(ii) 


(1) The operator training required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section shall be 
provided to the employee before the employee initially operates the press and as 
needed to maintain competence, but not less than annually thereafter. It shall 
include instruction relative to the following items for presses used in the PSDI 
mode: 

(A) The manufacturer’s recommended test procedures for checking operation 
of the presence sensing device. This shall include the use of the test rod required 
by paragraph (h)(10)(i) of this section. 

(B) The safety distance required. 

(C) The operation, function and performance of the PSDI mode. 

(D) The requirements for hand tools that may be used in the PSDI mode. 

(E) The severe consequences that can result if he or she attempts to circum¬ 
vent or bypass any of the safeguard or operating functions of the PSDI system. 

(ii) The employer shall certify that employees have been trained by preparing 
a certification record which includes the identity of the person or the person who 
conducted the training, and the date the training was completed. The certification 
record shall be prepared at the completion of training and shall be maintained on 
fide for the duration of the employee’s employment. The certification record shall 
be made available upon request to the Assistant Secretary for Occupational 
Safety and Health. 

(2) Inspection and maintenance. It shall be the responsibility of the employer 
to maintain all forge shop equipment in a condition which will ensure continued 
safe operation. This responsibility includes: 

(iii) Training personnel for the proper inspection and maintenance of forging 
machinery and equipment. 

(xiii) Management. Management shall recognize its responsibility for the safe 
usage of cutting and welding equipment on its property and: 

(C) Insist that cutters or welders and their supervisors are suitably trained in 
the safe operation of their equipment and the safe use of the process. 

(4) Personnel. Workmen in charge of the oxygen or fuel-gas supply equip¬ 
ment, including generators, and oxygen or fuel-gas distribution piping systems 
shall be instructed by their employers for this important work before being left in 
charge. Rules and instructions covering the operation and maintenance of oxy¬ 
gen or fuel-gas supply equipment including generators, and oxygen or fuel-gas 
distribution piping systems shall be readily available. 

(3) Instruction. Workmen designated to operate arc welding equipment shall 
have been properly instructed and qualified to operate such equipment as 
specified in paragraph (d) of this section. 

(3) Personnel. Workmen designated to operate resistance welding equipment 
shall have been properly instructed and judged competent to operate such 
equipment. 

(ii) Gas masks capable of absorbing chlorine shall be supplied, conveniently 
placed, and regularly inspected, and workers who may be exposed to chlorine 
gas shall be instructed in their use. 


General Industry Training Requirements 





40 


Laundry Machinery and 
Operating Rules 
1910.264(d)(1)(v) 
Sawmills 
1910.265(c) (3) (x) 

Logging 

1910.266(0(1) and 
(2)(i) through (iv); (3)(i) 
through (vi); (4) and 
(5)(i) through (iv); (6) 
and (7)(i) through (iii); 
(8) and (9) 


(v) Instruction of employees. Employees shall be properly instructed as to the 
hazards of their work and be instructed in safe practices, by bulletins, printed 
rules, and verbal instructions. 

(x) Lift trucks. Lift trucks shall be designed, constructed, maintained, and 
operated in accordance with the requirements of 1910.178. 

(\)Training. (1) The employer shall provide training for each employee, 
including supervisors, at no cost to the employee. 

(2) Frequency. Training shall be provided as follows: 

(i) As soon as possible but not later than the effective date of this section for 
initial training for each current and new employee; 

(ii) Prior to initial assignment for each new employee; 

(iii) Whenever the employee is assigned new work tasks, tools, equipment, 
machines, or vehicles; and, 

(iv) Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance. 

(3) Content. At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements: 

(i) Safe performance of assigned work tasks; 

(ii) Safe use, operation, and maintenance of tools, machines, and vehicles the 
employee uses or operates, including emphasis on understanding and following 
the manufacturer’s instructions, warnings, and precautions; 

(iii) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee’s 
specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent 
or control those hazards; 

(iv) Recognition, prevention, and control of other safety and health hazards in 
the logging industry; 

(v) Procedures, practices, and requirements of the employer’s work site; and 

(vi) The requirements of this standard. 

(4) Training of an employee due to unsafe Job performance, or assignment of 
new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles may be limited to those 
elements in paragraph (I)(3) of this section which are relevant to the 
circumstances giving rise to the need for training. 

(5) Portability of training, (i) Each current employee who has received 
training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section 
shall not be required to be retrained in those elements. 

(ii) Each new employee who has received training in the particular elements 
specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained 
in those elements prior to initial assignment. 

(iii) The employer shall train each current and new employee in those 
elements for which the employee has not received training. 

(iv) The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current and new employee 
can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate the tools, equipment, 
machines, and vehicles used in their job. 

(6) Each new employee and each employee who is required to be trained as 
specified in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, shall work under the close supervision of 
a designated person until the employee demonstrates to the employer the ability to 
safely perform the new duties independently. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Telecommunications 

1910.268(b)(2)(i) 

1910.268(c)(1) 
through (3) 


Derrick Trucks 
191O.2680)(4)(iv)(D) 

Cable Fault Locating 
1910.268(l)(1) 


Guarding Manholes 
1910.268(o)(1)(ii) 


(7) First-aid training, (i) The employer shall assure that each employee, including 
supervisors, receives or has received first-aid and CPR training meeting at least the 
requirements specified in Appendix B of this standard. 

(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee receives first-aid training at 
least every three years and receives CPR training at least annually. 

(iii) The employer shall assure that each employee’s first-aid and CPR training 
and/or certificate of training remain current. 

(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person. 

(9) The employer shall assure that all training required by this section is presented 
in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall assure that 
all training materials used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the 
educational level, literacy, and language skills of the employees being trained. 

(i) Employees assigned to work with storage batteries shall be instmcted in 
emergency procedures such as dealing with accidental acid spills. 

(c) Training. Employers shall provide training in the various precautions and safe 
practices described in this section and shall insure that employees do not engage in 
the activities to which this section applies until such employees have received proper 
training in the various precautions and safe practices required by this section. How¬ 
ever, where the employer can demonstrate that an employee is already trained in the 
precautions and safe practices required by this section prior to his employment, 
training need not be provided to that employee in accordance with this section. 

Where training is required, it shall consist of on-the-job training or classroom-type 
training or a combination of both. The employer shall certify that employees have 
been trained by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the 
person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the 
training, and the date the training was completed. The certification record shall be 
prepared at the completion of training and shall be maintained on file for the duration 
of the employee’s employment. The certification record shall be made available upon 
request to the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health. Such training 
shall, where appropriate, include the following subjects: 

(1) Recognition and avoidance of dangers relating to encounters with harmful 
substances and animal, insect, or plant life; 

(2) Procedures to be followed in emergency situations; and, 

(3) First-aid training, including instruction in artificial respiration. 

(D) Only persons trained in the operation of the derrick shall be permitted to 
operate the derrick 

(1) Cable fault locating and testing. (1) Employees involved in using high volt¬ 
ages to locate trouble or test cables shall be instmcted in the precautions necessary 
for their own safety and the safety of other employees. 

(ii) While work is being performed in the manhole, a person with basic first- 
aid training shall be immediately available to render assistance if there is cause 
for believing that a safety hazard exists, and if the requirements contained in 
paragraphs (d)(1) and (o)(l)(i) of this section do not adequately protect the 
employee(s). 


General Industry Training Requirements 






Joint Power and 

Telecommunication 

Manholes 


1910.268(o)(3) 


Tree Trimming— 
Electrical Hazards 
1910.268(q)(1)(ii)(A) 
through (D) 


1910.268(q)(2)(ii) 

1910.268(q)(2)(iii) 


Electric Power 
Generation, 
Transmission, and 
Distribution 
1910.269(b)(1)(i) and 
(ii); (d)(vi)(A) through 
(C); (vii); (viii)(A) 
through (C); and (ix) 


(3) Joint power and telecommunication manholes. While work is being 
performed in a manhole occupied jointly by an electric utility and a telecommu¬ 
nication utility, an employee with basic first-aid training shall be available in the 
immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as may be required. The 
employee whose presence is required in the immediate vicinity for the purposes 
of rendering emergency assistance is not to be precluded from occasionally 
entering a manhole to provide assistance other than in an emergency. The re¬ 
quirement of this paragraph (o)(3) does not preclude a qualified employee, 
working alone, from entering for brief periods of time, a manhole where ener¬ 
gized cables or equipment are in service, for the purpose of inspection, house¬ 
keeping, taking readings, or similar work if such work can be performed safely. 

(ii) Employees engaged in line clearing operations shall be instructed that: 

(A) A direct contact is made when any part of the body touches or contacts an 
energized conductor, or other energized electrical fixture or apparatus. 

(B) An indirect contact is made when any part of the body touches any object 
in contact with an energized electrical conductor, or other energized fixture or 
apparatus. 

(C) An indirect contact can be made through conductive tools, tree branches, 
trucks, equipment, or other objects, or as a result of communications wires, 
cables, fences, or guy wires being accidentally energized. 

(D) Electric shock will occur when an employee, by either direct or indirect 
contact with an energized conductor, energized tree limb, tool, equipment, or 
other object, provides a path for the flow of electricity to a grounded object or to 
the ground itself. Simultaneous contact with two energized conductors will also 
cause electric shock which may result in serious or fatal injury. 

(ii) Only qualified employees or trainees, familiar with the special techniques 
and hazards involved in line clearance, shall be permitted to perform the work if 
it is found that an electrical hazard exists. 

(iii) During all tree working operations aloft where an electrical hazard of 
more than 750V exists, there shall be a second employee or trainee qualified in 
line clearance tree trimming within normal voice communication. 

(b) Medical services and first-aid. The employer shall provide medical 
services and first-aid as required in Section 1910.151 of this part. In addition to 
the requirements of Section 1910.151 of the Part, the following requirements 
also apply: 

(1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first-aid training. When employees 
are performing work on or associated with exposed lines or equipment energized 
at 50 volts or more, persons trained in first-aid including cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation (CPR) shall be available as follows: 

(i) For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at 
least two trained persons shall be available. However, only one trained person 
need be available if all new employees are trained in first-aid, including CPR, 
within 3 months of their hiring dates. 

(ii) For fixed work locations such as generating stations, the number of 
trained persons available shall be sufficient to ensure that each employee ex¬ 
posed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes by a trained person. 
However, where the existing number of employees is insufficient to meet this 
requirement (at a remote substation, for example), all employees at the work 
location shall be trained. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



Grain Handling 
Facilities 

1910.272(e)(1)(i) and 
(ii) and (2) 


Entry into Bins, Silos, and 
Tanks 1910.272(g)(5) 

Contractors 

1910.272(h)(2) 


(d) Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures, (vi) The em¬ 
ployer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the 
energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge 
and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of energy 
controls are acquired by employees. The training shall include the following: 

(A) Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of 
applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of energy available 
in the workplace, and in the methods and means necessary for energy isolation 
and control. 

(B) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the 
energy control procedure. 

(C) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area 
where energy control procedures may be used shall be instructed about the 
procedures and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize 
machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out. 

(vii) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the 
limitation of tags. 

(viii) Retraining shall be provided by the employer as follows: 

(A) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees 
whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, 
equipment, or processes that present a new hazard or whenever there is a change 
in the energy control procedures. 

(B) Retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection under 
paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section reveals, or whenever the employer has reason 
to believe, there are deviations from or inadequacies in an employee’s 
knowledge or use of the energy control procedures. 

(C) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and shall introduce 
new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary. 

(e) Training. (1) The employer shall provide training to employees at least 
annually and when changes in job assignment will expose them to new hazards. 
Current employees, and new employees prior to starting work, shall be trained in 
at least the following: 

(1) General safety precautions associated with the facility, including recogni¬ 
tion and preventive measures for the hazards related to dust accumulations and 
common ignition sources such as smoking; and 

(ii) Specific procedures and safety practices applicable to their job tasks 
including but not limited to, cleaning procedures for grinding equipment, clear¬ 
ing procedures for choked legs, housekeeping procedures, hot work procedures, 
preventive maintenance procedures and lock-out/tag-out procedures. 

(2) Employees assigned special tasks, such as bin entry and handling of 
flammable or toxic substances, shall be provided training to perform these tasks 
safely. 

(5) The employee acting as observer shall be trained in rescue procedures, 
including notification methods for obtaining additional assistance. 

(2) The employer shall explain the applicable provisions of the emergency 
action plan to contractors. 


General Industry Training Requirements 




Content of Training 
1910.332(b)(1) 


Qualifications of Dive 
Team 1910.410(a)(1); 
(2)(i) through (iii); (3) 
and (4) 


1910.410(b)(1) 


1910.410(c)(2) 

Asbestos 
1910.1001 (j)(7)(i) 
through (iii)(A) 
through (H) 


(b) Content of training. (1) Practices addressed in this standard. Employees 
shall be required by §§1910.331 through 1910.335 that pertain to their 
respective job assignments. 

(1) Each dive team member shall have the experience or training necessary to 
perform assigned tasks in a safe and healthful manner. 

(2) Each dive team member shall have experience or training in the following: 

(i) The use of tools, equipment, and systems relevant to assigned tasks; 

(ii) Techniques of the assigned diving mode; and 

(iii) Diving operations and emergency procedures. 

(3) All dive team members shall be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation 
and first-aid ( American Red Cross standard course or equivalent). 

(4) Dive team members who are exposed to or control the exposure of others 
to hyperbaric conditions shall be trained in diving related physics and 
physiology. 

(1) Each dive team member shall be assigned tasks in accordance with the 
employee’s experience or training, except that limited additional tasks may be 
assigned to an employee undergoing training provided that these tasks are 
performed under the direct supervision of an experienced dive team member. 

(2) The designated person-in-charge shall have experience and training in the 
conduct of the assigned diving operation. 

(j) Communication of hazards to employees. (7) Employee information and 
training, (i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees 
who are exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos, tremolite, anthophylite, 
actinolite, or a combination of these minerals at or above the action level and 
ensure their participation in the program. 

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and 
at least annually thereafter. 

(iii) The training program shall be conducted in a manner which the employee 
is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed 
of the following: 

(A) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure; 

(B) The relationship between smoking and exposure; 

(C) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and specific nature of 
operations which could result in exposure to asbestos; 

(D) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the 
employee’s job assignment; 

(E) The specific procedures implemented to protect employees from exposure 
to asbestos, such as appropriate work practices, emergency and clean-up 
procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; 

(F) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective 
clothing; 

(G) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program 
required by paragraph ( 1 ) of this section; 

(H) The content of this standard. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




45 


4-Nitrobiphenyl 
1910.1003(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 


(i) Each employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall 
receive a training and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily 
limited to: 


Alpha-Napthylamine 
1910.1004(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 
Methyl Chloromethyl 
Ether 

1910.1006(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine 
(and its salts) 
1910.1007(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

Bis-Chloromethyl Ether 
1910.1008(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

Beta-Naphthylamine 
1910.1009(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

Benzidine 

1910.1010(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

4-Aminodiphenyl 
1910.1011(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

Ethyleneimine 
1910.1012(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

Beta-Propiolactone 
1910.1013(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

2-Acetylaminofluorene 
1910.1014(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

4-Dimethylaminoazo- 

benzene 

1910.1015(e)(5)(i)(a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 

N-Nitrosodimethyl- 

amine 

1910.1016(e)(5)(i) (a) 
through (h)(i) and (ii) 


(a) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of N-Nitrobiphenyl, and others 
listed at left, including local and systemic toxicity; 

(b) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl which 
could result in exposure; 

(c) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, 
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination; 

(d) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and 
purposes; 

(e) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures; 

(f) The employee’s specific role in emergency procedures; 

(g) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of 
conditions and situations which may result in the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl; 

(h) The purpose for and application of specific first-aid procedures and 
practices; 

(i) A review of this section at the employee’s first training and indoctrination 
program and annually thereafter. 

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and em¬ 
ployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their application. 


General Industry Training Requirements 






Vinyl Chloride 
1910.1017(j)(1)(i) 
through (ix) 


Inorganic Arsenic 
1910.1018(o)(1)(i) and 
(ii)(A) through (F) and 
(2)(i) and (ii) 


(j) Training. Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride 
operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of 
vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use. 

(1) The program shall include: 

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride 
including specifically the carcinogenic hazard; 

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to vinyl 
chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective steps; 

(iii) The purpose for, proper use of, and limitations of respiratory protective 
devices; 

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary 
protective steps; 

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program; 

(vi) The purpose for, and a description of, the medical surveillance program; 

(vii) Emergency procedures; 

(viii) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions 
which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and 

(ix) A review of this standard at the employee’s first training and 
indoctrination program, and annually thereafter. 

(1) Training program, (i) The employer shall institute a training program for 
all employees who are subject to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action 
level without regard to respirator use, or for whom there is a possibility of skin 
or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic. The employer shall assure that those 
employees participate in the training program. 

(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978, for employees 
covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for those subse¬ 
quently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at least quarterly for 
employees who have optional use of respirators and at least annually for other 
covered employees thereafter, and the employer shall assure that each employee 
is informed of the following: 

(A) The information contained in Appendix A; 

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and 
the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic 
arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps; 

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators; 

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program as 
required by paragraph (n) of this section; 

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the 
employee’s job assignment; and 

(F) A review of this standard. 

(2) Access to training materials, (i) The employer shall make readily 
available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices. 

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the 
employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the 
Director. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



Lead 

1910.1025(l)(1)(i) 
through (v)(A) through 
(G)(2)(i) through (Hi) 


Cadmium 

1910.1027 (m) (4) (i) 
through (iii) (A) through 
(H) and (m)(4)(iv)(A) 
and (B) 


(1) Each employer who has a workplace in which there is a potential exposure 
to airborne lead at any level shall inform employees of the content of 
Appendices A and B of this regulation. 

(ii) The employer shall institute a training program for and assure the partici¬ 
pation of all employees who are subject to exposure to lead at or above the 
action level or for whom the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists. 

(iii) The employer shall provide initial training by 180 days from the effective 
date. Editor’s Note: OSHA’s lead standard became effective February 1, 1979 
for those employees covered by paragraph (l)(l)(ii) on the standard’s effective 
date and prior to the time of initial job assignment for those employees 
subsequently covered by this paragraph. 

(iv) The training program shall be repeated at least annually for each 
employee. 

(v) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the 
following: 

(A) The content of this standard and its appendices; 

(B) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to 
lead above the action level; 

(C) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, use, and limitations of respirators; 

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and 
the medical removal protection program including information concerning the 
adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particu¬ 
lar attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females). 

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the 
employee’s job assignment; 

(F) The contents of any compliance plan in effect; and 

(G) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be 
used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under 
the direction of a licensed physician; 

(2) Access to information and training materials. 

(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a 
copy of this standard and its appendices. 

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the 
employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the 
Director. 

(iii) In addition to the information required by paragraph (l)(l)(v), the em¬ 
ployer shall include as part of the training program, and shall distribute to 
employees, any materials pertaining to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 
the regulations issued pursuant to that Act, and this lead standard, which are 
made available to the employer by the Assistant Secretary. 

(4) Employee information and training, (i) The employer shall institute a 
training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to cadmium, 
assure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the 
contents of such a program. 


General Industry Training Requirements 





(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job 
involving potential exposure to eadmium and at least annually thereafter. 

(iii) The employer shall make the training program understandable to the em¬ 
ployee and assure that each employee is informed of the following: 

(A) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention 
to the information incorporated in appendix A of the standard; 

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the 
workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to 
cadmium, especially exposures above the permissible exposure limits (PELs); 

(C) The engineering and work practices associated with the employee’s job 
assignment; 

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to 
cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal 
hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employ¬ 
ees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency 
procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment; 

(E) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of respira¬ 
tors and protective clothing; 

(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program 
required by paragraph ( 1 ) of the standard’s training section; 

(G) The contents of the training section and the appendices of the cadmium 
standard; 

(H) The employees’ rights of access to records under the Access to Employee 
Exposure and Medical Records mle, 29 CFR 1910.20. 

(m)(4)(iv) Additional access to information and training programs and 
materials. 

(A) The employer shall make a copy of this section and its appendices readily 
available without cost to all affected employees and shall provide a copy if re¬ 
quested. 

(B) The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary or the Director, upon 
request, all materials relating to the employee information program. 

Benzene (3) Information and training, (i) The employer shall provide employees with 

1910.1028(j)(3)(i) information and training at the time of their initial assignment to a work area where 

through (iii)(A) and (B) benzene is present. If exposures are above the action level, employees shall be 

provided with information and training at least annually thereafter. 

(ii) The training program shall be in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 
1910.1200(h)(1) and (2), and shall include specific information on benzene for each 
category of information included in that section. 

(iii) In addition to the information required under 29 CFR 1910.1200, the em¬ 
ployer shall: 

(A) Provide employees with an explanation of the contents of this section, includ¬ 
ing Appendices A and B, and indicate to them where the standard is available; and, 

(B) Describe the medical surveillance program required under paragraph (i) of 
this section, and explain the information contained in Appendix C. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Coke Oven Emissions 
1910.1029(k)(1)(i) 
through (iv)(a) through 
(e) and (k)(2)(i) and (ii) 


Bloodborne Pathogens 
1910.1030(g)(2)(i); 
(ii)(A) through (C); (iii) 
through (vii)(A) through 
(N); (viii) and (ix)(A) 
through (C) 


(1) Training program, (i) The employer shall institute a training program for 
employees who are employed in the regulated area and shall assure their 
participation. 

(ii) The training program shall be provided as of January 27, 1977 for 
employees who are employed in the regulated area at that time or at the time of initial 
assignment to a regulated area. 

(iii) The training program shall be provided at least annually for all employees 
who are employed in the regulated area, except that training regarding the occupa¬ 
tional safety and health hazards associated with exposure to coke oven emissions and 
the purpose, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices shall be 
provided at least quarterly until January 20, 1978. 

(iv) The training program shall include informing each employee of: 

(a) The information contained in the substance information sheet for coke oven 
emissions (Appendix A); 

(b) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective devices 
required in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section; 

(c) The purpose for and a description of the medical surveillance program required 
by paragraph (j) of this section including information on the occupational safety and 
health hazards associated with exposure to coke oven 

emissions; 

(d) A review of all written procedures and schedules required under paragraph (f) 
of this section; and 

(e) A review of this standard. 

(2) Access to training materials, (i) The employer shall make a copy of this 
standard and its appendices readily available to all employees who are employed in 
the regulated area. 

(ii) The employer shall provide upon request all materials relating to the employee 
information and training program to the Secretary and the Director. 

(2) Information and Training, (i) Employers shall ensure that all employees with 
occupational exposure participate in a training program which must be provided at 
no cost to the employee and during working hours. 

(ii) Training shall be provided as follows: 

(A) At the time of initial assignment to tasks where occupational exposure may 
take place; 

(B) Within 90 days after the effective date of the standard; and 

(C) At least annually thereafter. 

(iii) For employees who have received training on bloodborne pathogens in the 
year preceding the effective date of the standard, only training with respect to the 
provisions of the standard which were not included need be provided. 

(iv) Annual training for all employees shall be provided within one year of their 
previous training. 

(v) Employers shall provide additional training when changes such as modifica¬ 
tion of tasks or procedures or institution of new tasks or procedures affect the 
employee’s occupational exposure. The additional training may be limited to ad¬ 
dressing the new exposures created. 


General Industry Training Requirements 






(vi) Material appropriate in content and vocabulary to educational level, literacy, 
and language of employees shall be used. 

(vii) The training program shall contain at a minimum the following elements: 

(A) An accessible copy of the regulatory text of this standard and an 
explanation of its contents; 

(B) A general explanation of the epidemiology and symptoms of bloodbome 
diseases; 

(C) An explanation of the modes of transmission of bloodbome pathogens; 

(D) An explanation of the employer’s exposure control plan and the means by 
which the employee can obtain a copy of the written plan; 

(E) An explanation of the appropriate methods for recognizing tasks and other 
activities that may involve exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materi¬ 
als; 

(F) An explanation of the use and limitations of methods that will prevent or 
reduce exposure including appropriate engineering controls, work practices, and 
personal protective equipment; 

(G) Information on the types, proper use, location, removal, handling, 
decontamination and disposal of personal protective equipment; 

(H) An explanation of the basis for selection of personal protective 
equipment; 

(I) Information on the hepatitis B vaccine, including information on its efficacy, 
safety, method of administration, the benefits of being vaccinated, and that the 
vaccine and vaccination will be offered free of charge; 

(J) Information on the appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an 
emergency involving blood or other potentially infectious materials; 

(K) An explanation of the procedures to follow if an exposure incident occurs, 
including the method of reporting the incident and the medical follow-up that will be 
made available; 

(L) Information on the post exposure evaluation and follow-up that the employer 
is required to provide for the employee following an exposure 

incident; 

(M) An explanation of the signs and labels and/or color coding required by para¬ 
graph (g)(1); and 

(N) An opportunity for interactive questions and answers with the person conduct¬ 
ing the training session. 

(viii) The person conducting the training shall be knowledgeable in the subject 
matter covered by the elements contained in the training program as it relates to the 
workplace that the training will address. 

(ix) Additional initial training for employees in HIV and HBV laboratories and 
production facilities. Employees in HIV or HBV research laboratories and HIV or 
HBV production facilities shall receive the following intiial training in addition to the 
above training requirements: 

(A) The employer shall assure that employees demonstrate proficiency in standard 
microbiological practices and techniques and in the practices and operations specific 
to the facility before being allowed to work with HIV or HBV. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Cotton Dust 
1910.1043(i)(1)(i)(A) 
through (F) and (2)(i) 
and (ii) 


1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloro- 

propane 

1910.1044(n)(1)(i) and 
(ii)(a) through (e) and 
(n)(2)(i) and (ii) 


(B) The employer shall assure that employees have prior experience in the 
handling of human pathogens or tissue cultures before working with HIV or HBV. 

(C) The employer shall provide a training program to employees who have no 
prior experience in handling human pathogens. Initial work activities shall not 
include the handling of infectious agents. A progression of work activities shall be 
assigned as techniques are learned and proficiency is developed. The employer shall 
assure that employees participate in work activities involving 

infectious agents only after proficiency has been demonstrated. 

(1) Employee education and training. (1) Training program, (i) The employer 
shall provide a training program for all employees exposed to cotton dust and shall 
assure that each employee is informed of thefollowing: 

(A) The acute and long term health hazards associated with exposure to cotton 
dust; 

(B) The names and descriptions of jobs and processes which could result in 
exposure to cotton dust at or above the permissible exposure levels; measures, 
including work practices required by paragraph (g) of the standard, necessary to 
protect the employee from exposures in excess of the permissible exposure limit; 

(C) The measures, including work practices required by paragraph (g) of the 
standard, necessary to protect the employee from exposures in excess of the permis¬ 
sible exposure limit; 

(D) The purpose, proper use and limitations of respirators required by 
paragraph (f) of the standard; 

(E) The purpose for and a description of the medical surveillance program re¬ 
quired by paragraph (h) of the standard and other information which will aid ex¬ 
posed employees in understanding the hazards of cotton dust exposure; and 

(F) The contents of the standard and its appendices. 

(ii) The training program shall be provided prior to initial assignment and shall be 
repeated annually for each employee exposed to cotton dust, when job assignments 
or work processes change, and when employee performance 
indicates a need for retraining. 

(2) Access to training materials, (i) Each employer shall post a copy of this 
section with its appendices in a public location at the workplace, and shall, upon 
request, make copies available to employees. 

(ii) The employer shall provide all materials relating to the employee training and 
information program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director upon 
request. 

(1) Training program, (i) The employer shall institute a training program for all 
employees who may be exposed to DBCP and shall assure their participation in such 
a training program. 

(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the 
following: 

(a) The information contained in Appendix A. 

(b) The quantity, location, manner of use, release or storage of DBCP and the 
specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to DBCP as well as any 
necessary protective steps; 

(c) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators; 


General Industry Training Requirements 







52 


Acrylonitrile (Vinyl 
Cyanide) 

1910.1045(o)(1) and 
(iii)(A) through (G) and 
(2)(i) and (ii) 


Ethylene Oxide 
1910.1047(j)(3)(i); 

(ii) (A) through (D) and 

(iii) (A) through (D) 


(d) The purpose and description of the medical surveillance program required 
by paragraph (m) of this section; and 

(e) A review of this standard, including appendices. 

(2) Access to training materials, (i) The employer shall make a copy of this 
standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees. 

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the 
employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the 
Director. 

(1) Training program, (i) By January 2, 1979, the employer shall institute a 
training program for and assure the participation of all employees exposed to 
AN above the action level, all employees whose exposures are maintained below 
the action level by engineering and work practice controls, and all employees 
subject to potential skin or eye contact with liquid AN. 

(ii) Training shall be provided at the time of initial assignment, or upon 
institution of the training program, and at least annually thereafter, and the 
employer shall assure that each employee is informed of the following: 

(A) The information contained in Appendices A and B. Editor’s Note: 

See Federal Register, Vol. 43, No. 192, Oct. 3,1978, pp. 45813-45815; 

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, or storage of AN, and the 
specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to AN, as well as any 
necessary protective steps; 

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing; 

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program 
required by paragraph (n) of this section; 

(E) The emergency procedures developed, as required by paragraph (i) of this 
section; 

(F) Engineering and work practice controls, their function, and the employee’s 
relationship to these controls; and 

(G) A review of this standard. 

(2) Access to training materials, (i) The employer shall make a copy of this 
standard and its appendices readily available to all affected employees. 

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the em¬ 
ployee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director. 

(3) Information and training, (i) The employer shall provide employees who are 
potentially exposed to EtO at or above the action level with information and training 
on EtO at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter. 

(ii) Employees shall be informed of the following: 

(A) The requirements of this section with an explanation of its contents, including 
Appendices A and B; 

(B) Any operations in their work area where EtO is present; 

(C) The location and availability of the written EtO final mle; and 

(D) The medical surveillance program required by paragraph (i) of this section 
with an explanation of the information in Appendix C. 

(iii) Employer training shall include at least: 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



53 


Formaldehyde 
1910.1048(n)(1) 
through (3)(i) and (ii)(A) 
and (B)(iii) through (vii) 


4,4' Methylenedianiline 
1910.1050(k)(3)(i) and 
(ii)(A) and (4)(i)(ii) 


(A) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of EtO 
in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring 
devices, etc.); 

(B) The physical and health hazards of EtO; 

(Q The measures employees can take to protect themselves from hazards associated 
with EtO exposure, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect 
employees from exposure to EtO, such as work practices, 
emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and 

(D) The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, 
including an explanation of the labeling system and how employees can obtain and use the 
appropriate hazard information. 

(n) Parddpation. (1) The employer shall assure that all employees who are assigned to 
workplaces where there is exposure to formaldehyde participate in a training program, 
except where the employer can show, using objective data, that employees are not exposed 
to formaldehyde at or above 0.1 ppm, the employer is not required to provide training. 

(2) Frequency. Employers shall provide such information and training to employees at 
the time of initial assignment, and whenever a new exposure to formaldehyde is intro¬ 
duced into the work. The training shall be repeated at least annually. 

(3) Training program. The training program shall be conducted in a manner which the 
employee is able to understand and shall include: 

(A) A description of the potential health hazards associated with exposure to formalde¬ 
hyde and a description of the signs and symptoms of exposure to formaldehyde. 

(B) instmctions to immediately report to the employer the development of any adverse 
signs or symptoms that the employee suspects is attributable to formaldehyde exposure. 

(iii) Description of operations in the work area where formaldehyde is present and an 
explanation of the safe work practices appropriate for limiting exposure to formaldehyde in 
eachjob; 

(iv) The purpose for, proper use of, and limitations of personal protective clothing and 
equipment; 

(v) Instiuctions for the handling of spills, emeigencies, and clean-up 
procedures; 

(vi) An explanation of the importance of engineering and work practice controls for 
employee protection and any necessary instmction in the use of these controls; and 

(vii) A review of emergency procedures including the specific duties or 
assignments of each employee in the event of an emeigency. 

(3) Information and training, (i) The employer shall provide employees with informa¬ 
tion and training on MDA in accordance with 29 CTR 1910.1200(h) at the time of initial 
assignment and at least annually thereafter. 

(ii) In addition to the information required under 29 CFR 1910.1200(h) the employer 
shall: 


(A) Provide an explanation of the contents of this section, including Appendices A and 
B, and indicate to employees where a copy of the standard is available; 

(4) Access to training materials, (i) The employer shall make readily available to all 
affected employees, without cost, all written materials relating to the employee training 
program, including a copy of this regulation. 


General Industry Training Requirements 





Ionizing Radiation 
Testing 1910.1096(f)(3) 
(viii) 

Posting 

1910.1096(0(2) 


Hazard Communication 
1910.1200(h)(1), (2) (i) 
through (iii) and (3)(i) 
through (iv) 


Occupational Exposure 
to Hazardous Chemicals 
in Laboratories 
1910.1450(f)(1)(2) and 
(f)(4)(i)(A) through (c) 
and (ii) 


(ii) The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary of Labor and the Director, 
upon request, all information and training materials relating to the employee information 
and training program. 

(viii) Before placing the system into operation, all employees normally working in the 
area shall be m^e acquainted with the signal by actual demonstration at their work 
locations. 

(1) (2) All individuals working in or frequenting any portion of a radiation area shall be 
informed of the occurrence of radioactive materials or of radiation in such portions of the 
radiation area; shall be instmcted in the safety problems associated with exposure to such 
materials or radiation and in precautions or devices to minimize exposure; shall be in¬ 
stmcted in the applicable provisions of this section for the protection of employees from 
exposure to radiation or radioactive materials; and shall be advised of reports of radiation 
exposure which employees must request pursuant to the regulations in this section. 

(h) Employee Information and Training. (1) Employers shall provide employees with 
effective information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of 
their initial assignmenf and whenever a new physical or health hazard the employees have 
not previously been trained about is introduced into their work area. Information and 
training may be designed to cover categories of hazards (e.g., flammability, carcinogenic¬ 
ity) or specific chemicals. Chemical-specific information must always be available through 
labels and material safety data sheets. 

(2) Information. Employees shall be informed of: 

(i) The requirements of this section; 

(ii) Any operations in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present; and, 

(iii) The location and availability of the written hazard communication program, 
including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets 
required by this section. 

(3) Training. Employee training shall include at least: 

(i) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a 
hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, 
continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when 
being released, etc.); 

(ii) The physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area; 

(iii) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards, 
including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from 
exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency proce¬ 
dures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and, 

(iv) The details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, 
including an explanation of the labeling system and the material safety data sheet, and how 
employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information. 

(f) Employee information and training. (1) The employer shall provide employees 
with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals 
present in their work area. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





(2) Such information shall be provided at the time of an employee’s initial 
assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and prior to 
assignments involving new exposure situations. The frequency of refresher 
information and training shall be determined by the employer. 

(4)(i) Employee training shall include: 

(A) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence release 
of a hazardous chemieal (sueh as monitoring conducted by the employer, con¬ 
tinuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals 
when being released, ete.); 

(B) The physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area; and 

(C) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these 
hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect 
employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work 
practices, emergeney proeedures, and personal protective equipment to be used. 

(ii) The employee shall be trained on the applicable details of the employer’s 
written Chemical Hygiene Plan. 

Part 1915—Shipyard Employment 

The following training requirements have been excerpted from Title 29 
Code of Federal Regulations Parts 1915 (Shipyard Employment), 1917 
(Marine Terminals), and 1918 (Longshoring). 

Note that in addition to these requirements. Part 1910, relating to general 
industry, also contains applicable training standards. 



Subject and Standard Training Requirement 
Number 


Commercial Diving 
Operations 

Competent Person 
1915.7(b)(1)(i) through 
(iv); (2)(i) through 
(iii)(A) through (C); and 
(c)(1) through (7) 


Note: The requirements applicable to Shipyard Employment under this sec¬ 
tion are identical to those set forth in 1910.410(a)(1); (2)(i) through (iii); (3) 
and (4). 

(b) Designation. (1) One or more competent persons shall be designated by 
the employer in accordance with the applicable requirements of this section, 
unless the requirements of subparts B, C, D, and H of this part are always 
carried out by a Marine Chemist. Exception : The employer may designate any 
person who meets the applicable portions of the criteria set forth in paragraph (c) 
of this section as a competent person who is limited to performing testing to the 
following situations: 

(i) Repair work on small craft in boatyards where only combustible gas 
indicator tests are required for fuel tank leaks or when using flammable paints 
below decks; 

(ii) Building of wooden vessels where only knowledge of the precautions to 
be taken when using flammable paints is required; 

(iii) The breaking of vessels where there is no fuel oil or other flammable 
hazard; and 

(iv) Tests and inspections performed to comply with Section 1915.35(b)(8) 
and 1915.36(a)(5). 


Maritime Training Requirements 



56 


Confined and Enclosed 
Spaces 

1915.12(d)(1) and (2)(i) 
through (Hi), (3)(i) 
through (Hi), (4)(i) and 
(ii), (5)(i) and (ii) 


(2)(i) The employer shall maintain either a roster of designated eompetent 
persons or a statement that a Marine Chemist will perform the tests or 
inspeetions whieh require a competent person. 

(ii) The employer shall make the roster of designated persons or the statement 
available to employees, the employee’s representative, the Director or the 
Assistant Secretary upon request. 

(iii) The roster shall contain, at a minimum, the following: 

(A) The employer’s name, 

(B) The designated competent person’s name(s), and 

(C) The date the employee was trained as a competent person. 

(c) Criteria. The employer shall ensure that each designated competent person 
has the following skills and knowldege: 

(1) Ability to understand and carry out written or oral information or instruc¬ 
tions left by Marine Chemist, Coast Guard authorized persons, and Certified 
Industrial Hygienists; 

(2) Knowledge of subparts B, C, D, and H of this part; 

(3) Knowledge of the structure, location, and designation of spaces where 
work is done; 

(4) Ability to calibrate and use testing equipment including, but not limited to, 
oxygen indicators, combustible gas indicators, carbon monoxide indicators, and 
carbon dioxide indicators, and to interpret accurately the test results of that 
equipment; 

(5) Ability to perform all required tests and inspections which are or may be 
performed by a competent person as set forth in subparts B, C, D, and H of this 
part. 

(6) Ability to inspect, test and evaluate spaces to determine the need for 
further testing by a Marine Chemist or a Certified Industrial Hygienist; 

(7) Ability to maintain records required by this section. 

(d) Training of employees entering confined and enclosed spaces or other 
dangerous atmospheres. (1) The employer shall ensure that each employee that 
enters a confined or enclosed space and other areas with dangerous atmospheres 
is trained to perform all required duties safely. 

(2) The employer shall ensure that each employee who enters a confined 
space, enclosed space, or other areas with dangerous atmospheres is trained to: 

(i) Recognize the characteristics of the confined space; 

(ii) Anticipate and be aware of the hazards that may be faced during entry; 

(iii) Recognize the adverse health effects that may be caused by the exposure 
to a hazard; 

(iv) Understand the physical signs and reactions related to exposures to such 
hazards; 

(v) Know what personal protective equipment is needed for safe entry into and 
exit from the space; 

(vi) Use personal protective equipment; and 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Precautions Before 
Entering 

1915.12(a)(1)(i) through 
(V) 


1915.12(b)(1)(i) and (ii) 


1915.12(b)(1)(i) and (ii) 


(vii) Where necessary, be aware of the presence and proper use of barriers that 
may be needed to protect an entrant from hazards. 

(3) The employer shall ensure that each entrant into confined or enclosed 
spaces or other dangerous atmospheres is trained to exit the space or dangerous 
atmosphere whenever: 

(i) The employer or his or her representative orders evacuation; 

(ii) An evacuation signal such as an alarm is activated; or 

(iii) The entrant perceives that he or she is in danger. 

(4) The employer shall provide each employee with training: 

(i) Before the entrant begins work addressed by this section; and 

(ii) Whenever there is a change in operations or in an employee’s duties that 
present a hazard about which the employee has not previously been trained. 

(5) The employer shall certify that the training required by paragraphs (d)(1) 
through (d)(4) of this section has been accomplished. 

(i) The certification shall contain the employee’s name, the name of the 
certifier, and the date(s) of the certification. 

(ii) The certification shall be available for inspection by the Assistant 
Secretary, the Director, employees, and their representatives. 

(a) Oxygen content (1) The employer shall ensure that the following spaces 
are visually inpsected and tested by a competent person to determine the 
atmosphere’s oxygen content prior to initial entry into the space by an employee: 

(i) Spaces that have been sealed, such as, but not limited to, spaces that have 
been coated and closed up, and non-ventilated spaces that have been freshly 
painted; 

(ii) Spaces and adjacent spaces that contain or have contained combustible or 
flammable liquids or gases; 

(iii) Spaces and adjacent spaces that contain or have contained liquids, gases, 
or solids that are toxic, corrosive, or irritant; 

(iv) Spaces and adjacent spaces that have been fumigated; and 

(v) Spaces containing materials or residues of materials that create an oxygen- 
deficient atmosphere. 

(b) Flammable atmospheres (1) The employer shall ensure that spaces and 
adjacent spaces that contain or have contained combustible or flammable liquids 
or gases are: 

(i) Inspected visually by a competent person to determine the presence of 
combustible or flammable liquids; and, 

(ii) Tested by a competent person prior to entry by an employee to determine 
the concentration of flammable vapors and gases within the space. 

(c) Toxic, corrosive, irritant or fumigated atmospheres and residues (1) The 
employer shall ensure that spaces or adjacent spaces that contain or have con¬ 
tained liquids, gases, or solids that are toxic, corrosive or irritant are: 

(i) Inspected visually by a competent person to determine the presence of 
toxic, corrosive, or irritant residue contaminants; and 


Maritime Training Requirements 






Cleaning and Other Cold 
Work 

1915.13(b)(2) and 
( 4 ) 


Certification Before Hot 
Work is Begun 
1915.14(b)(1)(i) through 
(V) 


Maintaining Gas Free 
Conditions, Ship Repair¬ 
ing 1910.15(c) 


Painting 

1915.35(b)(1) and (8) 


(ii) Tested by competent person prior to initial entry by an employee to deter¬ 
mine the air concentration of toxics, corrosives, or irritants within the space. 

(2) Testing shall be conducted by a competent person to determine the con¬ 
centration of flammable, combustible, toxic, corrosive, or irritant vapors within 
the space prior to the beginning of cleaning or cold work. 

(4) Testing shall be conducted by a competent person as often as necessary 
during cleaning or cold work to assure that air concentrations are below 10 
percent of the lower explosive limit and within the PELs and below IDLH 
levels. Factors such as, but not limited to, temperature, volatility of the residues, 
and other existing conditions in and about the spaces are to be considered in 
determining the frequency of testing necessary to assure a safe atmosphere. 

(b) Hot work requiring testing by a competent person (1) Hot work is not 
permitted in or on the following spaces or adjacent spaces or other dangerous 
atmospheres until they have been tested by a competent person and determined 
to contain no concentrations of flammable vapors equal to or greater than 10 
percent of the lower explosive limit: 

(i) Dry cargo holds, 

(ii) The bilges, 

(iii) The engine room and boiler spaces for which a Marine Chemist or a 
Coast Guard authorized person certificate is not required under paragraph 
(a)(l)(i) of this section, 

(iv) Vessels and vessel sections for which a Marine Chemist or Coast Guard 
authorized person certificate is not required under paragraph (a)(l)(i) of this 
section, and 

(v) Land-side confined and enclosed spaces or other dangerous atmospheres 
not covered by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. 

(c) Tests to maintain the conditions of a Marine Chemist’s or Coast Guard 
authorized person’s certificates. A competent person shall visually inspect and 
test each space certified as “Safe for Workers” or “Safe for Hot Work,” as often 
as necessary to ensure that atmospheric conditions within that space is main¬ 
tained within the conditions established by the certificate after the certificate has 
been issued. 

(b) Paints and tank coatings dissolved in highly volatile, toxic and flam¬ 
mable solvents. Several organic coatings, adhesives and resins are dissolved in 
highly toxic, flammable and explosive solvents with flash points below 80 
degrees Fahrenheit. Work involving such materials shall be done only when all 
of the following special precautions have been taken: 

(1) Sufficient exhaust ventilation shall be provided to keep the concentration 
of solvent vapors below 10 percent of the lower explosive limit. Frequent tests 
shall be made by a competent person to ascertain the concentration. 

(8) A competent person shall inspect all power lighting cables to ensure that 
the insulation is in excellent condition, free of all cracks and worn spots, that 
there are no connections within 50 feet (15.2 meters) of the operation, that lines 
are not overloaded, and that they are suspended with sufficient slack to prevent 
undue stress or chafing. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Flammable Liquids 
1915.36(a)(2) and (5) 


Fire Prevention 
1915.52(b)(3) and (c) 


Welding, Cutting and 
bleating in Way of 
Preservative Coatings 
1915.53(b) 

1915.53(e)(1) 


1915.53(f) 


(a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and preservative removers, paints 
or vehicles, other than those covered by § 1915.35(b), are eapable of produeing a 
flammable atmosphere under the conditions of use, the following preeautions 
shall be taken: 

(2) Ventilation shall be provided in sufficient quantities to keep the eoneentra- 
tion of vapors below 10 percent of their lower explosive limit. Frequent tests 
shall be made by a competent person to aseertain the eoneentration. 

(5) A eompetent person shall inspeet all power and lighting eables to ensure 
that the insulation is in excellent condition, free of all eraeks and worn spots, that 
there are no eonnections within 50 feet (15.2 meters) of the operation, that lines 
are not overloaded, and that they are suspended with suffieient slaek to prevent 
undue stress or chafing. 

(3) When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is sueh that normal fire 
prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned 
to guard against fire while the actual welding, eutting, or heating operation is 
being performed and for a sufficient period of time after eompletion of the work 
to insure that no possibility of fire exists. Sueh personnel shall be instructed as to 
the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the fire fighting equipment 
provided is to be used. 

(c) In all cases, suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be immediately 
available in the work area and shall be maintained in a state of readiness for 
instant use. Personnel assigned to contain fires within eontrollable limits shall be 
instructed as to the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the fire fighting 
equipment provided is to be used. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply to 
shipbreaking only. 

(b) Before welding, cutting or heating is commeneed on any surfaee covered 
by a preservative coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made 
by a competent person to determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall 
be considered to be highly flammable when scrapings bum with extreme 
rapidity. 

(e) Before welding, cutting or heating is commenced in enclosed spaees on 
metals covered by soft and greasy preservatives, the following precautions shall 
be taken: 

(1) A competent person shall test the atmosphere in the space to ensure that it 
does not contain explosive vapors, since there is a possibility that some soft and 
greasy preservatives may have flash points below temperatures whieh may be 
expected to occur naturally. If such vapors are determined to be present, no hot 
work shall be commenced until such precautions have been taken as will ensure 
that the welding, cutting or heating can be performed in safety. 

(f) Immediately after welding, cutting or heating is eommeneed in enelosed 
spaces on metal covered by soft and greasy preservatives, and at Ifequent inter¬ 
vals thereafter, a competent person shall make tests to ensure that no flammable 
vapors are being produced by the coatings. If such vapors are determined to be 
present, the operation shall be stopped immediately and shall not be resumed 
until sueh additional precautions have been taken as are neeessary to ensure that 
the operation can be resumed safely. 


Maritime Training Requirements 







Welding, Cutting and 
Heating of Hollow Metal 
Containers and Struc¬ 
tures Not Covered by 
1915.12 

Gas Welding and Cut¬ 
ting 1915.55(d)(1) 
through (6) 


Arc Welding and Cutting 
1915.56(d)(1) through 
( 4 ) 


(c) Before welding, cutting, heating or brazing is begun on structural voids 
such as skegs, bilge keels, fair waters, masts, booms, support stanchions, pipe 
stanchions or railings, a competent person shall inspect the object and, if neces¬ 
sary, test it for the presence of flammable liquids or vapors. If flammable liquids 
or vapors are present, the objects shall be made safe. 

(d) Use of fuel gas. The employer shall thoroughly instruct employees in the 
safe use of fuel gas, as follows: 

(1) Before connecting a regulator to a cylinder valve, the valve shall be 
opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed “crack¬ 
ing” and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter 
the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, 
not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder shall not be cracked where the 
gas would reach welding work, sparks, flame or other possible sources of 
ignition. 

(2) The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly to prevent damage to 
the regulator. To permit quick closing, valves on fuel gas cylinders shall not be 
opened more than 1-1/2 turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left 
in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel 
gas flow can be shut off quickly in case of an emergency. In the case of 
manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one such wrench shall always be 
available for immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel gas cylin¬ 
der, when in use, whieh may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick 
closing of the valve. 

(3) Fuel gas shall not be used from cylinders through torches or other devices 
whieh are equipped with shutoff valves without reducing the pressure through a 
suitable regulator attaehed to the eylinder valve or manifold. 

(4) Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve 
shall always be elosed and the gas released from the regulator. 

(5) If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a 
leak around the valve stem, the valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. 
If this action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder shall be discontinued, 
and it shall be properly tagged and removed from the vessel. In the event that 
fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve rather than from the valve stem and 
the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder shall be properly tagged and removed 
from the vessel. If a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively stop a 
leak through the valve seal, the cylinder need not be removed from the vessel. 

(6) If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder 
shall be removed from the vessel. 

(d) Operating instructions. Employers shall instruct employees in the safe 
means of arc welding and cutting as follows: 

(1) When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes shall be 
removed and the holders shall be so placed or protected so that they cannot make 
electrical contact with employees or conducting objects. 

(2) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water, since to do so may 
expose the arc welder or cutter to electric shock. 

(3) When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop 
work for any appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





Uses of Fissionable 

Material 

1915.57(b) 


Scaffolds or Staging 
1915.71(b)(7) 

Work on or in the 
Vicinity of Radar and 
Radio 
1915.95(a) 


First-Aid 

1915.98(a) 


Ropes, Chains and 
Slings 

1915.112(c)(5) 


Use of Gear 
1915.116(1) 


Qualifications of 
Operators 

1915.117(a) and (b) 


Powder Actuated 
Fastening Tools 
1915.135(a) and (c)(1) 
through (6) 


machine is to be moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be 
opened. 

(4) Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor. 

(b) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive material, whether or not 
under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall be performed by 
competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such 
equipment. In the case of materials used under Commission license, only per¬ 
sons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of 
the licensee, shall perform such work. 

(7) No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under 
the supervision of competent persons. 

Note:The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing and ship 
building. 

(a) No employees other than radar or radio repairmen shall be permitted to 
work on masts, king posts or other aloft areas unless the radar and radio are 
secured or otherwise made incapable of radiation. In either event, the radio and radar 
shall be appropriately tagged. 

(a) Unless a first-aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared 
to render first-aid to employees on behalf of the employer, the employer shall furnish 
a first-aid kit for each vessel on which work is being performed, except that when 
work is being performed on more than one small vessel at one pier, only one kit shall 
be required. The kit, when required, shall be kept close to the vessel and at least one 
employee, close at hand, shall be qualified to administer first-aid to the injured. 

(5) All repairs to chains shall be made under qualified supervision. Links or 
portions of the chain found to be defective as described in paragraph (c)(4) of this 
section shall be replaced by links having proper dimensions and made of material 
similar to that of the chain. Before repaired chains are returned to service, they shall 
be proof tested to the proof test load recommended by the manufacturer. 

(1) An individual who is familiar with the signal code in use shall be assigned to 
act as a signalman when the hoist operator cannot see the load being handled. Com¬ 
munications shall be made by means of clear and distinct visual or auditory signals 
except that verbal signals shall not be permitted. 

Paragraph (a) of this section shall apply to ship repairing and shipbuilding only. 
Paragraph (b) of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and 
shipbreaking. 

(a) When ship’s gear is used to hoist materials aboard, a competent person shall 
determine that the gear is properly rigged, that it is in safe condition, and that it will 
not be overloaded by the size and weight of the lift. 

(b) Only those employees who understand the signs, notices, and operating 
instructions, and are familiar with the signal code in use, shall be permitted to 
operate a crane, winch, or other power operated hoisting apparatus. 

(a) This section shall apply to ship repairing and shipbuilding only. 

(c) Instruction of operators. Before employees are permitted to use powder actu¬ 
ated tools, they shall have been thoroughly insfructed by a competent person with 
respect to the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section and the safe use of such 
tools as follows: 


Maritime Training Requirements 





62 


Internal Combustion 
Engines, Other than 
Ships' Equipment 
1915.136(c) 


General Requirements 
1915.152(e)(1)(i) 
through (v); (2), (3)(i) 
through (iii); and (4) 


(1) Before using a tool, the operator shall inspect it to determine that it is clean, 
that all moving parts operate freely and that the barrel is free from obstmctions. 

(2) When a tool develops a defect during use, the operator shall immediately 
cease to use it and shall notify his supervisor. 

(3) Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time and the 
tool shall not be left unattended while loaded. 

(4) The tool, whether loaded or empty, shall not be pointed at any person, and 
hands shall be kept clear of the open barrel end. 

(5) In case of a misfire, the operator shall hold the tool in the operating posi¬ 
tion for at least 15 seconds and shall continue to hold the muzzle against the 
work surface during disassembly or opening of the tool and removal of the 
powder load. 

(6) Neither tools nor powder charges shall be left unattended in places where 
they would be available to unauthorized persons. 

(c) When internal combustion engines on vehicles, such as forklifts and 
mobile cranes, or on portable equipment such as fans, generators, and pumps, 
exhaust into the atmosphere below decks, the competent person shall make tests 
of the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere as frequently as conditions 
require to ensure that dangerous concentrations do not develop. Employees shall 
be removed from the compartment involved when the carbon monoxide concen¬ 
tration exceeds 50 parts per million (0.005%). The employer shall use blowers 
sufficient in size and number and so arranged as to maintain the concentration 
below this allowable limit before work is resumed. 

(e) Training. (1) The employer shall provide training to each employee who is 
required by this section to use PPE (Exception: Training in the use of personal 
fall arrest systems and positioning device systems is covered in Sections 
1915.159 and 1915.160) Each employee shall be trained to understand at least 
the following: 

(1) When PPE is necessary; 

(ii) What PPE is necessary; 

(iii) How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE; 

(iv) The limitations of the PPE; and 

(v) The proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal of the PPE. 

(2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee demonstrates the 
ability to use PPE properly before being allowed to perform work requiring the 
use of PPE. 

(3) The employer shall retrain any employee who does not understand or 
display the skills required by paragraph (e)(2) of this section. Circumstances 
where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where: 

(i) Changes in occupation or work render previous training obsolete; or 

(ii) Changes in the types of PPE to be used render previous training obsolete; 
or 

(iii) Inadequacies in an affected employee’s knowledge or use of assigned PPE 
indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Respiratory Protection 
1915.152(a)(4) 

Personal Fall Arrest 

Systems 

1915.159(d) 


Positioning Device 

Systems 

1915.160(d) 

Portable Air Receivers 
and Other Unfired 
Pressure Vessels 
1915.172(b) 

Asbestos 

1915.1001 (k)(9)(i) 
through (vi)(A) through 
(J) 


(4) The employer shall verify that each affected employee has received the 
required training through a document that contains the following information: 
name of each employee trained, the date(s) of training, and type of training the 
employee received. 

Note: The requirements applicable to Maritime Training Requirements under 
this section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.134(a)(3), (b)(3), 
(e)(2) through (4) and (5)(i). 

(d) Training. Before using personal fall arrest equipment, each affected 
employee shall be trained to understand the application limits of the equipment 
and proper hookup, anchoring, and tie-off techniques. Affected employees shall 
also be trained so that they can demonstrate the proper use, inspection, and 
storage of their equipment. 

(d) Training. Before using a positioning device system, employees shall be 
trained in the application limits, proper hookup, anchoring and tie-off techniques, 
methods of use, inspection, and storage of positioning device systems. 

(b) portable, unfired pressure vessels, not built to the code requirements of 
paragraph (a) of this section, and built prior to the effective date of this regula¬ 
tion, shall be examined quarterly by a competent person. They shall be subjected 
yearly to a hydrostatic pressure test of one and one-half times the working 
pressure of the vessels. 

(k) Communication of hazards. (9) Employee information and training, (i) The 
employer shall at no cost to the employee institute a training program for all employ¬ 
ees who install asbestos containing products and for all employees who perform 
Class I through Class IV asbestos operations and shall ensure their participation in 
the program. 

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and at 
least annually thereafter. 

(iii) Training for Class I and II operations shall be the equivalent in curriculum, 
training method, and length to the EPA Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) asbestos 
abatement worker training (40 CFR) Pt. 763, Subpart E, C). For employers whose 
Class n work with asbestos-containing material involves only the removal and/or 
disturbance of one generic category of building vessel material, such as roofing 
materials, flooring/deck materials, siding materials or transite panels, instead, the 
employer is required to train employees who perform such work by providing a 
training course which includes as a minimum all the elements included in paragraph 
(k)(8)(v) of this section and in addition the specific work practices and engineering 
controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to that 
material category. Such courses shall include “hands-on” training and shall take at 
least 8 hours. 

(iv) Training for Class III employees shall be the equivalent in curriculum and 
training method to the 16-hour Operations and Maintenance course developed by 
EPA for maintenance and custodial workers who conduct activities that will result in 
the disturbance of ACM (see 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2). Such course shall include 
“hands-on” training in the use of respiratory protection and work 

practices and shall take at least 15 hours. 

(v) Training for employees performing Class IV operations shall be the equivalent 
in curriculum and training method to the awareness training course developed by 
EPA for maintenance and custodial workers who work in buildings containing 
asbestos-containing material (See 40 CFR 763.92(a)(1)). Such course shall include 


Maritime Training Requirements 






64 


13 carcinogens 
1915.1003 

Vinyl Chloride 

1915.1017 

Inorganic Arsenic 

1915.1018 

Lead 

1915.1025 

Cadmium 

1915.1027 

Benzene 

1915.1028 

Bloodborne Pathogens 
1915.1030 


available information concerning the locations of PACM and ACM and asbestos 
containing flooring material where the absence of asbestos has not been certified; 
and instruction in recognition of damage, deterioration, and delamination of 
asbestos-containing building materials. Such course shall take at least 2 hours. 

(vi) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able 
to understand, hr addition to the content required by provisions in paragraph 
(k)(8)(iii) of this section, the employer shall ensure that each such employee is 
informed of the following: 

(A) Methods of recognizing asbestos including the requirement in paragraph 
(k)(l) of this section to presume that certain building materials contain asbestos; 

(B) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure; 

(C) The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer; 

(D) The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the impor¬ 
tance of necessary protective controls to minimize exposure including, as applicable, 
engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, hygiene 
facilities, protective clothing, decontamination procedures, emergency procedures, 
and waste disposal procedures, and any necessary instruction in the use of these 
controls and procedures; where Class II and IV work will be or is performed, the 
contents of EPA 20T-2003, “Managing Asbestos In Place,” July 1990, or its 
equivalent in content; 

(E) The purpose, proper use, fitting instructions, and limitations of 
respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134; 

(F) The appropriate work practices for performing the asbestos job; 

(G) Medical surveillance program requirements; 

(H) The contents of this standard including appendices; 

(I) The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which 
provide information and materials and which conduct programs concerning smoking 
cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such 

organizations contained in Appendix J, to comply with this requirement; 

(J) The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the 
required legends for such signs and labels. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1003. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1017. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1018. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1025. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1027. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1028. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1030. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




65 


1,2-Dibromo-3- 

Chloropropane 

1915.1044 


Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1044. 


Acrylonitrile 

1915.1045 

Ethylene Oxide 

1915.1047 

Formaldehyde 

1915.1048 
Methylenedianiline 
1915.1050 

Ionizing Radiation 
1915.1096 

Hazard Communication 
1915.1200 

Occupational Exposure 
to Hazardous Chemicals 
in Laboratories 
1915.1450 


Commercial Diving 

Operations 

1917.1(a)(2)(iii) 

Electrical Safety- 
Related Work Practices 
1917.1 (a)(2)(iv) 

Grain Handling 

Facilities 

1917.1(a)(2)(v) 

Hazard Communication 
1917.1 (a)(2)(iv) 

Ionizing Radiation 

1917.1 (a)(2)(vii) 

Hearing Protection 
1917.1(a)(2)(viii) 

Respiratory Protection 

1910.1 (a) (2) (x) 

Servicing Multi-Piece 
and Single-Piece Rim 
Wheels 

1910.1 (a)(2)(xii) 


Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this seetion 
are identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1045. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this seetion 
are identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1047. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this seetion 
are identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1048. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this seetion 
are identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1050. 

Note: The requirements appliacable to shipyard employment under this 
seetion are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1096. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this seetion 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200. 

Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this seetion 
are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1450. 


Part 1917—Marine Terminals 

Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.410(a)(1); (2)(i) through (iii); (3) 
and (4). 

Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.332(b)(1). 


Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.272(e)(l)(i) and (ii) and (2). 


Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200(h)(1) and (3)(i) through (iv). 

Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1096(i)(2). 

Note: The requirement applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.95(i)(4). 

Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.134(k)(3) 

Note: The requirement applicable to Marine Terminals under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.177(c)(l)(i) through (iii); (2)(i) 
through (viii) and (3) including single piece wheels per Federal Register of 
February 3,1984 (pp. 4338-4352) but not automobile or truck tires marked 

66T T’ ” 


Maritime Training Requirements 






66 


Toxic and Hazardous 

Substances 

1917.1(a)(2)(xiii) 

Hazardous Atmos¬ 
pheres and Substances 
1917.23(b)(1) 


1917.23(d)(3) 


Fumigants, Pesticides, 
Insecticides, and Haz¬ 
ardous Preservatives 
1917.25(e)(2) and (3) 


Personnel 

1917.27(a)(1) and (b)(1) 
and (2) 


Hazard Communication 
1917.28 


Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart Z. 


Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart Z. 

(b) Determination of Hazard (1) When the employer is aware that a room, 
building, vehicle, railcar, or other space contains or has contained a hazardous 
atmosphere, a designated and appropriately equipped person shall test the atmo¬ 
sphere before employee entry to determine whether a hazardous atmosphere 
exists. 

(d) Entry into hazardous atmospheres. Only designated persons shall enter 
hazardous atmospheres, in which case the following provisions shall apply: 

(3) Except for emergency or rescue operations, employees shall not enter into any 
atmosphere which has been identified as flammable or oxygen deficient (less than 
19.5 percent oxygen). Persons who may be required to enter flammable or oxygen 
deficient atmospheres in emergency operations shall be instructed in the dangers 
attendant to those atmospheres and instmcted in the use of self-contained breathing 
apparatus, which shall be utilized. 

(2) Persons entering a space containing a hazardous atmosphere shall be in¬ 
structed in the nature of the hazard, precautions to be taken, and the use of protective 
and emergency equipment. Standby observers, similarly equipped and instmcted, 
shall continuously monitor the activity of employees within such a space. 

(3) Persons who may be required to enter flammable or oxygen deficient atmo¬ 
spheres in emergency operations shall be instmcted in the dangers attendant to those 
atmospheres and instmcted in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, which 
shall be utilized. 

(a) Qualifications of machinery operators. (1) Only those employees determined 
by the employer to be competent by reason of training or experience, and who 
understand the signs, notices and operating instmctions and are familiar with the 
signal code in use shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch or other power oper¬ 
ated cargo handling apparatus, or any power operated vehicle, or give signals to the 
operator of any hoisting apparatus. Exception: Employees being trained and super¬ 
vised by a designated person may operate such machinery and give signals to opera¬ 
tors during training. 

(b) Supervisory accident prevention proficiency. (1) After October 3, 1985 
immediate supervisors of cargo-handling operations of more than five (5) persons 
shall satisfactorily complete a course in accident prevention. Employees newly 
assigned to supervisory duties after that date shall be required to meet the provisions 
of this paragraph within 90 days of such assignment. 

(2) The course shall consist of instmction suited to the particular operations 
involved.* 

*The following are recommended topics: (i) Safety responsibility and authority; 
(ii) elements of accident prevention; (iii) attitudes, leadership and motivation; (iv) 
hazards of longshoring, including peculiar local circumstances; (v) hazard identifica¬ 
tion and elimination; (vi) applicable regulations; and (vii) accident investigations. 

Note: The requirements applicable to Marine Terminals under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200(h)(1) and (3)(i) through (iv). 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Emergency Action Plans 
1917.30(a)(5)(i) and 
(ii)(A) through (C)(iii) 


General Rules 
Applicable to Vehicles 
1917.44(i) and (ii)(A) 
through (G) 


Terminal Facilities— 
Handling Menhaden and 
Similar Species of Fish 
1917.73(d) 


Welding, Cutting and 
Heating (Hot Work) 
1917.152(c)(4) 


5) Training (i) Before implementing the emergeney action plan, the employer 
shall designate and train a sufficient number of persons to assist in the safe and 
orderly emergency evacuation of employees. 

(ii) The employer shall review the plan with each employee covered by the plan at 
the following times: 

(A) Initially when the plan is developed; 

(B) Whenever the employee’s responsibilities or designated actions under the plan 
change; and, 

(C) Whenever the plan is changed. 

(iii) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial assignment those 
parts of the plan that the employee must know to protect the employee in the event 
of an emergency. The written plan shall be kept at the workplace and be made 
available for employee review. 

(a) The requirements of this section apply to general vehicle use within marine 
terminals. Exception: The provisions of paragraphs (c) and (1) of this section do not 
apply when preempted by applicable regulation of the Department of Transportation. 

(i) A distance of not less than 20 feet (6.1 Meters) shall be maintained between the 
first two vehicles in a check-in, check-out, roadability, or vessel loading/discharging 
line. The distance shall be maintained between any subsequent vehicles behind 
which employees are required to work. 

(ii) The employer shall ensure that each employee demonstrates his ability to 
service multipiece rim wheels, including performance of the following tasks. 

(A) Tire demounting (including deflation); 

(B) Inspection of wheel components; 

(C) Mounting of tires; 

(D) Inflation of tires, including use of a restraining device; 

(E) Handling of wheels; 

(E) Inflation of tires when a wheel is mounted on the vehicle; and 

(G) Installation and removal of wheels. 

(d) The plant superintendent and foremen shall be trained and be knowledgeable 
about the hazards of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen deficiency. They shall be trained 
in the use of appropriate respiratory and other protective equipment, and in rescue 
procedures. Other supervisory plant personnel shall be informed of these hazards 
and instructed in the necessary safety measures, including use of respiratory and 
rescue equipment. 

(4) When the hot work operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions 
are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire during 
hot work and for a sufficient time after completion of the work to ensure that no fire 
hazard remains. The employer shall instmct all employees involved in hot work 
operations as to potential lire hazards and the use of firefighting equipment. 


Maritime Training Requirements 






68 


Commercial Diving 

Operations 

1918.1(b)(2) 

Electrical Safety-Re¬ 
lated Work Practices 
1918.1(b)(3) 

Hazard Communication 
1918.1(b)(4) 

Ionizing Radiation 
1918.1(b)(5) 

Hearing Protection 
1918.1(b)(6) 

Respiratory Protection 
1918.1(b)(8) 

Toxic and Hazardous 

Substances 

1918.1(b)(9) 

Containerized Cargo 
Operations—Fall 
Protection Systems 
1918.85(k)(12) 

Hazardous Atmospheres 
and Substances 
1918.93(d)(3) 


Ventilation and Atmo¬ 
spheric Conditions and 
Fumigants 
1918.94(b) (v) 


First-Aid and Life 
Saving Facilities 
1918.97(b) 

Qualifications of Ma¬ 
chinery Operators 
1918.98(a)(1) 


Part 1918—Longshoring 

Note: The requirements spplieable to Longshoring under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.410(a)(1); (2)(i) through (iii); (3) 
and (4). 

Note: The requirements spplieable to Longshoring under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.332(b)(1). 


Note: The requirements applieable to Longshoring under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200(h)(1) and 3)(i) and (iv). 

Note: The requirements applieable to Longshoring under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1096(i)(2). 

Note: The requirements applicable to Longshoring under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.95(i)(4) 

Note: The requirements applicable to Longshoring under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.134(k)(3). 

Note: The requirements applicable to Longshoring under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910, Subpart Z. 


(k) Fall Protection Systems (12) Before using any fall protection system, the 
employee shall be trained in the use and application limits of the equipment, 
proper hook up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, methods of use, and proper 
methods of equipment inspection and storage. 

(3) Except in emergency or rescue operations, employees shall not enter any 
atmosphere identified as flammable or oxygen-deficient (less than 19.5 percent 
oxygen). Persons who may be required to enter flammable or oxygen-deficient 
atmospheres in emergency operations shall be instructed in the dangers attendant 
to those atmospheres and be instructed in the use of self-contained breathing 
apparatus which shall be used for entry. 

(b) To prevent inadvertent employee entry into spaces identified as having 
hazardous, flammable, or oxygen-deficient atmospheres, appropriate warning 
signs or equivalent means shall be posted at all means of access to those spaces. 

(v) One or more employees on duty shall be equipped and trained to provide 
any specific emergency medical treatment stipulated for the particular fumigant. 

(b) First-Aid. A first-aid kit shall be available at or near each vessel being 
worked. At least one person holding a valid first-aid certificate, such as is issued 
by the Red Cross or other equivalent organization, shall be available to render 
first-aid when work is in progress. 

(a) Qualification of machinery operators.{\) Only an employee determined 
by the employer to be competent by reason of training or experience,and who 
understands the signs, notices, and operating instructions and is familiar with the 
signal code in use, shall be permitted to operate a crane, winch, or other power- 
operated cargo handling apparatus, or any power-operated vehicle, or give 
signals to the operator of any hoisting apparatus. However, an employee being 
trained and supervised by a designated person may operate such machinery and 
give signals to operators during training. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




69 


Construction Training Ri 


The following training requirements have been excerpted from Title 29, 
Code of Federal Regulations Part 1926. Note that in addition to these 
requirements, Part 1910, relating to general industry, also contains 
applicable training standards. 


Subject and Standard 
Number 

General Safety and 
Health Provisions 
1926.20(b(2) and (4)) 


Safety Training and 

Education 

1926.21(a) 

1926.21(b)(1) through 
(6)(i) and (ii) 


Training Requirement 

(2) Such programs [as may be necessary to comply with this part] shall provide 
for frequent and regular inspeetions of the job sites, materials, and equipment to be 
made by competent persons [eapable of identifying existing and predictable hazards 
in the surroundings or working eonditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or 
dangerous to employees, and who have authorization to take prompt corrective 
measures to eliminate them designated by the employers]. 

(4) The employer shall permit only those employees qualified [one who, by 
possession of a reeognized degree, eertifieate, or professional standing, or who by 
extensive knowledge, training, and experienee, has suecessfully demonstrated his 
ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subjeet matter, the work, or the 
project] by training or experience to operate equipment and machinery. 

(а) General requirements. The Seeretary shall, pursuant to seetionl07(f) of the 
Aet establish and supervise programs for the edueation and training of employers 
and employees in the reeognition, and prevention of unsafe conditions in 
employments eovered by the Aet. 

(1) The employer should avail himself of the safety and health training programs 
the Seeretary provides. 

(2) The employer shall instruet eaeh employee in the reeognition and avoidance of 
unsafe conditions and the regulations applieable to his work environment to control 
or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury. 

(3) Employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other harmful 
substances shall be instructed regarding their safe handling and use, and be made 
aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and personal protective measures 
required. 

(4) In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, employees who 
may be exposed shall be insfructed regarding the potential hazards and how to avoid 
injury, and the first-aid procedures to be used in the event of injury. 

(5) Employees required to handle or use flammable liquids, gases, or toxic materi¬ 
als shall be instructed in the safe handling and use of these materials and made aware 
of the specific requirements contained in Subparts D, F, and other applicable 
subparts of this part. 

(б) (i) All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be 
in-structed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be 
taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment required. The employer 
shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or 
potentially dangerous areas. 

(ii) For purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, “confined or enclosed 
space” means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the ac¬ 
cumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmo¬ 
sphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks. 


Construction Training Requirements 



70 


Employee Emergency 
Action Plans 
1926.35(e)(1) and 

(2) (i) through (Hi) and 

( 3 ) 


Medical Services and 

First-aid 

1926.50(c) 


Ionizing Radiation 
1926.53(b) 


Nonionizing Radiation 
1926.54(a) and (b) 


Gases, Vapors, Fumes, 
Dusts, and Mists 
1926.55 (b) 


Hazard Communication 
1926.59 


process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground 
utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet (1.2 meters) in 
depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels. 

(e) Training. (1) Before implementing the emergency action plan, the em¬ 
ployer shall designate and train a sufficient number of persons to assist in the 
safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees. 

(2) The employer shall review the plan with each employee covered by the 
plan at the following times: 

(i) Initially when the plan is developed, 

(ii) Whenever the employee’s responsibilities or designated actions under the 
plan change, and 

(iii) Whenever the plan is changed. 

(3) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial assignment 
those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect the employee in 
the event of an emergency. The written plan shall be kept at the workplace and 
made available for employee review. For those employers with 10 or fewer 
employees the plan may be communicated orally to employees and the 
employer need not maintain a written plan. 

(c) In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician that is reason¬ 
ably accessible in terms of time and distance to the worksite which is available 
for the treatment of injured employees, a person who has a valid certificate in 
first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the American Red Cross, or 
equivalent training that can be verified by documentary evidence, shall be 
available at the worksite to render first-aid. 

(b) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or X-rays, 
whether or not under license from the Atomic Energy Commission [Nuclear Regula¬ 
tory Commission] shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the 
proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under 
Commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under the 
direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work. 

(a) Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to install, adjust, and 
operate laser equipment. 

(b) Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be available and in 
possession of the operator at all times. 

(b) To achieve compliance with paragraph (a) of this section, administrative or 
engineering controls must first be implemented whenever feasible. When such 
controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or other 
protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of employees to air contami¬ 
nants within the limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and technical 
measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a 
competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever 
respirators are used, their use shall comply with § 1926.103. 

Note: The requirements applicable to Construction under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200(h)(1) and 3)(i) and (iv). 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



Methylenedianiline 
1926.60(l)(3)(i) and 
(ii)(A) through (C) 

Lead in Construction 
1926.62(l)(1)(i) through 
(iv); (2)(i) through (viii) 
and (3)(i) and (ii) 


Note: The requirements applicable to construction under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1050(k)(3)(i) and (ii)(A) and (4)(i) 
and (ii). 


(1) General, (i) The employer shall communicate information concerning lead 
hazards according to the requirements of OSHA’s Hazard Communication 
Standard for the construction industry, 29 CFR 1026.59, including but not 
limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety 
data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, 
employers shall comply with the following requirements: 

(ii) For all employees who are subject to exposure to lead at or above the 
action level on any day or who are subject to exposure to lead compounds which 
may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), the employer 
shall provide a training program in accordance with paragraph (1)(2) of this 
section and assure employee participation. 

(iii) The employer shall provide the training program as initial training prior to 
the time of job assignment or prior to the start up date for this requirement, 
whichever comes last. 

(iv) The employer shall also provide the training program at least annually for 
each employee who is subject to lead exposure at or above the action level on 
any day. 

(2) Training program. The employer shall assure that each employee is 
trained in the following: 

(i) The eontent of this standard and its appendices; 

(ii) The speeifie nature of the operations which could result in exposure to 
lead above the aetion level; 

(iv) The purpose and a deseription of the medical surveillance program, and 
the medical removal protection program including information concerning the 
adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular 
attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females and 
hazards to the fetus and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant); 

(v) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the 
employee’s job assignment including training employees to follow relevant good 
work practices described in Appendix (B) of this section; 

(vi) The contents of any compliance plan in effect; 

(vii) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be 
used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under 
the direction of a licensed physician; and 

(viii) The employee’s right of access to records under 29 CFR 1910.20. 

(3) Access to information and training materials, (i) The employer shall 
make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its 
appendices. 

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the 
employee information and training program to affected employees and their 
designated representative, and to the Assistant Secretary and the Director. 


Construction Training Requirements 






Process Safety 
Management of Highly 
Hazardous Chemicals 

1926.64 

Hazardous Waste 
Operations and 
Emergency Response 

1926.65 

Hearing Protection 
1926.101(b) 


Respiratory Protection 
1926.103(c)(1) 

Fire Protection 
1926.150(a)(5) 


1926.150(c)(1)(viii) 


Signaling 

1926.201(a)(2) 

Powder-Operated Hand 
Tools 

1926.302(e)(1) and (12) 


Note: The requirements applieable to eonstruetion under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.(g)(l)(i) and (ii). 


Note: The requirements applieable to eonstruetion under this seetion are 
identieal to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.120(e)(l)(i) and (ii); (2)(i) through 
(vii); (3)(i) through (iv) and (4) through (9). 


(b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or determined 
individually by competent persons. 


Note: The requirements applicable to construction under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 1910.134(k)(3) 

(5) As warranted by the project, the employer shall provide a trained and 
equipped fire fighting organization (Fire Brigade) to ensure adequate protection 
to life. “Fire Brigade” means an organized group of employees that are knowl¬ 
edgeable, trained, and skilled in the safe evacuation of employees during 
emergency situations and in assisting in firefighting operations. 

(viii) Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected periodically and maintained in 
accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA No. 
lOA-1970. 

From ANSI/NFPA Standard lOA-1970: “The owner or occupant of a property in 
which fire extinguishers are located has an obligation for the care and use of these 
extinguishers at all times. By doing so, he is contributing to the protection of life and 
property. The nameplate(s) and instruction manual should be read and thoroughly 
understood by all persons who may be expected to use extinguishers. 

“1120. To discharge this obligation he should give proper attention to the inspec¬ 
tion, maintenance, and recharging of this fire protective equipment. He should also 
train his personnel in the correct use of fire extinguishers on the different types of 
fires which may occur on his property. 

“3020. Persons responsible for performing maintenance operations come from 
three major groups: 

“Trained industrial safety or maintenance personnel; 

“Extinguisher service agencies; 

“Individual owners (e.g., self-employed_). 

(2) Signaling directions by flagmen shall conform to American National Standards 
Institute D6.1 -1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and 
Highways. 

(1) Only employees who have been trained in the operation of the particular tool 
in use shall be allowed to operate a powder actuated tool. 

(12) Powder-actuated tools used by employees shall meet all other applicable 
requirements of American National Standards Institute, AIO.3-1970, Safety 
Requirements for Explosive-Actuated Fastening Tools. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





Woodworking Tools 
1926.304(f) 


Gas Welding and 
Cutting 

1926.350 (d)(1) 
through (6) 


(f) Other requirements. All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet other 
applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, 01.1-1961, Safety 
Code for Woodworking Machinery. 

From ANSI Standard 01.1-1961, Selection and Training of Operators: 

“Before a worker is permitted to operate any woodworking machine, he shall 
receive instructions in the hazards of the machine and the safe method of its 
operation. Refer to A9.7 of the Appendix. 

“A9.7 Selection and Training of Operators. Operation of Machines, Tools, 
and Equipment. General.” 

“(1) Learn the machine’s applications and limitations, as well as the specific 
potential hazards peculiar to this machine. Follow available operating 
instructions and safety rules carefully. 

“(2) Keep working area clean and be sure adequate lighting is available. 

“(3) Do not wear loose clothing, gloves, bracelets, necklaces, or ornaments. 
Wear face, eye, ear, respiratory, and body protection devices, as indicated for the 
operation or environment. 

“(4) Do not use cutting tools larger or heavier than the machine is designed to 
accommodate. Never operate a cutting tool at greater speed than recommended. 

“(5) Keep hands well away from saw blades and other cutting tools. Use a 
push stock or push block to hold or guide the work when working close to a 
cutting tool. 

“(6) Whenever possible, use properly locked clamps, jig, or vise to hold the 
work. 

“(7) Combs (feather boards) shall be provided for use when an applicable 
guard cannot be used. 

“(8) Never stand directly in line with a horizontally rotating cutting tool. 

This is particularly true when first starting a new tool, or a new tool is initially 
installed on the arbor. 

“(9) Be sure the power is disconnected from the machine before tools are 
serviced. 

“(10) Never leave the machine with the power on. 

“(11) Be positive that hold-downs and anti-kickback devices are positioned 
properly, and that the workpiece is being fed through the cutting tool in the right 
direction. 

“(12) Do not use a dull, gummy, bent, or cracked cutting tool. 

“(13) Be sure that keys and adjusting wrenches have been removed before 
turning power on. 

“(14) Use only accessories designed for the machine. 

“(15) Adjust the machine for minimum exposure of cutting tool necessary to 
perform the operation.” 

(d) Use of fuel gas. The employer shall thoroughly instruct employees in the 
safe use of fuel gas as follows: 


Construction Training Requirements 





(1) Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the valve shall be 
opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed “crack¬ 
ing” and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter 
the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, 
not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder shall not be cracked where the 
gas would reach welding work, sparks, flame, or other possible sources of 
ignition. 

(2) The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the 
regulator. For quick closing, valves on fuel gas cylinders shall not be opened 
more than 1-1/2 turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left in 
position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel gas 
flow can be shut off quickly in case of an emergency. In the case of manifolded 
or coupled cylinders, at least one such wrench shall always be available for 
immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel gas cylinder, when in 
use, which may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of 
the valve. 

(3) Fuel gas shall not be used from cylinders through torches or other devices 
which are equipped with shutoff valves without reducing the pressure through a 
suitable regulator attached to the cylinder valve or manifold. 

(4) Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve 
shall always be closed and the gas released from the regulator. 

(5) If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a 
leak around the valve stem, the valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. 
If this action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder shall be discontinued, 
and it shall be properly tagged and removed from the work area. In the event that 
fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve, rather than from the valve stem, 
and the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder shall be properly tagged and removed 
from the work area. If a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively 
stop a leak through the valve seat, the cylinder need not be removed from the 
work area. 

(6) If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder 
shall be removed from the work area. 

1926.3500) 


Arc Welding and 
Cutting 

1926.351(d)(1) through 
(5) 


(j) Additional rules For additional details not covered in this subpart, appli¬ 
cable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, Z49.1-1967, 
Safety in Welding and Cutting, shall apply. 

From ANSI Standard Z49.1-1967, Fire Watch Duties: “Fire watchers shall be 
trained in the use of fire extinguishing equipment. They shall be familiar with 
facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. They shall watch for fires 
in all exposed areas, try to extinguish them only when obviously within the 
capacity of the equipment available, or otherwise sound the alarm. A fire watch 
shall be maintained for at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting 
operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.” 

(d) Operating instructions. Employers shall instruct employees in the safe 
means of arc welding and cutting as follows: 

(1) When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes shall be 
removed and the holders shall be so placed or protected that they cannot make 
electrical contact with employees or conducting objects. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Fire Prevention 
1926.352(e) 


Welding, Cutting and 
Heating in Way of 
Preservative Coatings 
1926.354(a) 

Ground Fault Protection 
1926.404(b)(iii)(B) 

Scaffolding—Training 
Requirements 
1926.454(a)(1) through 
(5) and (b)(1) through 
(4) and (c)(1) through 
( 3 ) 


(2) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water; to do so may expose 
the arc welder or cutter to electric shock. 

(3) When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to stop work for any appre¬ 
ciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be 
moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened. 

(4) Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor. 

(5) Other requirements, as outlined in Article 630, National Electrical Code, 
NFPA 70-1971; ANSI Cl-1971 (Rev. of 1968), Electric Welders, shall be used 
when applicable. 

(e) When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is such that normal fire 
prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned 
to guard against fire while the actual welding, cutting, or heating operation is 
being performed, and for a sufficient period of time after completion of the work 
to ensure that no possibility of fire exists. Such personnel shall be instructed as 
to the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the firefighting equipment 
provided is to be used. 

(a) Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered 
by a preservative coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made 
by a competent person to determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall 
be considered to be highly flammable when scrapings bum with extreme 
rapidity. 

(iii)(B) The employer shall designate one or more competent persons (as 
defined in § 1926.32(f)) to implement the program. 

Training Requirements, (a) The employer shall have each employee who 
performs work while on a scaffold trained by a person qualified in the subject 
matter to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used 
and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards. The 
training shall include the following areas, as applicable: 

(1) The nature of any electrical hazards, fall hazards and falling object hazards 
in the work area; 

(2) The correct procedures for dealing with electrical hazards and for erecting, 
maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems and falling object 
protection systems being used; 

(3) The proper use of the scaffold and the proper handling of materials on the 
scaffold; 

(4) The maximum intended load and the load-carrying capacities of the 
scaffolds used; and 

(5) Any other pertinent requirements of this subpart. 

(b) The employer shall have each employee who is involved in erecting, 
disassembling, moving, operating, repairing, maintaining, or inspecting a scaf¬ 
fold trained by a competent person to recognize any hazards associated with the 
work in question. The training shall include the following topics, as applicable: 

(1) The nature of scaffold hazards; 

(2) The correct procedures for erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, 
repairing, inspecting, and maintaining the type of scaffold in question; 


Construction Training Requirements 







(3) The design criteria, maximum intended load-carrying capacity and 
intended use of the scaffold; 

(4) Any other pertinent requirements of this subject. 

(c) When the employer has reason to believe that an employee lacks the skill 
or understanding needed for safe work involving the erection use or dismantling 
of scaffolds, the employer shall retrain each such employee so that the requisite 
proficiency is regained. Retraining is required in at least the followoing 
situations: 


Fall Protection—Train¬ 
ing Requirements 
1926.503(a)(1) and 
(2)(ii) through (vii) 


Cranes and Derricks 
1926.550(a)(1), (5) and 
( 6 ) 


(1) Where changes at the worksite present a hazard about which an employee 
has not been previously trained; 

(2) Where changes in the types of scaffolds, or other equipment present a 
hazard about which an employee has not been previously trained; or 

(3) Where inadequacies in an affected employee’s work involving scaffolds 
indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite proficiency. 

(a) Training Program. (1) The employer shall provide a training program for 
each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable 
each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee 
in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards. 

(2) The employer shall ensure that each employee has been trained, as 
necessary, by a competent person qualified in the following areas: 

(i) The nature of fall hazards in the work area; 

(ii) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and 
inspecting the fall protection systems to be used; 

(iii) The use and operation of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, 
safety net systems, warning line systems, safety monitoring systems, controlled 
access zones, and other protection to be used; 

(iv) The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this 
system is used; 

(v) The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the 
performance of roofing work on low-slope roofs; 

(vi) The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and 
materials and the erection of overhead protection; and 

(vii) The standards contained in this subpart. 

(1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer’s specifications and 
limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where 
manufacturer’s specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the 
equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer compe¬ 
tent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and 
recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or 
scope recommended by the manufacturer. 

(5) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all 
machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in 
safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts 
replaced, before continued use. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





1926.550(g)(4)(i)(A) 


1926.550(g)(5)(iv) 


Material Hoists, 
Personnel Hoists, and 
Elevators 
1926.552(a)(1) 

1926.552(c)(15) and 
(17)(i) 


Material Handling 
Equipment 
1926.602 (c)(1)(vi) 


Site Clearing 
1926.604(a)(1) 


Excavations General 
Protection Require¬ 
ments (Excavations, 
Trenching, and Shoring) 
1926.651 (c)(1)(i) 


(6) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by 
a competent person or by a government or private agency recognized by the 
U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates 
and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment. 

(4) Personnel platforms (i) Design criteria. (A) The personned platform and 
suspension system shall be designed by a qualified engineer or a qualified 
person competent in structural design. 

(iv) A visual inspection of the crane or derrick, rigging, personnel platform, 
and the crane or derrick base support or ground shall be conducted by a compe¬ 
tent person immediately after the trial lift to determine whether the testing has 
exposed any defect or produced any adverse effect upon any component or 
structure. 

(1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer’s specifications and 
limitations applicable to the operation of all hoists and elevators. Where 
manufacturer’s specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the 
equipment shall be based on the determinations of a professional engineer 
competent in the field. 

(c) Personnel hoists. (15) Following assembly and erection of hoists, and 
before being put in service, an inspection and test of all functions and safety 
devices shall be made under the supervision of a competent person. A similar 
inspection and test is required following major alterations of an existing instal¬ 
lation. All hoists shall be inspected and tested at not more than 3-month inter¬ 
vals. Records shall be maintained and kept on file for the duration of the job. 

(17)(i) Personnel hoists used in bridge tower construction shall be approved 
by a registered professional engineer and erected under the supervision of a 
qualified engineer competent in this field. 

(c) Lifting and hauling equipment (other than equipment covered under 
Subpart N of this part). 

(l)(vi) All industrial trucks in use shall meet the applicable requirements of 
design, construction, stability, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, 
as defined in American National Standards Institute B56.1-1969, Safety 
Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks. 

From ANSI Standard B56.1-1969: Operator Training: “Only trained and 
authorized operators shall be permitted to operate a powered industrial truck. 
Methods shall be devised to train operators in the safe operation of powered 
industrial trucks. Badges or other visual indication of the operators’ 
authorization should be displayed at all times during the work period.” 

(1) Employees engaged in site clearing shall be protected from hazards of 
irritant and toxic plants and suitably instructed in the first-aid treatment 
available. 

(c) Access and egress (1) Structural ramps, (i) Structural ramps that are 
used solely by employees as a means of access or egress from excavations shall 
be designed by a competent person. Structural ramps used for access or egress 
of equipment shall be designed by a competent person qualified in structural 
design, and shall be constructed in accordance with the design. 


Construction Training Requirements 




78 


1926.651(h)(2) and (3) 


1926.651(0(1) 


1926.651 (i)(2)(iii) 


1926.651 (i)(2)(iv) 
1926.651 (k)(1) and (2) 


Concrete and Masonry 

Construction 

1926.701(a) 

1926.703(b)(8)(i) 

Bolting, Riveting, 
Fitting-Up and 
Plumbing Up 
1926.752(d)(4) 

Underground 

Construction 

1926.800(d) 



(h) Protection from hazards associated with water accumulation. (2) If 
water is controlled or prevented from accumulating by the use of water removal 
equipment, the water removal equipment and operations shall be monitored by a 
competent person to ensure proper operation. 

(3) If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such 
as streams), diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to 
prevent surface water from entering the excavation and to provide adquate 
drainage of the area adjacent to the excavation. Excavations subject to runoff 
from heavy rains will require an inspection by a competent person and 
compliance with paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this section. 

(i) Stability of adjacent structures. (1) Where the stability of adjoining build¬ 
ings, walls, or other structures is endangered by excavation operations, support 
systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided to ensure 
the stability of such structures for the protection of employees. 

(iii) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the 
structure is sufficiently removed from the excavation so as to be unaffected by the 
excavation activity; or 

(iv) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that such 
excavation work will not pose a hazard to employees. 

(k) Inspections. (1) Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and 
protective systems shall be made by a competent person for evidence of a situation 
that could result in possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, 
hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. An inspection shall be 
conducted by the competent person prior to the start of work and as needed through¬ 
out the shift. Inspections shall also be made after every rainstorm or other hazard 
increasing occurrence. These inspections are only required when employee exposure 
can be reasonably anticipated. 

(2) Where the competent person finds evidence of a situation that could result in a 
possible cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, 
or other hazardous conditions, exposed employees shall be removed from the 
hazardous area until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety. 

(a) No construction loads shall be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a 
concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received 
from a person who is qualified in sfructural design, that the sfructure or portion of the 
structure is capable of supporting the loads. 

(i) The design of the shoring shall be prepared by a qualified designer and the 
erected shoring shall be inspected by an engineer qualified in structural design. 

(4) Plumbing-up guys shall be removed only under the supervision of a competent 
person. 


(d) Safety instruction. All employees shall be instructed in the recognition and 
avoidance of hazards associated with underground consfruction activities including, 
where appropriate, the following subjects: 

(1) Air monitoring; 

(2) Ventilation; 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




79 


1926.800(g)(2) 


1926.800(g)(5)(iii) 
through (v) 


1926.800(j)(1)(i)(A) and 

(B) 


1926.8OO0)(1)(vi)(A) 
and (B) 


1926.800(0) (3) (i) (A) 


(3) Illumination; 

(4) Communications; 

(5) Flood control; 

(6) Mechanical equipment; 

(7) Personal protective equipment; 

(8) Explosives; 

(9) Fire prevention and proteetion; and 

(10) Emergeney proeedures, ineluding evacuation plans and check-in/check-out 
systems. 

(g) Emergency provisions. (2) Self-rescuers. The employer shall provide self-rescuers 
having cuirent approval from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 
and the Mine Safety and Health Administration to be immediately available to all employ¬ 
ees at work stations in underground areas where employees might be trapped by smoke or 
gas. The seleetion, issuanee, use, and eare of respirators shall be in accordance with 
paragraphs (b) and (c) of 1926.103. 

(g) Emergency provisions. (5) Reseue teams, (iii) Rescue team members shall be 
qualified in reseue proeedures, the use and limitations of breathing apparatus, and the use 
of firefighting equipment. Qualifieations shall be reviewed not less than annually. 

(iv) On jobsites where flammable or noxious gases are encountered or anticipated in 
hazardous quantities, reseue team members shall practice donning and using self-contained 
breathing apparatus monthly. 

(v) The employer shall ensure that reseue teams are familiar with conditions at the 
jobsite. 

(j) Air quality and monitoring. (1) General (i)(A) The employer shall assign a 
competent person who shall perform all air monitoring required by this section. 

(B) Where this paragraph requires monitoring of airborne contaminants “as often as 
necessary,” the competent person shall make a reasonable detemiination as to which 
substances to monitor and how fiequently to monitor taking into consideration: location of 
jobsite; geology of the jobsite; presence of air contaminants in nearby jobsites and changes 
in levels of substances monitored on prior shifts; and work practices and jobsite conditions 
including use of diesel engines, explosives, fuel gas, volume and flow of ventilation, 
visible atmospheric conditions, decompression of the atmosphere, welding, cutting, and 
hot work, and employees’ physical reactions to working underground. 

(j) Air quality and monitoring. (1) General (vi) When the competent person deter¬ 
mines, on the basis of air monitoring results or other information, that air cont amin ants 
may be present in sufficient quantity to be dangerous to Hfe, the employer shall: 

(A) Prominently post a notice at all entrances to the undeiground jobsite to inform all 
entrants of the hazardous condition; and 

(B) Ensure that the necessary precautions are taken. 

(o) Ground support (3) Underground areas (i)(A) A competent person shall inspect the 
roof, face, and walls of the work area at the start of each shift and as often as necessary to 
determine ground stability. 


Construction Training Requirements 





80 


1926.800(0) (3) (iv)(B) 


1926.800(t)(3)(xix) and 

(XX) 


Compressed Air 
1926.803(a)(1) and (2) 


1926.803(b)(1) and 
(10)(xii) 


1926.803(e)(1) 
1926.803(f)(2) and (3) 


1926.803(h)(1) 


Preparatory Operations 
1926.850(a) 


(o) Ground support (3) Underground areas (iv)(B) A competent person shall 
determine whether rock bolts meet the necessary torque, and shall determine the 
testing frequency in light of the bolt system, ground conditions, and the distance 
from vibration sources. 

(t) Hoisting unique to underground construction. (3) Additional require¬ 
ments for hoists, (xix) A competent person shall visually check all hoisting 
machinery, equipment, anchorages, and hoisting ropes at the beginning of each 
shift during hoist use, as necessary. 

(xx) Each safety device shall be checked by a competent person at least 
weekly during hoist use to ensure suitable operation and safe condition. 

(1) There shall be present, at all times, at least one competent person designated 
by and representing the employer, who shall be familiar with this subpart in all 
respects, and responsible for fUll compliance with these and other applicable 
subparts. 

(2) Every employee shall be instmcted in the rules and regulations which concern 
his safety or the safety of others. 

(1) There shall be retained one or more licensed physicians familiar with and 
experienced in the physical requirements and the medical aspects of compressed air 
work and the treatment of decompression illness. He shall be available at all times 
while work is in progress in order to provide medical supervision of employees 
employed in compressed air work. He shall himself be physically qualified and be 
willing to enter a pressurized environment. 

(10) The medical lock shall: 

(xii) Be in constant charge of an attendant under the direct control of the retained 
physician. The attendant shall be trained in the use of the lock and suitably instructed 
regarding steps to be taken in the treatment of employees exhibiting symptoms 
compatible with a diagnosis of decompression ilhess. 

(1) Every employee going under air pressure for the first time shall be instmcted 
on how to avoid excessive discomfort. 

(2) In the event it is necessary for an employee to be in compressed air more than 
once in a 24-hour period, the appointed physician shall be responsible for the 
establishment of methods and procedures of decompression applicable to repeated 
exposures. 

(3) If decanting is necessary, the appointed physician shall establish procedures 
before any employee is permitted to be decompressed by decanting methods. The 
period of time that the employees spend at atmospheric pressure between the 
decompression following the shift and recompression shall not exceed 5 minutes. 

(1) At all times there shall be a thoroughly experienced, competent, and reliable 
person on duty at the air control valves as a gauge tender who shall regulate the 
pressure in the working areas. During tunneling operations, one gauge tender may 
regulate the pressure in not more than two headings: Provided, that the gauge and 
controls are all in one location. In caisson work, there shall be a gauge tender for 
each caisson. 

(a) Prior to permitting employees to start demolition operations, an engineering 
survey shall be made, by a competent person, of the structure to determine the 
condition of the framing, floors, and walls, and the possibility of unplanned collapse 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 








81 


Chutes 

1926.852(c) 


Mechanical Demolition 
1926.859(g) 


General Provisions 
(Blasting and Use of 
Explosives) 
1926.900(a) 


of any portion of the structure. Any adjacent structure where employees may be 
exposed shall also be simlarly checked. The employer shall have in writing evidence 
that such a survey has been performed. 

(c) A substantial gate shall be installed in each chute at or near the discharge end. 
A competent employee shall be assigned to control the operation of the gate, and the 
backing and loading of trucks. 

(g) During demolition, continuing inspections by a competent person shall be 
made as the work progresses to detect hazards resulting from weakened or deterio¬ 
rated floors, or walls, or loosened material. No employee shall be permitted to work 
where such hazards exist until they are corrected by shoring, bracing, or other 
effective means. 

(a) The employer shall permit only authorized and qualified persons to handle 
and use explosives. 


1926.900(k)(3)(i) 


1926.900(q) 


Blaster Qualifications 
1926.901(c), (d), and 
(e) 


Surface Transportation 
of Explosives 
1926.902(b) and (i) 


(i) The prominent display of adequate signs, warning against the use of mobile 
radio transmitters, on all roads within 1,000 feet (303 meters) of blasting opera¬ 
tions. Whenever adherence to the 1,000-feet (303 meters) distance would create 
an operational handicap, a competent person shall be consulted to evaluate the 
particular situation, and alternative provisions may be made which are ad¬ 
equately designed to prevent any premature firing of electric blasting caps. A 
description of any such alternatives shall be reduced to writing and shall be 
certified as meeting the purposes of this subdivision by the competent person 
consulted. The description shall be maintained at the construction site during the 
duration of the work, and shall be available for inspection by representatives of 
the Secretary of Labor. 

(q) All loading and firing shall be directed and supervised by competent 
persons thoroughly experienced in this field. 

(c) A blaster shall be qualified, by reason of training, knowledge, or experi¬ 
ence, in the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives, and 
have a working knowledge of State and local laws and regulations which pertain 
to explosives. 

(d) Blasters shall be required to furnish satisfactory evidence of competency 
in handling explosives and performing in a safe manner the type of blasting that 
will be required. 

(e) The blaster shall be knowledgeable and competent in the use of each type 
of blasting method used. 

(b) Motor vehicles or conveyances transporting explosives shall only be 
driven by, and be in the charge of, a licensed driver who is physically fit. He 
shall be familiar with the local, State, and Federal regulations governing the 
transportation of explosives. 

(i) Each vehicle used for transportation of explosives shall be equipped with a 
fully charged fire extinguisher, in good condition. An Underwriters Laboratory- 
approved extinguisher of not less than 10-ABC rating will meet the minimum 
requirement. The driver shall be trained in the use of the extinguisher on his 
vehicle. 


Construction Training Requirements 





82 


Firing the Blast 
1926.909(a) 


General 

Requirements 

(Power 

Transmission and 
Distribution) 
1926.950(d)(1)(ii)(a), 
through (c), (vi) and 
(vii) 


1926.950(d)(2)(ii) 


1926.950(e)(1)(i) and 
(ii) and (2) 


(a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one 
or more eonspieuous places at the operation, and all employees shall be required 
to familiarize themselves with the code and eonform to it. Danger signs shall be 
plaeed at suitable locations. 

Table U-1 

Warning Signal— A 1-minute series of long blasts 5 minutes prior to 
blast signal. 

Blast Signal— series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot. 

All Clear Signal— A prolonged blast following the inspection of blast 
area. 


(1) When deenergizing lines and equipment operated in exeess of 600 volts, 
and the means of disconnecting from electric energy is not visibly open or 
visibly locked out, the provisions of subdivisions (i) through (vii) of this sub- 
paragraph shall be complied with: 

(ii) Notification and assurance from the designated employee [a qualified 
person delegated to perform specific duties under the eonditions existing] shall 
be obtained that asserts that: 

(a) All switches and disconnectors through which electric energy may be supplied 
to the particular section of line or equipment to be worked have been deenergized; 

(b) All switches and disconnectors are plainly tagged indicating that men are at 
work; 

(c) And that where design of such switches and diseonnectors permits, they have 
been rendered inoperable. 

(vi) When more than one independent crew requires the same line or equipment 
to be deenergized, a prominent tag for each such independent crew shall be placed on 
the line or equipment by the designated employee in charge. 

(vii) Upon completion of work on deenergized lines or equipment, each desig¬ 
nated employee in charge shall determine that all employees in his crew are elear, 
that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed, and he shall report 
to the designated authority that all tags protecting his crew may be removed. 

(2) When a crew working on a line or equipment can clearly see that the means of 
disconnecting from electric energy are visibly open or visibly locked-out, the provi¬ 
sions of subdivisions (i) and (ii) of this paragraph shall apply: 

(ii) Upon completion of work on deenergized lines or equipment, eaeh designated 
employee in charge shall determine that all employees in his crew are elear, that 
protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed, and he shall report to 
the designated authority that all tags protecting his crew may be removed. 

(1) The employer shall provide training or require that his employees are knowl¬ 
edgeable and proficient in: 

(1) Procedures involving emergency situations, and 

(ii) First-aid fundamentals including resuscitation. 

(2) In lieu of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the employer may 
eomply with the provisions of § 1926.50(c) regarding first-aid requirements. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




83 


Overhead Lines 
1926.955(b)(3)(i) 

1926.955(b)(8) and 
(cl)(1) 


1926.955(e)(1) and (4) 


Underground Lines 
1926.956(b)(1) 


Construction in Ener¬ 
gized Substations 
1926.957(a)(1) 


(3) (i) A designated employee shall be used in directing mobile equipment 
adjacent to footing excavations. 

(b) Metal Tower Construction. (8) A designated employee shall be utilized to 
determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or 
near energized lines. 

(d) Stringing adjacent to energized lines. (1) Prior to stringing parallel to an 
existing energized transmission line a competent determination shall be made to 
ascertain whether dangerous induced voltage buildups will occur, particularly 
during switching and ground fault conditions. When there is a possibility that 
such dangerous induced voltage may exist, the employer shall comply with the 
provisions of subparagraphs (2) through (9) of this paragraph in addition to the 
provisions of paragraph (c) of this § 1926.955, unless the line is worked as 
energized. 

(1) Employes shall be instructed and trained in the live-line hand technique 
and the safety requirements pertinent thereto before being permitted to use the 
technique on energized circuits. 

(4) All work shall be personally supervised by a person trained and qualified 
to perform live-line, bare-hand work. 

(1) While work is being performed in manholes, an employee shall be avail¬ 
able in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as may be re¬ 
quired. This shall not preclude the employee in the immediate vicintiy fi'om 
occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance, other than emergency. 
This requirement does not preclude a qualified employee [a person who by 
reason of experience or training is familiar with the operation to be performed 
and the hazards involved], working alone, from entering for brief periods of 
time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, for the 
purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work if such 
work can be performed safely. 

(1) When construction work is performed in an energized substation, authori¬ 
zation shall be obtained from the designated, authorized person [a qualified 
person delegated to perform specific duties under the conditions existing] before 
work is started. 


1926.957(d)(1) 


1926.957(e)(1) 

Ladders 

1926.1053(b)(15) 

Training 
Requirements 
1926.1060(a)(i) through 
(v) and (b) 


(1) Work on or adjacent to energized control panels shall be performed by 
designated employees. 

(1) Use of vehicles, gin poles, cranes, and other equipment in restricted or 
hazardous areas shall at all times be controlled by designated employees. 

(15) Ladders shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a 
periodic basis and after any occurrence that could affect their safe use. 

The following training provisions clarify the requirements of 
§ 1926.21(b)(2) regarding the hazards addressed in subpart X. 

(a) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee using 
ladders and stairways, as necessary. The program shall enable each employee to 
recognize hazards related to ladders and stairways, and shall train each employee 
in the procedures to be followed to minimize these hazards. 

(1) The employer shall ensure that each employee has been trained by a 
competent person in the following areas, as applicable: 


Construction Training Requirements 





Commercial 
Diving Operations 
1926.1076 

Asbestos 

1926.1101 (9)(i) through 
(viii)(A) through (e)(10) 


13 Carcinogens 
1926.1103 


(i) The nature of fall hazards in the work area; 

(ii) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the 
fall protection systems to be used; 

(iii) The proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling of all 
stairways and ladders; 

(iv) The maximum intended load carrying capacities of ladders used; and 

(v) the standards contained in this subpart. 

(b) Retraining shall be provided for each employee as necessary so that the 
employee maintains the understanding and knowledge acquired through 
compliance with this section. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.410. 


(9) Employee information and training, (i) The employer shall, at no cost, to 
the employee, institute a training program for all employees who are likely to be 
exposed in excess of a PEL and for all employees who perform Class I through 
IV asbestos operations, and shall ensure their participation in the program. 

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at at the time of initial 
assignment and at least annually thereafter. 

(iii) Training for Class I operations shall be the equivalent in curriculum, 
training method and length to the EPA Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) 
asbestos abatement workers training (40 CFR part 763, subpart E, appendix C). 

(viii) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee 
is able to understand. In addition to the content required by provisions in para¬ 
graph (k)(9)(iii) through (vi), the employer shall ensure that such employee is 
informed of the following: 

(A) Methods of recognizing asbestos including the requirement in paragraph 
(k)(l) to presume that certain building materials contain asbestos; 

(B) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure; 

(C) The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer. 

(D) The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the 
importance of necessary protective controls to minimize exposure including, as 
applicable, engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping 
procedures, hygiene facilities, protective clothing, decontamination procedures, 
emergency procedures, and waste disposal procedures, and any necessary in¬ 
struction in the use of these controls and procedures where Class III and IV work 
will be or is performed, the contents of EPA 20T-2003, “Managing Asbestos 
In-Place” July 1990 or its equivalent in content; 

(E) The purpose, proper use, fitting instructions, and limitations of 
respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134. 

(10) Access to training materials, (i) The employer shall make readily avail¬ 
able to affected employees without cost, written materials relating to the 
employee training program, including a copy of this regulation. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 1910.1003. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



Vinyl Chloride 

1926.1117 

Inorganic Arsenic 

1926.1118 

Cadmium 

1926.1127(m)(4)(i) 
through (iii)(A) through 
(E) 


Benzene 

1926.1128 

Coke Oven 
Emissions 

1926.1129 

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloro- 

propane 

1926.1144 

Acrylonitrile 

1926.1145 
Ethylene Oxide 

1926.1147 

Formaldehyde 

1926.1148 

Methylene 

Chloride 

1926.1152 


Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 1910.1017. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1018. 

(4) Employee information and training, (i) The employer shall insitute a 
training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to cadmium, 
assure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the 
contents of such a program. 

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a 
job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter. 

(iii) The employer shall make the training program understandable to the 
employee(s) and shall assure that each employee is informed of the 
following: 

(A) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special 
attention to the information incorporated in Appendix A of this section; 

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in 
the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure 
to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL; 

(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the 
employees’job assignments; 

(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to 
cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hy¬ 
giene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect 
exployees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, 
emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment; 

(E) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of 
respirators and protective clothing. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1028. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1029. 


Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1044. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1045. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1047. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are 
identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1048. 

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1052. 


Construction Training Requirements 




Agricultural Training Ri 


The foUowing training reqnirements have been excerpted from Title 29, Code 
of Federal Regulations Part 1928. Note that in addition to these requirements, 
Part 1910, relating to general industry, also contains applicable training 
standards. 



Subject and Training Requirement 

Standard Number 


Temporary Labor 

Camps 

1928.142 

Loqqinq 

1928.266 

Hazard Communication 
1928.1200 

Cadmium 

1928.1027 

Roll-Over Protective 
Structures (ROPS) for 
Tractors Used in Agri¬ 
cultural Operations 
1928.51(d) 


Guarding of Farm Field 
Equipment, Farmstead 
Equipment, and Cotton 
Gins 

1928.57(a)(6(i) through 
(V) 


Note: The requirements applicable to agricultural training requirements under 
this section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.142. 


Note: The requirements applicable to agricultural training requirements under 
this section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.266. 

Note: The requirements applicable to agricultural training requirements under 
this section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1200. 

Note: The requirements applicable to agricultural training requirements under 
this section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR1910.1027. 

(d) Operating instmctions. Every employee who operates an agricultural tractor shall be 
informed of the operating practices contained in Exhibit A of this part and of any other 
practices dictated by the work environment. Such information shall be provided at the 
time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter. 

Exhibit A—Employee Operating Instructions 

1. Securely fasten your seat belt if the tractor has a ROPS. 

2. Where possible, avoid operating the tractor near ditches, embankments, and holes. 

3. Reduce speed when turning, crossing slopes, and on rough, slick, or muddy surfaces. 

4. Stay off slopes too steep for safe operation. 

5. Watch where you are going, especially at row ends, on roads, and around trees. 

6. Do not permit others to ride. 

7. Operate the tractor smoothly—^no jerky turns, starts, or stops. 

8. Hitch only to the drawbar and hitch points recommended by tractor 
manufacturers. 

9. When tractor is stopped, set brakes securely and use park lock if available. 

(6) Operating instructions. At the time of initial assignment and at least annually 
thereafter, the employer shall instmct eveiy employee in the safe operation and servicing of 
all covered equipment with which he is or will be involved, including at least 
the foUowing safe operating practices: 

(i) Keep all guards in place when the machine is in operation. 

(ii) Permit no riders on farm field equipment other than persons required for 
instmction or assistance in machine opaution; 

(iii) Stop engine, disconnect the power source, and wait for aU machine movement to 
stop before servicing, adjusting, cleaning, or unclogging the equipment, except where the 
machine must be running to be properly serviced or maintained, in which case the em¬ 
ployer shall instmct employees as to all steps and procedures which are necessary to safely 
service or maintain the equipment; 

(iv) Make sure everyone is clear of machinery before starting the engine, engaging 
pow-er, or operating the machine; 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





1928.57(d)(1)(viii) 


Cadmium 

1928.1027 


(v) Lock out electrical power before performing maintenance or service on 
farmstead equipment. 

(d) Cotton ginning equipment. (\) Power transmission components, (viii) In power 
plants and power development rooms where access is limited to authorized personnel, 
guard railings may be used in place of guards or guarding by location. Authorized employ¬ 
ees having aeeess to power plants and power development rooms shall be instmcted in the 
safe operation and maintenanee of the equipment in accordance with paragraph (a)(6) of 
this section. 

Note: The requirements applicable to agricultural training requirements under this 
section are identical to those set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1027. 


Agricultural Training Requirements 





88 


Federal Employee Programs Train 





The following training reqnirements have been excerpted from Title 29, 
Code of Federal Regulations Part 1960. Note that in addition to these re¬ 
qnirements, Part 1910, relating to general industry, also contains applicable 
training standards. 



Subject and 
Standard Number 

Financial Management 
1960.7(c)(1) 


Qualifications of Safety 
and Health Inspectors 
and Agency Inspectors 
1960.25(a) 


Safety and Health 

Services 

1960.34(e)(1) 


Agency Responsibilities 
1960.39(b) 

Training of Top 

Management 

1960.54 


Training of Supervisors 
1960.55(a) and (b) 


Training Requirement 

(c) Appropriate resources for an agency’s occupational safety and health 
program shall include, but not be limited to: 

(1) Sufficient personnel to implement and administer the program at all lev¬ 
els, including necessary administrative costs such as training, travel, and per¬ 
sonal protective equipment. 

(a) Executive Order 12196 requires that each agency utilize as inspectors 
“personnel with equipment and competence to recognize hazards.” Inspections 
shall be conducted by inspectors qualified to recognize and evaluate hazards of 
the working environment and to suggest general abatement procedures. Safety 
and health specialists as defined in 29 CFR 1960.2(s), with experience and/or 
up-to-date training in occupational safety and health hazard recognition and 
evaluation are considered as meeting the qualifications of safety and health 
inspectors. For those working environments where there are less complex haz¬ 
ards, such safety and health specializations as cited above may not be required, 
but inspectors in such environments shall have sufficient documented training 
and/or experience in the safety and health hazards of the workplace involved to 
recognize and evaluate those particular hazards and to suggest general abatement 
procedures. All inspection personnel must be provided the equipment necessary 
to conduct a thorough inspection of the workplace involved. 

(e) Safety and health services. The General Services Administration (GSA) 
will operate and maintain for user agencies the following services: 

(1) Listings in the “Federal Supply Schedule” of safety and health services and 
equipment which are approved for use by agencies when needed. Examples of 
such services are: Workplace inspections, training, industrial hygiene surveys, 
asbestos bulk sampling, and mobile health testing. Examples of such equipment 
are: Personal protective equipment and apparel, safety devices, and 
environmental monitoring equipment. 

(b) Agencies shall provide all committee members appropriate training as 
required by subpart H of this part. 

Each agency shall provide top management officials with orientation and other 
learning experiences which will enable them to manage the occupational safety 
and health programs of their agencies. Such orientation should include coverage 
of section 19 of the Act, Executive Order 12196, the requirements of this part, 
and the agency safety and health program. 

(a) Each agency shall provide occupational safety and health training for 
supervisory employees that includes: supervisory responsibility for providing 
and maintaining safe and healthful working conditions for employees; the 
agency occupational safety and health program; section 19 of the Act; Executive 
Order 12196; this part; occupational safety and health standards applicable to the 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 




Training of Safety and 
Health Specialists 
1960.56(a) and (b) 


Training of Safety and 
Health Inspectors 
1960.57 


Training of Collateral 
Duty Safety and Health 
Personnel and 
Committee Members 
1926.58 


Training of Employees 
and Employee 
Representatives 
1960.59(a) and (b) 


assigned workplaces; agency procedures for reporting hazards; agency proce¬ 
dures for reporting and investigating allegations of reprisal; and agency proce¬ 
dures for the abatement of hazards, as well as other appropriate rules and 
regulations. 

(b) This supervisory training should include introductory and specialized 
courses and materials which will enable supervisors to recognize and eliminate, 
or reduce, occupational safety and health hazards in their working units. Such 
training shall also include the development of requisite skills in managing the 
agency’s safety and health program within the work unit, including the training 
and motivation of subordinates toward assuring safe and healthful work 
practices. 

(a) Each agency shall provide occupational safety and health training for 
safety and health specialists through courses, laboratory experiences, field study, 
and other formal learning experiences to prepare them to perform the necessary 
technical monitoring, consulting, testing, inspecting, designing, and other tasks 
related to program development and implementation, as well as hazard recogni¬ 
tion, evaluation and control, equipment and facility design, standards, analysis 
of accident, injury, and illness data, and other related tasks. 

(b) Each agency shall implement career development programs for their 
occupational safety and health specialists to enable the staff to meet present and 
future program needs of the agency. 

Each agency shall provide training for safety and health inspectors with 
respect to appropriate standards, and the use of appropriate equipment and 
testing procedures necessary to identify and evaluate hazards and suggest gen¬ 
eral abatement procedures during or following their assigned inspections, as well 
as preparation of reports and other documentation to support the inspection 
findings 

Within six months after October 1, 1980, or on appointment of an employee 
to a collateral duty position or to a committee, each agency shall provide train¬ 
ing for collateral duty safety and health personnel and all members of certified 
occupational safety and health committees commensurate with the scope of their 
assigned responsibilities. Such training shall include: the agency occupational 
safety and health program; section 19 of the Act; Executive Order 12196; this 
part; agency procedures for the reporting, evaluation and abatement of hazards; 
agency procedures for reporting and investigating allegations of reprisal; the 
recognition of hazardous conditions and environments; identification and use of 
occupational safety and health standards, and other appropriate rules and 
regulations. 

(a) Each agency shall provide appropriate safety and health training for 
employees including specialized Job safety and health training appropriate to the 
work performed by the employee, for example: Clerical, printing, welding, crane 
operation, chemical analysis, and computer operations. Such training also shall 
inform employees of the agency occupational safety and health program, with 
emphasis on their rights and responsibilities. 

(b) Occupational safety and health training for employees of the agency who 
are representatives of employee groups, such as labor organizations which are 
recognized by the agency, shall include both introductory and specialized 
courses and materials that will enable such groups to function appropriately in 
ensuring safe and healthful working conditions and practices in the workplace 


Federal Employee Training Requirements 





90 


Training Assistance 
1960.60(a) through (d) 


Role of the Secretary 
1960.85(b) 


Objectives of Field 

Councils 

1960.87(d) 


and enable them to effectively assist in conducting workplace safety and health 
inspections. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to alter training provi¬ 
sions provided by law, Executive Order, or collective bargaining arrangements. 

(a) Agency heads may seek training assistance from the Secretary of Labor, 
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and other appropriate 
sources. 

(b) After the effective date of Executive Order 12196, the Secretary shall, 
upon request and with reimbursement, conduct orientation for Designated 
Agency Safety and Health Officials and/or their designees which will enable 
them to manage the occupational safety and health programs of their agencies. 
Such orientation shall include coverage of section 19 of the Act, Executive Order 
12196, and the requirements of this part. 

(c) Upon request and with reimbursement, the Department of Labor shall 
provide each agency with training materials to assist in fulfilling the training 
needs of this subpart, including resident and field training courses designed to 
meet selected training needs of agency safety and health specialists, safety and 
health inspectors, and collateral duty safety and health personnel. These materi¬ 
als and courses in no way reduce each agency’s responsibility to provide what¬ 
ever specialized training is required by the unique characteristics of its work. 

(d) In cooperation with the Office of Personnel Management, the Secretary 
will develop guidelines and/or provide materials for the safety and health train¬ 
ing programs for high-level managers, supervisors, members of committees, and 
employee representatives. 

(b) The Seeretary shall provide leadership and guidance and make available 
equipment, supplies, and staff services to the Field Federal Safety and Health 
Councils to assist them in carrying out their responsibilities. The Secretary shall 
also provide consultative and technical services to field councils. These services 
shall involve aid in any phase of developing and planning programs; and in 
sponsoring, conducting, or supporting safety and health training courses. 

(d) To promote coordination, cooperation, and sharing of resources and 
expertise to aid agencies with inadequate or limited resources. These objectives 
can be accomplished in a variety of ways. For example, field councils could 
organize and conduct training programs for employee representatives, collateral 
duty and professional safety and health personnel, coordinate or promote pro¬ 
grams for inspections, or, on request conduct inspections and evaluations of the 
agencies’ safety and health programs. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



Suggested Readings in Industrial Safety and Health Training and Other R 


m 


OSHA Publications and Audiovisual Programs, OSHA2019, OSHA/OICA 
Publications P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20210-7535. 

Chemical Hazard Communication, OSHA 3084, OSHA/OICA 
Publications, P.O. Box 37535 Washington DC 20210-7535. 

Schedule and Registration Instructions, OSHA Training Institute, 
1555 Times Drive, Des Plaines, IL 60018. Telephone: (847) 297-4810. 

OSHA Safety and Health Training Guidelines for General Industry 
(PB-239-310/AS), National Technical Information Service, 

Springfield, VA 22161. 

OSHA Safety and Health Training Guidelines for Maritime Employ¬ 
ment (PB-239-311/AS), National Technical Information Service, 
Springfield, VA 22161. 

OSHA Safety and Health Training Guidelines for Construction 

(PB-239-312/AS), National Technical Information Service, 

Springfield, VA 22161. 

Kirkpatrick, Donald L., A Practical Guide for Supervisory Training 
and Development, Pages 158-161, 1983, Second Edition, Addison- 
Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA 01867. 

Mager, Robert R, Preparing Instructional Objectives, 1984, Second 
Edition, Davis S. Lake Publishers, 19 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 
94002. 

Supervisors Safety Manual, 1991, Seventh Edition, National Safety 
Council, Chicago, II 60611. 

Reference List of Audiovisual Materials, National Audiovisual Center, 
Washington, DC 20409. 


Suggested Readings in Industrial Safety and Health Training and Other Resources 




Commissioner 

Alaska Department of Labor 
1111 West 8th Street 
Room 306 
Juneau, AK 99801 
(907) 465-2700 

Director 

Industrial Commission of Arizona 
800 W. Washington 
Phoenix, AZ 85007 
(602) 542-5795 

Director 

California Department 
of Industrial Relations 
45 Fremont Street 
San Francisco, CA 94105 
(415) 972-8835 

Commissioner 

Connecticut Department of Labor 
200 Folly Brook Boulevard 
Wethersfield, CT 06109 
(203) 566-5123 

Director 

Hawaii Department of Labor 
and Industrial Relations 
830 Punchbowl Street 
Honolulu, HI 96813 
(808) 586-8844 

Commissioner 

Indiana Department of Labor 
State Office Building 
402 West Washington Street 
Room W195 
Indianapolis, IN 46204 
(317) 232-2378 

Commissioner 

Iowa Division of Labor Services 
1000 E. Grand Avenue 
Des Moines, lA 50319 
(515) 281-3447 


Secretary 

Kentucky Labor Cabinet 
1047 U.S. Highway, 127 South 
Frankfort, KY 40601 
(502) 564-3070 

Commissioner 

Maryland Division of Labor 
and Industry 
Department of Licensing 
and Regulation 

1100 N. Eutaw Strret, Room 613 
Baltimore, MD 21202-2206 
(410) 767-2215 

Director 

Michigan Department 
of Consumer and Industry 
Services 

4th Floor Law Building 
P.O. Box 30004 
Lansing, MI 48909 
(517) 373-7230 

Commissioner 

Minnesota Department of Labor 
and Industry 
443 Lafayette Road 
St. Paul, MN 55155 
(612) 296-2342 

Administrator 

Nevada Division of Industrial 
Relations 

400 West King Street 
Carson City, NV 89710 
(702) 687-3032 

Secretary 

New Mexico Environment 
Department 
1190 St. Francis Drive 
P.O. Box 26110 
Santa Fe, NM 87502 
(505) 827-2850 


Commissioner 

New York Department of Labor 
W. Averill Harriman 
State Office Building 12 
Room 500 
Albany, NY 12240 
(518) 457-2741 

Commissioner 

North Carolina Department 
of Labor 

319 Chapanoke Road 
Raleigh, NC 27603 
(919) 662-4585 

Administrator 

Department of Consumer 
and Business Services 
Occupational Safety and Health 
Division (OR-OSHA) 

350 Winter Street, N.E. 

Rm. 430 

Salem, OR 97310-0220 
(503) 378-3272 

Secretary 

Puerto Rico Department of 
Labor and Human Resources 
Prudencio Rivera Martinez 
Building 

505 Munoz Rivera Avenue 
Hato Rey, PR 00918 
(809) 754-2119 

Director 

South Carolina Department 
of Labor, Licensing & Regulation 
3600 Forest Drive 
Koger Office Park, 

Kingstree Building 
110 Centerview Drive 
P.O. Box 11329 
Columbia, SC 29210 
(803) 896-4300 

Commissioner 

Tennessee Department of Labor 
710 James Robertson Parkway 
Nashville, TN 37243-0659 
(615) 741-2582 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 





Commissioner 

Industrial Commission of Utah 
160 East 300 South, 3rd Floor 
P.O. Box 146650 
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-6650 

(801) 530-6898 

Commissioner 

Vermont Department of Labor 
and Industry 

National Life Building Drawer 20 
120 State Street 
Montpelier, VT 05620-3401 

(802) 828-2288 


Commissioner 

Virgin Islands Department 
of Labor 

2131 Hospital Street, Box 890 

Christiansted 

St. Croix, VI 00820-4666 

(809) 773-1994 

Commissioner 

Virginia Department of Labor 
and Industry 
Powers-Taylor Building 
13 South 13th Street 
Richmond, VA 23219 
(804) 786-2377 


Director 

Washington Department of Labor 
and Industries 
P.O. Box 44001 

General Administrative Building 
P.O. Box 4401 
Olympia, WA 98504-40001 
(360) 902-4200 

Administrator 

Workers’ Safety, & Compensation 
Division (WSC) 

Wyoming Dept, of Employment, 
Herschler Building, 2nd Floor 
East 

122 West 25th Street 
Cheyenne, WY 82002 
(307) 777-7786 


States with Approved Plans 






State 

Alabama. 

Alaska. 

Arizona. 

Arkansas . 

California. 

Colorado. 

Connecticut. 

Delaware. 

District of Columbia 

Florida. 

Georgia. 

Guam. 

Hawaii. 

Idaho. 

Illinois. 

Indiana. 

Iowa. 

Kansas. 

Kentucky. 

Louisiana. 

Maine. 

Maryland. 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan. 


Minnesota . 
Mississippi 
Missouri.... 
Montana.... 


Telephone 

.(205) 348-7136 

.(907) 269-4957 

.(602) 542-5795 

.(501) 682-4522 

.(415) 972-8515 

.(970) 491-6151 

.(860) 566-4550 

.(302) 761-8219 

.(202) 576-6339 

.(904) 488-3044 

.(404) 894-2643 

011(671)475-0136 

.(808) 586-9100 

.(208)385-3283 

.(312) 814-2337 

.(317) 232-2688 

.(515)965-7162 

.(913) 296-7476 

.(502) 564-6895 

.(504) 342-9601 

.(207) 624-6460 

.(410) 880-4970 

.(617) 727-3982 

(517) 322-1817 (H) 
(517) 322-1809 (S) 

.(612) 297-2393 

.(601)987-3981 

.(573)751-3403 

.(406) 444-6418 


State 

Nebraska. 

Nevada. 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey. 

New Mexico .... 

New York. 

North Carolina. 
North Dakota ... 

Ohio. 

Oklahoma. 

Oregon. 

Pennsylvania.... 

Puerto Rico. 

Rhode Island.... 
South Carolina. 
South Dakota ... 

Tennessee. 

Texas. 

Utah. 

Vermont. 

Virginia. 

Virgin Islands... 

Washington. 

West Virginia ... 
Wisconsin. 

Wyoming. 

(H) - Health 
(S) - Safety 


Telephone 

.(402) 471-4717 

.(702) 789-5016 

.(603) 271-2024 

.(609) 292-2424 

.(505) 827-4230 

.(518) 457-2481 

.(919) 662-4644 

.(701)328-5188 

.(614) 644-2246 

.(405) 528-1500 

.(503) 378-3272 

.(412) 357-2561 

.(787) 754-2188 

.(401)277-2438 

.(803) 896-4300 

.(605) 688-4101 

.(615) 741-7036 

.(512) 440-3809 

.(801)530-7606 

.(802) 828-2765 

.(804) 786-6359 

.(809) 772-1315 

.(360) 902-5638 

.(304) 558-7890 

(608) 266-8579 (H) 
(414) 521-5063 (S) 
.(307) 777-7786 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



































































Area Telephone Area Telephone 

Albany, NY.(518) 464-4338 Indianapolis, IN.(317) 226-7290 

Albuquerque, NM.(505) 248-5302 Jackson, MS.(601) 965-4606 

Allentown, PA.(610) 776-0592 Jacksonville, FL.(904) 232-2895 

Anchorage, AK.(907) 271-5152 Kansas City, MO.(816) 483-9531 

Appleton, WI.(414) 734-4521 Lansing, MI.(517) 377-1892 

Austin, TX.(916) 482-5783 Little Rock, AR.(501) 324-6291 

Avenel, NJ.(908) 750-3270 Lubbock, TX.(806) 743-7681 

Baltimore, MD.(410) 962-2840 Madison, WI.(608) 264-5388 

Bangor, ME.(207) 941-8177 Marlton, NJ.(609) 757-5181 

Baton Rouge, LA.(504) 389-0474 Methuen, MA.(617) 565-8110 

Bayside, NY.(718) 279-9060 Milwaukee, WI.(414) 297-3315 

Bellevue, WA.(206) 553-7520 Minneapolis, MN.(612) 664-5460 

Billings, MT.(406) 247-7494 Mobile, AL.(334) 441-6131 

Birmingham, AL.(205)731-1534 Nashville, TN.(615) 781 -5423 

Bismarck, ND.(701) 250-4521 New York, NY.(212) 466-2482 

Boise, ID.(208) 321-2960 Norfolk, VA.(757) 441-3820 

Bowmansville, NY.(716) 684-3891 North Aurora, IL.(630) 896-8700 

Braintree, MA.(617) 565-6924 Oklahoma City, OK.(405) 231-5351 

Bridgeport, CT.(203) 579-5581 Omaha, NE.(402) 221-3182 

Calumet City, IL.(708) 891-3800 Parsippany, NJ.(201) 263-1003 

Carson City, NV.(702) 885-6963 Peoria, IL.(309) 671-7033 

Charleston, WV.(304) 347-5937 Philadelphia, PA.(215) 597-4955 

Cincinnati, OH.(513) 841-4132 Phoenix, AZ.(602) 640-2007 

Cleveland, OH.(216) 522-3818 Pittsburgh, PA.(412) 395-4903 

Columbia, SC.(803) 765-5904 Portland, OR.(503) 326-2251 

Columbus, OH.(614) 469-5582 Providence, RI.(401) 528-4669 

Concord, NH.(603) 225-1629 Raleigh, NC.(919) 856-4770 

Corpus Christi, TX.(512) 888-3420 Salt Lake City, UT.(801) 487-0073 

Dallas, TX.(214) 320-2400 Sacramento, CA.(916) 566-7470 

Denver, CO.(303) 844-5285 San Diego, CA.(619) 557-2909 

Des Plaines, IL.(847) 803-4800 Savannah, GA.(912) 652-4393 

Des Moines, lA.(515) 284-4794 Smyrna, GA.(770) 984-8700 

Englewood, CO.(303) 843-4500 Springfield, MA.(413) 785-0123 

Erie, PA.(814) 833-5758 St. Louis, MO.(314) 425-4249 

Fort Lauderdale, FL.(954) 424-0242 Syracuse, NY.(315)451-0808 

Fort Worth, TX.(817) 428-2470 Tampa, FL.(813) 626-1177 

Frankfort, KY.(502) 227-7024 Tarrytown, NY.(914) 524-7510 

Harrisburg, PA.(717) 782-3902 Toledo, OH.(419) 259-7542 

Hartford, CT.(860) 240-3152 Tucker, GA.(770) 493-6644 

Hasbrouck Heights, NJ.(201) 288-1700 Westbury, NY.(516) 334-3344 

Guaynabo, PR.(787) 277-1560 Wichita, KS.(316) 269-6644 

Honolulu, HI.(808) 541-2685 Wilkes-Barre, PA.(717) 826-6538 

Houston, TX.(281) 286-0583 Wilmington, DE.(302) 573-6115 

Houston, TX.(281) 591-2438 


OSHA Area Offices 














































































Region I 

(CT,* MA, ME, NH, RI, VT*) 

JFK Federal Building 
Room E-340 
Boston, MA 02203 
Telephone: (617) 565-9860 

Region II 

(NJ, NY,* PR,* VI*) 

201 Varick Street 
Room 670 

New York, NY 10014 
Telephone: (212) 337-2378 

Region III 

(DC, DE, MD,* PA, VA,* WV) 

Gateway Building, Suite 2100 
3535 Market Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19104 
Telephone: (215) 596-1201 

Region IV 

(AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC*, SC,* TN*) 

Atlanta Federal Center 

61 Forsyth Street, S.W., Room 6T50 

Atlanta, GA 30303 

Telephone: (404) 562-2300 

Region V 

(IL, IN,* MI,* MN,* OH, WI) 

230 South Dearborn Street 
Room 3244 
Chicago, IL 60604 
Telephone: (312) 353-2300 


Region VI 

(AR, LA, NM,* OK, TX) 

525 Griffin Street 
Room 602 
Dallas, TX 75202 
Telephone: (214) 767-4731 

Region VII 
(lA,* KS, MO, NE) 

City Center Square 
1100 Main Street, Suite 800 
Kansas City, MO 64105 
Telephone: (816)426-5861 

Region VIII 

(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,* WY*) 

1999 Broadway, Suite 1690 
Denver, CO 80202-5716 
Telephone: (303) 844-1600 

Region IX 

(American Samoa, AZ,* CA,* Guam, HI,* NV,* 
Trust Territories of the Pacific) 

71 Stevenson Street 
Room 420 

San Francisco, CA 94105 
Telephone: (415) 744-6670 

Region X 

(AK,* ID, OR,* WA*) 

1111 Third Avenue 
Suite 715 

Seattle, WA 98101-3212 
Telephone: (206) 553-5930 


*These states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health 
programs (Connecticut and New York plans cover public employees only). States with 
approved programs must have a standard that is identical to, or at least effective, as the 
federal standard. 


Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines 



ADDENDUM 


Addendum to U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Publica¬ 
tion No. 2254, Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines, Revised 
1998. 

New general industry training requirements for powered industrial trucks (1910.178(1), page 38. 

NOTE: These new training requirements for powered industrial trucks also apply to OSHA stan¬ 
dards 1915.120 (shipyard employment), 1917.1 (marine terminals), 1918.1 (longshoring) and 
1926.602 (construction).. 


Powered Industrial 
Trucks 

1910.178(l)(1)(l) and (ii); 

(2)(I)(A) and (B)(ii) and 
(iii); (3)(I)(A) through 
(M); (ii)(A) through (I) 

(iii); (4)(l) and (ii)(A) 
through (E); (iii)(5), powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the 
(6), and (7) employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully 

completed the training required by this paragraph (1), 
except as permitted by paragraph (1)(5). 

(2) Training program implementation (I) Trainees 
may operate a powered industrial truck only: 

(A) Under the direct supervision of persons who 
have the knowledge, training, and experience to train 
operators and evaluate their competence; and 

(B) Where such operation does not endanger the 
trainee or other employees. 

(ii)Training shall consist of a combination of formal 
instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer 
learning, videotape, written material), practical training 
(demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical 
exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the 
operator’s performance in the workplace. 


(1) Operator training. (1) Safe operation. (I) The 
employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck 
operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck 
safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the 
training and evaluation specified in this paragraph. 

(ii) Prior to permitting an employee to operate a 



(iii) All operator training and evaluation shall be 
conducted by persons who have the knowledge, training, 
and experience to train powered industrial truck operators 
and evaluate their competence. 

(3) Training program content. Powered industrial 
truck operators shall receive initial training in the following 
topics, except in topics which the employer can demon¬ 
strate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the 
employer’s workplace. (I) Truck-related topics: 

(A) Operating instructions, warnings, and pre¬ 
cautions for the types of truck the operator will be 
authorized to operate; 

(B) Differences between the truck and the 
automobile; 

(C) Truck controls and instrumentation: where they 
are located, what they do, and how they work; 

(D) Engine or motor operation; 

(E) Steering and maneuvering; 

(F) Visibility (including restrictions due to loading); 

(G) Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and 
use limitations; 

(H) Vehicle capacity; 

(I) Vehicle stability; 

(J) Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the 
operator will be required to perform; 

(K) Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries; 

(L) Operating limitations; 

(M) Any other operating instructions, warnings, or 
precautions listed in the operator’s manual for the types of vehicle 
that the employee is being trained to operate. 


(ii) Workplace related topics: 



(A) Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated; 


(B) Composition of loads to be carried and load stability; 

(C) Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking; 

(D) Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be 
operated; 

(E) Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the 
vehicle will be operated; 

(F) Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will 
be operated; 

(G) Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the 
vehicle’s stability; 

(H) Closed environments and other areas where insufficient 
ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of 
carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust; 

(I) Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental 
conditions in the workplace that could affect safe operation. 

(iii) The requirements of this section. 

(4) Refresher training and evaluation (i) Refresher 
training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that 
training, shall be conducted as required by paragraph (l)(4)(ii) to 
ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to 
operate the powered industrial truck safely. 

(ii) Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to 
the operator when: 

(A) The operator has been observed to operate the vehicle 
in an unsafe manner; 

(B) The operator has been involved in an accident or near- 
miss incident; 

(C) The operator has received an evaluation that reveals 
that the operator is not operating the truck safely; 

(D) The operator is assigned to drive a different type of 
truck; or 



(E) A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that 
could affect safe operation of the truck. 

(iii) An evaluation of each powered industrial truck 
operator’s perfonnanee shall be conducted at least once every three 
years. 


(5) Avoidance of duplicative training. If an operator has 
previously reeeived training in a topic specified in paragraph (1)(3) 
of this seetion, and sueh training is appropriate to the truck and 
working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is 
not required if the operator has been evaluated and found 
eompetent to operate the truek safely. 

(6) Certification. The employer shall certify that each 
operator has been trained and evaluated as required by this 
paragraph (I). Certifieation shall inelude the name of the 
operator, the date of the training, the date of the evaluation, and the 
identity of the person(s) performing the training or evaluation. 

(7) Dates. The employer shall ensure that operators of 
powered industrial truek are trained, as appropriate, by the 
following dates: (A) If the employee was hired prior to December 
1,1999, the initial training and evaluation of that employee must be 
eompleted by Deeember 1, 1999. (B) If the employee was hired 
after Deeember 1, 1999, the initial training and evaluation of that 
employee must be eompleted before the employee is assigned to 
operate a powered industrial truek.