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Microelectronics Industry 

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
1988 " 

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Report Documentation Page 

Report Date Report Type 

00001988 N/A 

Dates Covered (from... to) 

Title and Subtitle 

Contract Number 

Safety and Health Guide for the Microelectronics 


Grant Number 

Program Element Number 


Project Number 

Task Number 

Work Unit Number 

Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) 

U.S. Dept of Labor Occupational Safety & Health 
Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, 

DC 20210 

Performing Organization Report Number 


Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name(s) and 

Sponsor/Monitor’s Acronym(s) 


Sponsor/Monitor’s Report Number(s) 

Distribution/Availability Statement 

Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 

Supplementary Notes 


The microelectronics industry employs about 180,000 workers nationally. Of these, about 95,000 are 
employed in the manufacture of semiconductor components and integrated circuits; about 60,000 are 
employed in the production of capacitors, resistors, and condensers; the balance manufacture 
miscellaneous electronics products. The popular impression of this high-technology industry is of 
employees wearing the white suits in clean, bright comfortable workplaces. Although accurate in many 
cases, many of the high-tech workers in this industry risk exposure to a wide variety of hazardous 
substances. Scientific studies conducted in the United States and Europe have identified numerous 
hazardous conditions and resultant high rates of occupational illnesses within the industry. 

Subject Terms 

Report Classification 


Classification of this page 

Classification of Abstract 


Limitation of Abstract 


Material contained in this publication is in the 
public domain and may be reproduced, fully or 
partially, without permission of the Federal 
Government. Source credit is requested but not 

Safety & Health Guide 

M _J.I_ 

Tor me 

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U.S. Department of Labor 
Ann McLaughlin, Secretary 

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Potential Hazards. 4 

Solvents. 4 

Acids and Alkalis . 4 

Metals. 4 

G3S6S. 4 

Plastics and Resins . 4 

Polychlorinated Biphenyls. 4 

Fiberglass and Asbestos. 4 

AHHjtjnnflj HSZSfdS 4 

Noise Exposure . 5 

Electric Shock. 5 

Carpai Tunnel Syndrome . 5 

Control Measures.. s 

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Closed Systems . 

Changing a Process. 

Isolation . 


mw\^K ... . 

Local Exhaust Ventilation . . . 

General Ventilation. 

Administrative Controls . 

Worker Rotation . 


Personal Protective Equipment 
Other Protective Measures ... 

Personal Hygiene. 

Regulated Areas. 

Medical Surveillance . 

Equipment Maintenance ... 

Good Housekeeping. 




















Responding to Workplace Emergencies. 8 


Chain of Command . 

Emergency Response Teams 

Response Activities . 


Personal Protection . 

Medical Assistance . 

Hazard Communication 


Recordkeeping. 9 

Employee and Employer Responsibilities.10 

Appendix. 11 



00 <0 CO CO C7> O) CJ) 


The microelectronics industry employs about 
180,000 workers nationally. Of these, about 95,000 
are employed in the manufacture of semiconductor 
components and integrated circuits; about 60,000 
are employed in the production of capacitors, 
resistors, and condensers; the balance 
manufacture miscellaneous electronics products. 

The popular impression of this high-technology 
industry is of employees wearing white suits in 
clean, bright, comfortable workplaces. Although 
accurate in many cases, many of the high-tech 
workers in this industry risk exposure to a wide 
variety of hazardous substances. Scientific studies 
conducted in the United States and Europe have 
identified numerous hazardous conditions and 
resultant high rates of occupational illnesses within 
the industry. 

Many microelectronics production processes 
involve chemical interactions, chemical cleaning, 
and various light and radiation exposures. Most 
work is completed on an assembly line with a very 
fine level of detail and precision. Hazards range 
from acute and chronic exposures to toxic 
chemicals, to radiation and electric shock, and to 
stress and fatigue. 

Briefly, hazards can be categorized as resulting 
from exposure to solvents, alkalis, metals, gases, 
vapors, radiation, and from workplace stress. In 
addition, other potential hazards that employees 
and employers should be aware of include falls, 
overexertion, sprains/strains and injuries from 
stationary objects or from being caught in, under, 
or between objects. 

This publication is designed to encourage 
electronics industry employers to review and 
strengthen overall safety and health precautions to 
guard against workplace accidents, injuries, and 
illnesses. It contains discussions of the various 
hazards in the industry and the various means of 
controlling them to protect exposed workers. 
Control measures may be reviewed by Compliance 
Safety and Health Officers (inspectors) of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) during workplace inspections to evaluate 
employer safety programs, particularly in the areas 
of accident prevention and emergency response. 

This publication also includes a list of acutely toxic 
chemicals whose presence in the workplace should 
signal the need for stringent safety and health 
measures to protect workers (see Appendix). 

Although the following discussions focus on the 
conditions and processes found in the electronics 
industry, including (but not limited to) firms in 
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3674 
(Semiconductors and Related Devices) and 3679 
(Electronic Components), they are written for a 
variety of workplaces that produce similar 
industrial and consumer products. 

OSHA also publishes a manual entitled, “How to 
Prepare for Workplace Emergencies” (OSHA 3088), 
which can help any type of business in developing 
an emergency plan. A single free copy may be 
obtained from any OSHA Regional Office, listed in 
this publication. 


Potential Hazards 

in this industry, production workers are those most 
frequently exposed to hazardous conditions. 

Nearly every production job involves the use of 
chemicals for cleaning, stripping, or degreasing 
parts and equipment. Maintenance personnel who 

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exposed to toxic substances. 


Solvents are used to dissolve various materials. 
Those commonly used include trichloroethylene, 
toluene, acetone, methylene chloride, 
perchioroethyiene, glycol ether, isopropyl alcohol, 
chloroform, xylene, and freon. E.xposure occurs 
by skin absorption and by inhalation. Skin 
exposure may result in dermatitis or skin rash, 
edema or swelling, and blistering. These exposures 
can result from chemical splashes and spills, from 
directly immersing one's hands into solvents and 
chemicals, from contact with solvent-soaked 
clothing or soivent-wet objects, and from the use of 
improper personal protective equipment. Solvents 
can dissolve the body’s natural protective barrier of 
fats and oils leaving the skin unprotected against 
further irritation. 


Metals are used for electroplating, etching, 
soldering, bonding, sealing, crystallizing, 
depositing, and metallizing. Employees are 
exposed to metals primarily by skin contact and by 
inhalation of metal dusts and fumes. Exposure may 
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central nervous system and kidney damage, and 
reproductive problems, as well as cancer. 

Gases are utilized in doping and crystal growing, 
and may combine with other substances to 
produce toxic gases such as phosgene, ozone, and 

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these gases if there are leaks in machines or 
enclosures. Potential exposure to gases occurs 
through inhalation. Such exposure may produce 

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nausea, and possible kidney and liver damage. 

Plastics and Resins 

Plastics and resins are part of several high tech 
processes. Inhalation or skin contact may occur 
when curing resins; cutting, heating, or stripping 
wires; or cutting, grinding, or sawing a hardened 
product. Exposure to these substances may result 
in skin rash and upper respiratory irritation. 

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 

In addition, the inhalation or absorption of solvents 
may affect the central nervous system, acting as 
depressants and anesthetics causing headaches, 
nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, complaints of 
irritation, abnormal behavior, general ill-feeling, 
and even unconsciousness. These symptoms 
should be viewed as visible signs of potential 
disease. Excessive and continued exposure to 
certain solvents may result in liver, lung, kidney, 
and reproductive damage, as well as cancer. 

Acids and alkalis are used for electroplating, 
soldering, making fluxes, crystal polishing, and 
metal pickling. These substances may cause 
serious burns if they are splashed into the eyes or 
onto the skin. If vapors or mists are inhaled, they 
may result in a burning of the linings of the nose, 
mouth, throat, and lungs. 

PCBs are used as insulators in some electrical 
equipment and present a potential hazard to 
workers. Exposures to PCBs may cause skin 
disorders, digestive problems, headaches, upper 
respiratory irritations, reproductive problems, and 

Fihprnlass and Asbestos 

' --- 

Fiberglass and asbestos are also used as fillers in 
epoxy resins and other plastics, in wire coatings or 
electrical insulation, and in printed circuit boards. 
Uncontrolled exposures may produce skin and 
upper respiratory irritations and, in the case of 
asbestos, cancer. 

Additional Hazards 

Maaiaiion, noise, ana occupaiionai siress are aisu 
hazards to which workers in this industry can be 
exposed. Job stress can result from prolonged 
repetitive and monotonous detail work, overtime 
and work speed-ups, as well as from lifting, 

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Noise Exposure The employer must monitor 
noise exposure levels whenever employees are 
exposed to noise at or above 85 decibels (dB) 

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time-weighted average (TWA). Employees or their 
representatives are entitled to observe monitoring 
procedures and they must be notified of the 

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Audiometric testing must be made available to all 
employees who are exposed at or above levels of 
85 uB over an 8-hour TWA, and the audiometric 
testing follow-up should indicate whether hearing 
loss is being prevented by the employer’s hearing 
conservation program. 

the employee can suffer from an inability to grip, 
clumsiness, muscle atrophy, and constant wrist 

Most employees and employers do not recognize 
CTS as a work-related disorder. If not diagnosed 
swiftly or if complications set in, CTS can cause 

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sponsored by the National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) proves 
that hand/wrist cumulative trauma disorders were 

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work, and to a lesser extent with high 
repetitiveness or high force alone, irrespective of 
other factors. 

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exposed to a TWA of 85 dB or greater at no cost to 
the employees, and employers must assure that all 
employees exposed to or above the equivalence of 
8-hours of noise of 85 dB use them. Workers must 
be trained at least annually in the effect of noise, in 
the purposes, advantages, and disadvantages of 
various types of hearing protectors as well as in the 
S6!6Ctjon, fit snd csrs of protoctors, snd tho 
purpose and procedures of audiometric testing. 

Electric Shock Electricity travels in closed 
circuits, normally through a conductor. Shock 
occurs when the body becomes a part of the 
electric circuit. The current must enter the body at 
one point and leave at another. Shock normally 
occurs in one of three ways. The person must 
come in contact with (1) both wires of the electric 
circuit, (2) one wire of an energized circuit and the 
ground, (3) or a metallic part that has become 
“hot” by being in contact with an energized wire, 
while the person is also in contact with the ground. 

Employees and others working with electrical 
equipment need to follow safe work practices. 
These include deenergizing electrical equipment 
before inspecting or making repairs, using 
electrical tools that are in good repair, using good 
judgment when working near energized lines, and 

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The carpal tunnel 
syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which 

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tunnel is a channel in the wrist through which the 
median nerve and nine tendons pass. Flexing and 
extending the wrist moves the tendons back and 
forth SQuinst th© csn©! which C3n csus© Irritstlon 
and swelling of the tendons. This, in turn, causes 
pressure against the median nerve. This nerve 
entrapment at first commonly causes numbness 

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is "nocturnal numbness,” a lack of sensation at 
night when activity has ceased and muscle 
movement does not help pump blood to the 

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iiiiycji iipo. iiic piuuicm ucuuii ico mui c oci luuo. 

Safety and health officials emphasize the 
prevention of CTS by using special tools, changing 
the work station and surface, matching employees 
With f©w©r CTS factors to r©p6titiVG tasks, or 
rotatino 6rnolov©©s th©r©hv reducinn thft avftranp 
exposure to a highly repetitive task. These types of 
changes can provide important side benefits such 
as increased productivity and reduced employee 

Control Measures 
Engineering Controis 

The seriousness of health effects is dependent 
upon the particular substance and the amount to 
which the worker is exposed, the duration of the 
exposure, how often the exposure occurs, and how 
the substance enters the body (skin absorption, 
inhalation, or ingestion). 

The preferred way of controlling potential 
occupational safety and health hazards is through 
the implementation of engineering controls. 
Engineering controls prevent harmful worker 
exposure through proper design of equipment and 

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not built into the physical design of a particular 
plant and have to be installed later. Types of 
workplace engineering controis that can be 

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change, isolation, wet methods, and ventilation. 


Closed Systems Where possible, work that 
involves potentially hazardous exposures should 
be performed in closed systems. Closed systems 
require that materials to be processed be brought 
into the workplace in sealed containers and be 
emptied into storage tanks, thus preventing 
employee contact or exposure to the substance. 
Glovs box6s or othor slmilsr contsinrnont dsvicos 
also may be appropriate when working with such 
substances. Unfortunately, not all operations lend 
themselves to such an approach. 

Changing a Process Another way to control 
hazards is to change a work operation to minimize 
worker exposure. For example, vapor degreasing 

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adequate ventilation controls rather than by 
manually washing parts in open containers. 

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isolated or enclosed to reduce employee exposure. 
An example is the use of acoustic panels to reduce 
noise. The isolated equipment can be operated by 

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degree of isolation would be determined by the 
hazard involved, the amount of exposure, and the 
work patterns. 

Wet Methods Wet methods are used to control or 
reduce dusts that occur during dry processes. This 
control is widely used because it is a simple, 
effective, and inexpensive way to minimize 
potential health and safety hazards. For this control 
method to work most effectively, appropriate 
wetting agents must be used and proper 
procedures should be followed in disposing of 

Local Exhaust Ventilation Local exhaust 

ventilation at the source of a contaminant captures 
hg^grdous substcinc6s b6for6 th6y 6SC3p6 into tho 
workplace environment. Local exhaust ventilation 
is the preferred control method because it removes 
air contaminants from worker’s breathing zones. 


closed systems, isolation, or changing the process 
are not compatible with the work being performed. 

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ventilation systems add or remove air from the 
workplace to keep the concentration of air 
contaminants below hazardous levels. General 

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open windows or doors, fans, and roof ventilators. 
General ventilation only dilutes air contaminants, 
unlike local exhaust ventilation which removes air 
contaminants. For this reason, general ventilation 
should not be used to remove large quantities of air 
contaminants from the workplace or to control 

major sources of air contamination. When using 
general ventilation systems, it is important not to 
rSCirCUlatS tOXiC SUbStaHCGS thrOUynOUt tne 

workplace. Another method that can be used when 
engineering controls are insufficient or not yet 
installed is administrative control. 

Admjnistratly@ Controls 

Worker Rotation One type of administrative 
control is to reduce employee work periods for 

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example, employees who have worked for 4 hours 
at an operation involving exposure to hazardous 
substances/agents could be transferred or rotated 

reducing their 8-hour average exposure. Such 
administrative controls, however, should not be 
viewed as long-term substitutes for engineering 
controls, ventilation controls, or other miore 

effective methods of reducing exposures to 
hazardous substances. Some OSHA standards do 
not permit worker rotation as a means of keeping 
their exposures below permissible levels. 

Substitution Occasionally, a less hazardous, but 
equally effective, substance than that being used 
may be available. If this is so, using the substitute 
may lessen the hazard. 

Personal Protective Equipment 

When it is not possible or feasible to eliminate 
hazardous levels of airborne contaminants from the 
workplace through engineering or work practice 
controls, or until they are installed, the employer 
may have to provide persona! protective equipment 
to workers to reduce or eliminate harmful 
exposures. Personal protective equipment, 
however, should be used only when other more 

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Personal protective equipment does not minimize 
or eliminate the source of the exposure. As a result, 
if personal protective equipment fails to work 
propGrIy, workGrs suffer imrnGdiStG sxposurG to thG 
toxic substance. Personal protective devices 
include eye and face protection (safety glasses, 
goggles, and face shields); hearing protection (ear 
muffs and ear plugs); protective clothing (gloves, 
coveralls, aprons, and boots); protective skin 
barriers (creams and lotions); and respirators. The 
employer must furnish the proper type of personal 
protective equipment for the specific work 
opGTStlons snd GxposurGS. For GxsmpiG, whsn 
employees are working with a particular solvent, 
they should be provided with the appropriate 
gloves, respirators, goggles, or other protective 

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An appropriate NIOSH/MSHA (Mine Safety and 
Health Administration) approved respirator should 
be selected for the particular hazard or work 

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(e.g., dust masks should not be used to protect 
against vapor exposures). In addition, the type of 
air contaminant, its expected maximum 

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the working life of the respirator, and proper 
respriator fit should be determined before work is 
begun. Before providing respirators, employers 

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diiuulu Mavc Liic wuirve;is) iic;eiiLii cvatuaicu uy a 

physician to determine the workers’ ability to wear 
respirators. A thorough respiratory protection 
training program also must be provided. 

Other Protective Measures 

Personal hygiene, use of regulated areas (areas 
where unauthorized employees may not enter), 

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equipment maintenance, and training are other 
components of a well-designed employee safety 
and health program that should be considered by 
ths srnploysr. 

Personal Hygiene Employers should make 
handwashing facilities readily available to 
employees working with or near toxic substances. 
It is important that workers be able to wash 
promptly in case of accidental splashes of toxic 
substances; when appropriate, emergency eye¬ 
wash facilities also must be provided. Where called 
for, convenient access to showers also should be 
provided. Eating, drinking, and smoking, as well as 
storing foods, should be forbidden in areas where 
toxic substances are present. 

Regulated Areas Where biological hazards or 
proven or suspected cancer-causing agents are 
used or handled, they should be properly marked 
to inform workors of th6 potontis! hszsrds snd tho 
regular and emergency procedures required. 
Unauthorized persons should not be permitted to 
enter regulated areas. Employers should also 

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to change and dispose of contaminated clothing 
and equipment when they leave. Regulated areas 
usually are provided with negative-pressure 

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reoulated areas). 

Medical Surveillance Medical surveillance is an 

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or medical program. It should include a physical 
examination for all workers consisting of a 
thorough work history and an examination for ill 
effects from any exposures to toxic and hazardous 

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— . ^ ^ ^ ^ -- ...-- 

part of the physical examination when workplace 

noise levels are above 85 dB for an 8-hour TWA. 

Results of these exams provide baseline data that, 

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detection of the harmful physical effects of 

particular work operations and evaluation of their 
severity. Medical records must be maintained by 
the employer and made available to employees 
who 3sk for thorn 

In addition to periodic medical examinations, 
workplace exposure monitoring tests should be 

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continuously monitors the work environment for 
airborne contaminants and triggers an alarm when 
concentrations exceed safe levels should be 

physical examinations and workplace exposure 
monitoring can be an effective method of 
discovering potential occupational safety and 

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monitoring and may review their monitoring 

Equipment Maintenance All employers should 
make sure that adequate maintenance schedules 
are established and adhered to. Poor maintenance 
of workplace equipment usually causes faulty 
operation of machinery, which can result in 
increased workplace accidents and illnesses, ,A 
regular maintenance schedule should include 
periodic shutdowns of all equipment. Employees 
performing maintenance should be provided with 
any special personal protective equipment needed 
for the work. 

Good Housekeeping Employers should establish 
and maintain good housekeeping practices, such 
as providing a clean and orderly workplace, and 
facilities for personal hygiene, eating, adequate 
washing, and waste disposal. Employers must 
ensure that spills of hazardous substances are 
cleaned up immediately and that the waste is 
properly disposed of. Work practices also should 
be in effect for the safe disposal of toxic chemicals 

Training Electronics and semiconductor 
manufacturers should have effective training 
programs that deal with employee working 
conditions. The training should include information 
on the types of hazards in the workplace, on the 
adequate coverage of personal protective 
equipmient, on the medical surveillance program, 
and nn fimfirofinnv situations 


Responding to Workplace 

In addition to establishing effective safety and 
health programs, employers should prepare their 
workers to handle workplace emergencies. 


Top management support and commitment and the 
involvement of all employees are essential to an 
effective emergency action plan. Where required 
by OSHA, plans for firms with more than 10 
employees should be written; smaller companies 
may communicate their plans orally. 

Managers should review the plan with employees 
initially and whenever the plan, or the employees’ 
responsibilities under it, change. The plan should 
be reevaluated and updated periodically. 
Emergency procedures, including the handling of 
any toxic chemicals, should include the following; 

• Escape procedures, routes, and exits, 
designated on maps. 

• Special procedures for employees who perform 
or shut down critical operations. 

• A system to account for all employees after 

• Rescue and medical duties for employees who 
perform them. 

• Means for reporting spills, fires and other 
emergencies, including names and phone 

• Contacts for further information about the plan. 

• A critique of the response and follow-up to 
ensure that suggested corrections are 

Chain of Command 

An emergency response coordinator and a back-up 
coordinator should be designated. The coordinator 
may be responsible for overseeing plant-wide 
operations, performing public relations, and 
ensuring that outside aid is always available. A 
back-up coordinator ensures that a trained person 
is always available. Duties of the emergency 
response coordinator include the following: 

• Determining whether a situation requires 
activating emergency procedures. 

• Overseeing all emergency activities, including 
evacuating personnel. 

• Ensuring that outside emergency services such 
as medical aid and local fire departments are 
called in when necessary. 

• Directing the shutdown of plant operations when 

Emergency Response Teams 

Members of emergency response teams should be 
thoroughly trained for potential emergencies and 
physically capable of carrying out their duties in 
accordance with Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations 
1910.120. They should know about the hazards in 
the workplace and be able to judge when to 
evacuate personnel or to depend on outside help 
(e.g., when a fire is too large for the in-house team 
to handle). One or more emergency response 
teams should be trained in using the following: 

• Various types of fire extinguishers. 

• First aid, including cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation (OPR), 

• Shutdown procedures. 

• Evacuation measures. 

• Chemical spill control procedures. 

• Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). 

Response Activities 

Effective communication is vital in emergency 
situations. An alternative area for a 
communications center, other than management 
offices, should be established in the plan and the 
emergency response coordinator should operate 
from this center. Management should provide 
emergency alarms and ensure that employees 
know how to report emergencies. An updated list 
of key personnel and their off-duty telephone 
numbers should be posted in a convenient place. 

A system should be established that requires a 
person in the control center to notify police or 
emergency response team members of persons 
believed missing when a facility has been 

Effective security procedures, such as cordoned off 
areas, can prevent unauthorized access and 
protect vital records and equipment. Duplicate 
records should be maintained on off-site locations 
for essential accounting files, legal documents, and 
lists of employees’ relatives to be notified in case of 




tvery employee neeas to Know aetaiis oi tne 

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alarm systems, reporting procedures for personnel, 
shutdown procedures and types of potential 
emergencies. Drills should be held at random 

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outside police and fire authorities. 

Training should be conducted initially, when new 

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thereafter. Additional training is needed when new 
equipment, materials or processes are introduced, 
when procedures have been updated or revised, or 

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is inadequate. 

Personal Protection 

Employees exposed to accidental chemical 
splashes, unknown atmospheres with inadequate 
oxygen or toxic gases, fires and live electrical 
winnQ, or similar conuitions during GmGrgGnciGS 
need personal protective equipment, including the 

• Safety glasses, goggles or face shields for eye 

• Properly selected and fitted respirators. 

• Special body coverings, gloves, hoods and 

• Body protection for abnormal environmental 
conditions such as extreme temperatures. 

Medical Assistance 

Hazard Communication 

OSHA's hazard coniinunication standard, which 
applies to the electronics industry, establishes 
uniform requirements to make sure that the 
hazards of all chemicals produced, imported, or 
used in Li.S. workplaces are evaluated, and that 
this hazard information is transmitted to affected 
employers and exposed employees. 

Chemical manufacturers and importers must 

r'rvnwcjx/ ha-rarH infrirmati/^n fn HnvA/nctroam 

\_'V_/i(v\_>y iiLA^div.! iiiiw>iii(.Awi>-/ii vt\./vTiiwviw<>iii> 

employers by means of labels on containers and 
material safety data sheets (MSDS's). In addition, 
all covered employers are required to have a 


rr» rr» i 

information to their employees by means of 
container labeling and other forms of warning, 
MSDS’s, and training. 

The hazard communication program will ensure 
that all employers receive the information they 
need to inform and train their employees properly 
and to design and put in place employee protection 
programs. The program also will provide necessary 
hazard information to employees, so they can 
participate in, and support, the protective measures 
instituted in their workplaces. 

Employers whose workplaces are not near an 
infirmary, clinic or hospital must have someone on¬ 
site who is trained in first aid, have medical 
personnel readily available for advice and 

on/H Qmoi'nonr'N/ 

UV/i lO U I t.Cii.1 I I, wii»-* sj Vo V s./nj j«/ v>i I 


In addition, in any emergency, first-aid supplies 

Oftuuiu uc avaiiauic? iv^« 

emergency phone numbers should be posted in a 
conspicuous place near or on telephones, and 
ambulance services should be prearranged and 
svailsblG on short notiCG. 


The employer must keep records on exposure 

^ 1^ 1 1 •»/-« rv^ <~ir^ + r' •-if-i rN I rN\ I 

I i tri 11^11 lo aiiu um c;i i i y iiicvjiuai 

examinations. The records on measuring exposure 
must include a description of the procedure(s); the 
names, social security numbers, job classifications 
and GxposurG IgvgIs of GmployGGSi ths typGS of 
protective devices worn and length of time the 
devices have been in use. 

Medical records must inoiude the name, social 
security number and description of the duties of 
the employee, a copy of examination and test 
results, a copy of the physician's written opinion, 
any employee medical complaints related to 
workplace substances, a copy of the applicable 
OSHA standard and appendices, and a copy of the 
information provided to the physician. 


Employee exposure records must be kept for 30 
years. Medical records must be kept for at least 
the duration of emplpyment plus 30 years. Both 
exposure measurement records and medical 
records must be made available on request to the 
Assistant Secretary of OSHA and the Director of 
NIOSH for examination and copying. 

Measurement and medical records also must be 
made available to employees, former employees, 
or their designated representatives for 
examination and copying. 

OSHA rules require that each employer with 11 or 
more employees maintain a log of recordable 
work-related injuries and illnesses (OSHA Form 
200). Injuries include those that result in death, 
loss of consciousness, restriction of work or 
motion, transfer to another job, or medical 
treatment beyond first aid. Each injury or illness 
on the log must be detailed in a supplementary 
record (OSHA Form 101 or equivalent). Each year, 
during the month of February, a summary of 
injuries and illnesses must be posted in the 
workplace. Records of injuries and illnesses and 
supplementary records must be retained in each 
establishment for 5 years following the end of the 
year to which they relate. These records are 
valuable for employees because they reflect 
where serious hazards exist in the workplace. 

They are important to the employer in analyzing 
the effectiveness of safety and health programs. 
They are also important to OSHA inspectors in 
deciding whether to conduct a complete workplace 
inspection and, if so, where to concentrate their 

Employer and Employee 

An employer's commitment to a safe and healthful 
environment is essential in the reduction of 
workplace injury and illness. This commitment can 
be demonstrated through personal concern for 
employee safety and health, by the priority placed 
on safety and health issues, and by setting good 
examples for workplace safety and health. 
Employers should also take any necessary 
corrective action after an inspection or accident. 
They should assure that appropriate channels of 
communication exist between workers and 
supervisors to allow information and feedback on 
safety and health concerns and performance. In 
addition, regular self inspections of the workplace 
will further help prevent hazards by assuring that 
established safe work practices are being followed 

and that unsafe conditions or procedures are 
identified and corrected properly. These 
inspections are in addition to the every day safety 
and health checks that are part of the routine 
duties of supervisors. 

Since workers are also accountable for their safety 
and health, it is extremely important that they too 
have a strong commitment to workplace safety and 
health. Workers should immediately inform 
supervisors or their employers of any hazards that 
exist in the workplace and of the conditions, 
equipment, and procedures that would be 
potentially hazardous. Workers should also 
understand what the safety and health program is 
all about, why it is important to them, and how it 
affects their work. 

Finally, employers who want help in recognizing 
and correcting safety and health hazards and in 
improving their safety and health programs can 
receive assistance from a free consultation 
service in their area largely funded by the 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 
The service is delivered by state governments 
using well-trained professional staff. The service 
offers advice and help in correcting problems and 
in maintaining continued effective protection. In 
addition to helping employers identify and correct 
specific hazards, consultants provide guidance in 
establishing or improving an effective safety and 
health program and offer training and education 
for the company, the supervisors, and the 
employees. Such consultation is a cooperative 
approach to solving safety and health problems in 
the workplace. As a voluntary activity, it is neither 
automatic nor expected. It must be requested. For 
additional information, contact one of the 
consultation programs or the nearest OSHA 
Regional Office listed in this publication. 


If / 

J i 


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ncaiiii nci^^iuo iii niyii- iwii I'luuuuiiuii 

Type of work 

Chemicals commonly used 

Health effects 

Deareasina and cleanina 

cr .^ • • .57 

Meth\/lene chloride 

Dermatitis (skin disease), nausea, 
eye damage 

Methylethyl ketone 

Narcosis (stupor, unconsciousness), 


Carbon tetrachloride 

Depression, suspected carcinogen 
(cancer-causing agent) 


Headaches, narcosis, nerve damage, 
suspected carcinogen 

Wafer fabrication 

Silicon dioxide 

Silicosis (dust-caused lung disease) 

Wafer doping 


Jaundice, liver and heart damage 




1 1 iwopi uo 



Wafer diffusion 


vomiting, diarrhea 


laiinHioA liv/Af* anH hAai*f Hamann 

iivCl llV^(,i4lk\_<LAII T* 1 1- 


Hydrofluoric acid 

Skin and eye problems, chemical 

Phosphoric acid 

Chemical burns 

Hydrochloric acid 

Chemical burns 

Nitric acid 

Chemical burns 


Liquid epoxy resins 

Skin irritants, sensitizer 

Polyurethane plastics 

Eye and respiratory tract irritant, 


Suspected carcinogen 


Chloracne (skin disease), liver and 
kidney damage 


Nickel oxide 

Dermatitis (“nickel itch”), risk of 

limr-i ft*Ann 

luii^ aiiu oiiiuo tt/anuc/i iiuiii ii ii faiaiiui i 

of dust 

r^\/aniHA caltc 

nArmatitic a\/a anH rAer^irafrtrx/ 

iiiwtttiwy Vi'jrvi' tiAiiwf y 

irritant, nausea and vomiting, 

Chromic acid 

Suspected carcinogen 

r^aHrr^ii «m 

1 1 M u 1 1 r 

\A/afar irt limrto 

TVaiCI IC7Ldll.IV/ll III iUII^O 

Driiiing and shearing 

ribrous glass 

Dermatitis, respiratory damage 

Bonding and soldering 

Cadmium oxide 

Respiratory damage, liver and 
kidney damage 

Lead oxide 

Reproductive hazards, anemia, 

l^n/*t ■ 1 ••/t • l*\*'*nt*'t <*4t-**! jrt 

III cApuouic. uiaiii uaiiia^c 

Zinc oxide 

Respiratory damage 

Zinc chloride 

Respiratory damage 

Assembly work 

Stress, eye strain, fatigue, back strain 

Source: Kenneth Geiser, “Health Hazards in the Microelectronics industry” Int J Health Serv 16(1):112,1986, as 

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.. W<. . W.. .WJ .w r . .. —w w. ...W ..WV. W. ..WW .. J 


Colletta, Gerard C., et. al. Chemical Safety 
Handbook. 2nd ed. Santa Clara, California: 
American Electronics Association, December 

Communication Workers of America. “Hazards in 
the Electronics Industry.” Occupational 
Safety and Health Reporter. Vol. 17. No. 23. 
Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, 
Inc., November 4, 1987. Pp. 910-911. 

La Dou, Joseph, ed. State of the Art Reviews: 
Occupational Medicine—the 
Microelectronics Industry. Vol. 1. No. 1. 
Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus, Inc., 
January-March, 1985. 

Santa Clara Center for Occupational Health. 

Unmasking the Hazards ... A Workers Guide 
to Job Hazards in the Electronics Industry. 

San Jose, California, 1981. 

State of California. Department of Industrial 

Relations. Division of Occupational Safety and 
Health. Semiconductor Industry Study. 1981. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 
Public Health Service. Centers for Disease 
Control. National Institute for Occupational 
Safety and Health. Hazard Assessment of the 
Electronic Component Manufacturing 
Industry. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 
85-100. Cincinnati, February 1985. 

OSHA Consultation Project Directory 



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District of Columbia 



Guam . 



Illinois . 

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Massachusetts ... 


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.... (205) 348-3033 


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_(314) 751-3403 


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.... (702)789-0546 
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_(503) 378-2890 

.... (800)382-1241 
(Toll-free in State) 
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_(206) 586-0961 

.... (304) 348-7890 
. (608) 266-8579 (H) 
(414) 521-5063 (S) 

H = Health 
S = Safety 


Heiated Publications 

BLS Publication 0MB No. 122o-0o29—Recordkeeping 

s^uiMviiiico ivri wv»u|i^ci&iwi lai iiijuiiv9 aiivi 

UbHA 3U8S - HOW to Prepare tor workplace 

OSHA 3084 - Chemical Hazard Communication 

OSHA 3077 - Personal Protective Equipment 

D^HA . Rocnirsitorv Prr\f 

j . «w»ww«..w«« 


A single free copy of the above publications can be obtained from OSHA field offices or OSHA Publications 
Office, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room N3101, Washington, D.C. 20210, (202) 523-9667. 

U.S. Department of Labor 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration 

Regional Offices 

Ranlnn | 

(CX "ma, me, NH, RI, VT*) 

133 Portland Street 
1st Floor 

Boston, MA 02114 
Telephone: (617) 565-7164 

Region II 

(NJ, NY,* PR,* VI*) 

201 Varick Street 
Room 670 

New York, NY 10014 
Telephone: (212) 337-2378 

Raninn \/| 

(AR,Ia, NM,* OK,TX) 

525 Griffin Street 
Room 602 
Dallas, TX 75202 
Telephone: (214) 767-4731 

Region VII 

(ia,* ks, mo, NE) 

911 Walnut Street 
Room 406 

Kansas City, MO 64106 
Telephone: (816) 426-5861 


(DC, DE, MD,* PA, VA,* WV) 

Gateway Building, Suite 2100 
3535 Market Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19104 
Telephone: (215) 596-1201 

Region VIII 

(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,‘ WY*) 

D. ■^c.-rc 

cti DUiiUMiy, nuuMi lu/u 

1961 Stout Street 
Denver, CO 80294 
Telephone: (303) 844-3061 

Renjon IV 

(AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC,* 
SC,* TN*) 

1375 Peachtree Street, N.E. 
Suits 587 
Atlanta, GA 30367 
Telephone: (404) 347-3573 

(ILJN,* Ml,* MN,* OH, Wl) 

230 South Dearborn Street 
Room 3244 

II ar\af\A 
v/iiiv/ayu, II. uuuv/'t 

Telephone: (312) 353-2220 

Region IX 

(AZ,* CA,* HI,* NV*) 

71 Stevenson Street 
Room 415 

San FranciscQ, CA 94105 
Telephone: (415) 995-5672 

Kegion x 

in HR 


VWA *\ 

Federal Office Building 
909 First Avenue 
Room 6003 

Teleohone: (206) 442-5930 

* These states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health programs (the 
Connecticut and New York plans cover public employees only and OSHA currently is exercising 
concurrent private-sector Federal enforcement authority in California).