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The Uprary Planning Conference, of which this pamphlet 
A the outcome, was made possible by a grant from The 
Jonsson Foundation of Dallas to The Selwyfl School, which 
in planning a library for its future needs, wished to 
aoproach the problems involved openly and creatively.' 

The Setwyn School is an independent college preparatory 
school in Denton, forty miles north of Deltas, ft. has an 
elementary division, for day students, and a high school 
' division in which a preponderance of student^ejm^ot.^ 
Total enrollment is at present dose to 200, and a library is 
envisaged which would catei to the needs of up to 350 
students. ■ 

' ’ * -'V •' --/-eo 

; TJre Trustees of. The Setwyn School wish to jecord thek 

thank: to The Jonsson Foundation fd oviding the oppe*- 
, ' . - ? ' 
tunny for such provocative and thoughtful planning sessions, 

and hopes that this pamphlet may do something to help 

others schools Shat ate txmtempfatfngbmfding e library -j 

•j. The Sefwyn School 
uWvddty Drive West 
Denton , Texas 

John D. Doncaster, Headmaster 



It is of some importance to note that almost al! of us who took part in The 
Selwyn School Library Planning Conference approached the enterprise with 
the feeling that here, now, once and for all, we would put to the test every 
aspect of the library and we would discard aii that we found useless, out- 
moded, inefficient, and irksome. No one expected the conference to produce 
many dazzling new ideas, but f ew of us expected that the concept of the tra- 
c'itional library could so effectively withstand the assaults we made upon it. 
It b *came apparent that much can be done to improve the library, but there 
is as yet no worthy pretender in sight to replace the library as we know it. 
With this consideration in mind, we found ourselves in close agreement os to 
what exactly we wanted in our library. 

We found that after the conference was finished and our thoughts were 
distiiled from the seemingly endless hours of recorded tapes and written sum- 
maries we were capable of beginning meaningful discussions with an architect. 
We had clarified much current thought on library functions, designs, and 
procedures, and should certain aspects of the following report appear over- 
simplified and even richer obvious it is only because we have incluaed every 
function of the library which survived our examinations. 

We have made every effort to consider the library in a general sense, but 
our deepest concern has been to determine the definition of the library we 
will have at The Selwyn School. Our aspirations for our students are shame- 
lessly high, and accordingly we have planned our library in the same manner 
that an artisan would design the tools of his craft, functionally capable of 
producing the desired end product. 

In searching for a consultant who could lead our conference we looked 
for a man who not only knew his field, but also took a creative approach to 
library planning. The man most frequently recommended to us was Dr. 
Ralph Ellsworth, Director of Libraries at the University of Colorado. We 
invited him, and he was able to come. Dr. Ellsworth, in addition to co- 
authoring the book The School Library sponsored by Educational Facilities 
Laboratories, has been a consultant on over ninety library projects of various 
kinds. We felt that what he had to say by way of introducing the subject of 
library planning to us was so valuable and provided so much for us to digest 
that we have printed it verbatim. Following his remarks is a summary of our 
own conclusions in discussion sessions. 

It should also be noted that while our attention was directed primarily to 
planning a library for a small schooi — an elementary division of 150 and a 
junior high and high school of up to 200 — Dr. Ellsworth's ideas and our own 
considerations have, we hope, some relevance to the planning of any school 

Opening Remarks by Dr, Ralph Ellsworth 

(It should be emphasized that what follows is conversational in tone, with 
participants sitting around a conference table, rather than a prepared 

At the university and college level I am starkly impressed by the fact that 
every institution is very individual and very different from every other insti- 
tution. Even in California the state colleges, which are organized under a 
state board and are supposed to be alike, really are quite different: Los 
Angeles State has a character that is quite different from San Fernando 
Valley which is up the road a few miles. All around the country there is a tre- 
meddous individuality in higher education. Now, I've enjoyed working more 
with colleges than I have the large university libraries because there is more 
individuality at the college level. Research programs on the large university 
campus tend to be pretty much alike. For example, in terms of library 
equipment, the chemistry department at the University of Wisconsin isn't 
very much different from the ones at Illinois, Iowa, Colorado or Berkeley. 
But the college level needs of those institutions can be, actually are, very 

dif ferent. W isconsin, for example, has had a very conservative attitude toward 
the creative arts, whereas at Iowa they have always been emphasized tre- 
mendously. Now I have found that although I can't spend a lot of time in the 
elementary and secondary schools, it is important to do so if you are 
interested in higher education, because many of the methods that you see in 
operation in the lower schools are methods that the university will be using 
twenty years from now. Unfortunately it is true that the university faculty 
member does not take well to considering methods. Things consequently 
don t change very rapidly at the university level, in terms of how you teach 
instead of what you teach. But in the elementary schools and srcondary 
moots the teacher is not so hidebound and new ideas are coming out all the 
time. So I like to go to the Jower levels and see what is going on in termsaf 
methodology because I learn tremendously from that, and find doing so ex- 
tremely useful and interesting. 

The r everse is true in terms of the use of physical facilities, I don't quite 
understand why that is true, but I suppose the reason is that local schools are 
under the thumb of the community and the community is always very con- 
servative in its attitudes towards what the school should look like because 
they think of it as kind of a symbol. At any rate, to illustrate my point, we 
have been building college and university library buildings using an "open" 
plan ever since World War II because we had to do it: we had problems that 
couldn't be faced with the old monumental type of library building. We had 
to get a building that would permit internal adaptability and would enable us 


to adopt new programs and start doing things in new ways. So we are quite 
far ahead of our lower schools in our concepts of use of space but very far 
behind in terms of ethics. Now I got into this directly when EFL asked me to 
do a book on school libraries, with an architect to do the illustrations and lay- 
outs etc. In preparation for that I did go around to various places -in the 
country and talk to people. Mostly I found it helpful to go to the elementary 
schools and find out who the really great teachers were in the schools and 
talk to them, but not about what existed in the schools, because there weren t 
any school libraries that were worth even talking about in 1362 in this 
country. There wasn't a single one of them, anywhere that I thought came up 
to the standards that I thought they should have. So it was a matter of trying 
to figure outiinductively from what the teachers were doing and would like to 
be doing what a school library should be like. So that book was more of an 
exercise in imagination than it was the survey which I originally conceived I 
should be doing. I have not tried to keep up with all the developments in the 
school libraries throughout the country: I simply haven't had time, but I 
know in general what's going on and can see a pattern. The Knapp School 
Library experiment was an attempt by the Association of School Librarians 
to use a grant of a million and a half to improve the situation. I think this 
project has carried thinking along very well and lots of new school librariesare 


I want to say another personal word or two. I think the future is so much 
bigger than the past in terms of school libraries that one can admost approach 
the problem in that way. I mean by that there are so few examples of good 
thinking in this field that one can turn to except a very minimal number, 
and there is so much that one can imagine, that I think that that's the way 
to look at it. Now EFL is interested in experimentation because they found 
that in the elementary and secondary schools there wqs a tremendous amount 
of inertia to overcome in getting schools to think about their problems in a 
new and creative way. They found the same thing at the higher education level, 
but not so much so because there has been more experimentation forced on 
the universities and colleges in terms of physical developments: so emphasis 

until recently has been on the higher level. 

The question of what has happened to libraries in the iast ten years is a 
relevant one and I've tried to think about that in the following way: it seems 
to me that the biggest thing that has happened is that the public has become 
conscious in the last decade of the use of knowledge in a way that only a 
minority of the population had been thinking about, prior to a decade ago. 
The expert has always known that, but it seems to me that as a result of the 
contributions of science in medcine and in warfare (where obviously everyone 
can see what science can do), there has arisen a respect for kn' .-edge and a 
really basic assumption on the part of the American that his iwi or his oc- 
cupation, or whatever, can be improved if only he knows how. to get at the 
knowledge there is and apply it. Now it was only twenty-five or thirty years 


ago that in all but the big centers in the country, the boy or girl who went to 
college was looked on, not exactly as the town idiot, but certainly as an early 
day hippie; and everybody would shake his head and say, "Well he'll be an 
educated fool and there's no common sense you can give him". (I'm not 
talking about urban centers, but about rural and middle-class America.) That 
idea has been dead for about a quarter of a century, but it's an idea that we 
still see in a curious way, although not in terms of the usefulness of know- 
ledge, so that I feel that it is safe to say that both the schools and colleges 
and everybody else have transferred that feeling of respect for the usefulness 
of knowledge to rsspsct for the carriers of knowledge. The old Carnegie 
Public Library in tha late 19th century had a kind of symbolic value that was 
lost again for a vvhiia because there wasn't enough material put in the library 
to do the citizens rnuch good. But now there is a tremendous revival of in- 
terest in public libraries because, again, I think the citizen knows that he 
needs to get at that information to make his labor union better or his bank 
more progressiva or his farm more productive. So I think that the basic thing 
that has happened ;s the realization that knowledge is useful, important, and 
essential, and therefore you have to have carriers of knowledge around. Where 
I grew up in Iowa, and I would imagine it was true of rural Texas, the typical 
schools didn't have any books except possibly a set of Shakespeare and may- 
be of Dickens, it is inconceivable now that a school could survive on those 
because everybody realizes that the extent of penetration has to be much 
deeper than that. So I think this interest in libraries is a by-product of the 
interest of the public in knowledge and its usefulness. 

The interest in libraries shows up in curious ways, in the relationship be- 
tween the sciences and the humanities, and the way they are treated on the 
university and college campuses, though I don't suppose it works out that 
way so much in the elementary and secondary schools; but it is perfectly 
clear to us that on the campus the humanities, and to a lesser extent the 
historical social sciences, are taking second place to the sciences. I don't 
necessarily think that it is because anybody is out to punish the humanities, 
but basically I think it is because people don't expect the humanities to come 
up any more with knowledge that can be trusted, that is relevant to the needs 
of man. I believe it is really that basic. You scratch the surface of a first rate 
scientist in a university and of course he does go to concerts, does go to plays, 
reads, is very much interested in the products of society; but if you ask him if 
he has a child in trouble, in terms of psychological difficulty or some other 
difficulty, and ask him where he turns for help he would never think of turn- 
ing to the literature of man's understanding, the great literature which of 
course is the culmination of man's self knowledge; he wouldn't think of turn- 
ing to that any more, perhaps the way he would a hundred years ago. He will 
turn to a specialist who has scientific knowledge. I think that this is part of 
the problem. The humanities have not been able, in a way which is as con- 
vincing and dramatic as the scientists hava, to show that they have got any- 


thing new to offer, and that is putting it pretty bluntly. It could be that we 
don't really believe in them. It may be like the attitude of people towards 
churches in some ways: they go, but their heart isn't in it, and the relevance 
factor '* not in it any more. On the other hand it could be the very opposite— 
that the humanities are getting a rebirth through a new kind of approach: 
new voices, new insights, and maybe our Norman Mailer's participation in the, 
civil disobedience situation - I don't know, but I think there is a shift in the 

way in which people respect the carriers of knowledge; and it certainly at the 
moment is clear that they care very much more for the literature of power 
than they do the literature of imagination, although one can cite some 
examples which are the opposite of that. The theater is crowded in New York 
City and the concert orchestras are coming along well all over the country; 
people orave these things, but I think it is more of mere entertainment— which 
is a bad thing the way I put it-than it is understanding. At any rate there is 
no doubt but what, even if you have no school librarians and you have no one 
pushing the cause of school libraries and college libraries you still have them 
around because man has simply got to use that knowledge, knowledge that he 
didn't have to use a little while ago. 

It is very clear that the result of the last fifty years has produced citizens 
who insist on using knowledge. Our grandmothers didn't belong to the 
League of Women Voters and organizations like that, and yet the typical 
citizen of middle class America is a college graduate, or has had some contact 
with college and involved with causes of one kind or another, whether it be 
the League or the John Birch Society, or whatnot. His sense of involvement is 

exceedingly keen. Two or three weeks ago I was in Dallas working with 
S.M.U. and was taken out to the temple where Rabbi Olin gave a very fine 
speech on his twenty years as Rabbi, and what he said, just hammered 
away at, was "Relevance, Relevance, what's going to happen to the 
synagogue?" "Well," he said, "It is going away; unless it can be relevant it has 
nothing. These beautiful things here," he kept saying, "are fine, we love 
them, but if we have nothing to say on integration problems and peace 
problems we are out." And so I think this relevance issue, in terms of the 
citizens, means that any level of library is just filled up with people. in there 
after facts. Actually there are more citizens of Boulder, Colorado, using the 
resources of the University to get information on current problems, than there 
are faculty, (who, of course, can get everything done by their assistants.) This 
is a shift, you see, so I think these things are factors behind the development 
of school library. It is also true that you can promote these things, you can 
change attitudes. The Knapp project is having a tremendous impact on the 
secondary school administrators and I guess it is fair to say, ai 
least E.F.L. tells me, that this book we got out is having quite 
impact, not on the school librarians themselves so much, but on the school 
administrators. Now you are getting also quite a shift there, (I'm not talking 
about private schools because I think attitudes have always been more 
academic there). But I do know that the typical principal and superintendent 


in public schools, in the past, was not a book man at all, not really interested 
in learning. Traditionally he came up through the ranks of coach or vocational 

program and he did not come up through the academic disciplines, though 
there have been exceptions and I have heard of them. Things are different to- 
day. You go into the schools around the big centers and you will find that the 
principals are very able and educated people. I can think of a superintendent 
of one of the suburban schools in Denver who is as well educated a man in 
the humanities as anybody I have run into. But it hasn't always been true that 
way. Now it has been very difficult for teachers and school 'librarians to get 
any place with the coach type of superintendent. I'll give you an example of 
this: I was visited by a school librarian from Phoenix about the year before I 
did that book, who wanted a job in our library. She said that she couldn't 
stand it at her present school because her principal told her that her job was 
to run the library as a study hall and forget all this nonsense about students 
and books. So she sat there at the head of a large hall keeping order. Well, 
that wasn't her idea of what she wanted to do and tried to get out. That was 
not a typical situation. In one high school I was working on, the principal, 
who is still the principal, did not want us to have more than about 8000 
books. The old school library had about 1500 books in it and had seats 't 
not more than 18 students, and was a very large school. We said that «ve 
wanted that library to have 35,000 books in it. The principal was scandalized 
by this and said that it was nonsense. Well, we finally got him up to 12,000 
and they got quite a nice library out of it. Then he began to see what hap- 
pened: that the students began to respond to those books and they didn't 
tear them up, and it did work out to put a bank of books stacks with study 
carrels behind them where the students could have privacy without a school 
librarian or principal snooping on them. They responded so well that they 
then needed not 12,000 books but 20,000. Now this same principal is going 
around the country boasting about his new library and vowing that he will 
raise the number to 35,000. Things do happen that way. And things can change 
as a result of external and internal things too. But it's not been in America a 
very receptive and fertile field in which to plant books in public sectors. Now 
maybe in the private school it has been better. 

Well now, these are reasons why I say I think we've had a change in the 
attitudes toward school libraries. There has been a great broadening in the 
respect for knowledge and its demands on the part of the educator and better 
educated citizen. Of course there are other things like TV which have also 
helped expand public knowledge. As a result of demands for better education 
the public school administrator has seen that it is time to do something about 
it. Not only that, he's a better person himself. Well, those are reasons why we 
have had a change. 

Now what is changing? What is happening? Well, at all levels the first 
thing that is obvious is that the libraries are now thought of as nice places to 
work in. There wasn't a really good school library in the country until just a 


few years ago. The best of them would be a rectangular room with tables in 
the middle and a few books. Some of them had lounge chairs in them, some 
had group study rooms in them, some had beautiful colors and carpeting and 
different kinds of tight: the best one I ever saw was at the University of Chi- 
cago Experimental School. But in general, this idea that the school library 
building or the college library or university library building should be a 
charming place is relatively new. In this respect the public library has been 

way ahead of the academic. Enoch Pratt Library in Baltimore, which is just 50 
years old now, has practiced this point of view for a long time. They even 
had windows at sidewalk levels that advertised the place instead of having 
windows 30 feet up in the air the way the New York Public Library does. 

I think you can see in the Cleveland public library many of those examples of 
charm. Most of the higher academic libraries had rare book rooms, that were 
really very nice places, but at the same time, most of them, like Wisconsin 

and Yale, herded their readers into big reading rooms where their were hun- 
dreds of people sitting there at tables. 

Libraries have begun to open up more and are beginning to open for longer 
periods of time. Schools are even doing this, but not many of them; most are 
still the sort of places where the kids get down there at 7:15 or 7:30 in the 
morning for their music, and their are in classes all day with maybe one free 
hour, but then they get out about 3:00 or 3:30 and the library closes at 4:00. 

Well, anybody who knows the slightest thing about kids knows that after 
staying cooped up all day they are in no mood to settle down and use the 
library. As a result the library isn't used much. It is even worse at the junior 
high level. It is never open when the child and his friends have free time What 
is the point of the library in this kind of school, what is it supposed to be do- 
ing? To this day I haven't been able to figure it out The idea that a student is 
able to come back in the evening and use a high school library has been, until 
recently, heresy, but in schools where the library stays open until, say, 10:00 
p.m. there has been a splendid response. 


People are even beginning to get the idea that we can design furniture for 
people. The best we've done so far in furniture design is to get smallness for 
children, as though little people were jim tike big people only smaller. And of 
course, they're not. You can see that in the vrcy in which students will use 
a carpeted library like that in Colorado College, in Matske. in Foothills or 
Gatos or any of dtem. They perfer to either sit or lie on the floor or sit in a 

chair, take their shoes off and put their feet up, which all of us do if we can 
get away with it And so it would seem Mr to me that conse- 
quence would be to have barca-lounger chairs in libraries so that we can lean 
back and put our feet up. rather than ignore the problem as we do ikm, 
when we sit in one lounge chair, pull up another one and put our feet in that 





It's a little bit uneconomical and sometimes hard on the furniture. But I have 
never seen a barca-lounger chair in a library. We really haven't gone after the 
problem very systematically in designing furniture for the shapes of people. 
We just don't want to admit that when we go home we take our shoes off and 
put our feet up. We don't sit at the dining room table and read the Atlantic or 
Harpers, nor do we watch the televfsi -itting at the dining room table. 

I think also a respect for privacy is certainly clear now. We don't herd 
people into big reading rooms today. True, we build; libraries with a loft 
type of construction, I mean just like an office building without any bearing 
walls — sometimes without any walls at all — and we make them so that you 
can divide the large areas into small areas. But we don't put great numbers of 
study rooms. The report, A Study on Studying, which was made in California, 
proves that students don't care any more for big reading rooms with ceilings as 
hiiji as 30 feet, like the rooms at the Columbia and Michigan libraries. They 
were built long ago and those rooms are empty now; students prefer to get off 
in comers. You see the same psychological attitude in a night club. You don't 
drink beer in the midst of 400 people, you drink it in booths. Only if you 
want to dance do you go out into the middle. So with libraries people want 
privacy and the physical facilities to accommodate them. They will even put 
up with poor lighting conditions if they can get off in a comer. You see that 
over and over again at all levels. Instead of having a lot of big flat tables you can 
have nice comfortable carrels with visual privacy and the kids will gator those 
first Then they'll go for the lounge furniture, and last of all they will sit at 
the tables. This is a generalization, but it holds pretty well. It works out that 
about 70 to 75 percent of the readers want to work in privacy; about 10 per- 
cent in group study rooms, and about 10 percent in the form of flat 
The remaining few, of course, don't want to study anywhere. If you violate 
those ratios you will find your space wasted. But at least the desire for 
privacy is there. You go down to the University of Texas undergraduate 
library and you'll see back behind the reading rooms the group study rooms. 
Those are almost always filled up first, and then of course they move out to 
the middle tables because there is no more room. But you can see the same 
principle demonstrated all over the country: where you give the students an 
equal access to different kinds of study areas they will always go for the 
privacy first This seems to be true at all levels. Those of you who saw the 
Matske School know that the kids are proud of that facility and they use it 
and use it well. 

I think there is also an attempt now to enrich the environment in which 
people read. You expect nowadays to see lots of pictures and pieces of sculp- 
ture and good works of art of all kinds. You expect to see rich and tasteful 
use of color so that you automatically learn a taste for color, just as by 
talking to people who use language right youngsters learn how to use language 


right. But we have not in the past surrounded them with fitting examples of 
what is right in the field of aesthetics and what's beautiful. So naturally when 
tf . * . -r>d to learn about what was beautiful it was an artificial type of thing. 
Bv providing it so that it is natural in the environment you produce good re- 
sults. So in these school libraries you do find an attempt by the architect on 
the library to think of the total impact of the environment that the kids work 
in. Now it would be nice if all our colleges and universities would do that 
Instead we herd our students into classrooms of two or three hundred and we 
might as well be teaching chemistry as English in these classrooms. And to get 
full utilization out of our space we're wedded to the idea that we use the 
rooms from 8:00 in the morning until 10:00 at night Which means you can't 
build up a rich environment in those rooms. Ideally, if you are teaching an Eng- 
lish Literature class you should be in a room with literature objects surrounding 
you, so that both the instructor and student feel that his environment is con- 
tributing. Well, school libraries are making an effort to provide a contributory 
environment. In That connection, Robert Lewis, who is working over in As- 
pen, Colorado, has been doing some very interesting things with science 
gadgets in the teaching program. He builds exhibits that teach something. 
He builds playground equipment that unconsciously makes students aware 
of mathematical principles so that they are learning some things without 
knowing they are learning them: proportion and things like that He builds 
exhibit cases. In the school that we are doing for Hammond, Indiana, the 
library is going to be in the center and it isn't going to have any walls 
around it Instead, between the columns there are going to be exhibit cases. 
And in these cases Lewis is building a whole series of various kinds of exhibits 
to illustrate not only principles and facts but cultural conditions as well. They 

are going to take steel mills in Hammond and make exhibits so the kids can 
see the mills from an angle somewhat different from what they do as young- 
sters whose fathers are working in the steel mills. Lewis is trying to visualize 
a man and what man's up to, by using physical exhibits as well as books, 
motion pictures, and what not; so, for instance, a panel will have a map of the 
Far East imbedded in it. You walk up to it and you see the map and nobody 
is necessarily teaching you geography of the Far East but you unconsciously 
absorb the features. He's invented small devices that enable a student to study 
the sky and geology. If you have been down in Tucson, Arizona, and out 
to the Desert Museum, you walk through a library that isn't a library at all. As 
you walk down the path you come to an exhibit of erosion; you press the 
button and a man tells you what you are looking at As you watch it you see 
water come into this exhibit and you see how it affects the soil and what the 
different conditions do to it. That kind of thing, which is old stuff in 
museums, is the kind of thing that Mr. Lewis is going to try to do in that 
library. So by enriching the environment in all possible ways I believe that 
we are going to get a tremendous impact on kids that in the past we tried to 
get only by direct teaching. I think that's one of the things that you are seeing. 

Now you're seeing also quite a lot of up-grading among the librarians 
themselves. This is indirect and direct The contribution of the library schools 
is very important there. A few years ago they were concerned with teaching 
students how to catalogue, but now we have been able to find a way to do 
this indirectly. Nowadays we concentrate on taking people who have had a 
college education and giving them futher enlightenment about the contents of 
books, the world of automation, and teaching them how to use scientific 
management principles to organize their work, so that they can master their 
activities and control the activities, rather than have the activities control 
them. So that from them we are getting a better kind of librarian. Salaries, 
too, are coming up so that we can attract better peopie. Also, I think that the 
day is gone (but not altogether because I do see it in plenty of colleges and 
schools), where the school librarian is a teacher that didn't make it She was 
just put there to fill the post There are probably hundreds of such people 
still in existence. You see it on the college level too. I was over at a college 
not too long ago working and the librarian was a nice lady, but the assistant 
librarian was an ex-professor of history who simply irritated the hell out of 
his colleagues. They couldn't stand him in the classroom so they made him 
assistant librarian. He was trying to catalogue books and he didn't have the 
faintest notion about what he was doing and he hadn't gotten a book done 
for several months, but there he was and he's still there. On the other hand 
that's a passing scene and librarians nowadays tend to be attractive people, 
with vitality and graciousness and interests. 

I think it is fair to say that we are getting more stuff in the libraries now. 
Now this, I must say, is mostly the result of the government, with the grants 
that have been made to schools and colleges for materials coming on top of 
the Knapp experiment and the other activities of the Association of School 
Librarians. All of this is happening at the right time, and so the schools are 
getting filled up now with lots of books. We have had a tremendous influx of 
federal money into our school libraries which certainly has helped a lot and 
has primed the pump as far as local interest is concerned. 

The next thing is, of course, the attitude on the part of the librarian to 
what the library is. The librarian who feels that the library is a mere book- 
centered place is out. A new college in our ares, just organized, hired its first 
librarian and then let her go because she was insistent that the audio-visual 
material did not belong in the library. Today the library is thought of as a 
place for ail the carriers of learning. It's a funny thing, nobody ever thought 
in the past that the library shouldn't change as the nature of the carriers 
changed. A long time ago we moved from clay bricks to scrolls, but I find no 
evidence that the libraries didn't want the new fangled inventions around. It 
is true that when you got the invention of printing there were some people 
in Europe, (they weren't really librarians, they were noblemen) who thought 
that the printed book was less noble than the hand lettered book. But in 
general, as we moved from bricks to scrolls to manuscripts to the printed 


book to these other new forms everyone thought that the transition was 
natural. But now all of a sudden there is resistance to the new media on the 
part of traditionalists, of that we have a kind of separation here, a difference 
of opinions between librarians and audio-visualists which was pretty distinct 
until just 5 or 6 or 10 years ago. Now things are coming together again and I 
don't see that there is a conflict, although I know that on the university level 
the librarians, particularly of the large ivy-league universities, don't really get 
the idea yet Most schools now are just taking it for granted 
that the library is one of several places, but by no means the only place, 

|| where the individual can and does use the audio-visuals. The use of audio- 

visual material orginally grew up outside the library, because viewing films or 
slides, or hearing records, was a class activity; it was only natural that it grew 
up outside. Things have changed now and it seems quite logical that you can 
think of the library as a place where the individual makes use of all kinds of 
material. The multi-media approach is just now developing. 

I think another fact worth stating is that when I started writing that book, 

I could not find a single example of a public secondary school that had a 
separate library building; libraries were all so small that they could be tucked 
away in a comer of the school. And now there are lots of schools that are 
planning the concept of a library that is either big enough to justify a separate 
building, or at least if it is a part of a complex it has got enough space to do 
all the things people talk about. Now it is funny that in England there were 
schools a long time ago that had large libraries (private schools) in separate 
buildings, but it did not happen in this country, because I don't think we 
realized the role of the library. 

As far as semantics are concerned, there is battle being waged as to wheth- 
er we call the new library complex a “library" or a "learning center". It an- 
noys traditionalists to have a good word like "library" turned into education- 
al jargon as 'learning center..' What ought to happen is that people should up- 
grade their concept of the word "library" and not just pick on e popular term 
to express the same thing. But I have to be realistic and say that if the term 
"learning center" is what it takes to get the library rkfct well. I'll buy it Now 
as far as the real meaning is concerned I would say quite strongly that I can't 
see what a library is if it isn't a learning center. A library can be just a quiet 
old hall, in the old sense of the word, but » don't know why a library can't be 
the whole school, as it is at Matske. The "library" is spread throughout the 
school, and there is no formal distiriction in a physical sense, nor should there 
be any distinction in the functional sense. If there are two or three kids that 
are working on a project, it would just seem logical to me that they would 
move on over into another area where there are some materials which they 
would use; that's really using the library, that's making the library a learning 
center. Over in England, south of London 30 miles, there is Iffeld Junior 
School. It is a public elementary school, it has its own playing fields, and is 
much like a campus. The whole building, though, every room, and every wall 


of every room in the building, including the halls, have sloping shelves on 
them-3 and 4 shelves- and the books are everyplace. Now I didn't find any 
in the men's john, but that is the only place in that building, including the 
headmaster's office, where there weren't books. True it was books, it wasn't 
audio-visual aids, but that is understandable, and the audio-visual stuff will 
come. Now that's a learning center; the library is the school, it is everything. 
Now you wonder how any student finds a book, and I must say I don t quite 
see what they do when a student wants a book that is in a classroom, but the 
classes are sufficiently informal in nature that people can go wandering in and 
out. So in this sense the school becomes the library and the library becomes 
the school. 

In an attempt to express this concept at the college level, we should have a 
merging of the faculty function, the library function and the materials func- 
tion so that the library is the midst of it all. So if you want to call it learning 
center that's fine with me. If you want to be traditionalist and call it a library 
in an enlightened use of the term, that's fine too. 

Perhaps we could visualize building a library center for a school which 
would be central to the campus and maybe would include teaching areas, but 
certainly a place very much in which various traffic patterns of the school 
will come together and merge. Now I don t mean the students come charging 
through where there are tables for study, but that somehow we must make a 
physical condition where people will come to that building in the course of 
their daily rounds. The problem is to do it and avoid the difficulty of people 
coming charging through. There are various ways of doing that We talk of the 
library as being the physical center of the campus, but really what we mean, 
at a college, is that it is on the edge of the center so that you have got to get in 
there, but you come into it in a way so that you don't upset everybody who 
is already in there. You can do it by the edge concept, or by the level concept; 
for instance in Pueblo where they have built a new college campus and where 
there is very hot sun, and lot of wind too, they are building the whole campus 
so that there is a walk through level. You walk through the library at basement 
level, but go upstairs to go into it ✓ 

As I said, in the new Wallis Elementary School in Hammond, the library is 
in the middle of a large quadrangle, and there will be no formal barriers, so 
everybody will be filtering through the thing. By skillful use of exhibit cases 
and of the furniture you will handle the lines of movement, so that the 
people who are going through there do not constitute a hazard; but they will 
be going through there just the same. So that becomes then a problem for the 
architect. The principle is completely sound because as we all know acces- 
sibility is one of the main reasons why people will read the things that are 

Now about technology, I'd suggest first of all that we begin to recognize 
that 500 years ago a man by the name of Gutenberg invented a process which 
was quite revolutionary and that process just simply freed people. It was a 
kind of academic reformation, so that just as the religious reformation re- 


moved the necessity of going through the priest to get at God, so Gutenberg 

relieved the individual from the necessity of going through a teacher to get at 
knowledge. But we still haven't recognized it, we still teach, by and large, on 
the assumption that you have got to go through the professor, or the teacher, 
to get at knowledge, which is absolute nonsense, and we ought to recognize 
this. I suppose the two biggest recent technological revolutions have been the 
paperback and the Xerox copying machine. They are not as dramatic as the 
computer, but in terms of their application they are terribly important. Most 
of the stuff that we use of a classical nature you can buy in paperbacks. Why 
shouldn't a student own those, why should this be a library problem? Now a 
paperback isn't too good in' a library because it is too fragile, since the loose 
binding comes apart, and hence is uneconomical; so when you buy a paper- 
back for a library it is better to spend the money to put a binding on it if you 

want it to be used a lot. On the other hand, you can make it a dispensable, 
expendable item. Reed College, for years, has brought 40 and 50 copies of 
paperback of lots of things for its library. They have a storeroom; 
they put the books on the shelves when they are relevant and put them away 
when they are not; alternatively they throw them away when the books fall 

apart . . . . 

Now the Xerox, of course, is tremendously revolutionary. But it is based 
on the fact that you have something to copy, so when you haven't got any- 
thing to copy Xerox * doesn't mean very much. For instance, in our library up 
in Boulder, we are now making 600,000 copies a year on the thing anc I five 
years ago weren't making any. That kind of use is all over the place. Students 
take a periodical article and roll off a Xerox. That's great revolutionary device. 

Now for some more devices. I don't know why we get so excited about 
phono records and tapes because we have had those around for a very long 
time. You could spend, I guess, about $6,000 a year if you want to buy the 
current output of records and tapes; that's about what it would cost We used 
to build listening rooms, so tiiat you could hear records and tapes, but we 
don't do that anymore. We just put the players around and then students can 
plug in the earphones and get sterophonic reception which is usually better 
than you could get at home. The only issue there is whether you want to have 
» rpntral lah with dial access to it. or whether you want to have portable equip- 

ment. Now if you have a lab and a technician, you can call him up and tell 
him you want Beethoven's 5th out, so he pulls it out, and then you go to the 
booth and listen to it. Alternatively, you can have the record on the shelf and 

the student puts it on his own player. I think it is a matter about how you feel 
about regimentation. I like freedom. I like to do it myself. I don't mind play- 
ing the record and if I want to I can back up and repeat a part of it Now if 
you go to Oral Roberts or Oklahoma Christian or Grand Valley you have to dial 
Then you take the record or tape as it comes and if you want to back up and 
play a phrase over again you can't do that Now I don't like that very well, in 
other words I would rather put my money into direct playing by the indivi- 



Now you have another side to the problem though, I don't know how 
much use a small school will ever make of the data banks and ail the other 
regional and national organizations, though certainly the universities are do- 
ing so. In a school you have to scale the project down to meet your own needs. 
It's well summarized in the pamphlet The Impact of Technology on the Li- 
brary Building, which E.F.L. sponsored last year in response to the computer 
revolution condition. College and university presidents have been brainwash- 
ed by the technicians who say the book is dead, and that they don't need to 
put any money into a library building, and why buy all those books, because 
all you have to do is plug in the computer. This is getting so serious that uni- 
versity presidents (being kind of innocent people anyway) are really believing 
this. So EFL put on a Conference with the best technicians , in the country 
from such places as General Electric and Bell Telephone Lab and IBM, and 
some really first rate architects, and two or three university librarians (who 
were instructed to keep their mouths shut end listen rather than talk, which 
is hard to do.) They put on a conference and it came out about this way: that 
for records and tapes which you produce yourself, including closed circuit 
television tapes, video tapes and such stuff, you run that in your own shop 
and can probably present it on an individual basis. All the stuff that will 
come over the computer will be coming either out of telephone wires or, 
sometime in the future, will be carried on micro-waves. So you use telephone 
wires for all the data that will come over the computer. Now that could be 
very expensive, but we hope it would be a Federal Government activity tied in 
with the large universities, because the cost of making data available on the 
computer is so very high that it could be afforded only if you could finance it 
federally. So it would have to be a f< . I deal or nothing. That will be over 
the telephone wires and it is very eas, to run a telephone wire system around 
any building. 

Now: closed circuit television, which of course is tremendously revolu- 
tionary in the schools at the elementary and secondary level as well as at 


every other level. Now that takes two wires: the coaxial cable, the size of 
your fingers, and a power wire. You also need a telephone wire so that you 
can talk to the source, the data bank. It's net too hard to see how we build 
buildings to make it possible to have access in that way. You put in a double 
ceiling or a double floor and bring your wires through them to jacks in the 
carrels. build a loft building you have a choice. You can puncture your 
floor system with access, but that is a very expensive business, or you can run 
your conduits around your outer permanent walls, if you have any, but that 
doesn't do a lot for your interior. Or you can do the loft building with a fur- 
red down ceiling and bring your wires down a column and out from there, 
which most architects are beginning to feel is the most sensible way. So any- 
way, you can tap on to closed circuit television. Now if we get video transmis- 
sion of images, that too will come over the television or on the telephone 
wires. Now let's say that it now comes over the wide band telephone wires; 

you have a device whereby, if, say, you are teaching at Albany, you call up 
and say to the New York Public Library that you want a copy of a page from 
an old book, so they go to the stacks and get it out. The system won't take a 
bound book so the first thing you have to do is to Xerox the page you want 
to transmit. That costs 94 a sheet. Then you feed the Xeroxed copy into the 
machine. It takes five minutes to feed one Xeroxed sheet and it costs you 

about one dollar twenty to get it off. So you stop and think of the economics 
of that and find its a pretty costly way of transmitting pages of print unless 
you are in an awful hurry. It's better in many cases to Xerox the thing and 
put it on an airplane or send it by mail to Albany. Within the campus, its sim- 
pler just to have a boy on a bicycle carry it around. A top telephone engineer 
at this technology conference said that he thinks we are crazy even to think 
about using an electronic transmittal system. He said, "We d like to sell you 
these wires but it's silly to use them; the system is not economical, nor is it 
necessary." Now, we've run some experiments at California between the Davis 

campus and the University at Reno. We found that the quality of the image 
that we could transmit with existing hardware was about 85% good enough. 

In other words, if you had a straightforward printed page it would be fine, 
but if you had a printed page with a footnote in it with small type, chances are 
it wouldn't come through very well, and half-tones and colors of course would 
be out. So such a system has a limited usefulness; and the cost of sending 
distances like that are about $1.60 to $1.85 a page, and its very slow. That 
kind of transmission has got to be speeded up and the technology improved 
before it is used very much. There isn't any reason why you couldn't look 
forward to it in the future when the technology is better. Now as far as 
scholars using it for scholarly work, i don't believe it is very likely. For in- 
stance, Yale University Library, which has great collections of manuscripts, 
isn't suddenly going to reduce these to access in that manner. After all, why 
should anybody go to Yale to do graduate work except to take advantage of 
die faculty and the great library? Well, Yale is not ready to toss away those 
resources and cast them upon the waters, because then Yale would lose its 
drawing power. But I would assume that the school would have access then, in 
a technological sense, to closed circuit television, to anything that would 
come over the telephone wires and the coaxial cables as well as direct tele- 
vision. Now the way in which the school uses that is outside of our problem 
and I think it will be a long time until we get the right mix. At Oklahoma 
Christian College they are very wise. The academic administrators are not im- _ 
posing closed circuit television on the faculty, but rather, they are making 
it possible for them to use it. The faculty member still controls his own class- 
room. He may borrow and use an expert talking about physicis but he doesn't 
let the expert become a substitute for him. 

Now let's take micros. Microfilms: can be extremly useful, but you have 
to ask yourself what a microfilm is for. When the thing got started in the 
early 30's people thought of the microfilm as an intermediate storage step be- 
tween the manuscript, which is available in one copy only, and the scholar. 
They didn't think that we would try to make scholars read microfilm, but 
rather that we would get microfilms and then make blowups to give to the 
scholars. But we didn't then have any real blowup equipment. Now we have 
pretty good blowup equipment, but much of the time, we are still limited to 

the intermediate staqe because the reoroduction stage is expensive. So I 
would assume that what you would do with microforms is to have them a- 

round and provide machinery only when necessary for people to make blow- 
ups. You can do that now quite easily. But. again, what do you microfilm? It's 
silly to make a microfilm of a paperback, and then blow it up again, when you 
can buy the paperback for less money (people do things like that). So I 
would say that the microfilm or card or fiche is great for the things that are 
otherwise unavailable. Now there are early books, up to 1640 or 1660, Tthat 
are great to have in microfilm because they are otherwise unavailable; hence 
we are buying those films in the libraries. We do make the scholars read films 
because we can't afford to blow them up. University Microfilms are publishing 
a lot of these series which will be relevant to the Secondary School. The Amer- 
ican Classics in Exploration, those basic books about the settling of the west 
and the rest of the country, are not available in paperback and I think that 
they would be a great thing for a school to own. 

We have in the library today tapes of lectures and tapes of programed in- 
struction devices where the individual, as he is doing in some schools, works 
completely on his own, and there is not a classroom in the school. There is a 
college in Colorado that is now working that way, and also one in Michigan. 

The faculty are there to talk to the students who have problems. The students 
are given outlines and then proceed step by step at the lower level. A computer 
keeps track of their progress, and then as they go from one to the next, the 
outline carries them along. It would be good, then, to. build a school where 
the faculty is just sitting there in their offices and are in the midst of these re- 
sources. Then if you've got your labs and your studios near by, if they can be, 
you are just in fine shape to take advantage of technology. So I would argue 
that we can huff and puff and blow, but the technology will force us to con- 
cede to what we jolly well must do. 

Of course, the use of a computer can be overdone. In the universities a lot 
of libraries rushed in for computerization for their operations. It was alright 
as long as there was a grant to pay for it but when they started to have to pay 
bills some of them abandoned the idea because it cost them three to five 
times as much as they spent before. Then there is this business of library con- 
trol. We could put in a computerized circulation system but we couldn't get 
time on the computer during the daytime if we used the big university ones; 
and then we'd look pretty silly if we made the reader sit around until tomor- 
row because the computer couldn't telf him where the book was until two 


o'clock in the morning. That's not the way to run a library; so at Colorado 
we are going to wait until we get our own library computer so we can give at 
least as good service as we gave on the old system. 

Now there are horrible Orwellian implications in all this. Wagener, up in 
Boulder, is doing a project for the Office of Education on the close control of 
a student and his progress, unit by unit, and the materials that would be need- 
ed to do the job. That implies that we know enough to sit down and read a 
Dickens novel and characterize and categorize it in such a way that we say we 
know what is good for a student and what kind of response he should have. 
Frankly, we don't know enough about psychology to do that. We may pre- 
tend we do. But if we do then you've got this sort of situation: the computer 
keeps track of the student's progress and at a given point says "Alright, for 

your next stage these references are the right thing for you." You then have a 
library which is a bank of reproduction of data of chapters and paragraphs; 
you press a button and the stuff is pulled our for you, and you can give it to the 
student in a package. That's what is good for him right now. Then he fullfills 
the assignment and comes back for more. And all he can do is feed back what 
you want him to feed back. 

There are lots of questions of whether that is the right way to do it. I 
don't really think that it is except at the most elementary levels. If, forex- 
ample, you were going to teach an introductory course in American History, 

you ought to be able to handle that simple thing, in such a way that the 
student would be able to do it by himself without getting into a class. But 
once he gets beyond the first year course it would seem to me to be- 

inconceivable to use programmed responses unless he simply wants information 
I don't see that there is anything fanciful in imagining that if a student in, say, 
this school begins to work on a problem where he needs population data, why 
he should not be able to tie in with a computer which will give him population 
capable of being expressed mathematically or photographically can be filed or 
taken off the computer. It's just the economics of that make it impractical. 
But, when it becomes cheaper, it is nothing mysterious: you have the console 
in the room of a building, the information comes over the telephone wires, 
and all you have to do is pay the bills. So that's the way I see the techno- 
logical revolution. Right now the paperback is the most revolutionary thing. 
But it is not to say that in the future these developments won't come into use. 

It me that the key to all developments is ease and simplicity of oper- 
ation, portability, and cheapness. So many of the things that we are talking 
about at this stage are techinically feasible but not economically feasible. I 
think the libraries ought to have carrels with shelves in them so that the stu- 
dent can use a portable TV receiver, or a slide projector. You check those out 
at the desk, clamp on your earphones and go to work. Now that's the way to 
do it for a while. Get that stuff above the reading surface and keep it portable. 
With the record players you are going to have a little bit of a problem if you 
want to get goodfidelity. You can't get a little bit of a machine that is worth 


listening to. But, of course, "you could put it on tape and your recording 

would be all right. f 

Whatever happens we will still use the book because there isf< t any other 
better way to communicate information and ideas once you get a basic ed- 
ucation. If you learn how to read well and learn how to communicate.easily, 
you will still have the gracefulness and usefulness to be called an educated 

The following conclusions are drawn from the six sessions of The Selwyn 
School Library Conference and are the product of much searching inquiry in- 
to each subject. There is little to be gained by the reproduction of transcripts 
of each meeting, but much valuable knowledge did derive from the Confer- 
ence. Our aim here is not to present arguments for or against any aspect of 
library function but rather to offer the considered views of those who con- 
tributed their time, knowledge and experience to the conference in an effort 
to provide not only for Selwyn but for all who may face the difficulties of 
library planning, a general and specific guide from which any imaginative 
architect could begin designing, within his cost limitations, a truly functional 
school library. 

Divisions of Library Service 

A school such as Selwyn which is divided into upper and lower units 
should avoid a condition of totally separate libraries and should, ideally, con- 
tain one library facility to serve all grades. Not only does the single library 
avoid duplication of materials but it also eases some aspects of the problems 
which stem from the extreme diversity of reading levels of students, especial 
ly in the upper lower grades and lower upper grades. Many children in these 
transitional grades would benefit by the availability of reading materials 
which correspond to their real reading levels, regardless of grade. Too often 
students of the lower upper grades hesitate to enter the lower school library 
even though they are aware that the materials of that library are "easier" to 
read and more in line with their actual ability. The lower school student of 
high ability would have in a consolidated library a greater number of works 
available to him. 

The problems of the availability of books for classroom use in the lower 
grades can be easily solved by the use of moveable collections on book trucks 
or moveable stacks. While it may be useful for a library to contain a room 
primarily devoted to the display of children's books, all books should be 
placed in the stacks by subject regardless of the level of academic difficulty. 

A consolidated library has the further advantage of lowering cataloging 
costs, janitorial services and general library clerical chores. There is the ad- 
ditional consideration that younger and older children benefit through closer 
association in academic matters, for older students can help younger members 
of the school. 


Media and Electronic Equipment 

The development of electronic devices useful to students progresses and 
changes so quickly from one year to the next that library planners should 
avoid completely (or at least approach with extreme caution) the idea of built- 
in units. While built-in units are often well-consealed and out of the way, they 
can also be difficult to service and replace. Dial-studded control panels are 
very impressive to behold, but they often fail their function by reason of their 
immobility and rapid obsolescence. The following items should be considered 
essential to modern library: 

1. Movie projection facilities — 8 mm and 16 mm portable projectors 
should be made available and space provided for projection of films to indivi- 
duals and groups. There should also be 8 mm projectors available for the 
showing of single-concept film units. 

2. Film strip and slide projectors - These, again, should be easily por- 
table so that they could be checked in and out like other equipment. 

3. Record players — While a central listening table (or booth) with multi- 
ple connections for headsets for group listening would be of value, first con- 
sideration should go to portable units of high quality with good needles and 
pick up. Earphones should be checked out and in. 

4. Video tape — This is an excellent method for preserving important 
lecture material and demonstrations. Equipment should be as simple to oper- 
ate as possible and built solidly. Equipment should be completely portable. 

5. Closed-circuit T.V. Closed circuit T.V. has great possibilities in the 
large school or college, but is outside the need or scope of a small school. 

6. T.V. sets — The library should contain 27" sets on wheels for group 
viewing and small individual portable sets (5-10lbs.) to be used at student 

7. Microfilm - The library should seriously consider purchasing micro- 
films of back copies of magazines and periodicals instead of bulky bound 
copies of these. (Catalogs and prices are available from University Microfilm 
■'^vision of Xerox Corporation.) 

8. Flat pictures - The library should contain an extensive collection^ 

pictures filed by subject. ^ 

9. Framed Art Collection - It is essential that the library display art re- 
productions and maintain works available for checkout directly from the wall 
if necessary. 

10. Maps, models, globes - These items would be on display in the library 
and available for class and individual use. 

11. Media production lab — The library should contain a permanent area 
for the production of graphic materials. Ideally, a technician should be avail- 
able for the production of graphic aids at least half-time. 

12. Audio-visual equipment and storage - Equipment must be easily ac- 
cessible to the librarian for check out. Control must be centralized to avoid 
delays and duplication of equipment. 


13. Maintenance — It is imperative that at least 10% of the original cost of 
audio-visual equipment be budgeted annually for maintenance. Good repair 
services must be located and contracted for prompt service. 

The Book Collection 

The modern library must take into account the phenomenon of the paper- 
back book and take every advantage of it. No longer is it necessary, consider- 
ing the inexpensive nature of the paperback, for us to purchase multiple 
copies of so many books which are available in paperback editions. It be- 
comes necessary, however, that the modern library provide space for the dis- 
play and sale of paperback books. Arrangements should ue made for students 
to be able to exchange paperbacks among themselves. Bookshelf space 
should be available for this purpose. In addition, the library should provide 
book-ordering service for students and catalogues of books in print should be 
made available. 

The library should be planned primarily in terms of student reference ma- 
terials and professional collections for faculty members. Quality should be 
the watchword in the selection of reference materials, but funds relieved by 
the phenomenon of the paperback book will allow for tremendous expansion 
in the scope of reference collections. Systematic acquisition of new issues of 
books should be made primarily through professional suppliers of libraries. 

Most libraries suffer from inadequate work space for library staff and 
storage space equipment and material not in circulation. 

Library Atmosphere 

It is imperative that the library be constructed in such a manner that stu- 
dents will be attracted to it. The sterile and imposing atmosphere of lofty 
buildings filled with books, tables, and hard, straight-backed chairs is the very 
antithesis of that which we would choose for study at home. A quiet, infor- 
mal atmosphere must be fostered if the library is to become a comfortable, 
efficient place for study. There is no reason why certain areas cannot be fur 
nished and carpeted in such a manner as to allow the student to lie on the 
floor and prop his feet on cushions if he is accustomed to reading in such a 

Furniture should be chosen with comfort as the first consideration but al- 
so to teach by association good taste and aesthetic appreciation of color and 

Apart from physical characteristics, the library must become the student's 
favorite place, a place where he can feel totally at ease. He must be made to 
feel that his library is a giant, manageable tool which will respond to his 
touch and his will. 

The library must be a place where faculty also can study, the book col- 
lection being geared to their needs as well as to the students'. It should be- 
come the meeting ground of student and teacher, that one place in the uni- 
verse where the instructor can surround himself with instant references and 
serve as his students' guide into the collected knowledge of the past and the 
present. 20 

Cataloging media (Books, films, slides, etc.) 

All media within the library should be catalogued by SUBJECT in a central 
catalogue, and every effort should be made to store together all media on one 
subject. Film titles should, ideally, be as accessible to the notice of the 
browser' as book titles. Suitable cases and holders should be constructed to 
make shelf storage of different items possible. Light metal cases can be pur- 
chased for films and filmstrips which occupy as little room as a book. 

The librarian should be relieved of much of the clerical work and should 
become more of a bibliographer, available to the teaching faculty and indivi- 
dual students. Plenty of spaces should be allowed for processing books and 
materials as they come in. 

The Library and the Classroom 

Organized daily lecture classes in the library are probably not feasible and 
should be avoided as a consideration in library planningainless separate rooms 
are provided. Seminar classes and group study classes must, however, be pro- 
vided for, the best method being the provision of large alcoves near pertinent 
materials. Classes in the humanities are more likely than science classes to re- 
quire library space in groups. Acoustics must be extremely well-engineered 
and proper carrel design must be considered if groups are to be taught even 
occasionally in the library. 

Faculty offices diould be located in the schooi library. Students more and 
more are required to rely upon themselves in studying, requiring only occa- 
sional conferences with the instructor. By placing the faculty offices in the 
library we provide easy access for the student. This new arrangement also 
provides a meeting ground in the library for student and teacher. 

Students must be trained in the use of the library facility, and teachers 
must be trained in its use by the staff librarians. 

The faculty lounge should be located within the library and should con- 
tain a double area: one area in .which the teacher could meet only faculty 
members, and another to which he could invite students for informal 
This lounge area should house the professional collection for the faculty. 

Individual Study and Study Carrels 

Research indicates that successful students (National Merit Scholars, for 
instance) display a remarkable similarity in their study habits. Most students 
prefer to study either in their own rooms or in some secluded spot in the 
library. Nearly all students indicate that they like to break occasionally to eat 
a snack during long study periods. The study carrels seems to answer the need 

for privacy, a large flat working serf ace, lockable storage for books and art- 
icles of clothing such as coats and sweaters. An electrical outlet, double soc- 
ket, must be available for each carrel. A sturdy chair, preferably padded, with 
a comfortable back should be provided. Lighting can best be provided by dif- 
fused overhead light from the ceiling rather than by a lamp attached to the 
carrel itself. Traffic must not flovy through the carrel area. 


Consult Study Carrels, Designs for Independent Study Space, by John 
Beyon Research Associates, for design suggestions. 

Check List for Library Plans 

The following considerations, while occasionally obvious, constitute the 

basic points derived from the conference. 

1. Tell the architect: 

a. Maximum number of students who will use the library 

b. Maximum number of books to be shelved 

c. Number of reader stations 

d. Requirements of the library office 

e. Requirements of administrative offices 

f. Number of teachers' offices and sizes 

g. .Lighting needs (flexible, movable, quality) 

h. Accoustical requirements (should allow for deep quiet in 
some areas, but should allow for conversation in others) 

i. Color combinations 

j. Furniture types (lounges, tables, carrels) 

k. Storage (audio visual etc.) 

2. Consider maintenance 

a. (Cost of $1.00 per sq. foot per year for maintenance of 
library and for janitorial services reasonable) 

b. 10% of original cost per year for maintenance of audio- 
visual equipment which has life of only 3-5 years. 

3. Concepts 

a. Library should be a "fat" building, not a long building ~ 

b. Library should be arranged with blocks of functions which 
allow student concentration and good traffic patterns. 

c. Library should contain interior gardens with birds, plants, 
pools, etc. near center of building 

d. There should be good exhibit and display areas 

e. Ceilings should allow good lighting and acoustics 

f. Library should contain a common area for students and 
teachers to walk through, have a snack, and converse 

g. Building should contain typewriting room (with excellent 

h. Building should avoid inclusion of language labs, science 
labs, band rooms, or anything smelly or noisy within the 
library building 


Ralph E. Ellsworth Ph.D. 

Elizabeth Bailey 

Joe Bailey 

Ruth Carroll 

Virginia Clark 

Frances de Cordova 

D. Genevieve Dixon 

John D. Doncaster 
Bernard L. Fulton 
Richard Gaillard 
Joyce Gassaway 

Vanice Gilbert 
James Hamilton 

Bobette Higgins 
Philip Jonsson 

Director of Libraries 



Assistant Librarian 



Assistant Professor 
of Library Science 

Directcr,School of 
Library Science 



Head of English 

Head of History 

Head of Lower School 

Head of Math 

English Department 



University of Colorado 
Boulder, Colorado 

The Selwyn School 
Denton, Texas 

North Texas State 
University, Denton, Texas 

Greenhill School 
Dallas, Texas 

North Texas Laboratory 
School, Denton, Texas 

Texas Woman's University 
Denton, Texas 

Texas Woman's University 

The Selwyn School 
Greenhill School 
The Selwyn School 
The Selwyn School 

The Selwyn School 
The Selwyn School 

The Selwyn School 

The Jonsson Foundation 
Dallas, Texas 

Participants (continued) 

William S. Kilborne Jr. Chairman, English Fort Worth Country Day 

Department School Fort Worth, Texas 

Dorothy Ki.spper 

Reading instructor 

The Selwyn School 

Paul Kruse Ph.D. 

Department of 

North Texas State 

Library Service 


Joe Luce 

History Department 

The Selwyn School 

Samuel J. Marino Ph.D. 

Professor, Library 

Texas Woman's University 

Natalie Murray 


Lamplighter School 
Dallas, Texas 

Margaret Nichols 

Department of Library North Texas State 



James Rose 

Head of Science 

The Selwyn School 

Martin Shockley Ph.D. 

Professor of English 

North Texas State 

Martha Smith 

Assistant Director 
Education Service 
Center Region XI 

Fort Worth, Texas 

Pauline Snowden 


Fort Worth Country 
Day School 

Marieta Swain 


Lamplighter School 

Peter Schwartz 


Fort Worth Country 
Day School 

John Tomlinson 


The Selwyn School 

Don Walraven 

Academic Dean 

The Selwyn School 

Hans Weichsel, Jr. 

Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees 

The Selwyn School 

Gudrun Williams 

Audio-Visual Director The Sdwyn School 

Wm. George Young 

Head of Middle School Greenhil! School 





(These are books and articles, we have found helpful; the list is not compre- 
hensive, but will serve as a basis from which a school planning a library may 
make a start on building up a collection of published material of its own). 

Books and Pamphlets 

Automated Education Handbook, Automated Education Center, 1968. 

■ • i>. 


9 > - 


Designs for Small High Schools Educational Planning Service, Colorado 

State College, 1962: 

l 5. _ - 

The imapct of Technology on the -Library Building, Educational Facilities 
’~\y T'. \ - ~ laboratories, '1967. 

The Library In the Independent School, Pauline Anderson, National 

» - O 


Association of Independent Schools, 1967. 

New Spaces for. Learning, Center for Architectural Research, Rensslaer 
T , Polytechnic institute, 1966. ‘ - 

'fis & - * ■ • - .y . • -v . ’ • • . 

Rian^dn^pAcadem^ and^Rr^Bich Library Buildings, Keyes D* Metcalfe 
; . ^cGraw-Hiif Book Co., 1965. -\ r 2i 7;J = 

Tk& School Lfbrary-^Facilities for Independent Study in the Secondary 


.Educational Facilities Laboratories, 1964. 

<>n . 

A Study on Studying, The Community Coliege Planning Center, Stanford 
Jy , . 1 - University. 


r' : 


The Use of Carpeting in Forty Colleges and Universities, Educational 
V . - ; Facilities Laboratories,. 1964. 

nFi ^ArilclBSL . 



: 'The Arts,. The Humanities, and die School Library", American. Library 

■ ■■ - ■$. “ Association Sullentin, February 1967. 

V "The electronic Revolution in the Classroom: Promise or Threat?" 

- V Occasional "Paper 14, Council for Basic 

u; Education, Washington, D. C., 1967. 

T . 


'Learning to Learn in School Libraries", Frances Henne, reprint from 
V , School Libraries, -May 1966. 


Planning School Library Quarter*", American Library Association Bui- 

lentin, February T964., 

* _ ■ \