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ED 371 770 

IR 055 108 






Naber, G. 

An Agricultural Library: Its Start and Management. 
Publication 50. 

International Inst, for Land Reclamation and 
Improvement, Wageningen (Netherlands) . 


International Institute for Land Reclamation and 
Improvement, P.O. Box 45, 6700 AA Wageningen, The 
Netherlands ($22 U.S.; quantity discounts up to 
40%) . 

Books (010) — Guides - Non-Classroom Use (055) 



MF01/PC05 Plus Postage. 

^Agriculture; Foreign Countries; ^Library 
Administration; Library Automation; ^Library 
Collection Development; Library Development; Library 
Facilities; Library Funding; Library Instruction; 
Library Material Selection; Library Personnel; 
^Library Planning; Library Services; ^Special 

*Agricul tural Information; ^Agricultural Libraries ; 


This book is designed to provide the information 
needed to start a new agricultural library. The guide covers a wide 
range of topics including information sources, acquisitions 
procedures, and public relations. It provides addresses of publishers 
and information sources; a list of common abbreviations; a ground 
plan for a library; and information on library equipment. Topics 
covered in the six chapters are as follows: (1) "Collection Building" 
explains scientific information, selection criteria, and information 
on journals, series, books, pamphlets, and reference books; (2) "Ways 
of Overcoming a Shortage of Funds" lists methods of overcoming 
funding problems; (3) "Library Personnel" examines training, job 
descriptions, and professional reading for library staff; (4) 
"Library Management" covers ordering, catalogues, classification, 
loans , automation, services , statistics, and budgets ; (5) 
"Agricultural Information Sources" lists online literature retrieval 
sources; hosts and vendors; compact discs; and information on 
institutions relevant to agriculture libraries; and (6) "Library 
Instruction and Public Relations" covers library instruction, 
planning, and public relations. Included in the appendices are lists 
of agricultural journals, reference books, and library science 
j ournals . (JLB) 

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

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An Agricultural Library : 
It^ Start and Management 

G. Naber 

Publication 50 

International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, 
P.O.Box 45, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1991 

In 1983, an agreement was reached between the institutions of the Dutch Government 
Service for Agricultural Research/0L0 and the University of Agriculture in Wagen- 
ingen. This agreement stated that the institutions and the University would pursue 
a policy of collaboration in their libraries and in their documentation and information 

Ten Wageningen libraries, each covering a specific discipline, will eventually be 
involved in this collaboration. The Library of the Staring Building, which is adminis- 
tered by 1LRI, has been designated to cover the discipline 'Land, Soil, and Watef. 

The collaborating libraries at present support k p?.rtnef libraries in Benin, Indonesia, 
and Mozambique. Libraries in five other countries will receive support in the near 
future. It is intended that the 'partner' libraries pass on the benefits of the 'Wageningen* 
collaboration to agricultural institutions in their own countries. 

DLO*s Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation/Pudoc is the active 
pivot of this collaboration. 

To support the start and subsequent management of agricultural libraries 
in developing countries, Pudoc-£>LO will distribute copies of this book to 
selected universities and research institutions in such countries. 

In 1980, the International Association of Agricultural Librarians and Docu- 
mcntalists'IAALDand Pudoc published A Primer for Agricultural Libraries. 
which was written by Olga Lcndvoy. A useful tool in those days, it is now 
outdated. Consequently, when G. Naber returned from three years in Mozambique 
with an outline of An Agricultural Library : Its Start and Management. IAALD and 
Pudoc encouraged him to publish it, seeing it as a fitting successor to A Primer for 
A grit -ulti tral L ibraries . 

< International Institute Tor Lund Reclamation and Improvement /I LRI 
Wageningen.The Netherlands. 

This hook or any part thereof may not he reproduced in any form without the written permissl 

ISBN 90 70754 274 

Printed in The Netherlands 


In 1984, Mr Jose Rodriguez Pereira, the Dean of the Faculty of Agronomy and Forest 
Engineering of the Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique, stated that 
a well-chosen library was essential in strengthening education and research. He said 
that students should be encouraged to use the library during their training to help 
them prepare for their professional careers. Subsequently, when the proposal for the 
Plant-Soil-Water Project. First Phase, was formulated between the Eduardo Mond- 
lane University and the Dutch Directorate-General for International Cooperation, 
the Project's ten-man team of expatriates included myself as librarian. This book is 
a secondary benefit of that three-year period of cooperation. 

Many persons have supported me in preparing the book. In the first place is my 
wife Petra, with whom I discussed all items in detail. Her keen mind and valuable 
comments upgraded the quality of the manuscript. 

During my ten years as a librarian, 1 have written many publications, several in 
English. Thanks to Margaret Roche, ILFTs senior scientific editor, all my double- 
Dutch was transformed (not just translated) ih;o readable English, acceptable for sci- 
entific journals. 

I would also like to express my appreciation to Joop van Dijk, ILRTs draftsman, 
for the sensitivity with which he made the drawings for the book. 

G. Naber 



Inadequate training for information workers has long been among the most prominent 
constraints to an efficient and effective delivery of information for agricultural 
research and extension. Even in the developed world, where university programs for 
librarians and information specialists are numerous, specialized training for agricul- 
tural information workers is largely unavailable. Librarians, documentalists, and 
information specialists are expected to learn on the job, or to apply their general know- 
ledge to a field - agriculture - that has unique properties. 

In the developing countries, the problem is even more acute. The need for training 
in the techniques of agricultural information has been identified continuously over 
the past thirty years by every major forum of agricultural librarians, documentalists, 
and information specialists in the tropics, as the most pressing problem to be solved, 
aside from funding. University programs for library and information workers are 
scarce, and such programs as exist may not meet the needs of a professional in the 
modern library or information centre. 

Good programs are needed to provide basic training for library workers. Library staff 
members are usually eager to learn new techniques and better ways of handling infor- 
mation, but without training opportunities, the ability of staff members to grow in 
their jobs is limited. Staff training opportunities function to the benefit of the entire 
institution. Not only is the career path of the individual library staff member improved 
through training, but as the productivity of the information unit is enhanced, scientific 
researchers are also better able to meet their own goals. Because training has such 
a high potential for return on the investment, it behooves research institutions to do 
what is possible to mount local training courses with the goal of optimizing the use 
of the information resources that are available both human and material. 

The first requisite for good training courses is that of good training manuals. Some 
years ago, 1 AALD (the International Association of Agricultural Information Special- 
ists) published a Primer for Agricultural Libraries, and this manual was eventually 
translated into a number of different languages. Now 1LR1 has offered 1AALD the 
opportunity to support the production of another training manual. The Association 
is both pleased and proud to do so. 

The manual presented here. An Agricultural Library: Its Start and Management. 
offers agricultural information workers a wealth of information on basic information- 
centre activities. The guide covers a wide range of topics from information sources 
and acquisitions procedures to library services and public relations. It provides 
addresses of publishers and information sources, a list of common abbreviations, a 
ground plan for a library, information on equipment, and other much needed data 
for the new 1 brary or information centre. 

While the manual is designed to provide the information needed to start a new 
library, it also provides the information needed to train a new staff worker in an exist- 
ing information centre. There is a good deal of material that is also of use to long-term 
staff members who want to improve their skills or to understand the functions of 
workers in another area of the library. 

While no single reference source can cover every situation that will arise, or provide 
all the information needed on sources of agricultural literature, this manual does a 
very fine job of covering the key areas. It is readable, and the material is clearly orga- 
nized by subject sections and appendixes. Users will be able to adapt it to local needs 
as they see fit. 

For all these reasons, IAALD is pleased to have been offered a part in sponsoring 
the publication of this training guide. The members of the Training and Education 
Committee of IAALD, and all the members of the Executive Committee, wish the 
information professionals who will be using the manual the best of luck in their training 

Joseph H. Howard 

National Agricultural Library 


International Association of 
Agricultural Information Specialists 

Beltsville, MD 20705, U.S.A. 

Susan C. Harris 

Ruben Salazar Library 

Training and Education 
Committee, IAALD 
Sonoma State University 
Rohnert Park, CA 94928, 







Collection Building 

Structure of Scientific Information 

1.1.1 Regulatory Mechanisms 

Qualify Selection 

Qualitative Concentration 
Selection Criteria in General 

1 .2. 1 Requests to Acquire a Publication 

1 .2.2 Publications Offered to a Library 
Abstract Journals - Databases 

1 .4. 1 Selection Criteria for Journals 

1 .4.2 Where to Find Journal Titles 

1 .4.3 Pages of Contents 

1.4.4 Administrative Aspects of Journals 
Shelf Order for Older Volumes of Journals 
Shelf Order for the Most Recent Issues of Journals 
Catalogue of Journals 



Selection Criteria for Series 
Where to Find Scries Titles 
Administrative Aspects of Series 
Shelf Order of Series 
Ca taiogue of Series 



Selection Criteria for Books 
Where to Find Book Titles 
Administrative Aspects of Books 
Shelf Order of Books 
Catalogues of Books 

1 .7. 1 Selection Criteria for Pamphlets 

1 .7.2 Where to Find Pamphlet Titles 

1.7.3 Administrative Aspects of Pamphlets 
Shelf Order of Pamphlets 

Reference Books 

1 .8. 1 Selection Criteria for Reference Books 

1 .8.2 Administrative Aspects of Reference Books 
Shelf Order of Reference Books 
Catalogues of Reference Books 

Miscellaneous Documents 









































Ways of Overcoming a Shortage of Funds 



3 Library Personnel 3] 

3. 1 Training Possibilities for Library Personnel 3 1 

3.2 Job Descriptions for Library Personnel 32 

3.3 Journals for Library Personnel 33 

4 Library M anagement 34 

4.1 Analyses of the Use of the Library and Its Users 35 

4.2 Ordering 36 

Payment 36 

4.3 Catalogues 38 

4.3. 1 Catalogues for Books, Reference Works, and Pamphlets 38 
What io Enter on a Catalogue Card 39 
Production of the Cards 39 

4.3.2 Call Numbers 40 

4.3.3 Catalogues for Journals/Series 40 

4.3.4 Stock Book 41 

4.3.5 Computerization of the Catalogue*- 41 

4.4 Classification System 41 

4.5 Accessions 42 

4.6 Loan Administration 43 

Opening Hours 43 

Who Can Borrow? 43 

W hat Can Be Borrowed? 44 

How L oi ig . Ho w Mat iv? 44 

4.6.1 Inter-Library Loans 44 

4.7 Computerization of the Library 46 

4.8 Documentation 46 

4.9 Library Services 47 

4.10 Statistics 48 

4. 1 1 Budget 49 

4. 1 2 Ground Plans for a Library 49 

5 Agricultural Information Sources 50 

5.1 Online Literature Retrieval 50 

5.2 Hosts, Online Services, Vendors 5 1 

5.3 Compact Discs 52 

5.4 Information on Institutions 53 

6 Library 1 nstruction and Public Relations 55 

6.1 Library Instruction 55 

6.1 .1 Introductory Talk 55 

6.1.2 Instruction Sessions 55 

6.2 Development Plan 56 

6.3 A Library's Right of Existence 56 

6.4 Public Relations 56 

References 57 


List of Appendices 

Appendix 1 Starting a Small Library ^ 

Order Catalogue 58 

Cataloguing 58 

Catalogues 59 

A Classification System? Yes or No? 59 

Call Numbers and Shelving Order 60 

Borrowing 60 

Loan Administration 60 

Returned Books 61 

Some Measurements 61 
Three Examples of Small Libraries and Their Possible 

Organization 61 

Appendix 2 Abbreviations 63 

Appendix 3 List of Agricultural Journals Organized under UDC 65 

UDC 0 9 General 65 

UDC 57 Biology Botany 65 

UDC 55 1 .5 Agro-Meteorology 67 

UDC 63 Agriculture 67 

UDC 634.1,635.8 Fruits Horticulture "70 

UDC 63 1 .3 Agricultural Engineering 7 1 

UDC 63 1 .4. 63 1 .8 Soil Science Soil Fertility 7 1 

UDC 631 .52 Plant Breeding 72 

UDC 631 .6 Rural Engineering "73 

UDC 632 Plant Diseases 73 

UDC 632.7 Entomology 74 

UDC 632.9 Plant Protection and Pest Control 74 

UDC 633.2 3 Grassland Rangcland "75 

UDC 681 .3 Computers 75 

Appendix 4 List of Newsletters of International (Research) Organizations 76 
Appendix 5 Addresses of National and International (Research) 

Organizations and Their Journals 77 

Appendix 6 Addresses of Publishers and Booksellers 83 

Agricultural Publications 83 

Portuguese Spanish Publications 85 

Reference Books 85 

Appendix 7 List of Subject Groups 87 

Appendix 8 List of Reference Books 90 

Bibliography of Dictionaries 90 

Encyclopedias c ^ 

Multilingual Dictionaries 90 

Descriptive Dictionaries ^2 

Abbreviations c ^3 


Atlases 93 

Information Sources 94 

Geographical Information 96 

Study Abroad/Courses 96 

Directories 96 

Grants 97 

Appendix 9 Journals on Library Science 98 

Abstract Journals/Reviews 98 

Administration/Management: 99 

• Acquisitions 99 

• Audio- Visual 99 

• Lending, Document Supply \ 00 

• Microform 100 

• One-Person Library ]00 

• Security 100 

• Serials \ qq 
Agricultural Libraries 100 
Automation/Microcomputers 101 
Cataloguing/Indcxing.Classification 101 
Collection Management 102 
Information/Online Retrieval 1 02 
Libraries (in a broad sense) 1 03 
Maps 105 
Portuguese Journals 1 05 
Special Libraries 106 
Training Education 1 06 

Appendix 10 Addresses of Some Library Organizations and Their Journals 107 

International 107 

Australia 107 

Brazil 108 

England 108 

France 108 

India 108 

Latin America 109 

U.S.A. 109 
Appendix 1 i Example of a Form Letter for Establishing an Exchange 

Agreement 1 10 

Appendix 1 2 Example of a Cover and a Page of an Accession List 1 1 2 

Appendix 1 3 Example of a Computer Configuration for a Small Library 1 14 

Appendix 14 Agricultural Databases M6 

Appendix 1 5 Example of a Leaflet about a Library 1 20 

Appendix 16 Two Examples of Ground Plans for a Library 121 

Appendix 17 Library Regulations 122 


1 Collection Building 

Today, the combination of sophisticated printing techniques and the worldwide accel- 
eration of scientific research is producing vast amounts of information. Obviously, 
the results of scientific research must be made available to those who need them. Need- 
less duplication of research can be prevented if scientists are aware of what other scien- 
tists are doing. But because of the great quantity of information being produced and 
the variety of ways in which it is published, a scientist faces a formidable task in keeping 
track of it all. 

The main task of a librarian is to channel this great flow of information and make 
it accessible to the scientist. Before he can do so, however, he must understand the 
structure of scientific information and the regulatory mechanisms that control it. 

1.1 Structure of Scientific Information 

producer ol . 

user of 

: * A : 

Information is often defined as 'knowledge in motion between people*. What we are 
dealing with here is 'documentary knowledge in motion between scientists'. The struc- 
ture of this process is shown in Figure 1 . 

The manuscript produced by a scientist may 
become an article in a journal, a paper in the pro- 
ceedings of a congress, or a book. All this is called 
primary literature. It is offered directly to the reader 
through his subscription to the journal or his pur- 
chase of the proceedings or the book. Or it may be 
offered to him indirectly through a library, where 
it can be retrieved by way of the catalogue. This 
applies to the entire book, to the congress proceed- 
ings in their totality, and to the journal as a whole. 
But it doc3 not apply to individual chapters of the 
book, to individual papers in the proceedings, or to 
individual articles in the journal, which are v losf in 
the library catalogue. 

The 'loss* of these items has led to the creation 
of secondary literature, which treats the chapters, 
the papers, and the articles as separate publications. 
The original 'packaging* is undone and the items arc 
'repackaged* according to subject. 

Secondary literature is compiled by abstracting 
and indexing services. It constitutes a guide to the 
contents of primary literature. These guides are either kept in libraries or supplied 
directly to their potential users. 

(Another type of secondary literature which docs nor enter this discussion is that 
intended as a register of all publications and aiming at 'Universal Bibliographic Con- 









l-igure I Structure of transfer of doc- 
umentor} knowledge between scien- 



troP. Examples arc national bibliographies and publishers' catalogues.) 

Secondary literature can be retrieved through tertiary literature, which presents in- 
ventories of the indexing and abstracting journals that are the guides to primary litera- 
ture. Such publications often have titles like A Guide to Literature on .... or Information 
Sources in the Field of 

1.1.1 Regulatory Mechanisms 

Obviously, not all scientific literature produced is equally valuable. Fortunately, how- 
ever, a scientist need not read everything that is published to keep informed of develop- 
ments in his field. A number of regulatory mechanisms control the flow. These arc 
quality selection and qualitative concentration. 

Quality Selection 

At the start of the process of quality selec- 
tion, which comprises five sieves (Figure 
2), a manuscript either becomes a publi- 
cation or it does not. Of the many that 
do, only a few finally remain as classical 
articles or books. After ten years, more 
than 98 per cent of scientific work is en- 
tirely forgotten. 

Qualitative Concentration 

Four precepts describe the process of qualitative concentration: 
The 'star system. A natural concentration of quality occurs among scientists, 
usually in the form of a 'school*, headed by one or more of the leaders in a field. 
These 'stars' attract other 'stars' and the process of qualitative concentration con- 
tinues. Slamecka and Zundc (1971) claim that n 2 scientists will produce // 'stars; 
or, of every 500 scientists. 22 'stars' will appear; 

A ranking order of journals. The articles of 'star* scientists tend to be published 
in prestigious journals. Other authors working in the same field will then try to 
get their work published in the same journal. With greater numbers of manuscripts 
submitted to journal editors, they can afford to become ever more critical, selecting 
only the best articles. In this way, a journal spirals upwards in quality. It will be 
cited more frequently than others, will be more readily included in library collec- 
tion/, and will be consulted more often than journals not kept by the library; 
Bradford's law. Bradford (1948) investigated the way in which articles on a certain 
subject arc scattered over various types of journals. He discovered he could divide 
the journals into three categories, each of which contains one-third of the total of 
articles, as follows: 

• I -3 in a small number of specialized professional journals; 


a» manuscripts 

*>eve book publishers editors of lourndls 

Steve 2 editors ot abstract journals 

• •••••••••••••sieve 3 citation by other authors 

•••••••••• sieve 4 inclusion in a critical review article 

••••••sieve 5 time 

• classical jrtidc or book 

!igure2 The live sieves of qu«i lit> selection 
(Loosjcs 1978) 


• 1 /3 in a much larger number of journals in related fields: 

• 1 /3 in all other journals. 

The ratio of journals in each category is 1:5: 25. So, if in one year 375 articles 
are published in 155 journals, 375 -=- 3 == 125 articles will be published in each 
category. Category 1 will cover about 5 journals. Category 2 about 5 x 5 = 25 
journals, and Category 3 about 5 x 5 x 5 = 125 journals (or one article in each 

The 80/20% rule. This rule applies to many things. Dispensingchemists, for instance, 
have found that 80 per cent of the prescriptions they make up require the use of 
only 20 per cent of their range of stock. Similarly, librarians have found that 80 
per cent of the requests they receive are for 20 per cent of the literature on their 
shelves. The rule also applies to scientific articles. 80 per cent of all articles on a 
subject being found in 20 per cent of the journals. 

Using his knowledge of the structure of scientific information and its regulatory mech- 
anisms, a librarian can define criteria that will help him decide which publications 
to include in the 'ibrary's collection. 

1.2 Selection Criteria in General 

As funds, trained staff, and space are scarce in any library, these resources should 
not be wasted by including publications that are of little or no use. No matter whether 
publications are ordered, received under an exchange agreement, or acquired as a 
gift, strict selection criteria should be applied to them. 

This seetion deals with selection criteria in general. These are useful for all kinds 
of publications. Specific criteria for specific publications (journals, books, series, pam- 
phlets, and reference works) will be treated in separate sections in this chapter. 

In defining selection criteria, a librarian should keep the following matters in mind: 

- The lectures being given by the mother organization and/or the research it is con- 
ducting will mainly determine the subjects of the publications that the library will 
contain. Not everything published on agriculture is needed: only those documents 
on relevant subjects. A list of the codes of subjects of the Universal Decimal Classifi- 
cation/UDC will help in making the right choices. This list, as it pertains to agricul- 
ture, can be found in Appendix 7; 

- A particularly strict selection has to made from among all kinds of publications 
offered to the library free of charge. A library is not an archive! One need not keep 
everything: offers may be thrown away; 

• A library will not keep documents that concern the mother organization, or parts 
of it (e.g. mission reports, development plans, letters to the director); 
A library serves people working in the same field, who arc therefore interested in 
the same books and journals. Sometimes, individuals within an organization are 
involved in subjects slightly outside the scope of the organization. They often gather 
publications from the 'grey literature* and ask the library to handle them. Keeping 
all these publications for the use of one person means a lot of work. And although 
staff members should normally be discouraged from keeping publications just for 



J> ■ 


their own use, in these eases the library should help them to organize a small special- 
ized collection in their own office. Instructions on how to set up and manage these 
very small, often temporary, libraries arc set out in Appendix 1 ; 
If a library is being rehabilitated, the use of the existing collection will to a large 
extent determine which publications should be kept. An analysis of the loan adminis- 
tration will show how the collection is being used, revealing which persons borrow 
what. An analysis of lists of references or bibliographies in publications by staff 
members also gives an insight into the use of the library. Such analyses, however, 
do not reveal which publications a user might have wanted but could not obtain. 
Oral or written inquiries among users might shed some light on this matter. Often, 
however, it is not quite clear whether respondents indicate the publications they 
really missed or whether they also indicate the publications they feel they should 
have read, but would not actually have used. This kind of analysis can also reveal 
which languages should be included and which should not; 

Once all this information has been gathered, a librarian must keep up with new 
developments. He should therefore be regarded as a member of the academic staff, 
and should attend any meetings they have; 

According to the 'star* principle, publications from famous authors, institutions, 
and publishers should be included in the collection. A second edition of a publication 
often indicates a 'star' publication. Before acquiring it, however, the librarian should 
check whether it differs significantly from the first edition. A comparison of the 
number of pages is often a good indicator; 

In agriculture, quite a lot of information loses its importance as it grows older. 
Publications more than, say, seven years old should therefore be subjected to a really 
strict scrutiny; 

Publications on agriculture in the country where the library is located should all 
be included in the collection; 

So. too, should any publications written by staff members of the mother organiza- 
tion, if only because people outside will expect the library to have them. The librarian 
can encourage staff members to deliver their publications to the library by explaining 
to them that, through the library links, their publications will be included in the 
databases of information and documentation services such as the Commonwealth 
Agrici Uural Bureaux International CABI and the United Nations' Food and Agri- 
culture Organisation FAO; 

People reading publications by staff members are often interested in the works listed 
in the references or bibliography. Authors should therefore be encouraged to hand 
in these publications to the library. If they have been borrowed from another library, 
consideration could be given to acquiring them; 

A library should not only 'follow' the mother organization by including those sub- 
jects that cover the organization's main efforts; it should also 'guide' the mother 
by acquiring publications on new developments which are, or are becoming, the 
focal point of discussion, whether inside or outside agriculture; 
Publications from international (research) organizations like the CGIAR institu- 
tions, the World Bank, the F.uropcan Community, NTIS. GPO. and UNESCO need 
not all be kept, but their recent catalogues should be available in the library. If 
users ni'sd these often very interesting publications, they should be ordered. Infor- 
mation on how to order them should be gathered and kept up to date. 



In later sections, the above criteria will be further refined for each specific type of 
publication. But first, the following aspects of collection building will be dealt with: 

- How to deal with requests from users to acquire certain publications; 

- How to act when publications are offered to the library. 

1.2.1 Requests to Acquire a Publication 

To build a good collection, a librarian needs all the support he can get from specialists 
in a subject. They should be encouraged to make suggestions for acquisitions and 
to assist in judging which publications to acquire. On the other hand, they may make 
suggestions that are beyond the scope of the library (i.e. that do not meet the criteria 
for collection building). Sometimes, it is difficult to convince such people that those 
publications should not be acquired. In case of doubt, the following action could be 

If the person merely suggests a title, it is reasonable to ask him for more information; 
It is not always necessary to buy a publication. If it can be foreseen that it will 
be used only for a short time and only by a few people, it might be more economical 
to borrow it from another library; 

If many publications arc requested together, one should remember that scientists, 
especially those v orking in agriculture, do not spend much of their time reading. 
One might acccp'. the request, but take no further action until the person inquires 

A librarian should acquire a good knowledge of the activities of staff members. This 
will enable him to judge whether the requested publication fits in with their work, 
or whether other staff members will be interested as well; 

1 .2.2 Publications Offered to a Library 

Many publications arrive in a library either through an exchange agreement or as 
a gift. These require a specially strict selection. 

If any such publications are rejected, they should be clearly marked as rejects. After- 
wards, they might be handed over to a staff member who is interested. If the rejects 
return to the library after a while, it can be seen that they have been rejected before. 
This saves much unnecessary work. 

Rejected publications are often donated to other libraries. This means a lot of work 
for the library offering them, but also for the library receiving them. It is never clear 
to me why people hate to throw publications away, even if they are written in an 
unfamiliar language or are of no scientific importance. But although lots of publica- 
tions offered free of charge to libraries arc on the same level as old newspapers, they 
cannot even be used *to wrap up the fish\ 

Nevertheless, any publications offered to a library should always be accepted. Some 
of them may be valuable. These arc often easy to spot. But one should point out 
to the donor that it is impossible to promise to keep and catalogue all publications 



If people offering publications are of the opinion that these should be kept and 
catalogued, it is always possible to accept them, but then ;o take no further action 
until the person offering them inquires again. 

Sometimes staff members retiring from the organization leave an interesting collec- 
tion, often restricted to a certain subject. Cataloguing all these publications is a great 
deal of work. If they arc really valuable, the collection as a whole could be included 
in the catalogues, under the heading of the name of the person offering them. If the 
collection concerns more than one subject, some extra cards should bc^placed in the 
classified catalogue to cover each of these subjects. 

1 .3 Abstract Journals - Databases 

In pre-computer days, the publishers of abstract journals confined their activities to 
collecting the material and distributing the product. In the early seventies, they started 
using computers, especially to produce the indexes on a monthly and annual basis. 
By recording the entries for future editions of abstract journals on computer tapes, 
they were able to offer the information to users in other ways (e.g. for online retrieval). 

Until 1970, the scientist found his information 
by leafing through books, journals, and cata- 
logues. With the information available on tape, 
much of this 'paper work* has been made super- 
fluous. A scientist now sits in front of a computer 
terminal and, via a worldwide communication 
network, links up with a host computer or ven- 
dor, which supplies him with the required infor- 
mation in a fraction of the time (Figure 3). 

Online literature retrieval depends considera- 
bly on good communication lines. These lines are 
not always reliable, particularly in developing 
countries. The arrival of databases on compact 
disc has solved this problem. (Sec further in Sec- 
tion 5.3: Compact Discs). Nowadays, the follow- 
ing arc available on compact disc: 

AGRICOLA, prot J *d by the National Agri- 
cultural Library;NAL in the U.S.A.: 
AGRIS, produced by FAO in Italy: 
CABI, produced by the Commonwealth Agri- 
cultural Bureaux International in the U.K.; 
TROPAG, produced by the Royal Institute of 
the Tropics in The Netherlands. 

Condensed information on agricultural data- 
bases, taken from Online Databases in the Medi- 
cal and Life Sciences, which is published by 
Cuadra Flsevier, is given in Appendix 14. Some of them are only available on com- 
puter tape: others have a hard-copy issue, either on paper or on compact disc. 


l-'igure 3 Via a u nrkta klc communica- 
tions network, the terminal-user links up 
with online s> stems 


It is not easy to decide which abstract journals to keep in a library. Those issued by 
the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International/CABI are excellent; expensive 
but good. AGRITROP (issued by the Centre de Cooperation Internationale en 
Recherche Agronomique pour le DeveloppemcnKCIRAD) and Abstracts on Tropical 
Agriculture (issued by the Royal Institute of the Tropics), although containing fewer 
citations, deal specifically with agriculture in the tropics and sublropics. They are 
therefore worthwhile acquiring. 

1 .4 Journals 

1 .4. 1 Selection Criteria for Journals 

The following types of journals might be considered for inclusion in the library collection: 
- Journals whose articles are often cited in the abstract journals of CABI. In that 

way. if someone t, » in interesting title in CABI. he can also find the article; 

Journals dealing with agriculture in a practical way (e.g. Farmer's Weekly): 

Journals dealing with applied agricultural research, rather than more fundamental 


Journals dealing with a broad subject (e.g. agronomy, crop science, soil science, 
fertilizers, pest management) rather than journals dealing with more specific subjects 
(e.g. groundnuts). Of course, if an organization spends much of its efforts on specific 
subjects, journals on those subjects should be included; 
Journals on agriculture from countries with the same climate; 
- Newsletters from international (research) institutions; 
Journals with an editorial board of well-known scientists ('stars*), working in similar 
countries and; or climates; 

Journals on more general subjects (e.g. Sew Scientist) or on computers (e.g. Byte 
or PC Resource). 

1.4.2 Where to Find Journal Titles 

Abstract journals list the titles of journals and the articles that appear in them. From 
them, it is possible to judge the value of a journal for the library. 

The Union Catalog of Serials in International Agricultural Research Centres IARCs 
contains 5,300 journal and serial titles from fourteen IARCs, including some non- 
CG1AR centres. A hard copy can be obtained from ICRISAT. Software to enable 
the database to become a CDS/ISIS application has also been developed. CDS'ISIS 
is a menu-driven generalized Information Storage and Retrieval System, designed and 
made available by UNESCO. 

The International Union List of Agricultural Serials is a combined list of journal 
and serial titles indexed in AGRICOLA, AGRIS, and CABI. The book gives full 
bibliographic details of over 1 1.500 journals and serials published in 129 different 
countries, with titles in 53 languages. It can be obtained from CABI. 

Appendix 3 gives a list of journals on agriculture in a broad sense. The list contains 
titles and addresses only, but most publishers will be glad to supply a specimen copy 



if requested. It is also possible to ask a sister library to send a photocopy of the front 
and back cover of a journal, its page of contents, and the inside of its cover pages, 
which often present information about the editor, the editorial board, th? scope cover- 
ed, and subscription costs. 

Appendix 4 lists newsletters of international (research) institutions. 

Journals or bulletins that publish pages of contents give a good idea of the scope 
of a journal. 

1.4.3 Pages of Contents 

Non-profit and commercial organizations regularly produce journals consisting of 
the pages of contents of journals. Well-known within agriculture are: 

Current Contents on Agriculture, Biology, and Environment, published by the Insti- 
tute for Scientific Information, 3501 Market Street. Philadelphia PA 19104, U.S.A.; 
- Pages of Content = Paginascle Contenich = Pages f k> Matters* published by Ccntro 
Internacional dc Agricultura Tropical/CI AT. The various journals cover the follow- 
ing subjects: 

• General Agriculture; 

• Plant Physiology: 

• Plant Protection; 

• Soils and Plant Nutrition; 

• Pastures. Animal Production, and Nutrition; 

• Agricultural Economics and Rural Development; 

A Quarterly Bulletin of Contents, published by the International Livestock Centre 
for Africa/1 LCA. The Bulletins cover the following subjects: 

• Forage Agronomy and Soil Science; 

• Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology; 

• Animal Nutrition: 

• Animal Breeding and Genetics; 

• Animal Health and Veterinary Medicine. 

1 .4.4 Administrative Aspects of Journals 2 V k 

Figure 4 Bindo-matic. Binds up lo 25 documents or 500 pages at one time. Precision -applied thermal glue 
electronically ensures that documents stay permanently bound. 




Figure 5 Boxes for storing journals and pamphlets 

Older volumes of journals are often shelved in the alphabetical order of their titles. 
This shelf order has two disadvantages: 

- If a subscription to a new journal is taken out. all the older journals will have to 

be moved to incorporate the new one; 
- Journals do not always have clear titles. Users know them by different names. Is 
it FAO Monthly Bulletin of Statistics or Monthly Bulletin of Statistics'? Is it Gloho 
Rural or Revista Globo Rural) 

A better shelving arrangement for journal volumes is to place them in the order in 
which the journals were acquired by the library. Each journal is given a T number 
(T for journal). A new journal is given the latest number. This is wrtten on a sticker 
on the cover of the journal. Shelf labels will show where Nos. 1 , 50. 100, etc., start. 

An alphabetical catalogue or list of journals will give access to the journals on the 
shelf. If this list is stored in a computer, it is easy to update. 

When a volume of journals is complete, it should be bound, but this is a time-con- 
suming and expensive process (Figure 4). Thin journals with soft covers can therefore 
be better kept in small boxes (Figure 5). More voluminous ones can stand on their 

If money is available to buy back-issues, acquisitions on microfiche should be con- 
sidered. Sometimes microfiches are cheaper. Even if they are not, they save a lot of 
space in a library. 


* 20 



Shelf Order for the Most Recent Issues of Journals 

Figure U Sol of shelves lor ihe display 
of i he lalesi issues of journals. Behind 
ihe front flap is spaee for preeeding 

The latest issues of journals are kept in a set of 
shelves (Figure 6). The most recent issue is placed 
at the front of a sloping flap, which is hinged at the 
top. Behind the flap, there arc two shelves with space 
for about eight of the preceding issues. The journals 
are arranged according to their T number. 

A more sophisticated but also more complicated 
system is to arrange the journals in som;- five to ten 
broad subject groups. If this system is adopted, the 
journal receives, besides its T number, also a 
number representing its broad subject group. 

Some journals contain information that has only 
a limited lifetime. These journals need not be kept 
for very long: nor need they be given a Y number. 

Other journals have a lifetime of between three to five years. To save space in the 
library, only the volumes within this time span are kept. Each time a new vc t unie 
becomes available, the oldest one is discarded. 

Catalogue oj Journals 

For each journal, one card (Figure 7) is kept in a kardex (flat-lying) system (Figure 
8). The cards are arranged in alphabetical order by the lettcr-for-letter system. 

Figure 7 Kardex card, The small 
part of ihe card (below the perfor- 
ated line) makes it possible to use a 
typewriter to fill in the card. After 
the relevant information has been 
typed on the card, it is removed 
from the lypew riler and the small 
part is detached. 

Figure S Kardex. a Hal-King journal register sWoni 

Current and non-current journals arc 
placed together in one system. A sepa- 
rate list is kept for the current journals; 
this is used for administrative purposes 
to check each year whether the subscrip- 
tion has been paid and/or whether the 
journal is still arriving in the library, 
(See further in Section 4.3.3.) 


1.5 Series 

1.5.1 Selection Criteria for Series 

Nearly every research institution in the world publishes its results in one or more of 

its own series of publications. A variety of names are used: Bulletin of Series of 

Miscellaneous Paper, etc. They are often published irregularly and arc mostly 

offered in exchange or free of charge to anyone interested. 

In the library, the administration of these series is difficult and time-consuming. 
The scientific value of their contents varies considerably, even within the same series. 
Often, their contents have a somewhat regional character, making it difficult to judge 
whether it is worthwhile having them in the collection. 

This difficulty can be overcome by only including series from well-known internatio- 
nal research institutions such as the Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO, the 
Emprcssa Brasilcira de Pcsquisa Agropecuaria/EMBRAPA, and those belonging to 
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CGI AR (e.g. IRR1, 
C1MMYT, CI AT, IITA). (See Appendix 2 for a list of abbreviations and Appendix 
5 for the addresses of these institutions.) 

The value of items in a series increases if they are catalogued so that they can be 
found, not only under the name of the scries, but also under their author's name, 
and their title or subject. 

1 .5.2 Where to Find Series Titles 

Many of the publications of international research institutions can be found in the 
book Publications of International Agricultural Research and Development Centers 
(1989), published by IRRI. 

Publications of international organizations arc announced in catalogues of the fol- 
lowing publishers: Agribookstore; Josef Margraf; SATIS; TRIOPS Tropical Scientific 
Books. Their addresses can be found in Appendix 6. 

The latest publications of international research institutions arc usually announced 
in their newsletters (Appendix 4). 

1.5.3 Administrative Aspects of Series 
Shelf Order o f Series 

The sequence of scries on a shelf is determined by the date of arrival of the first of 
the scries in the library. Each scries receives a number, which is written on a sticker 
gummed to each item in the series, precccdcd by a *S' (for 'Scries'). Different scries 
from the same institution are grouped together. Annual Reports are treated as being 
a special scries of an institution. Labels on the shelves show where publications from 
an institution are kept. The labels can be made with the machine shown in Figure 9. 

Sometimes, series consist of monographs, each treating different subjects in a way 
that they become equal to a book. In such cases, it is difficult to decide whether to 



Figure 1 ) A label-maker, a 
machine for printing let- 
ters on tape 

place the monograph with the books or to keep the scries together. Most users 
remember the name of the institution publishing the series, rather than the author 
or title. 

Catalogue of Series 

For each publication in a scries, one card is kept in a kardex system. The cards are 
arranged in alphabetical order of the institutions' names. Within each group, the cards 
arc arranged in alphabetical order of the type of publication (e.g. Annual Report, 
Bulletin). Current and non-current scries arc registered in this catalogue. (Sec further 
in Section 4.3.3: Catalogue for Journals/Series.) 

1.6 Books 

1.6.1 Selection Criteria for Books 

Only those books that are of direct use for the teaching and/or the research being 
conducted by the mother organization should be kept by the library. (For their selec- 
tion criteria see Section 1.2.) 

Proceedings of congresses arc often highly specialized. They arc also expensive, 
whereas many of the papers in them are not relevant to the mother organization. Staff 
members attending a congress often receive the proceedings free of charge. Normally, 
it is organization policy that publications received by staff members become the prop- 
erty of the organization. They should therefore be kept in the library. 

1 .6.2 Where to Find Book Titles 

Book titles can be found in publishers' catalogues, which, on request, will be sent 
to the library on a regular basis. Appendix 6 presents addresses of publishers of agricul- 



tural literature. Their catalogues are probably the best place to look for interesting 
titles. Other places are: 

- Abstract journals; 

•- Newsletters, under the headings: New Publications, Recently Published, or Publica- 
tions Received; 

- Book reviews. 

Booksellers often prepare lists of book titles from various publishers, sometimes even 
arranged according to subject. Examples of such booksellers are Heffers in England, 
Livraria Portugal, Mundi Prensa Libros in Spain, and Livraria Nobel in Brazil. 

Some booksellers (e.g. Bumpus Haldane and Maxwell) invite their customers to 
send a list of keywords on subjects handled by the booksellers. The bookseller regularly 
runs these keywords through a computer containing all new book titles. The result 
of the computer search is printed on small slips of paper, giving the book title and 
an abstract. These arc then sent to the customer. 

The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Coopcration/CTA has published 
Tropical Agriculture: Selected Handbooks. This catalogue is a guide to English language 
books on agriculture and rural development in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is a compi- 
lation of 405 standard reference works that arc still in print and available. The subjects 
covered are farming, animal husbandry, fisheries, post-harvest operations, etc. 

1 .6.3 Administrative Aspects of Books 
Shelf Order of Books 

Most users do not like catalogues. They want to 
browse through the collection. This means that 
/ the library should be of the free-access type. Prob- 

/ lems with theft will have to be overcome by good 

j surveillance, but it is almost impossible to prevent 

/ some books from being stolen. If books are 

marked with a blind stamp (Figure 10), indicating 
that they are the property of the library, this will 
discourage thieves. 

In a library, books disappear not only because 
they arc stolen; quite a few get lost' because they 
are misplaced on the shelf. Others are not 
returned by users who borrowed them. Often, the 
mother organization's own staff members arc the 
worst culprits; they borrow books from one 
another or lend them to persons outside the orga- 
Rgure 10 A blind stamp nization without informing the library staff. 

On the shelves, the books are arranged in 
broad subject groups. These groups are based on the Universal Decimal Classification/ 
UDC. Within each group, the books are placed in alphabetical order of the first three 
letters of the author's name. (For an example of a list of broad subject groups, see 
Appendix 7.) 



Catalogues of Books 

For each book, cards are placed in catalogues of authors, titles, subjects, geography, 
and a shelf list. The cards are arranged in alphabetical order under the letter-for-letter 
system. If there are more books by the same author, the sequence will be determined 
by the year of publication, the most recent being placed first. (See further in Section 
4.3.1: Catalogues for Books, Reference Works, Pamphlets.) 

1.7 Pamphlets 

1 .7.1 Selection Criteria for Pamphlets 

Pamphlets cover a category of publications containing less than fifty pages. They are 
thus reprints of journal articles, booklets, publications that form part of a scries, and 
so on. A library receives a lot of material of this kind. Much of it has no scientific 
value or does not fit within the scope of the library, so a severe selection is necessary. 
Reprints arc rejected because they are treated by documentation and information ser- 
vices, which include them in their databases. As an exception, some pamphlets, includ- 
ing reprints, will be kept, but only if they: 

- Have a review character; 
Are written by staff members; 

Arc about agriculture in the country where the library is located; 
Arc from key persons ^stars'); 

Are listed in the references of staff members' publications; 

- Arc about new research subjects; 

Are about new equipment, new measurement techniques, etc.; 

Arc published in unexpected places (e.g. an article on crop breeding in a journal 

dealing with soil science). 

1 .7.2 Where to Find Pamphlet Titles 

Interesting titles can be found in newsletters, abstract journals, and in the reference 
lists of interesting articles. More often, they are offered by several sources in amounts 
larger than a librarian appreciates. 

1 .7.3 Administrative Aspects of Pamphlets 
Shelf Order of Pan \phlets 

Pamphlets are placed in the same broad subject groups as the books. Within each 
group, they are arranged according to the first three letters of their author's name. 

The cards are placed in the catalogue for books. No separate catalogue is kept for 

Pamphlets issued by international organizations like FAO, EMBRAPA, and the 



CGIAR institutions will be brought together under the name of the institution and 
kept in boxes. 

1.8 Reference Books 

1 .8.1 Selection Criteria for Reference Books 

The selection criteria for books and journals can also be applied to reference books. 
Reference books, however, are not restricted lo agriculture. They should be able to 
provide answers to all kinds of questions raised by users. This makes it difficult to 
decide which reference works to include. It depends on the situation. 

Appendix 8 lists possible reference books. Not all of them need be acquired by 
the library, but it will be of help to the librarian just knowing that they exist and 
where he can order them. 

1.8.2. Administrative Aspects of Reference Books 
Shelf Order of Re ference Books 

All reference books should be kept together and arranged in the following groups: 
'D: Encyclopedias, technical dictionaries, geographical information, glossary and 
linguistic dictionaries. Most of these dictionaries treat one subject. Those dealing 
with the same subject should be brought together under the same broad subject 
groups as used for books. If necessary, they could be given a sequential number 
of the order in which they were acquired. The code for placing will be of the following 

D(dictionary) 63(subject) 1 (sequence number). Linguistic dictionaries should be 
placed in Group 80 1 ; encyclopedias in Group 0 9: 

'A* Acronyms, 'D1R' Directories, and *AT Atlases are kept in separate groups, 
arranged within each group by sequential number; 

T Information guides usually treat one subject. They should be arranged in subject 
groups, and within each group by a sequential number. 

Specific bibliographies arc not grouped together. Instead, they are placed with the 
relevant collections of books and pamphlets according to subject group. 

Catalogues of Reference Books 

Reference books should be treated in the same way as books and pamphlets and placed 
in the same catalogue. To bring them together in the classified catalogue, the following 
UDC codes are used: 



- Group (038); 
Monolingual dictionaries 80 1 ,32 1 . 1 ; 
Bilingual dictionaries 80 1 .32 1 .2; 
Multilingual dictionaries 801.321.9; 

- Group W (083.73); 
Group 'DIIT (058); 

- Group 'AT (084); 

- Group T (02). 

1.9 Miscellaneous Documents 

Publishers, booksellers, and wholesalers of library equipment who send their cata- 
logues to the Hbn r y often send a new version each year. These catalogues should 
be kept in boxes, arranged alphabetically under the name cf the publisher, bookseller, 
or wholesaler. The reasons for doing this are the following: 
Users often ask for these catalogues; 

The same catalogue arrives at the library in different ways and at different times. 
By keeping them together, the librarian can easily check whether he already has 
the catalogue. 



2 Ways of Overcoming a Shortage of Funds 

Most libraries suffer from a shortage of funds, but there arc various ways of overcom- 
ing this, as will be explained below. 

The Third World Academy of Sciences has set up a donation scheme under which 
it is willing to consider requests from libraries in developing countries for important 
and badly-needed scientific textbooks. Requests for such books can be made on forms 
that can be obtained from: 

The Office of the Executive Secretary 

Third World Academy of Sciences 

Co International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP 

P.O. Box 586 

34100 Triest 


The titles, authors, and publishers of the requested literature should be stated on the 

The British Book Council also considers requests for books. A representative of the 
Council can be contacted through the British Embassy. 

The English Language Book Society/ELBS is funded by the Overseas Development 
Administration of the British Government and is administered by the Low-Priced 
Books Department of the British Council. The Society makes available unabridged 
editions of British publishers' textbooks, chosen by specialists for their value to stu- 
dents in developing countries. The books arc priced at between one-third and one-half 
of the price of the cheapest publishers' editions. Catalogues giving full information 
about individual titles can be obtained from the original publisher or his agent. Orders 
for books should be sent to: 

The English Language Book Society 

The British Council 

65 Davies Street 

London W1Y2AA 

United Kingdom 

In many countries, the shortage of foreign currency hinders the import of publications. 
In some of these countries, UNESCO coupons, the values of which are expressed 
in U.S. dollars, can be purchased with national currency and used to pay for the foreign 
book purchases. In every user country, there : s a body responsible for the sale of the 
coupons. Further information and a list ot the national distributing bodies can be 
obtained from: 

The UNESCO Coupon Office 

7 Place dc Fontenoy 

75015 Paris 




Representatives of international aid organizations often visit institutions in developing 
countries, and sometimes spend some time in the library. For these visitors, the library 
should keep a list of publications it would like to have, in the hope that the visitors 
will be willing to supply or fund them. For books that are urgently needed, of course, 
one cannot merely wait for a visitor to turn up. To cover these cases, aid organizations 
could place a small deposit with one of the international booksellers* Afterwards, on 
a regular basis, the library could justify the way it spends the money. 

Aid organizations arc seldom willing to fund subscriptions to journals because in 
this way they commit themselves for long periods. Sometimes, they can be persuaded 
to pay a subscription for a period of five years, with a commitment to pay once only. 
Subscriptions are even cheaper that way. 

The major donation schemes in existence have been described by Carol Priestly in 
The Book Famine: A Selective Directory for Book and Journal Assistance to 
Universities in Africa'. It was first published in the Journal of the International African 
Institute {\99Q) Vol. 60(1): pp 135-148, and is available as a reprint from: 

International African Institute 1AI 
Lionel Robbins Building 
10 Portugal Street 
London WC2A 2HD 
United Kingdom. 

3 Library Personnel 

The personnel required in a library and the education and skills they should have will. 

The library attendants will be responsible for: 
Book and journal administration; 
Cataloguing and book preparation for shelving; 

- Loan administration; 

- Day-to-day affairs. 

Few libraries have unlimited resources, so priorities may have to be set for the people 
the library will serve. The following ranking order could be observed: 

Staff and students of the mother organization; 

Persons outside the organization, but working in similar fields; 


In performing their tasks, the library personnel will use: 
The library's own collection; 

Collections of other libraries (inter-library loans, resource sharing); 

Information made available by documentation and information services, online 

retrieval, databases on compact discs. 

3.1 Training Possibilities for Library Personnel 

Good personnel are the backbone of a library, but well-trained people arc not always 
available. They will therefore have to be trained on the job, or sent to attend courses 

of course, vary from one li- 
brary to another. Ideally, a 
library should have a librar- 
ian and one or more library 
attendants (Figure 1 1 ). 

The librarian will be res- 
ponsible for: 

Figure 1 1 Librar\ attendants at the loan desk 

- Overall management and 
The collection of publi- 

Classification and docu- 

Reference and informa- 
tion work: 
User instruction. 



in or outside the country. Before people are sent on courses, however, a clear descrip- 
tion should be made of the work the library will be required to do. This should be 
followed by an analysis of the strong and weak points of the persons who will be 
appointed as library personnel. A comparison of these points with the work to be 
done will identify the training needs. 

Information on training can be found in: 

- International Guide to Library and Information Science Education : A Reference 
Source for Educational Programs in the Information Fields Worldwide. Eds. J. Riss 
Fang and P. Nauta. Saur 1985. IFLA Publication 32. 537 pp. 
Study Abroad 1989-1990-1991. Vol 26. UNESCO 1989. 1394 pp.; 
FID News Bulletin, which includes a newsletter on training programs for informa- 
tion personnel. 

Possibilities for grants can be explored in the books listed under the heading 'Grants' 
in Appendix 8. Appendix 10 gives the addresses of some library organizations. The 
International Federation of Library Associations IFLA will supply the addresses of 
specific library organizations. 

3.2 Job Descriptions for Library Personnel 

Within an organization where personnel can 
change their positions quite rapidly, a certain 
consistency in careers can be guaranteed if job 
descriptions arc clearly recorded on paper. 

In job descriptions for library personnel, 
attention should be given to the place the lib- 
rary occupies within the mother organization. 
This place can have consequences for the 
doctor salaries of the library personnel. The two pos- 

sible places the library might occupy arc 
shown in Figure 12. These arc: 
The library is at the same level as the other 
departments of the mother organization: 
The library is part of the office administra- 
tion of the organization, or at least at the 

adm n.s!ta!ior* 


jMrsonnct a'»a.» 

Figure 1 2 Possible organizational schemes of 
a uniwtMty or research institution, showing same level, 

the position of the library 

In the job description, the position of the per- 
son concerned in relation to the librarian or to any subordinate persons should be 
made clear. 

All aspects of the job should be analyzed and recorded. The responsibilities that 
go with the job should be clearly set out. This will protect the person concerned against 
staff members or others who expect him to do things that arc not part of his job. 
People often try to enlist the services of library personnel for their own purposes. 

When the analysis of the weak and strong points of the library personnel is compared 



with the job descriptions, the training needs will become definitive. If the person con- 
cerned is interested and there arc no constraints, the selection of a course can start. 
The person should be made aware of his future prospects if he successfully completes 
the course. 

3.3 Journals for Library Personnel 

Nowadays, developments in library and information science are intensive and fast, 
and it is important that library personnel keep up with those developments. The library 
should therefore subscribe to some of the journals that cover these subjects. Appendix 
9 gives a list of such journals. The list also includes journals on very specific subjects. 
If changes are being contemplated in the operation of the library, a subscription to 
some of these journals could be very useful. 



4 Library Management 

When a new library is being started or an existing one is being rehabilitated, decisions 
have to be made on many matters: ordering, shelf order, cataloguing, classification, 
accessions, loan policy and administration, computerization, documentation, services, 
statistics, and budget. All these matters will be treated in separate sections in this 
chapter, but first, the philosophy behind them will be explained. 

A library is there, above all, for its users. Each decision that is made should take 
their wishes into account. Users arc not interested in whether a library scores high 
by the standards of library science. What they want is to get the information they 
need quickly and without fuss. This general philosophy has various consequences, 
which will be discussed below: 

- One catalogue should cover all the various kinds of publications in the library. In 
this way, the user does not have to know whether what he is looking for is a book, 
a pamphlet, an FAO publication, or part of a series; 

If publications are known under different names, they should not be entered in 
the catalogue strictly by cataloguing rules. Instead, they should be entered under 
their different names to ensure that users can find them; 

- There should be one shelf order, so that call numbers for different collections of 
publications have the same structure; 

- Users should have free access to all the publications in the library. They like to 
browse through the collection, ignoring tools like classified catalogues, and ignoring 
the fact that the most popular publications arc not on the library shelves, but on 
the desks of their fellow library users; 

Users should be made aware of new publications. The latest issues of journals and 
newly-arrived books should be on display; 

On the question of whether journals should be circulated, it must be said that most 
library users like to receive the journals in their own offices where they can sit and 
read them at their leisure. But, from the library's point of view, journal circulation 
has the following disadvantages: 

• Some journals have to be constantly available in the library. If they arc also circu- 
lated, a double subscription would be needed; 

• Journal circulation, even if computerized, is very labour-intensive; 

• Unless the circulation is strictly controlled, journals easily get lost; 

• If journals are circulated, users will visit the library less often and will not be 
aware of other newly-arrived publications; 

A reading table full of unimportant journals will not be used. That implies that 
the one or two interesting ones among them will also be missed; 
Most users have only limited time to read, so they should not be confronted with 
an overwhelming number of new publications. A strict selection has to be made; 
When an existing library is being rehabilitated, outside experts arc often asked to 
help. Each of these experts has his own ideas, ovcrstrcssing the advantages of his 
own system and exaggerating the disadvantages of any others. In reality, the diffcr- 



ences between the various systems are not that big. But an expert proves his existence 
best by overemphasizing the chaos he found and describing the many changes he 
felt were needed to clean up the mess. Nevertheless, every change in shelf order 
or classifying system means a great deal of work. And if the change cannot be com- 
pleted, the result will be two systems operating in the one library. Imagine what 
a third expert with totally new ideas would do to these two already existing systems! 
The result could only be chaos! It is therefore often wiser to accept a somewhat 
imperfect situation and to avoid making too many changes; 
I n every library, there are backloads (i.e. publications not placed in the library collec- 
tion or in its catalogue). Most of these works are old and unused. Some people 
will say they are not used because users do not know of their existence. Other argue 
that they are not very interesting. Most users will have already browsed in this kind 
of literature and will have selected the more useful and interesting works. Backloads 
do not deserve a high priority. A librarian's first task is to deal with the newly-arrived 
publications and offer them to the users. If he starts on the backload. he must make 
a severe selection, and must organize the work in a way that does not interfere 
with the other work in the library. 

4,1 Analyses of the Use of the Library and Its Users 

As was discussed briefly in Section 1.2 (Selection Criteria in General), the analyses 
of how the library is used and by whom arc invaluable in deciding which publications 
to include in the collection. These analyses can also reveal information that will be 
helpful in managing the library. 

An analysis of use can be done by analyzing the loan slips, which tell 'Who borrowed 
what?' Another way is to analyze the lists of references in publications by staff 
members. These lists tell even more clearly which publications have actually been con- 

The 'Who?' can be divided into staff members and students of the mother organiza- 
tion, persons from outside but working in similar fields, and others. If the management 
of the mother organization has doubts about whether the library is being used, this 
analysis may remove those doubts. This information might also convince aid organiza- 
tions that many people will benefit from any support they give. Other institutions 
using the library, after seeing the results of this analysis, might feel that some support 
on their part is warranted. 

The 'What?' can be divided into kind of publication, age of publication, language 
of publication, and who the publication cites. 

The results of these analyses can be compared with the existing policy in the library. 
Sometimes, this may reveal that changes are necessary. Some considerations might 

Are the number of monographs used in accordance with the number of monographs 
bought or acquired? 

If many of the borrowed publications belong to the 'grey literature', this could mean 
that the library should give more attention to establishing exchange agreements 
and asking for publications free of charge; 

If many publications included in reference lists are not available in the library, this 



could mean that inter-library loans should be better organized or that more funds 
are needed to buy publications; 

- If many articles arc included in reference lists, are they from well-known journals 
or from more obscure ones? If from obscure journals, this could mean that the 
library ought to give more attention to creating its own documentation system. 
Or it could mean that users should be encouraged to use abstract journals and online 

- The age of publications will reveal which of the older works should be retained 
in the collection. This information will also be valuable when weeding out the collec- 
tion or dealing with backloads; 

Research is often a continuation of research already done by an author. This might 
justify many self-citations, but it could also mean that no literature retrieval - or 
not enough - was done. This, in turn, could mean that the library ought to give 
more attention to its reference services, to abstract journals, or to online facilities. 

The advantage of analyzing the loan slips or reference lists is that the actual use of 
publications is registered. In contrast, in reply to written or oral enquiries, people 
do not always tell what they actually used, but include what they think they ought 
to have used. The disadvantage of 'use analysis' is that it provides no information 
about any other use of the library. It docs not, for example, reveal whether a user 
read an article or looked up some infoimation in a reference book. This kind of infor- 
mation can only be gathered via enquiries or by observing the user at work in the 

4.2 Ordering 

After a librarian has decided which titles he will order, ask for under an exchange 
agreement, or acquire as a gift (all from now on referred to as 'ordered'), he should 
check whether they are already in the collection or whether they have already been 
ordered. For each book that is ordered, a card should be prepared and kept on file 
in alphabetical order of the author's name. When the book arrives, the card should 
be removed from the file. This prevents duplication. 

Deserving special attention arc new editions of publications. Docs the new edition 
really add any new information? A comparison of the number of pages is usually 
a good indicator. 

Publishers' catalogues often announce forthcoming publications that are not yet 
finished. Sometimes, it takes quite a while before they become available. Then, they 
often appear under a different title or by a different author. To avoid confusion, it 
is often better to wait with ordering such publications until they are definitely available. 


Payment for purchases can be made with UNESCO coupoi. bank cheques, or any 
other suitable means. To avoid laborious procedures, a deposit account could be 
opened with one or two well-known booksellers. 



Appendix 1 1 gives an example of an international standard contract for exchange 
agreements. Asking for publications in exchange is only possible, of course, if the 
mother organization is also publishing. 

Piaase S6Ki We lO'iowng DuDicat-on '.c ILRl 

P O B0« 45 6r0O AA Watjensngen The Neihenancs 


l' any chargos a»e <nvoivea please sefXJ a oro forma invoice Poslbus 45 

6700 AA Wageruncjer 

wage^rvgeo S'gnatufO Netherlands 

Figure 1 3 Example of it request card for publications 

Numerous organizations offer their publications free of charge. A request on a pre- 
prepared card or letter (Figure 13) often gets good results. In some cases, these works 
can only be ordered with standard order forms or according to certain rules. For the 
following organizations, these standard forms or information on how to order should 
be gathered in advance: 

European Community, EC Office for Official Publications of the EC, 5 Rue du 

Commerce, Postbus 1003, Luxemburg; 

Food and Agriculture Organisation- FAO. Distribution and Sales Section, Via Delle 
Tcrme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy; 7 
- Micro Info, 300 North Zeels Road, Box 91 , Ann Arbor, Michigan MI 48 106, U.S.A. 
Distribution centre for publications of NTIS, GPO, World Bank, etc.; 
National Technical Information Service/NTIS, U.S. Department of Commerce, 
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia VA 22161, U.S.A. NTIS is a self-sup- 
porting agency, established to foster technological development through the disse- 
mination of government-funded research findings and results. Available are over 
1.6 million technical reports describing the results of research conducted by the 
most prestigious government, university, and corporate research organizations in 
the U.S.A. and abroad. Publications made available through NTIS arc also supplied 
by Micro Info; 

UNESCO, Division of Book Development and International Cultural Exchanges, 
7 Place dc Fontcnoy, 75700 Paris, France; 

United States Agency for international Development. USAID, Research and Devel- 
opment Report Distribution Center, P.O. Box 353, Norfolk, Virginia VA 23501, 

U.S. Government Printing Office GPO, Superintendent of Documents, Wash- 
ington DC 20402, U.S.A. GPO complements NTIS by publishing all popular report 
titles originating from U.S. government agencies. As the principal publishing agency 
of the Federal Government, GPO has in stock a collection of some 25,000 to 30,000 
titles, including government and consumer publications, science and technology, 
legislative documents, and congress reports. Some 3,000 titles are added to the col- 
lection each year; 



- University Microfilm International. UMI, 30-32 Mortimer Street, London, 
WIN 7RA, England. UMI publishes doctoral dissertations at the rate of 30,000 
new titles a year. These products are available in hardback, paperback, or micro- 
form. The UMI 'Datrix' computer stores the titles and bibliographic data on 700,000 
dissertations. On request and on payment of U.S. S30, a computer search can be 
done in a certain field of interest, giving up to a maximum of 1 50 titles; 

- World Bank, Publication Unit, 1818 H Street North West, Washington DC 204H 

- World Meteorological Organization, Publication Sales Unit, Avenue Guiseppc 
Motla41, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. 

4.3 Catalogues 

The publications in the library should be registered in the following card catalogues: 
- Catalogue for books, reference works, pamphlets, and interesting publications as 
part of a series; 

Catalogue for journals, newsletters, publications that contain articles on more than 
one subject; 

• Catalogue for series. Publications often from (research) institutions, each treating 
a separate subject, with a series title in common. 

4.3.1 Catalogues for Books, Reference Works, and Pamphlets 

For books, reference works, and pamphlets, cards could be prepared for the following 

Author Catalogue: The cards are arranged in alphabetical order of the author's 
name. If no author's name is available, the name of the sponsoring or publishing 
organization determines the order; 

Title Catalogue: The cards are arranged in alphabetical order of the first word of 
the title, disregarding unimportant words like The' or 'A'. This catalogue is not 
always kept in a library, which is understandable because it is of little extra help 
in retrieving titles and involves extra work: 

Classified or Subject Catalogue: The cards arc arranged by subject on the basis 
of the Universal Decimal Classification; 

Geographical Catalogue: The cards are arranged by geographical location. If many 
questions are expected on certain countries or regions, this catalogue can be very 

Shelf List; The cards are arranged in the same order as the publications on the 
shelf in the library. A shelf list is useful in keeping a check on the library stock. 
l ; or each collection (books, pamphlets, various groups of reference works), a shelf 
list should be made. A shelf list should not be used as a classified catalogue because 
it ignores the fact that publications often treat more than one subject. 
At the very least, a library should keep an Author Catalogue and a Classified Cata- 



What to Enter on a Catalogue Card 

Figure 14 shows an example of a catalogue card, which has the following information 
(the 'book description') entered on it: 

- Author (or authors); 

- Call number; 

• • Place of publication, publisher, year of publication; 

- Number of pages; 

- Series title, if applicable; 
Classification code. 

G.Nabcrand 631.6 NAB 

P.M. van den Heuvel 

Drainage: An Annotated Guide to Books 
and Journals. Wageningcn: ILR1 1984. 
47 pp. (Bibliography. ILR1. No. 18) 



Figure 14 Example of a catalogue card 

Book descriptions can be made in accordance with the American Library Association's 
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules or with the International Federation of Library 
Associations' International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions for monographic 
publications, for non-book materials, and for series. 

Production of the Cards 

The catalogue cards can be produced 
with the help of a Minigraph, a small 
stencil machine (Figure 15). Weber, 
711 W. Algonquin Road, Arlington 
Heights, Illinois IL 60005, U.S.A., 
produces the Minigraph 120. A new 
one will cost about U.S. S2,()00. 
Besides the minigraph, special sten- 
cils and library cards will be needed, 
both of which arc rather expensive. 

For the example given in Figure 
14, a total of five cards need to be 
produced. On each card, the relevant 




item of information for each catalogue is underlined. Two cards will be entered in 
the Author's Catalogue: in one, 'Nabcr' will be underlined; in the other, wan den 
Hcuvel\ One card will be placed in the Classified Catalogue, with the number '63 1 .62' 
underlined. The word 'Drainage* will be underlined for the Title Catalogue, and the 
number '63 1 .6 NAB* for the Shelf List. 

The cards arc filed in the catalogues in accordance with certain rules. If publications 
have the same author or the same classification code, the cards are arranged by date 
of publication, the most recent being placed first. 

4.3.2 Call Numbers 

The call numbers that are given to the various types of publications are summarized 
in Table 1. 

Tabic I Various types of publications and ihcir call numbers 

Publications Call numbers 

Books 55*) DER 

Journals abstract journals J**) 1***) 

Scries. Annual Reports S 1. S 5. S 10****) 

Piimphlcls 55 | 
Reference books: 

Encyclopedia dictionary geographical reference works 1)55 1 

Directories [MR 55 1 

Atlases AT 55 1 

Information guides 155 1 

Acronyms A 55 1 

* Subject code 

* Collection type 

* Sequential number 

* In assembling publications from the same institute, allowance should be made for new series by keeping 
some numbers in rescrxe 

4.3.3 Catalogues for Journals/Series 

Journals, newsletters, and all publications that cover more than one subject are placed 
in the catalogue for journals. For each journal, a kardex card is prepared and filed 
in a kardex system. The cards are arranged in alphabetical order of the first word 
of the journal's title. There is only one catalogue for current and non-current journals. 
Whenever a new issue of a journal arrives in the library, its volume number and issue 
number are filed on the card. 

Series, which are often publications from (research) institutions, each publication 
treating a separate subject with the series title in common, are placed in the catalogue 
for series. For each series, a kardex card is prepared. The cards are arranged in alphabe- 
tical order of the first word of the institution's name. If the same institution produces 



more than one series, the order will be decided by the name of the series. An institu- 
tion's annual reports are treated as a series. 

4.3.4 Stock Book 

Many libraries have what is called a stock book. As each new publication arrives 
in the library, various items of information about it (date of arrival, author, tkle, 
publisher, price) are entered in the stock book. Often, nobody in the library knows 
why this stock book is being kept. Sometimes, library personnel say that it is there 
for administrative purposes or to enable statistical information about the lib „ry to 
be gathered. But it is clear that it costs quite a lot of time to keep up. For that reason, 
it might be wise to consider its advantages and disadvantages, and afterwards decide 
whether it ought to be continued or not. 

4.3.5 Computerization of the Catalogues 

Producing cards by hand and filing them in the catalogues is a time-consuming process. 
Since a minigraph costs about as much as a computer, it is worthwhile considering 
the computerization of the catalogues. 

In a card catalogue, a title of a book can only be retrieved on the first word of 
the title. In a database, it can be retrieved on each word of the title, on year of publica- 
tion, or on language of the text. The possibilities for retrieval increase tremendously. 
Once the information has been stored, it can be selected in various ways and can easily 
be reorganized. For staff members with a special interest, lists of titles can be produced 
on a regular basis. An accession list arranged per subject is easy to compose. A com- 
puter in the library opens up endless possibilities. 

But, there is one great disadvantage to computers. They need maintenance and, 
if they break down, sophisticated knowledge is needed to repair them. Often, parts 
have to be replaced, and have to be paid for in foreign currency. If the catalogues 
are stored in a computer and this computer is 'down' (i.e. not working), users have 
no access to the publications. If a broken-down computer cannot be repaired and 
money to buy a new one is lacking, the library faces a tremendous backload. (Sec 
also Section 4.7: Computerization of the Library.) 

4.4 Classification System 

If a library has a classification system already in use, there should be very good argu- 
ments for changing to another system. Changing from one system to another is extre- 
mely laborious and when not properly organized gives backloads, the plague of every 

Choosing a classification system on the basis of a comparison of existing systems 
costs a lot of time and demands some experience with such systems. Each system has 
its advantages and disadvantages, and these are even different for different types of 


♦ V 

With the idea that a classification system should be adapted to the library's own 
circumstances, many people develop their own systems. Even if the results are better 
than any of the existing systems, this costs a lot of effort. Often, self-created systems 
prove unable to cope with new developments within a discipline, or they are of limited 
value if the direction of research of the mother organization changes. In these kinds 
of self-developed systems, it always becomes difficult to fit in an increasing number 
of publications about an increasing number of new subjects. 

There are always these helpful staff members willing to help prepare a classification 
system. But, in general, they are not familiar with such systems, and are only 
acquainted with one or two disciplines. Within these disciplines, they tend to develop 
a system with many groups, while treating other disciplines only very broadly. 

Well-known classification systems like Dewey, Library of Congress, or the Univer- 
sal Decimal Classification/ UDC have many advantages. For an .-^cultural library 
with a scientific and technological character, and containing books, but also pam- 
phlets, which often deal with very specific topics. UDC is Ihc prima inter pares. 

Information on UDC can be obtained from the Federation International de Docu- 
mentation/FID. P.O. Box 90402, 2509 LK The Hague, The Netherlands. See also: 
UDC: A Brief Introduction by G. Robinson (FID 1984. 8 pp.) This publication sums 
up which introductory guides to UDC are available and in which languages, and 
ad vises on which part of UDC to buy. 

Sometimes, when using UDC, one may find it hard to decide which code to choose. 
For that reason, once a decision has been made, it should be recorded on a library 
card. The cards are arranged by keywords describing the aspect or subject on which 
the decision was made. 

4.5 Accessions 

Every time the word library* is used in this book, it implies 
* \ ; library and information services'. Pait of a library's task 

'■ ' .. t - fc is to collect, order, catalogue, and keep its publications. 

Another very important part of its task is to disseminate 
". j | | ;i the acquired information among its users. Thiscan be done 

in the following ways: 
ligurc 16 Shelf for the dU- By displaying newly-acquired books (Figure 16) and the 

play of hooks latest issues of journals (sec Figure 6); 

By displaying other publications, series, pamphlets (Fig- 
ure 17). After a strict selection has been made of which to include in the collection, 
a further selection of which to display is needed. It defeats its purpose if too many 
publications are on display; 

By supplying, on the day a new journal issue arri ves, copies of its table of contents 
to staff members known to be interested in its subject matter; or. by supplying copies 
to all staff members each week or fortnight; 

By disseminating information on a personal basis to all persons concerned. This 
is a very fruitful activity because it brings the librarian into regular contact with 
staff members. The information disseminated in this way need not be limited to 
publications, but might also concern forthcoming workshops or congresses; 



- By preparing a Current Awareness Bulletin or A e cess ion List 
of ncwly-acquircd publications, with or without an abstract 
with each title. (An example of the cover and a page of an Acces- 
sion List is given in Appendix 1 2. ) 

. ---V ^.7- ligurc 1 7 Periodicals rack lor l he display of pamphlets 

4.6 Loan Administration 

Ottf.oteca Facuidade Agro^om* 

Ho adiess 
f- .icuiiy 

Pre-preparcd slips arc used for the loan ad- 
ministration. An example is shown in Figure 
18. The slips are arranged in two ways: 
In alphabetical order of the name of the 
user. In this way, it can quickly be seen 
who has borrowed which publications; 
In the same order as used for the shelf list. 
In this way, it can quickly be seen what 
title has been borrowed and by whom. 

1 mure IN lAumplcofa loan slip 

For a proper loan administration, certain 
rules have to be set. (See also Appendix 17: 
Library Regulations.) 

Opening Hours 

The opening hours need not necessarily coincide with the working hours of the library 
staff. Sometimes, it is useful to open the library half an hour or so later and to close 
it earlier to give the staff the opportunity to deal with work that needs concentration. 

Who Con Borrow '/ 

1 1 is quite understandable that persons outside the mother organization are not allowed 
to borrow from the library. If they do and the books are not returned on time, it 
is very time-consuming to get them back, especially if transport is limited and mail 
services are unreliable. Exceptions could be made for persons recommended by staff 



What Can Be Borrowed? 

Books, pamphlets, and series can be borrowed. Reference works, the latest issues of 
journals, and older journals cannot be borrowed. If books are frequently used and 
if it is not possible to buy extra copies, the books can only be consulted in the library. 

How Long How Many? 

h'iuure 19 A hook trolley 

A book could be borrowed for, say, two weeks, and 
a maximum of four books could be borrowed by one 
person at one time. For people doing research or 
working on a publication, two weeks is not long and 
four books might not be enough. In such cases, 
exceptions can be made. 

If books are not returned, a reminder can be sent 
after a fortnight. No new books can be borrowed 
until the others have been returned. 

Sometimes, people who do not return books on 
time have to pay a fine, but it has never been clearly 
proved that imposing a fine improves the borrowing 
behaviour of users. 

Returned books, but also books just briefly con- 
sulted in the library, should not be shelved by users. 
Many books 'disappear' because they are shelved in 
the wrong place. Any shelving should be done by 
trained library staff. Returned books could be 
placed on a book trolley (Figure 19), to be shelved 
by the staff at their convenience, say once a day. 
Kick-steps, as shown in Figure 20, will enable them 
to reach the higher shelves, or to be seated when 
shelving lower shelves. 

Figure 20 Kick -steps facilitate shelv- 

4.6.1 Inter-Library Loans 

If library users often consult abstract journals or have access to online facilities, they 
will find many interesting titles that are not available in the library. In such cases, 
these documents might possibly be obtained from the following organizations: 

British Library: Document Supply Centre. Its stock of documents includes 2()(),()()0 
journals, 3,000,000 reports, 500,000 theses, 300,000 conference proceedings, and 
3,000,000 books. The Centre uses postal request forms which are prepaid by means 
of coupons attached to them. Each coupon is valid for a photocopy of up to 10 
pages. One booklet of coupons costs U.S. $140. Further information can be 
obtained from: Customer Services, The British Library Document Supply Centre, 
Boston Spa, Wcthcrby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, England; 



Centro Intcrnacional de Agricultura Tropical/CI AT. CI AT offers Paginas de Conte- 
nicio = Pagi>s of Contents = Pages de Matters. Photocopics-of the articles can be 
requested from CIAT Scrvicio de Fotocopias, Unidade de Information, Apartado 
Aereo 6713, Cali, Colombia. For addresses in Asia and Africa, the price of one 
photocopy is U.S. $0.20; for addresses in the Caribbean, Latin America, and other 
countries, the price is U.S. S0.30. Payment is possible in various ways (e.g. by using 
coupons issued by CIAT); 

International Livestock Centre for Africa/ 1 LC A. ILCA produces a quarterly Bulle- 
tin of Contents. To each library in Sub-Saharan Africa receiving these bulletins, 
I LCA will provide, free of charge, a maximum of 30 photocopies drawn from articles 
listed in them. Library and Documentation Services ILCA, P.O. Box 5689, Addis 
Abbaba, Ethiopia: 

Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Coopcration.'CTA. In addition to its 
other services, CTA supplies photocopies free of charge to African, Caribbean, and 
Pacific (ACP) countries. More information can be obtained from CTA, QAS Docu- 
mentation, P.O. Box 380, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands: 
CAB International, Document Delivery Service. This Service can supply photoco- 
pies of most items in their abstract journals. Charges (including first-class air-mail 
dclive V. £5.00 per item of up to 1 5 pages, plus £0.30 per additional page. Frequent 
users if the service could open a deposit account. All requests must be made on 
a form included in most CABI abstract journals. These forms should be sent to: 
CAB International, 56 Queen's Gate, London SW7 5JR, England; 
AGLINET, which is a voluntary association of large agricultural libraries collabor- 
ating to improve the provision of publications in the wide field of agriculture and 
related sciences. The network is coordinated by the David Lubin Memorial Library 
at FAO in Rome, Italy. The following agricultural libraries, among others, form 
part of AGLINET: 

• David Lubin Memorial Library, FAO, Via delleTcrmi di Caracalla, 001 00 Rome, 

. Agricultural University Library, P.O. Box 9 100, 6700 HA Wageningen, The Neth- 

• Centro Nacional de Informacao Documental Agricola, Esplantda dos Minister- 
ios, Ancxo 1 do Ministcrio da Agricultura. Bloco k B' Ala Oeste, Terrco e 1 andar, 
Ciaxa Postal 10.2432, 70043 Brasilia DF, Brasil; 

• Centro Interamericanodc Documentation e Information Agricola (CIDI A), Bib- 
liotcca Conmemorativa Orton, Apartado Postal 55, 2200 Coronado, San Jose, 
Costa Rica; 

National Agricultural Librarv,NAL of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
Requests should be submitted on the American Library Association's Intcrlibrary 
Loan Request Forms. More information is available from: N AL, Office of the Dep- 
uty Director for Technical Information Systems, Utilization Section, Beltsville, 
Maryland MD 20705, U.S.A. 

If a publication issued by one of the well-known international (research) institutions 
is wanted, it is often easier and quicker to request it directly from the institution instead 
of borrowing it. 



4.7 Computerization of the Library 

Section 4.3.5 discussed the computerization of cataloguing, stating that this increases 
the retrieval possibilities enormously. Before using a computer for cataloguing, how- 
ever, one would be wise to gain some experience with the machine by using it as a 
word processor to prepare accession lists and lists of journals and series available 
in the library. 

The next step could be to start online literature retrieval by connecting the micro- 
computer to one or more vendors or host computers such as DIALOG and ESA I RS. 
If telephone lines are unreliable, compact discs could be used instead. The computeri- 
zation of these activities is less vulnerable to a breakdown of the machine because 
the work can easily be postponed or even stopped. 

After some experience has been gained and maintenance is assured, one could then 
proceed to computerize the catalogues. 

(Computerizing the loan administration only pays off if many publications arc bor- 
rowed or returned each day.) 

Appendix 13 presents a possible computer configuration for a small library. This 
is merely an example. Many other possible combinations of computers, printers, 
modems, etc., are equally good. In the end, the differences between the various possibili- 
ties arc not that big; each type, brand, and combination has its advocates. 

More information on computerization is available in the articles by Stuart J . Kolner . 
Librarian and Associate Professor, Library of Health Science, University of Illinois, 
College of Medicine, 1601 Park View Avenue, Rockford, Illinois IL 61 107. U.S.A. 
These articles are: 

- 'The IBM PC as an Online Search Machine: 
Tart I : Anatomy for Searchers*. In: Online January 1985; 
Tart II : Physiology for Searchers*. In: Online March 1985; 
Tart III: Introduction to Software*. In: Online May 1985; 
Tart IV: Telecommunication and Crosstalk XVI\ In: Online My 1985. 

Focusing on the software available for use in a library is the book: Microcomputer 
Applications for Online and Local Information Systems : A Comparison of 30 Software 
Packages by The Netherlands Association of Users of Online Information Systems. 
It was published in 1987 by VOGIN, C/o Library Gorlaeus Laboratory, P.O. Box 
9502. 2300 RA Lcydcn, The Netherlands. The abstract included in the book states: 

Three types of software have been tested which can be used on IBM compati- 
ble microcomputers: 

- Programs for terminal emulation and communication; 
Programs for conversion of received data; 

Programs for storage and retrieval of literature in local databases. 
With software for these three applications, data can be downloaded from 
external computers and used directly to bailc*. a local documentation system.* 

4.8 Documentation 

Documentation means making descriptions of articles in journals, chapters in books. 


and papers in congress proceedings, and placing these descriptions in the catalogues 
of the library. Current bibliographies and abstract journals - today also available 
through host computers or vendors offer the same kind of information. Is there, 
then, any need for documentation within the library? 

Online retrieval is expensive and foreign currency is needed to pay for it. Although 
it will give a list of interesting titles, often with abstracts, the original papers may 
not be available in the library. Besides, the list may not contain publications about 
agriculture in the country where the library is situated, especially if they are published 
in lesser-known journals. 

Documentation within a library has one great advantage: not only can titles be 
retrieved, but the publications themselves are directly available. This documentation 
can concentrate on exactly the subjects that staff members are interested in. Documen- 
tation, not repeating what has already been done by documentation and information 
services, but supplementary to them, is very useful for library users. 

For criteria on what to include in this documentation, see Section 1.7.1: Selection 
Criteria for Pamphlets. 

4.9 Library Services 

Besides the services already discussed - loans, inter-library loans, accession lists, and 
other ways of presenting materials acquired by the library - the following services 
could be offered: 

Figure 21 A paper culler (A) and a paper guillotine (B) 


Photocopying machine: 
To be used by the users 
and by the library staff to 
supply staff members with 
documents they request. 
The machine will not be 
used to copy non-library 

A paper cutter (Figure 
21 A) or paper guillotine 
(Figure 21 B): A useful 
piece of equipment to trim 
photocopies or other 
papers to size; 
Microfiche reader (Figure 
22): Some catalogues from 
other (often large) libraries 
are available on micro- 
fiches. Some publications 
are also available on micro- 
fiche. This makes them 
cheaper to acquire and 
they take up less space; 
Quest ion-and- Answer 
Service: The library staff 
will be asked to perform all 
kinds of reference work for 
staff members. A request 
form for such work is 
shown in Figure 23. These 

forms should be available at several places in the organization. 

Figure 22 A microfiche reader 

P;ease sene mtormahon on 
(g:ve as many dwai's as possb'el 

Tho (Q^ovMng i-tofmatLon or me above Subioct >s already 



f igure 2} Request form lor Qucstion-and-Answer Service 

4.10 Statistics 

In libraries all over the world, lots of data are gathered: number of books, numb* 
of visitors, other activities. Somewhere in the past, information on these subjects wn 
needed and a regular count was started. Once started, it simply never stopped, eve 
if the information is no longer required. And although, if properly organized, countin 
does not take much time, gathering useless information is a total waste of effort. 

Of course, to manage a library properly, some information must be gathered. S< 
what is needed is the following: 

The number of publications, because that will determine: 

• The number of catalogue cards required (5-6 times the number of publication: 
and the number of stencils; 

• The metres of space required on the shelves (about 30 books to one metre, aboi 
1 00- 1 50 reports to one metre); 



. The number of persons needed for cataloguing and preparing for shelving (one 
person can handle about 30 publications a day, not including the preparation 
and Tiling of the cards) and the number of persons required for classifying (one 
person can handle about 30 publications a day); 

• The budget for books to be bought; 

- The number of persons consulting reference works and other publications, because 
that will determine the number of persons needed for reference work and reshclving; 

- The number of loan slips used, because that will determine: 

• The number of loan slips to be bought; 

• The number of persons needed for loan administration, including inter-library 

If these figures show a tendency to stabilize, counting can be stopped. If there is any 
noticeable increase or decrease in activities, it can be restarted. 

People visiting a library always want to know how many books, journals, etc., it con- 
tains. Any inquiry about the library also asks this question. So, once in a while, a 
rough estimate could be made, even though this says nothing whatsoever about the 
value of the collection. 

Often, such statistics are used to make comparisons between libraries. In that case, 
it should be made clear exactly what is counted. In the number of journals, for instance, 
does this include all kinds of newsletters received free of charge? Or, if only one copy 
of a journal was ever received, is it catalogued and counted among the journals? Are 
scries counted with the journals or separately? 

4.11 Budget 

A library should have its own budget, to be spent under the supervision of the librarian 
in cooperation with the library board. The funds required depend heavily on circum- 
stances, but some general rules can be given. So, the budget should cover funds for: 

Approximately one book or other publication for each staff member each year: 

U.S. S75-S100 per book; 

One or two core journals, 15 to 20 other journals, and one abstract journal per 
discipline: U.S. SI5O-S20O per journal, U.S. S30O-S50O per abstract journal; 
Catalogue cards equal to the number of publications, multiplied by 5 or 6. Stencils 
and ink if a stencil machine is used; 
Loan slips; 

New shelves, furniture, and office materials; 
Bindings or boxes for journals and series; 
Online retrieval: U.S. S75-SI00 per search; 
Inter-library loan requests. 

4.12 Ground Plans for a Library 

The space allotted to a library and the way it is furnished will, of course, depend 
entirely on the local situation and the available resources. Nevertheless, Appendix 
16 gives two examples of possible ground plans for a library. 


5 Agricultural Information Sources 

5. 1 Online Literature Retrieval 

To gain access to an online database, a user sits in front of a computer terminal and 
dials a local telephone number. Through the telephone line and a modem, his terminal 
is linked to a computer elsewhere. Using a password, he gains access to this liosf 
computer and requests access to the database he is interested in. The interaction lan- 
guage of the host system, which has been designed for use by persons with no back- 
ground in computer programming, permits the user to retrieve and display the infor- 
mation he wants. 

Various types of databases are available online. Interesting for agriculture are 
LINE, and TROPAG. (For more details, see Appendix 14.) 

Databases are developed by 'suppliers', referred to as "producers*. To produce a 
printed version of their databases, these documentation and information services use 
automated systems for photo typesetting and thus generate a magnetic tape that can 
be used for computerized processing, particularly in storage and retrieval systems. 

Most producers sell their databases to other organizations, known as "online ser- 
vices* or "host computer services'. These provide the computer, the interaction lan- 
guage, and the telecommunication support that enables users to gain access to the 
databases. Price policies for access to, and the use of, the online database services 
are extremely varied. Rates range from U.S. SI 5 to S300an hour. There arc the follow- 
ing components: 

Start-up fee, which often includes account setup, initial training, and materials costs; 
- Telecommunication costs; 
Costs for database services. These costs arc usually based on an hourly connect-timc 
rate: they may or may not include the royalty; 

Costs for online or offline printing or downloading. (For an explanation of these 
terms, sec below.) For bibliographic databases, there is a charge for offline printing; 
it is usually based on the number of citations. 

If the same database is available from more than one source, one can compare prices. 

Prices, however, do not tell the whole story of costs. There are differences in system 

capabilities. Online services also offer: 

Selective Dissemination of Information/SDI service. Each month, a certain profile, 
consisting of keywords that clcarty describe a subject a customer is interested in, 
is run against the update of the database: 

Online or offline printing or downloading. After an online search is finished, the 
titles found, including their descriptions, can be printed online, offline, or down- 
loaded. With offline printing, the titles arc printed by the host computer and sent 
by mail to the user. With online printing, the titles arc printed on the library's own 
printer. With download, which is often more expensive, the data arc stored in mag- 
netic form (on a floppy or hard disc) and can be re-used by the customer for his 
own purposes and at his own convenience. 


So selecting an online service is not easy and depends greatly upon the local circum- 
stances. Addresses of online services can be found in Online Databases in the Medical 
and Life Sciences, a selected sub-set from the Directory of Online Databases issued 
in 1987 by Cuadra/Elsevier. 

The following section gives more information about three online services: D1ALUU, 


5.2 Hosts, Online Services, Vendors 

The online service DIALOG gives access to 100 million items organized in 300 data- 
bases Those that concern agriculture are listed in Table 2. For information on present 
prices how to eain access, or about other services offered, write to: DIALOG, Infor- 
mation Service! Customer Administration Dept. A, 3460 Hill View Avenue, Palo 
Alto, California CA 94304, U.S.A. 

Table 2 Agricultural databases in DIALOG 

(Prices are September 1 990 prices in U.S. S) 




Online conned 
lime rate per; 


Print rate 



AG RICO LA 1979- 



AGRICOLA 1970-1978 















CABABSTi \CT 1972-1983 








The European Space Agency Information Retrieval Service (ESA IRS) gives access 
to 80 databases containing 30 million items. The data can be searched with the ESA 
QUEST retrieval language. The databases that concern agriculture are listed in Table 
3 The prices arc 1989 prices and serve merely as an indication. For more information 
on a DIAL-UP access contract and other services offered, contact ESRIR Via Galileo 
Galilei, 00044 Frascati, Italy. 

Tabic 3 Agricultural databases in HSA IRS 
(Prices arc 1989 prices in U.S.S) 






AGRIS 1975 


Online connect 
time rate per 


Print rate 

1. 10 


1. 10 
1. 10 



The Deutsches Institut fur Medizische Documentation und Information/DIMDI 
offers access to 80 databases, four of which concern agriculture. These are listed in 
Table 4. The data can be searched with the GRIPS retrieval language. For more infor- 
mation, write to DIMDI, Weisshausstrasse 27, P.O. Box 420580, 5000 Cologne Ger- 

Table 4 Agricultural databases in DIMDI 
(Prices in U.S.S) 


Online connect 
lime rale per 

Prim rale 
off- on- 
line line 




0.05 0.05 
free free 
0.29 0.28 
0.33 0.33 

Other online services offering agricultural databases are listed in Table 5. 

Table 5 Olher online services offering agricultural databases 

Online service BRS ORBIT TELE SYS 


AGRICOLA 1970- \ 

BIOSIS 1970- x 

CABABS. 1980- v 

PASCAL 1973- 

TROPAG 1975- 

BRS BRS In forma lion Technologies. 1200 Route 7. Latham. N.Y. 121 10. l\S.A. 

ORBIT Information Technology S000 West Park Drive. Suite 400. MacLcan. Virginia VA 22102. 

TELE SYS Tele Systeme Queslel. 83-85 Boulevard Vincent Auriol. 75013 Paris. France. 

5.3 Compact Discs 

In Third World countries, it is often difficult to acquire information about agriculture. 
In Africa, for example, there are only a few documentation centres that arc even par- 
tially computerized. In Europe and North America, however, it is now common for 
farmers to be made aware of the latest developments in agricultural science via compu- 
terized information systems. 

A new technology seems to be promising. It is CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read 
Only Memory). Its major attraction is its enormous storage capacity: each CD can 
store 180,000 bibliographic references, plus abstracts. The entire contents of a 20-vol- 
umc encyclopedia can be recorded on one simple CD-ROM. 

In Third World countries, online retrieval with the databases of information services 
or vendors is not easy. Power cuts arc all too frequent, and poorly developed tele- 



communication systems hamper literature searches. But CD-ROM technology is not 
dependent on tele-communications. At this moment, the following arc available on 
compact disc: 

- The Grolier Electronic Encyclopedia, which contains the text of the 20-volume Aca- 
demic American Encyclopedia. Activenturc's retrieval software allows quick search- 
ing on every word and on phrases. The encyclopedia costs U.S. SI 99. A fully confi- 
gured system (CD-ROM drive, software, interface board) costs U.S. SI, 495. An 
annual update is U.S. S25. Produced by Grolier Electronic Publishing: 

- AGRICOLA database, which is produced by Silver Platter Information Inc., 
37 Walnut Street, Wellesby Hills, Massachusetts MA 02181, U.S.A. Current disc 
U.S. S820. Archival disc set (3 discs) U.S. S820: 

Royal Institute for the Tropics, Mauritskade 63, 1092 AD Amsterdam, The Nether- 
lands, produces Abstracts on Tropical Agriculture on CD-ROM. Included are not 
only the bibliographic references, but also the full text of each publication. Produced 
by Silver Platter for U.S. S840 annually; 

CAB International, also produced by Silver Platter, costs: Volume 1 (1984-1986) 
U.S. $2,100; Volume 2 (1987-1989) U.S. S4,200; Current Disc U.S. S2,100 annually; 
AGRIS, also produced by Silver Platter, costs: Archival Disc Set U.S. S825; Current 
Disc U.S. S825,. year. 

In the near future. The International Rice Research Institute IRRI will produce a 
CD-ROM containing all the IRRI publications in full text. 

More information on which CD-ROMs are available can be found in The CD-ROM 
DirectorwTFPL Publishing, 22 Peters Lane. London EC1 M 6DS, England. 

5.4 Information on Institutions 

Appendix 5 contains a list of national and international (research) institutions. These 
institutions will supply information on request. Besides these, there are many others. 
They can be found under the heading of •Directories' in Appendix 8. 

CTA, since its foundation, has regularly published information about institutions 
in its newsletter Spore, under the heading of information Sources'. Up to now. the 
following institutions have been treated: 

AGRYMET: Agro-hydro-mcteorology: 

CAB1: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International: 

CIDARC: International Centre for Documentation on Hot Climate Agriculture: 

CTA: Centre Technique de Cooperation Agricole Rural: 

ELCI: Environmental Liason Centre International: 

IBRAM: International Board for Soils Research and Management: 

IFAD: International Fund for Agricultural Development: 

IFAP: International Federation of Agricultural Producers: 

IFIS: International Food Information Service: 

IFS: International Foundation for Science; 

ILCA: International Livestock Centre for Africa: 

IN RES, UNDP: Information for the Third World; 

I RETA: Institute for Research, Extension, and Training in Agriculture; 

- ISNARf: International Service for National Agricultural Research; 
• ITDG: Intermediate Technology Development Group; 

LCRC: Liverpool Cotton Research Cooperation; 

ODI: Overseas Development Institute; 

RESADOC: Sahel Network on Information and Scientific and Technical Docu- 

SATIS: Socially Appropriate Technology International Information Services; 
WARDA ADRAO: West Africa Rice Development Association. Association pour 
1c Developpemcnt de la Rize Culture en Afrique dc Quest. 



6 Library Instruction and Public Relations 

6.1 Library Instruction 

A librarian will be called upon to give two types of instruction: 
■• An introductory talk to persons who only visit the library for a brief period and 
want to know something about it; 

Instruction sessions for staff members and students to teach ihcm how to use the 
library in the best possible way. 

6.1 .1 Introductory Talk 

The introductory talk for individuals or for groups will cover the following subjects: 
The various kinds of publications collected by the library through purchases, 
exchanges, or gifts: 

- The catalogues available in the library and how they are used to retrieve publica- 

Showing some of the books, abstract journals, and journals to the the visitors; 
Demonstration, if facilities are available, of online retrieval or retrieval by compact 

A leaflet could be prepared and handed out to such visitors. Appendix 15 presents 
an example of such a leaflet. 

6.1 .2 Instruction Sessions 

Many people do not know how to use a library properly. They are not acquainted 
with all the facilities a library has to offer. Therefore, at regular interval , instruction 
sessions should be held for staff members and students. During these sessions, the 
following subjects could be treated: 

How The various publications are acquired, what collections are available in the 

library, and what catalogues give access to these collections: 

How to find a publication if the name of the author or the title is known: 

How to find some information on a certain subject or on a region or country by 

using the classified catalogue or the geographical catalogue; 

How" to find everything on a subject, using abstract journals, online information 

retrieval, or the CD-ROM technology: 

A demonstration of some of the various relevant publications; 

An explanation of the loan administration and other library regulations. 

To ensure that those attending these sessions understand everything they have been 
taught, some practical work should be included. 

The text of the instructions could be printed in a small booklet and distributed 
among staff members. The booklet could also be handed to any new staff members 
when they take up their duties. 

6.2 Development Plan 

The management of the mother organization, when making decisions on budgets, per- 
sonnel, space, etc., to be allotted to the library, will want to be informed about the 
numbers of books, journals, series, pamphlets, and reference works that the library- 
will contain. It will also want to know about the personnel, funds, and equipment 
required to run the library, and about the services the library will offer to its users. 
It will further want to be informed on how the library is expected to develop in the 

AH this information can be presented in a development plan. This will require an 
analysis of the needs of the mother organization and of its future developments. Devel- 
opments in the outside world (e.g. in computerization) should also be analyzed. In 
this way, the objectives of the library will emerge. When these objectives are set out 
in a development plan, they can be converted into terms of funds, personnel, and 
space the library will require to achieve its objectives. 

6.3 A Library's Right of Existence 

Even if a library is well-organized and offers the best possible services in the quickest 
possible way, people keep asking 'Why have a library?* It is a question that often 
crops up, especially when money is tight. Answering this question is not easy, but 
the following arguments might help: 

Researchers who produce publications want others to know of their contents. Useful 
knowledge should be passed on to its potential users, otherwise it is a waste of time 
producing it. A library offers these potential users access to this knowledge; 
The results of research are often used by other researchers as a springboard to more 
knowledge. Research is expensive, so it ought not be repeated unnecessarily. The 
already existing wheel need not be invented again and again; 
Beneficial contacts (or contracts) between the mother organization and persons 
from outside often begin with a visit to the library; 

Depending, of course, on the purpose of the mother organization, it is often the 
task of a staff member not only to teach or to conduct research, but also to advise 
others on subjects within his discipline. He therefore needs to be informed about 
the developments taking place in that discipline. 

6.4 Public Relations 

The best of public relations is a well-organized library, able to comply, quickly and 
efficiently, with requests from its users. 

The services it can provide, each of which has been discussed in this book, are: 



- Current Awareness Bulletin/Accession List; 

- Pages of Contents Bulletin; 

- A leaflet about the library; 

- Small booklet on how to use the library; 
Personal awareness of news; 
Question-and- Answer Service. 

Of equal importance to these explicit services are a well-composed collection, acces- 
sible through different catalogues, an attractive display of newly-arrived items, an 
efficient loan service, including inter-library loans, and, last but not least, friendly 
and helpful library personnel. 


Bradford. S.O. 1948. Documentation. Crosby Lock wood and Son. London. 

Loosjcs. Th.P. 1 978. Documentaire Informatie. Kluucr van Loghum Slaloms. Devenler. 

Nabcr. G. 1980. Scientific Information: Transfer and Retrieval In: Land Reclamation and W ater Manage- 
ment. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement ILRI. Publication 27: 181-9. 

Slamencka. V. and P. Zunde. 1971. Science and Information: Some Implications for the Education of Scien- 
tists. International Conference Training Information Work. Rome. 301-13. 


Appendix 1 

Starting a Small Library 


Anyone starting a new library would be wise to seek collaboration with an existing 
library, where trained personnel can be asked for advice. 

When a small library is to be started, several questions have to be answered: 

- How many books will the library contain? 

- Will these be novels or study books? 
How many people will use the library? 

- Will there be a (full-time) (professional) attendant available? 
During what times will this person be available? 

- What services will be offered to the library users? 

The answers will dictate the way the library will be organized. 

The various processes to be followed in a library are set out below. Whether these 
all have to be applied will depend on the kind of library and the intensity of its use. 

Order Catalogue 

When a book is ordered or requested as a gift, particulars like its author, title, and 
where it has been ordered or requested arc written on a library card, which is then 
placed in an Order Catalogue. When the book arrives in the library, the card is 
removed. This prevents duplication. 


Once the book has arrived in the library, it is catalogued on a library card. An example 
of the information to beentered on thecard (the 'book description') is shown in Figure 
24. At least one card should be prepared for each book. If there is no author, the 
name of the organization that sponsored or published the book is used. 

G. Naber 40/101 

Drainage: An Annotated Guide to Books 
and Journals. 

Wageningen: ILRI, 1984. 47 pp. (Biblio- 
graphy. 1LRI: No. 18) 


figure 24 Example of a analogue card 



Book descriptions can also be stored in a computer. This allows the books to be retrieved 
in various ways: by author's name, title words, classification codes, etc. A software pack- 
age that could be used is DBase III Plus. Another is Cardbox Plus, a database manage- 
ment package designed specially for libraries. It is issued by Business Simulation Ltd., 
Scriventon House, Speldhurst, KentTN3 0TU, England. Telex 955 13. 


In a small collection of, say, up to 1,000 books (which equals about five or six book- 
cases, each with five or six shelves), catalogues will generally not be very useful, espe- 
cially if the books are arranged in broad subject groups and there are only a few poten- 
tial users. If the library is larger, however, or more intensively used, catalogues can 
be very convenient. 

The possible catalogues that could be created are the following: 

- An Author Catalogue, which can answer questions like: Ms the book by author 
*W in the library collection? 

- A Title Catalogue, which can answer questions like: Ms the document with title 
'X' available in the library? 

- A Classified Catalogue, which am answer: Ms there any information on subject 

A Geographical Catalogue, which can answer: Ms any information available on 
country 4 ZT. 

Many catalogues can answer many potential questions, but creating all these cata- 
logues means a lot of work. One has to prepare library cards for each catalogue. These 
cards are easy to produce with the help of a Minigraph (a small stencil machine). 
The Minigraph 120 is manufactured by Weber, 71 1 West Algonquin Road, Arlington 
Heights, Illinois 1L 60005, U.S.A. The price of a new one is about U.S. $2,000. The 
Minigraph requires special stencils and library cards, which are rather expensive. 

A Classification System? Yes or No? 

For a small library, there is not much point in classifying the books. If they are to 
be classified, however, one wise to use an existing classification system rather 
than a self-invented one. Inventing one will cost a lot of time and trouble and later 
it may prove inadequate to cope with new scientific developments. 

The Federation of International Documcntation/FID, P.O. Box 95312, 2509 CH 
The Hague, The Netherlands, issues the Universal Decimal Classification System/ 
UDC, a well-known and flexible classification system. But, classification requires a 
lot of intellectual effort and can only be done by a person well-acquainted with the 

A satisfactory alternative for a small library is to arrange the books on the shelves 
in broad subject groups. A user can then easily sec what kinds of publications arc 



Call Numbers and Shelving Order 

Each book is given a k call number' written on a small sticker placed on the spine 
of the book. This call number determines the shelving order. The kind of call numbers 
used depends on the kind of books involved. 

For novels, the call number consists of the first three letters of the author's name. 
If there is no author, the first three letters of the name of the sponsoring or publishing 
organization are used. If this is not known, the first three letters of the title are used, 
but unimportant words like V or 'the' are disregarded. The books are arranged in 
alphabetical order of these first three letters. 

For study books, the books are arranged in broad subject groups. Each subject 
is given a number (1,2, etc.). Within the subject group, the books are arranged in 
the order in which they are acquired by the library. The call number will look like 
1/1, 1/2, etc. Too many broad subject groups will mean only a few books in each 
group, with the groups difficult to distinguish. 

The above-mentioned UDC can be helpful in preparing a suitable list of broad sub- 
ject groups. 


Users could be allowed to borrow one book at a time, or possibly more. The loan 
period could be set at a fortnight. 

Users- like an open access library because they can browse in it. Although thefts 
increase in open access libraries, they have certain advantages. Catalogues are not 
always required in them, the user simply choosing the books he wants, which saves 
a lot of time for the library personnel. 

The opening frequency of the library will depend on the kind of books involved, 
the services to be offered to the users, and the availability of personnel. It could be, 
say, one hour a week, one hour three times a week, or one hour a day. 

Loan Administration 

For a library used by, say, up to 200 people, a loan card could be prepared for each 
user. The card could contain the name, address, and photo of the user on one side 
and, on the other, space to write the call numbers of the books on loan and the date 
they have to be returned. The cards are then kept in the library in alphabetical order 
of the user's name. (See Figure 25) 

If the library has more than 200 users, a more efficient method is to have sets of pre- 
prcparcd lending forms. If sets of two forms are used, one form can be arranged in 
alphabetical order of the user's name; the other in the order of the call number. In 
this way, if a book is not on the shelf, it can be seen who has borrowed it. If three 
forms are used, the third form can be arranged by the date the book should be returned. 
This makes it easy to sec which borrower is exceeding the loan period. All these ar- 
rangements, of course, cost time and effort. 



G. Naber 

RuaC 140 



Figure 25 Example of a loan card 

Call No. Date 

Call No. Date 

It is debatable whether fines should be imposed for overdue books. I know of no 
fine that will ensure that books are returned on time. A small fine might help, but 
the best way is to exercise a sharp control over the books. After '.he loan period has 
expired, a reminder should be given to the defaulter, preferably by phone or by a 
peisonal visit. People not returning books on time can be excluded from the library 
for a certain period, or forever. 

Returned Books 

Books returned to the library should be replaced on the shelves by the library person- 
nel. Books are often k losf in a library because they are misplaced on the shelves. Users 
do not always understand the shelving order. 

Returned books lying on the loan counter are often picked up and borrowed by 
other users. If so, they need not, of course, be re-arranged on the shelves. Newly bor- 
rowed books can be registered at the same time as the returned ones are deleted. 

Some Measurements 

One book is about 3 cm thick, which means 30 to 50 books in 1 m. With some 5 
or 6 shelves in a bookcase, that means between 1 50 and 300 books in one bookcase. 

One report is about 1 cm thick, which means 100 to 1 50 reports in 1 m, and about 
600 to 750 in one bookcase. 

Three Examples of Smal l Libraries and Their Possible Organization 

Library of novels: 
One library card for each book; 

Cards arranged alphabetically by the first three letters of the authors' names; 

Shelving order also alphabetically by authors* names; 

Loan administration with loan cards; 

Opening frequency: once a week for one or two hours; 

Free-access library; 

Fine: one-thousandth of user's monthly income. 



Library of study books: 

- One library card for each book; 

- Cards arranged in order of book numbers; 

- Shelving order: books are arranged in broad subject groups; 

- Loan administration with loan cards; 

- Opening frequency: open as much as possible, under the supervision of a secretary 
or receptionist; 

- Free-access library; 

- No fines, but each fortnight contact wit!i borrowers who did not return books on 

Library of reprints: 

- No cards; 

- Reprints arranged under broad subject groups; 

- No catalogues, unless the library is used intensively; 

- No loan administration; 

- This type of library will probably be administered by a staff member, so it is open 
when he is available: 

- Free-access library; 
Fines: None. 



Appendix 2 

ACIAR Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 
ADRAO Association pour le Developpement de Riziculture en Afrique de 

ASA American Society of Agronomy 

ASAE American Society of Agricultural Engineers 

ASLIB Association for Information Management (Formerly: Association of 

Special Libraries) 

ASP American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 

AUW Agricultural University, Wageningen 

AVRDC Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre 
BLL British Library Lending Division 

CABI Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International 

CATIE Ccntro Agronomica Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza 

CEEMAT Centre d'Etudes et d'Experimentation du Machinisme Agricolc Trop- 

CENAGRI Centro Nacional do Informacao Documental Agricola 
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 
CIAT Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical 

CIDA Canadian International Development Agency 

CIDIA Ccntro Interamericano de Documentation e Information Agricola 

CILSS Comite permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Sechcresse dans le 


CIMM YT Ccntro Internacional de Mcjoramicnto de Maiz y Trigo 
CIP Centro Internacional de la Papa 

CI RAD Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique 

pour le Developpement 
CSSA Crop Science Society of America 

CTA Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation 

CTFT Centre Technique Forcsticr Tropical 

DSA Departement Systemcs Agraires 

EC European Community 

ELBS English Language Book Society 

EMBRAPA Emprcsa Brasilcira de Pcsquisa Agropccuaria 

FID Federation International de Documentation/Federation of Internatio- 

nal Documentation 
FSSP Farming Systems Support Project 

GERDAT Groupcmcnt d'Etudcs ct de Rechcrchcs pour le Developpement de 

TAgronomicTropicale (Since 1984,CIRAD) 
IAALD International Association of Agricultural Information Specialists 

IBPGR International Board for Plant Genetic Resources 

IBSRAM International Board for Soil Research and Management 
ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas 



> i 

ICID Internationa] Commission on Irrigation and Drainage 

ICI PE International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology 

ICRAF International Council for Research in Agroforestry 

ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics 

IDRCV^ International Development Research Centre 

IFDC International Fertilizer Development Center 

I FLA International Federation of Library Associations 

I I MI International Irrigation Management Institute 
IITA International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 
ILCA International Livestock Center for Africa 

I LEI A Information Centre for Low External Input Agriculture 

ILRI International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement 

INRA Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 

I RAT Institut de Rccherches Agronomiques Tropicales et de Cultures Vi- 

IRCC Institut de Rccherches du Cafe, du Cacao et autre Plantes 

IRCT Institut de Recherches du Coton et des Textiles exotiques 

I RFA Institut de Recherches sur les Fruits et Legumes 

IRHO Institut de Recherches pour les Huiles et Oleagineux 

IRRI International Rice Research Institute 

ISNAR International Service for National Agricultural Research 

ISSS International Society of Soil Science 

ITC International Institute for Aerial Survey and Earth Sciences 

NAL National Agricultural Library 

NTIS National Technical Information Service 

ODI Overseas Development Institute 

ODNRI Overseas Development National Resources Institute 

ORSTOM Office de la Recherche Scientifiquc et Technique Outrc-Mer 

SACCAR Southern African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural Research 

SCSA Soil Conservation Society of America 

SSS A Soil Science Society of America 

UDC Universal Decimal Classification 

UNDP United Nations Development Program 

WARDA West Africa Rice Development Association 



Appendix 3 . T rrvn 

List of Agricultural Journals Organized under UDC 
















The Courier: African<aribbean-Paeijic-EuropeanCom,nunity 
General Secretariat of the ACP Group of States. Avenue Georges Henn 451. 
1 200 Brussels. Belgium. 

^ntcrLona? Development Research Center. 250 Albert Street. P.O. Box 8500. 

Ottawa. Canada K1G 3H9. 
Nature and Resources 

UNESCO. 7 Place de Fontenoy. 75^00 Pans. France. 

/V NeS'sdentist Subscriptions. Frcepost 1061. Oakficld House. Perrymount Road. 
Haywards Heath. West Sussex RH16 3ZA. England. 


American Journal of Botany <ir>in 
Botanical Society of America. 1735 Ned Avenue. Columbus. Ohio OH 43210. 


Covers all branches of plant science. 

*?£ ^o„ S of'*pH«l Bidogisu. ln Sli .u.e °< HonicuUun,, Research. Write- 
bourne. Warwick CV35 9EF. England. 



Annals of Botany 

Academic Press. 24-28 Oval Road, London NW I 7DX England 
The journal gives broad coverage of all aspects of botany. It emphasizes current 
research on growth, mathematical models of physiological processes, and plant 
structure. * 

Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 

CSIRO Publications, P.O. Box 89,'East Melbourne, Victoria 3002. Australia 
1 he Botanical Review 

New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx, New York, NY 10458-5126 USA 
Presents syntheses of the state of knowledge and understanding of individual se*- 
ments of botany. * 
Economic Botany 

' NYlo45 f l r 5l2rS m S iC A B ° tany ' ™™ ^ B ° ta " iCal Garde " S - Br °" X ' NeW Y ° rk - 

Deal; with past, present, and future uses of plants by people 
Journal of Experimental Boianv 

n U Y b f,n P p 0 n S P e P artment: 0xford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 
OX2 6DP, England. 

Publishes articles on plant physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, and related 

Journal of Plant Physiology (formerly Zeitschri/t fur PJJanzenphvsioloeie) 
Gustav Fisher Verlag. Wollgrasweg 49, D-7000, Stuttgart 70.' Germany. 
Deals with basic aspects of plant physiology. Fundamental. 
Physiologia Plantation 

Munksgaard International Publishers, 35 Norre Sogade, DK-1370 Copenhagen 
Denmark. v " ' 

Official publication of the Scandinavian Society for Plant Physiology and of the 
Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology. Publishes papers on all 
aspects of plant physiology. The scope ranges from biochemistry and biophysics 
through classical plant physiology to ecology. Fundamental 
Plan t and Cell Physiology 

Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, Shimotachiuri Ogawa Higashi, Kamikyo- 

Ku, Kyoto 602, Japan. 
Covers broad areas of the plant sciences, including physiology, biochemistry bio- 
physics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and gene engineering of plants 
and micro-organisms. Fundamental. 
Plant Cell Reports 

Springer International, Journal Production Department. Postfach 10 5? 80 

D-6900 Heidelberg, Germany. 
Deals with all aspects of plant cell and plant cell culture research- physiology 
cytology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, phytopathology, and mor- 
phogenesis, including plant regeneration from protoplasts, cells, 'tissues and 

Plant Cell. Tissue, and Organ Culture 
Kluwcr Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands 
An international journal on the cell biology of higher plants. Publishes results of 
fundamental studies on the behaviour of plant cells, tissues, and organs in vitro. 



Plant Physiology 

American Society of Plant Physiologists, 15501 Monona Drive, Rockville, Mary- 
land MD 20855-27 19, U.S.A. 

Is concerned with research on the physiology, molecular biology, environmental 
biology, biochemistry, cell biology, and biophysics of plants. 
Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology 
Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland, P.O. Box 85, Limerick, Ireland. 

Papers describe experimental work with multicellular plants and plant-like micro- 
organisms (protists, including algae and fungi and blue-green algae). Fundamen- 


Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 

Elsevier Journal Department, P.O. Box 21 1, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 
Typical topics cover radiation transfer in plant canopies, evapotranspiration, en- 
ergy transfer, air movement in and above plant canopies. 


Advances in Agronomy 

Academic Press, 1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, California CA 92101, U.S.A. 
African Farmer: The Key to Africa's Future 

The Hunger Project, Global Officer, 1 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010, 

Afriquc Agriculture 

Haussmann Regie Publicitc, 190 Boulevard Haussman, 75008 Paris, France. 
Agribusiness Worldwide 

% Sosland Publishing Co., 9000 West 67th Street, Merriam, Kansas KS 66202, U.S.A. 
Agricultural Research 

The Editor, Information Staff, Room 318, Building 005, Agricultural Research 

Center-West, Beltsville, Maryland MD 20705, U.S.A. 
This journal is published ten times a year by the Agricultural Research Service, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
Agra forestry Today 

International Council for Research in Agroforcstry. P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi, 

Agronomic: Sciences des Productions Vegetules et dc lEnvironment 

Service des Publications de HNRA, Route de Saint Cyr, 78000 Versailles, France. 

L Agronomic Tropkale 
Institut dc Rccherchcs Agronomiqucs Tropicales, Departement Cultures Vivricres 
du Centre dc Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Dcve- 
loppcmcnt, 45 bis Avenue dc la Belle Gabricllc. 94736 Nogent sur Marnc, CEDEX, 



Agronom v Journal 

The American Society of Agronomy, 677 South Scsoc Road, Madison, Wisconsin 
WI 53711, U.S.A. 

Contains articles on soil-plant relations; crop science; soil science; biometry; crop, 
soil, pasture, and range management; crop, forage, and pasture production and 
utilization; turfgrass; agroclimatical and agronomic modeling. 
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 

AAEA, 80 Meady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5001 1-1070, U.S.A. 
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 
CSIRO Publications, P.O. Box 89, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia. 
Contains articles promoting the understanding of some parts of the physical, 
chemical, and/or biological aspects of an agricultural system of relevance to Aus- 
tralian conditions. 
Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 

Collector of Moneys, CSIRO, 314 Albert Street, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, 

Publishes the results of applied research into the soil, plant, and animal sciences 

of relevance to Australian agriculture. 
Bragantia: Revista Cientifica do Instituto Agrondmico 

Instituto Agron6mico,C.P. 28, 13001 Campinas (SP), Brasil. 
Crop Science 

Crop Science Society of America, 677 South Sesoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin 
WI 53711, U.S.A. 

Cultivos Tropicales: Revista Trimestral cie Investigaciones Agricoias cle la Educacion 
Superior cle la Repuhiica de Cuha 

Instituto Nacional dc Cicncias Agricola, Ediciones Cubanas, Apartado No. 60, 

Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba. 
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 

Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 5781 1, Nairobi, Kenya. 
Experimental Agriculture 

Cambridge University Press, The Pit Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge 

CB2 1RP, England. 

An international journal on research into crops and farming systems, particularly 
of the warmer regions of the earth. This journal is the successor to The Empire 
Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 
Farmer's Weekly 

Reed Business, Oakficld House, Perrymount Road, Haywards Heath, Sussex 
RH16 3DH, England. 
Earn i ing Systet ) is Ne \ i sle t ter 
S. WaddingtonXIMMYT, P.O. Box MP 154, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. 
Contains news, comments, letters, research results, and opportunities concerning 
on-farm research in Southern and Eastern Africa. 
FSSP Newsletter 

Farming Systems Support Project, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Uni- 
versity of Florida, 3028 McCarthy Hall, Gainesville, Florida FL 326 1 1 , U.S.A. 
Fertilizer Resean 7/ 

Nijhoff Publishers, Spuiboulcvard 50, 331 1 GR Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 
An international journal on fertilizer use and technology. 



Field Crop Research 

Elsevier Science Publisher, P.O. Box 21 1, 1000 A E Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 
Covers: crop agronomy, improvement, physiology, ecology, and protection; soil 
and water management; farming systems. Crops dealt with are: cereals, non-cereal 
carbohydrate crops, pulses, sugar crops, oil crops, fibre crops, beverage crops, 
rubber, tobacco; forages. Outside the scope of the journal arc crop storage, trans- 
port and utilization, social or economic aspects of crops. 
The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Publication and Information Department, 
Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi 1 10012, India. 
Indian Journal of Agronomy 

Indian Society of Agronomy, Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research 
Institute, New Delhi 1 10012, India. 
In for ma tore Agrario 

' Largo C. Caldera, 1 1 Casella Postale 520, 37100 Verona, Italia. 
International Agricultural Development 

19 Woodford Close, Caversham, Reading, Berks RG4 7HN, England. 
The journal serves as a forum for debate on agricultural issues in the developing 
world. It gives attention to increasing food output, improving distribution, and 
creating conditions under which hunger can be overcome. 
International Journal of Tropical Agriculture 

Vidya International Publishers. 8/16 New Campus, H.A.U., Hissar, 125004, Har- 
yana, India. 

A publication of the Haryana Agricultural University. 
Inter Tropiques 

34 bis Rue dc Dunkerque, 75001 Paris, France. 

A journal for those interested, directly or indirectly, in agriculture in countries 
in the southern part of the world. 
The Journal of Agricultural Science 
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cam- 
bridge CB2 2RU, England. 

The journal publishes papers from all over the world, covering the whole range 
of agriculture. 
Journal of Production Agriculture 

American Society of Agronomy. 677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin 
WI 5371 1, U.S.A. 

Emphasis is placed on papers that transfer production-oriented scientific and 
technological information on agronomy in accord with other areas such as animal 
science, agricultural economics, range management, weed science, entomology, 
plant pathology, horticulture, and forestry. 
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 
CP. 040315, CEP 70312, Brasilia, DF, Brasil. 
This journal publishes agricultural scientific matters such as grostology. econom- 
ics, experimental statistics, plant pathology, crop science, soil science, animal 
science, rural sociology. 



Queensland Journal oj Agricultural and Animal Sciences 
Queensland Department of Primary Industries, G.P.O. Box 46, Brisbane, Queens- 
land 4001, Australia. 
The journal records the results of biological, economic, and engineering research 
work relevant to Queensland's primary industries. 
Revista Ceres 

Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. 
Revista Gloho Rural 

Editora Rio Grailca, CP. 6 CEP 20001 , Rio dc Janeiro R.J. Brasil. 
Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale 

Organo dclPIstituto Agronomico per rOItremarc di Fircnze. Via A. Cocchi, 4, Fir- 

enze, Italia. 
Span: Progress in Agriculture 

Shell International Chemical Co., Shell Centre, London SE1 7PG, England. 
Spore: Bi-Moiuhly Bulletin of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Coop- 

CTA, P.O. Box 380, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands. 
Transactions of the ASAE 
American Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2950 Niles Road, Saint Joseph, 
Michigan MI 49085-9659, U.S.A. 
Contains sections on power and machinery, soil and water, structures and envi- 
ronment, food and process engineering, electrical and electronic systems. 

C. Wintcrbeck, Marsveldplein 5 B 57, 1050 Brussel, Belgium. 
The journal is concerned with rural problems in the developing countries and 
is published by the Belgian Administration for Development Cooperation. 
Tropical Agriculture 

Westbury Subscription Services, P.O. Box 101 , Scvenoaks, Kent TN15 8PL, England. 
The Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Imperial College of Tropical Agricul- 
ture, Universities of the West Indies. 
Turrialba: Revista Interamericana de Ciencias Agricolas 

Intcr-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, P.O. Box 55, 2200 Cor- 

onado, San Jo <\ Costa Rica. 

Publishes papers on agricultural science in Spanish, English, Portuguese, and French. 


Fruits: Fruits d'outrc-mer 

Revue mensuellc dc Tlnstitut de Rechcrchcs sur !es Fruits et Agrumes, 6 Rue du 

General Clergerie. 751 16 Paris, France. 
Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Journal 

P.O. Box 4733, Parklands, 2121 South Africa. 
This journal caters to the citrus and subtropical fruit industries. 
H orticultura Brasileira 

Revista da Sociedade de Olcricultura do Brasil, Horticultura Brasileira, CP. 

07.0990, 70.359 Brasilia, DF Brasil. 



Hort Science 

American Society for Horticultural Science, 701 North Saint Asaph Street, Alexan- 
dria, Virginia VA 22314-1998, U.S.A. 

Indian Journal of Horticulture 

Horticulture Society of India, Krishi Bhawan, New Dehli, 1 10001, India. 

Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 

701 North Saint Asaph Street, Alexandria, Virginia VA 22314-1998, U.S.A. 

The Journal of Horticultural Science 
Headley Brothers Ltd., The Invicta Press, Ashford, Kent, England. 
Publishes articles on fruit and perennial crops, vegetables, and ornamentals, from 
both temperate and tropical countries. 


Agricultural Engineering: Technology for Food and Agriculture 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2950 Niles Road, Saint Joseph, Michi- 
gan MI 49085-9659, U.S.A. 

AM J: Agricultural Machinery Journal for the Agricultural and Garden Machinery 


Carew House, Wallington, Surrey SM60DX, England. 

Includes the journal called Power Fanning, the only machinery journal for 

Machinisme Agricole Tropical 
Centre d'Etudes et ^Experimentation du Machinisme Agricole Tropical Pare de 
Tournoic, 92160 Antony, France. 


African Fertilizer Review 

Mr M. Connolly, IFDC Africa, B.P. 4483, Lome, Togo. 
The journal is of the non-rcfereed type. It covers fertilizer research, development, 
and technology transfer. It is edited and produced by the International Fertilizer 
Development Center and serves, in particular, the needs in Sub-Saharan Africa. 
Australian Journal of Soil Science 

314 Albert Street, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia. 
Bulletin of the International Society of Soil Science 
C/o International Soil Reference and Information Centre, 9 Duivendaal, 
P.O. Box 353, 6700 AJ Wagcningcn, The Netherlands. 
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 

Indian Society of Soil Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Dehli 
1 10012, India. 
Journal of Plant Nutrition 

Marcel Dckkcr. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A. 
The journal is concerned with plantnutrition, includingthc influence of the essen- 
tial elements as well as those that are considered non-essential. 



It fi 

The Journal of Soil Science 
Blackweli Scientific Publications, 23 Ainsiie Place, Edinburgh EM3 6AJ, United 

South African Journal of Plant and Soil 

Bureau for Scientific Publications, P.O. Box 1 758, Pretoria 0001, Republic of South 

Contains articles on soil science and applied plant science. 
Plant and Soil 

Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 A A Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 
An international journal on plant-soil relations. Deals with fundamental and 
applied aspects of plant nutrition, soil fertility, plant-microbe associations, soil 
microbiology, soil-borne plant diseases, soil and plant ecology, agrochemistry 
and agrophysics. 
Soil Science 

Williams and Wilkins, 428 East Preston Street, Baltimore, Maryland MD 21202, 

Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 
Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, C/o Business Center for Aca- 
demic Societies Japan, 4-16 Yayoi 2-chomc, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 1 1 3 Japan. 

So/7 Science Society of America Journal 

Soil Science Society of America, 677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin 
Wi 53711, U.S.A. 


Diversity, 727 Street South East, Washington, DC 20003, U.S.A. 
A news journal for the plant genetic resources community. 
Euphitica: International Journal of Plant Breeding 
Dr A.C, Zeven, Euphitica. P.O. Box 387, 6700 AJ Wageningcn, The Netherlands. 
Covers a wide range of subjects related to plant breeding: domestication, genetic 
resources, variation, cytology, floral biology, aneu- and cupolyploidy, wide 
crosses, introgression, substitution of cytoplasm, natural and artificially induced 
mutations, male sterility and hybrid cultivars, genetics, resistance to pathologens 
and pests, tolerance to abiotic stress, taxonomy of cultivated plants, selection 
methods and procedures, prebrceding, cultivar testing, and maintenance of culti- 
vars and their production. 
Plant Breeding: Zeitschrift fur Pjlanzenzuchtung 
Paul Parcy, Lindenstrasse 44-47, D 1000 Berlin 61, Germany. 
The journal publishes articles on botanical breeding research and research on 
practical breeding of cultivated plants. Preference is given to work on leading 
crop plants and work containing new methodology. 
Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter = Resources genetiques vegetales bulletin = Recur- 
sos genet icos vegetales noticiario 

International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Editor, 1BPGR, C/o FAO, Via 
dellcTcrmcdi Carardla 00100, Rome, Italy. 



Drainage Contractor 

Agri-Book Magazine, A1S Communication Ltd., 145 Thames Road West, P.O. Box 
1060, Exeter, Ontario NOM ISO, Canada. 
ICID Bulletin 

International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, 48 Nyaya Marg. Chanakya- 

puri. New Delhi 1 10021 , India. 

ICID's objectives are the development and application of the art, science, and 
technique of engineering, agriculture, economics, ecology, and social science in 
managing water and land resources for irrigation, drainage, flood control, and 
river training. 

Irrigation and Drainage Systems: An International Journal 

Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 332, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 
Irrigazione e Drenaggia 

Edagricole, Via Emilia Lcvantc 31, 401 39 Bologna, Italia. 
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 

American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York 
NY 10017-2398, U.S.A. 
The journal covers all phases of irrigation, drainage, and related water manage- 
ment subjects, such as watershed management, weather modification, water qual- 
ity, groundwater, and surface water. 
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 

Soil and Water Conservation Society, 7515 North East Ankeny Road, Ankcny, 
Iowa I A 50021-9764, U.S.A. 

Emphasis is on the conservation of soil, water, air, and related natural resources, 
including all forms of beneficial plant and animal life. 
Journal of Sod Conservation. New South Wales 

Soil Conservation Service of NSW, Box R 20 1 . Royal Exchange Post Office, Sydney 
NSW 2000, Australia. 
Water and Irrigation Review 
P.O. Box 21051, Tel Aviv 61210, Israel. 


Indian Phytopathology 

Indian Phytopathological Society, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New 

Delhi 110012, India. 
Journal of Phytopathology = Phytopathologische ZeUschrift 

Paul Parcy, Lindcnstrasse 44-47, D-1000 Berlin 61, Germany. 
The New Phyiologist: An International Journal of the Plant Sciences 

Cambridge University Press, The Pit Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge 

CB2 1RP, England. 

Publishes papers on all aspects of the plant sciences. 
Phytopathology: An International Journal 

American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, Saint Paul, Minnesota 

MN 55121, U.S.A. 




Plant Diseases: An International Journal of Applied Plant Pathology 
American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, Saint Paul, Minnesota 
MN 5512UU.S.A. 

Plant Pathology 

Blackwell Scientific Publishers, P.O. Box 88, Oxford OX2 ONE, England. 
An international journal edited by the British Society for Plant Pathology. Pub- 
lishes papers on all aspects of plant pathology. 


Annals of the Entomological Society of America 

ESA Sales, 9301 Annapolis Road, Lanham, Maryland MD 20706, U.S.A. 
Bulletin of Entomological Research 

CABI Institute of Entomology, Wallingford, OXON OX10 8DE England. 
Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 

ESA Sales, 9301 Annapolis Road, Lanham, Maryland MD 20706, U.S.A. 
Indian Journal of Entomology 

Entomological Society of India, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural 

Research Institute, New Delhi 1 10012 India. 
Journal of Applied Entomology 

Paul Parey, Lindenstrasse 44-47, D-1000 Berlin 61, Germany. 
Journal of Economic Entomology 

Entomological Society of America, P.O. Box 1 77, Hyattsville, Maryland M D 2078 1 . 



Crop Protection 

Butterworths, Westbury Subscription Services, P.O. Box 101, Sevenoaks, Kent 
TN15 8PL, England. 

An international journal of pest, disease, and weed control. 
FAO Plant Production Bulletin = Bullet to Phytosanitaire = Bo let in Fitosanitario 
FAO Distribution and Sales Section, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, 

International Pest Control 

238 A High Street, Uxbridge UB8 1 U A, Middx., England. 
Crop and stock protection, public health, wood preservation. 
Journal of Pesticide Science 

Pesticide Science Society of Japan, Japan Publications Trading, P.O. Box 5030, 

Tokyo, Int. Tokyo 100-31, Japan 
Pesticide Science 

Elsevier, Crown House, Linton Road, Barking Essex IG1 1 8JIJ, England. 
An international journal of research and technology on crop protection and pest 
control. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the Society of the Chemical Industry. 



Tropical Pest Management 
Taylor and Francis, 4 John Street, London WC I N 2ET, England. 

This journal was originally called PA MS and was then published by the Overseas 

Development and Natural Resources Institute. 
Weed Research 

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, England. 
Journal of the European Weed Research Society. 
Weed Science 

Weed Science Society o r America, 309 West Clark Street, Champaign, Illinois 
IL 61820, U.S.A. 

The Australian Rangeland Journal 
Department of Primary Industries, P.O. Box 102, Toowoomba, Queensland, Aus- 

Grass and Forage Science 

Blackwell Scientific Publications, 8 John Street, London WCIN 2ES, England. 
The journal of the British Grassland Society. 
ILCA Bulletin 

International Livestock Center for Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 
Journal o f Range Management 

Society of Range Management, 1839 York Street, Denver, Colorado CO 80206, 

Tropical Grass/at id 

Tropical Grassland Society of Australia, Brisbane 


Among many others: 

1 Phoenix Miil Lane, Peterborough, New Hampshire NH 03458, U.S.A. 
PC Resources: The Hands-on Guide for Business and Personal Product in ty 
P.O. Box 58742, Boulder, Colorado CO 80322-8742, U.S.A. 




Appendix 4 

List of Newsletters of International (Research) 

ACIAR Newsletter: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 
Agroforestry Today: International Council for Research in Agroforestry (until Janu- 
ary 1989, Newsletter ICRAF) 
At ICRISA T: International Crop Research Institute for the Semi- Arid Tropics 
CAB International: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux 
CGIAR Newsletter: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 
CI AT International: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical 
CIMMYT Information Bulletin: Centro Internacional de Mejoramicnto de Maiz y 

CIP Circular: Centro Internacional de la Papa 

'GA TE\' Questions, Answers. Information: German Agency for Technical Cooperation 
IBS RAM Newsletter: International Board for Soil Research and Management 
IDRC Reports: International Development Research Centre 
II MI Review: International Irrigation Management Institute 

IITA Research Brief "or Echo de IITA: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 

ILCA Newsletter: International Livestock Centre for Africa 

ILEIA Newsletter: Information Centre for Low External Input Agriculture 

IRRI Newsletter: International Rice Research Institute 

ISNAR Newsletter: International Service for National Agricultural Research 

KIT Newsletter: Royal Institute for the Tropics 

Land and Water: Newsletter for Field Staff of the Land and Water Development Divi- 
sion: Food and Agriculture Organisation 

Lettre du CIRAD: Centre for International Cooperation in Agricultural Research for 

Lettre du GRET: Groupe de Recherche ct d'Etranges Technologiqucs 
Newsletter ODNRI: Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute 
ODI-IMhll Management Newsletter: International Irrigation Management Institute 
ODU Bulletin: Quarterly Bulletin of the Overseas Development Unit of Hydraulic 

Resource: NRI Newsletter: Natural Resources Institute 

SACCAR Newsletter: Southern African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural 

SPORE: CTA: Bi-Monthly Bulletin of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and 

Rural Cooperation 
WARD A Technical Newsletter: West Africa Rice Development Association 



Appendix 5 

Addresses of National and International 
(Research) Organizations and Their Journals 


Okocentrum, CH 4438 LangenbrucL Switzerland 
American Peanut Research and Education Society 

P.O. Box 31025, Raleigh. North Carolina NC 2/o22, U.S.A. 
American Phytopathological Society 

3340 Pilot Knob Road, Saint Paul, Minnesota MN 55121. U.S.A. 

• Phytopathology: An Official Journal 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 

2950 Niles Road. Saint Joseph, Michigan Ml 49085-9659, U.S.A. 

• Transactions of the ASAE 

• Agric ultural Engineering 
American Society of Agronomy 

677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin WI 5371 1, U.S.A. 

• Agronomy Journal 

• Journal of Production Agriculture 

American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 

210 Little Falls Street, Falls Church, Virginia VA 22046-4398, U.S.A. 
American Society of Plant Physiology 

15501 Monona Drive, Rockville, Maryland MD 20855-2719, U.S.A. 
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre 

P.O. Box 42, Shanhua Tainan 74 1 , Taiwan 
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 

G.P.O. Box 1571, Canberra ACT 260 1 , Australia 

. A CIA R Newsletter 
Bangladesh Jute Research Institute 

Tejgaon, Dacca 15, Bangladesh 
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute 

Joydevpur, Dacca, Bangladesh 

• Orissa 

Bureau of Suear Experiment Stations 

99 Gregory Terrace, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia 
Cacao Research Institute 

P.O. Box8,Tafo,Ghana 
Central Coffee Research Institute 

Chikmagalur District, Karnataka, India 
Central Institute for Cotton Research 

Nagpur 440001, India 
Central Plantation Crops Research Institute 

Kasaragod 67012, 4 Kerela, India 
Central Potato Research Institute 

Simla 171001, India 


Central Rice Research Institute 

Cuttack 753006, Orissa, India 
Central Tuber Crops Research Institute 

Sreekariyan, Trivandrum 17, Kerala, India 
Centre d'Etudes et d'Experimcntation du Machinisme Tropical 

Pare de Tourvoie, 92 1 60 Antony, France 

• Machinisme Agricole Tropical 

Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigation y Ensenanza 
Turrialba, Costa Rica 

• Turrialba 

Centro International de Agricultura Tropical 
Apartado Aereo 671 3, Cali, Colombia 

• CI AT International 

• Pag bias de Cont enido = Pages of Con tei i is 
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo 

Londres 40, Aportado Postal 6-641, Mexico 6, D.F., Mexico 

• Farming System Bulletin Eastern and Southern Africa 

• CI MM YT Today 
Centro Internacional de la Papa 

Apartado Postal 5969, Lima, Peru 

• C IP Circular 

Centro Nacional de Informacao Documental Agricola 
Esplanada dos Ministerios 

Annexo I de Ministerio da Agricultura, Bloco B, Ala Oestc Tcrrco e I andar, 

CP. 102432,70043, Brasilia, Brasil 
Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka 

Lunuwila, Sri Lanka 
Coffee Research Station 

P.O. Box 4, Ruiru, Kenya 
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 

1818 H Street North West, Washington, DC 20433, U.S.A. 

• Newsletter 

Cooperation Center of Agricultural Research for Development 
BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier, CEDEX. France 
(Continuation of GERDAT) 

• Agritrop 

Crop Science Society of America 
677 South Scgoc Road, Madison, Wisconsin WI 5371 1, U.S.A. 

• Crop Science 
Dcpartcmcnt Systcmcs Agraircs 

Avenue du Value de Montfcrrand, B.P. 5035, 34032 Montpellier, CEDEX, France 

• Valuers d: ia recherche developpemcnt 
Em p res a Brasileira dc Pesquisa Agropecuaria 

Departemcnto dc Difusao de Tcchnologia, SCS quadro 8, Bloco B, No. 60, Super- 
center Vcnuncio 2000 4 andar, Brasilia, Brasil 

• Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 

Entomological Society of America 

9301 Annapolis Road. Lanham. Maryland MD 20706. U S.A. 

' Annals of the ESA 

. Bulletin of the ESA 
Farming Systems Support Project 

Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida, 3028 McCarthy 

Hall, Gainesville, Florida FL 3261 1, U.S.A. 

♦ Farming Systems Support Project Newsletter 
Federation of European Society of Plant Physiology 

Seer. J.E. Tillberg, Department of Botany. University of Stockholm. Stockholm 
S-106, 91 Stockholm, Sweden 

• Physiologic* Plant arum 

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the U.N. 
Via dcllcTcrmc di Caracalla. 00100 Rome, Italy 

♦ Land and Water Newsletter for Field Staff of the Land and Water Development 

♦ Irrigation and Drainage Paper 

• Soils Bulletin 

* Plant Production and Protection Paper 

* Plant Production and Protection Series 

• Better Farming 

♦ Agricultural Service Bulletin 

• Agricultural Development Paper (was stopped a long time ago, but is still valuable) 

• Agricultural Studies 

Gestion, Recher ;hes. Documentation et Appui Technique 

(since 1984.CIRAD) 
Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research 

Lucknow. Uttar Pradesh, India 
Indian Rubber Research Institute 

Kottayam, Keiala. India 
Information Centre for Low External Input Agriculture 

Kastanjelaan 5. 3830 AB Leusden, The Netherlands 

♦ ILEIA Newsletter 

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomiquc 

Service des Publication, Route dc Saint Cyr, F 78026 Versailles, CEDEX, France 
Institut de Rcchcrchcs Agronomiqucs Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrieres 

45 bis Avenue de Belle-Gabrielle, 94130 Nogents 'Marne. France 

• L 'Agronomic Tropicale 

Institut de Recherches du Cafe, du Cacao, et autrcs Plantes Stimulantes 
42 Rue Schcffer. 751 16 Paris. France 

• Cafe, Cacao, The 

Institut dc Recherches du Coton et des Textiles exotiques 
42 Rue Scheffcr. 751 16 Paris. France 

• Coton et Fibres Tropicales 

Institut dc Recherches surlcs Fruits et Agrumes 
6 Rue du General Clergcrie. 75116 Paris, France 

♦ Fruits 



Institut de Rccherches pour les Huilcs ct Oleagincux 
1 1 Square Petrarque, 751 16 Paris, France 

• Oleagineux 

Instituto de Invcstigacao Centifica Tropical 
Rua Jau,47, 1, 1300 Lisboa, Portugal 

• Garcia de Or la serie ch .... 

Inter-American Institute lor Cooperation on Agriculture 

P.O. Box 55, 2200 Coronado, Costa Rica 
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources 

C/o FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00 1 00 Rome, Italy 

• Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 
International Board for Soil Research and Management 

P.O. Box 9- 1 09, Bangkok 1 0900, Thailand 

• IBS RAM Newsletter 

International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas 
P.O. Box 14/5055, Beirut, Lebanon 

• FA BIS Newsletter 

• Lens Newsletter 

• Rachis Newsletter 

• Farm ing S\ -stems Ne \ \ sle tier 

International Centre oflnscct Physiology and Ecology 

P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya 
International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage 

48 Nyaya Marg Chanakyauri, New Delhi 1 10021, India 

• ICID Bulletin 

International Council for Research in Agro forestry 
P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya 

• Agroforestry Today (a continuation of ICR A F Newsletter) 
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics 

Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh 502324, India 

• International Chickpea Newsletter 

• International Pigeon Pea Newsletter 

• SMIC Newsletter (sorghum and millet) 
International Development Research Centre 

P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Canada K 1G 3H9 
. t PRC Reporter 
International Institute for Aerial Survey and Earth Science 
P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschedc, The Netherlands 

• ITC Journal 

International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement 
P.O. Box 45, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands 

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 
P.O. Box 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria 

• IITA in Brief 

• Paradisiaca (plantain and other cooking bananas) 

• Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin 

International Irrigation Centre 

Utah State University, Logan, Utah UT 84322-41 50, U.S.A. 
International Irrigation Management Institute 

52 New Parliament Road, Rajagiriya. via Colombo, Sri Lanka 
international Livestock Center for Africa 

P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. 

• ILCA Newsletter 
. ILCA Bulletin 

International Rice Research Institute 
P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines 

• I RRI Newsletter 
. I RRI Reporter 

International Service for National Agricultural Research 

P.O. Box 933 75, 2509 AJ The Hague. The Netherlands 
International Society of Soil Science 

Co International Soil Reference and Information Centre. 

P.O. Box 353, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands 
Jute Agricultural Research Institute 

Barrack pore 743101, West Bengal, India 
National Cereals Research Institute 

PMB 5042. Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria 
National Root Crops Research Institute 

PMB 1006, Umuahia. Nigeria 
Nigerian Institute of Palm Oil Research 

PMB 1030, Benin City. Nigeria 
Office de la Recherche Scientific et Technique Outre-Mer 

Librairie Vcntc Publicity 70-74 Route d' Aulnay, 93 143 Bondy. CEDEX, France 

. Caluers ORSTOM Pedology 

• Caluers ORSTOM Hydrology 
Overseas Development Institute 

Regent's College. Inner Circle. Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. 
Overseas Development National Resources Institute 
127Clcrkwell Road, London EC1 R5DB, England 

(formerly Land Resources Development Centre and Tropical Development and 
Research Institute) 

• Newsletter ODNRI 

Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia 

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
Pineapple Research Institute of Hawaii 

2500 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii HI. U.S.A. 
Royal Institute for the Tropics 

Mauritskade 63, 1092 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands 

• Abstracts on Tropical Agriculture 
Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia 

P.O. Box 150, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 
Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria 
PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria 



Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka 

Dartonfield, Agalawatta, Sri Lanka 
Soil Conservation Society of America 

7515 North East Street, Ankeny Road, Ankeny, Iowa IA 50021, U.S.A. 

• Journal of the SCSA 

Soil Science Society of America 

677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin WI 5371 1, U.S.A. 

• SSSA Journal 

South African Sugar Association Experiment Station 

Mount Edgecombe, Natal, South Africa 
Southern African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural Research 

Private Bag 00108, Gabarone, Botswana 

• SACCAR Newsletter 
Sugarcane Breeding Institute 

Coimbatore 641007. India 
Sugarcane Research Institute 

lshurdi, Pabna, Bangladesh 
Sugar Industry Research Institute 

Reduit, Mauritius 
Sugar Industry Research Institute 

Kendal Roao, Mandeville, Jamaica 
Taiwan Sugar Research Institute 

Tainan, Taiwan 
Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka 

Saint Coombcs, Talawakcllc, Sri Lanka. 
Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) 

P.O. Box 380, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands 

• Spore: Bi-Monthly Bulletin of the CTA 
Tobacco Research Board 

P.O. Box 1909. Harare. Zimbabwe 
Tocklai Experimental Station (tea) 

Cinnamara PO, Assam, India 
UPASI Tea Experiment Station 

Devarshola. India 

West Africa Rice Development Association Association pour le Devcloppcmcnt de 
Ri/iculture en Afrique de TOucst 
P.O. Box 1019, Monrovia, Liberia 

• WARD A Newsletter 
World Bank 

1818 H Street North West, Washington, DC 20433, U.S.A. 
World Meteorological Organization 

Case postale no. 5, CH-121 1 Geneve 20, Switzerland. 



Appendix 6 

Addresses of Publishers and Booksellers 

Agricultural Publications 
Portuguese/Spanish Publications 
Reference Books 

Agricultural Publications 

Addison Westley 

Finchamstead Road, Workingham, Berks RG1 1 2N2, England 
Agribook Store Winrock International 

161 1 North Kent Street, Arlington, Virginia VA 22209. U.S.A. 
Amerind Books on Agriculture 

N-56 Cannaught Circus, New Delhi 1 10001, India 
Ann Arbor Science 

P.O. Box 1425, Ann Arbor, Michigan MI 48106, U.S.A. 
Edward Arnold 

P.O. Box 34, Berkshire SL6 5B5, England 
A.V.I. Publishing Co. 

c o Van Nostrand Reinhold, Molly Millar's Lane, Workingham, Berks. RG1 1 2PY, 

A. A. Balkcma 

P.O. Box 1675, 3000 BR Rotterdam, The Netherlands 
Batsford Ac. 

4 Fitzharding Street, London W1H 0AH, England 
Blackwell Scientific Publishers 

Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 0EL. England 
Bumpus Haldanc Maxwell 

Olncy, Bucks MK46 4BN, England 
Cambridge University Press 

Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, England 
Chapman Hall 

1 1 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P4EE, England 
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International 

Walling ford, Oxon, OX 10 SDE, England 
CRC Press 

2000 Corporate Boulevard North West, Boca Raton, Florida FL 33431, U.S.A. 
Croom Helm 

Provident House. Burrell Row, Bcckcnham. Kent BR3 1 AT, England 

P.O. Box2ll, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Hcffers Booksellers 

20 Trinity Street, Cambridge CB2 3NG, England 




Windmill Press, Kingswood, Tadworth, Surrey KT20 6TG, England 
Intermediate Technology 

9 King Street, London WC2E 8HW, England 
Kluwcr Academic Publications Group 

Distribution Center, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrv ~ht. The Netherlands 
Krieger Publishing 

P.O. Box 9542, Melbourne, Florida FL 32902-9542, U.S.A. 

1 1 Rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris, CEDEX 08, France 
Libraries Unlimited 

3 Henrietta Street, London WC2 8LU, England 

Longman House, Brint Mill, Marlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England 
G.P. Maissonneuveet Larose 

1 5 Rue Victor Cousin, Pans v v France 
Josef Margraf 

Auf Aigen 3, 7447 Aichtal, Germany 
Miller Freeman 

500 Howard Street, San Francisco, California CA 94105, U.S.A. 
Oxford University Press 

Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England 
Pergamon Press 

Hcadington, Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, England 
Pitman Publishers 

Slaidburn Crescent, Fylde Road. Southport PR9 9YF. England 
Plenum Press 

233 Spring Street, New York NY 10013, U.S.A. 

Englcwood Cliffs, New Jersey NJ 07632, U.S.A. 

P.O. Box 4, 6700 AA Wagcningen, The Netherlands 
R.A.A. Library 

222 Main Street, Emmaus, Pennsylvania PA 18089, U.S.A. 

P.O. Box 17227, 1001 JE Amsterdam The Netherlands 
Today Tomorrow Printers 

24 B5 Desh Bandu, Gupta Road, New Dehli 1 10005, India 

Entrepotdok 68 A/69 A, 1018 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
TRIOPS Scientific Books 

Raiffcisenstrassc 24, D-6070 Langen, Germany 
Van Nostrad Reinhold 

Molly Millar's Lane, Wokingham, Berkshire RG1 1 2PY, England 
Westview Press 

White Swan House, Godstonc, Surrey RH9 8LN, England 




John Wiley and Sons 

Baffins Lane, Chichester, Sussex P019 1UD, England 
John Wiley and Sons 

605 Third Avenue, New York NY 101 58-0012, U.S.A. 

Portuguese/Spanish Publications 

Editora Agronomia Ceres 

Rua Roberto Simonson 62. 5 andar C.J. 52, CP. 3917, Sao Paulo, Brasil 
Editora 'Ave Maria* 

C.E.P. 01 226, Rua Martin Francisco 656, Wila Buarque, Sao Paulo, Brasil 
Editora Edgard Blucher 

0 1000 CP. 5450. Sao Paulo S.P, Brasil 
Editora Moderna 

Rua Alfonso Bras 431, CEP 0451 1, Sao Paulo S.P., Brasil 
Editorial Agricola Espanola 

Calle Caballero de Gracia 24, 2801 3 Madrid, Espana 
Fundagao dc Estudos e Pesquisas en Agronomia 

Rodovia Carlos Tonanni Km 5. 14870 Jabotical S.P., Brasil 
Icone Editora 

R. Anhanguera 66, 01 135 Sao Paulo S.P., Brasil 
Instituto Campineirode Ensino Agricola 

Rua Antonio Lapa 78, CP. 1 148, Campinas S.P., Brasil 
Litexa Portugal 

Av. Rainha D. Amelia 22-A, 1600 Lisboa, Portugal 
Livraria Freitas Bastos 

Rua 7 de Setembro 127, 129, 20.050 Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 
Livraria Nobel 

R. da Balsa 559, Sao Paulo, CEP 029 10, Brasil 
Livraria Portugal 

Rua do Carmo 70-74, Apart 268 1 . 1 1 1 7 Lisboa, Portugal 

Castello 37, 28001 Madrid, Spain 
Porto Editeria 

Rua da Restauragao, 365 4099 Rorto Codex, Portugal 

Editora c distribuidora, Rua Joao Alfredo 444, CP. 601, Porto Alegre, 90.000 RS, 

Reference Books 

Association of Commonwealth Universities 

John Foster House, 35 Gordon Square, London WC1H 0PI-\ England 

Borough Green, Scvenoaks, Kent TNI 5 8PH, England 



Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN 1 5 8PH, England 

Elisabeth Strasse 19, Postfach 34. 4010 Basel, Switserland 
Europa Publications 

18 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3JN, England 
Gale Research Incorporated 

Book Tower, Detroit, Michigan Ml 48226, U.S.A. 

Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU 1 1 3HR, England 
McGraw Hill 

Shoppen Hangers Road, Maidenhead, Berkshire SL6 2QL, England 
McGraw Hill 

1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York NY 10020, U.S.A. 

Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hants RG21 2XS, England 

35-37 William Road, London NW1 3ER, England 
Saur K.G. 

P.O. Box 71 1009. D-8000 Miinchen, Germany 



Appendix 7 

List of Subject Groups 




Social Sciences 








Statistics/Experimental Agriculture 




Remote Sensing Geographical Information Systems 












Hydrology/ Evapotranspiration 


Biological Sciences 




Plant Physiology, Water Stress 






Civil Engineering 



63(2 1 3) Tropical Agriculture 

63(...) Agriculture Mother Country 

630.0 Forestry (depending on the number of books, divided into more groups) 

63 1 .1 Farm Economics/Farming Systems 

63 1 .2 Farm Buildings 

63 1 .3 Agricultural Engineering Animal Traction 

631.4 Soil Science 

631 .43 Physical Soil Science 


63 1 .45 Soil Erosion/Soil Conservation 

63 1 .46 Biological Soil Science 

631 .47 Soil Surveys/Land Evaluation/Soil Classification 

631.5 Soil Management 
631.52 Plant Breeding 

63 1 .58 Systems of Cultivation/Dryland Farming 

63 1 .6 Rural Engineering/Soil and Water Engineering 
63 1 .67 Irrigation/Crop Water Requirement 

631.8 Soil Fertility/Fertilizers/Plant Nutrition 

632 Plant Diseases 

632.9 Plant Protection/Pest Control 

633 Various Crops 

633. 1 Cereals, Grain Crops 

633.11 Wheat 

633.15 Maize 

633.18 Rice 

633.2/3 Forage Grasses/Forage Plants/Leguminoses 

633.4 Root Crops/Tuber Crops 

633.5 Textile and Fibre Plants 

633.6 Sugar and Starch Plants 

633.7 Tobacco/Tea/Coffee/Cacao 

633.8 Aromatic Plants, Oil Plants, Medical Plants 

633.9 Other Industrial Plants 

634. i /8 Fruits Crops Trees/N uts 

635.1/8 Vegetables 

636 Zootechnology/ Livestock/Domestic Animals 

637 Products of Domestic Animals 

638 Apiculture 

639 Fishery 

64 Domestic Science, Economy 

65 Administration/Management 

66 Various Industries 
664.8 Conservation of Food 

68 Computers 


7 Planning 

9 Geography/Biography/History 

Appendix 8 

List of Reference Books 

Bibliography of Dictionaries 


Multilingual Dictionaries 

Descriptive Dictionaries 



Information Sources 
Geographical Information 
Studies Abroad/Courses 

Bibliography of Dictionaries 

Dictionaries and Vocabularies in the Terminology and Reference Library. 1966-1981. 

FAO. 1983.224 pp. 
Idem, 19S2-I9S5. FAO 1986. 66 pp. 

Included arc mono-, bi- and multi-lingual dictionaries on various agricultural sub- 

Encyclopedias and Dictionaries of the World: The Most Complete Guide to Standard 
Reference Sources Ever Compiled. Pcrgamon Press. 1 54 pp. 


The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1988. (15th Ed.) 32 Vols. 

Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 1987. (6th Ed.) 20 Vols. McGraw Hill. 
13, 100 pp. 

Multilingual Dictionaries 

E = English F = French G = German D = Dutch 

1 = Italian P = Portuguese S = Spanish R = Russian 

Agricultural Engineering*: Multilingual Illustrated Dictionary. 1987. H. Steinmctz. 

Margraf. 509 pp. G-E-F-S-Czcch. 
Elscvier's Dictionary of Agriculture*. 1986. (5th Ed.) G. Haensch and G. Haberkamp 

dc Anton. 1,264 pp. G-E-F-S-I-R. 

* Asterisk denotes the subject s. arranged alphabet iealh 



Animal Production*: Multilingual Illustrated Dictionary. 1986. H. Steinmetz and 
F.J. Magnus. Margraf. 550 pp. G-E-F-S-Czech. 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Botany*. 1979, 1982. Vol. 1: Plant Names. 580 pp. Vol. 2: 
General Terms. 744 pp. P. Macura. E-F-G-Latin-R. 

Multilingual Dictionary of Technical Terms in Cartography*. 1973. International Car- 
tographic Association. Franz Steiner Verlag. 573 pp. G-E-F-S-R. 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemistry*: Including Terms from Biochemistry. 1983. 
A.F. Dorian. 685 pp. E-F-S-I-G. 

Quadrilingual Economics* Dictionary. 1980. F.J. de Jong. Nijhoff. 685 pp. E-F-G-D. 

Farm Implements* and Machinery*: Multilingual Illustrated Dictionary. 1982. H. Stein- 
metz. Steinmetz. 5 1 2 pp. G-E-F-S-I-D. 

Elsevier \s Dictionary of Food Science* and Technology*. 1977. I.D. Morton and 
C.E. Morton. 207 pp. E-F-S-G, with index of Latin names. 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Horticulture*. 1970. J. Nijdam and A. de Jong. 561 pp. 

Horticultural Techniques* and Implements* : Multilingual Illustrated Dictionary. 1972. 
H. Steinmetz. Steinmetz. 396 pp. G-E-F-S-I-D. 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Environmental Hydrogeology*. 1990. H.O. Pfannkuch. 332 pp. 

Elsevier \s Dictionary of Hydrology* and Water Quality Management*. 1991. 

J.D. van der Tuin. 528 pp. E-F-S-D-G. 
International Glossary of Hydrogeology*. 1978. UNESCO. 165 pp. E-F-S-R. 
International Glossary of Hydrology*. 1974. World Meteorological Organization. 

393 pp. E-F-S-R. * 

Quadrilingual Collection of Usual Words in Hydrology*. 1969. P. Dubreuil. ORSTOM. 
113 pp. E-F-P-S. 

Selected Terms of Irrigation*. 1978. Terminology Bulletin 34. FAO. 89 pp. E-F-S 
Multilingual Technical Dictionary on Irrigation* and Drainage* . 1983. Dcutscher Ver- 

band fur Wasserwirtschaft und Kulturbau/DVWK. 1009 pp. E-F-G-S. 
Dictionario de termos tecnicos de irrigacdo* e drenagem*. 1978. Associacao Brasilcira 

de Irrigacao c Drenagem. 61 5 pp. P-E-F. 
Multilingual Technical Dictionary on Irrigation* and Drainage*. 1975. G.E. Papado- 

poulos. 1CID. 1,060 pp. Greek-E-F-G. 
Elsevier's Glossary of Land Resources* . 1984. G. Logie. 303 pp. E-F-I-D-G-Swcdish. 
Dictionarium Bihliothecarii* Practician, as usum internationalem in 22 Unguis = The 

Librarian 's* Practical Dictionary in 22 languages. 1 977. Verlag Dokumentation. 

385 pp. 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Library Science*, Information, and Documentation. 1973. 

W.E. Clason. 597 pp. E-F-S-I-D-G. 
Livestock Feeding* and Management*: Multilingual Ilustrated Dictionary. 1966. 

J. Abeijon VelosoJ. Bouglcr, and A.G. Cock. Lohmann. 300 pp. G-E-F-S-I-D. 
International Meteorological* Vocabulary. 1966. World Meteorological Organization. 

Technical Publication 182. 276 pp. E-F-G-S. 
Elsevier \s Glossary of Planning* and Development*. 1 986. G. Logie. 254 pp. E-F-I-D-G. 
Elsevier \s Dictionary of Horticultural and Agricultural Plant Production* . 1 990. 

PJ. Stadhouders, J. Doorenbos, and C. Dorsman. 817 pp. E-D-F-G-Danish- 

Svvcdish-I S-P- Latin. 


n SO 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Wild* and Cultivated Plants*. 1989. W.E. Clason. 1,016 pp. 

Plants* and Plant Products* of Economic Importance. 1983. M. Merino-Rodriguez. 

FAO. 2 Parts. Terminology Bulletin 25/1-2. E-F-S-G. 
Multilingual Dictionary of Remote Sensing* and Photogrammetry*. 1984. American 

Society of Photogrammctry. G.A. Rabchevsky. 343 pp. E-F-G-I-P-S-R. 
Elsevier's Dictionary of Soil Mechanics*. 1965, A.D. Visser. 359 pp. E-F-G-D. 
Multilingual Vocabulary of Soil Science*. 1960. (2nd. Ed.) G.V. Jacks, R. Ta vernier, 

and D.H. Boalch. FAO. 428 pp. E-F-I. 
Elsevier 's Sugar* Dictionary. 1984. L.Y. Chaballe. 321 pp. E-F-S-D-G-Latin. 
Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees* and Shrubs*. 1986. H. Vaucher, 413 pp. E-F-G-I-Latin. 
Elsevier's Dictionary of Water and Hydraulic Engineering* . 1987. J.D. van der Tuin. 

Interdisciplinary Dictionary of Weed Science*. 1990, G.H. William ; and 

W. van der Zweep. Pudoc. 546 pp. Danish-G-E-S-F-I-D-P. 

Descriptive Dictionaries 

Black's Agricultural* Dictionary. (2nd. Ed.) 1985. D.B. Dalai-Clayton. 414 pp. 
Dictionary of Agriculture*. 1983. L.L. Somani and S.B.S. Tikka. Agrieole Publishing 
Academy. 463 pp. 

The Language of Biotechnology* : A Dictionary of Terms. 1988. ACS. 254 pp. 

The Macmillan Dictionary of Biotechnology*. 1986. J, Coombs. 320 pp. 

The Penguin Dictionary of Botany*. 1 983. S. Blackmorc and E. Toohill. 390 pp. 

The Dictionary of Cell Biology*. 1989. C.J. Brett, A.S.G. Curtis, J.A.T, Dow, and 

J.M, Lackie. Academic Press. 262 pp. 
CRC Handbook of Chemistry* and Physics*. 1987. (68th Ed.) R.C. Weast (Editor). 

CRC Press. 2,464 pp. 
The Macmillan Dictionary of Chemistry* . 1987. D.B. Hibbert and A.M. James. 

576 pp. 

Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemistry* : Including Terms from Biochemistry*. 1983. 
A.F. Dorian. 685 pp. 

The McGraw Hill Dictionary of Earth Sciences*. 1984. 900 pp. 

The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics* . 1987. J. Eatwcll, M. Milgatc, 
P. Newman, and R.H.I. Palgrave. Macmillan. 4 Vols. 

Elsevier's Economics* Dictionary. 1983. (2nd Ed.) D.W. Moffat. 331 pp. 

The McGraw Hill Dictionary of Modern Economics* : A Handbook of Terms and Organ- 
izations. 1983. (3rd Ed.) D. Greenwald. 704 pp. 

The Macmillan Dictionary of Modern Economics* . 1 98 1 . D.W. Pearce. 540 pp. 

A Dictionary of Economics* and Commerce* . 1977. J.L. Hanson. English Language 
Book Society. 472 pp. 

The McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Electronics* and Computers* . 1988. (2nd. Ed.). 
980 pp. 

The Macmillan Dictionary of the Environment*. 1988. (3rd Ed.). M. Allaby. 448 pp. 
The McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Food* . Agriculture* .and Nutrition*. 1977. 
D.N. Lapcdcs. 732 pp. 



A Dictionary of Genetics*. 1990. R.C. King and W.D. Stansfield. Oxford University 
Press. 406 pp. 

The Macmilian Dictionary of Genetics* and Cell Biology*. 1987. N. Maclean. 448 pp. 
The Dictionary of Human Geography*. 1981 . R.J. Johnston. Blackwell. 41 1 pp. 
The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Physical Geography*. 1988. A. Goudie. Blackwell. 
528 pp. 

The McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of the Geological Sciences*. 1 988. (2nd. Ed.) 
S.P. Parker. 950 pp. 

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Life Sciences*. 1985. A. Friday and D.S. Ingram. Cam- 
bridge University Press. 432 pp. 
The Macmilian Dictionary of Life Sciences* . 1983. (2nd Ed.) E.A. Martin. 
The Macmilian Dictionary of Microcomputing*. 1985. (3rd Ed.) C.J. Sippl. 473 pp. 
The Macmilian Dictionary of Plant Science*. 1989. W.E. Peat and D.A. Baker. 
300 pp. 

The Macmilian Dictionary of Physics* . M.P. Lord. 

The McGraw Hill Dictionary of Physics* and Mathematics*. 1 978. D.N . Lapedes. 

The McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific* and Technical Terms*. 1984. (3rd Ed.). 
178 pp. 

The Macmilian Dictionary of Sociology*. M. Mann. 320 pp. 

Dictionary of Soils* and Fertilizers*. 1989. L.L. Somani. Mittal Publications. 5 Parts. 
Dictionnaire de science du sol*. 1990. (2nd Ed.) J. Lozet and C. Mathieu. Lavoisier. 
392 pp. 


International Encyclopedia of Abbreviations and Acronyms of Organizations. 1 989. 

(3rd Ed.) P. Wemmroch and P. Spillane. Saur. 6 Vols. 
World Guide to Abbreviations of Organizations. 1988. (8th Ed.) F.A. Buttress and 

H.J. Meaney. Blacki. 777 pp. 
Dictionnaire des sigles: sclent iftques. techniques, et economiques. 1987. (2nd Ed.) 

J. Murith and J.M. Bocabeille. Lavoisier. 47 1 pp. 
Elsevier 's Abbreviations Dictionary. 1985. (7th Ed.) R. Desola. 1240 pp. 
Abbreviations used by F AO for International Organizations, Congresses. Commissions, 

Committees. 1988! (4th Revised Ed.) FAO Terminology Bulletin 27. 205 pp. 
Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary: A Guide to Acronyms, Initialisms, 
Abbreviations, Contractions, Alphabetic Symbols, and Similar Condensed Appela- 
tes. 1990 (14th Ed.) Gale. 


Geo Center Internationales Landkartcnhaus 
Postlach 800507 
D-7000 Stuttgart 80 

The Times Atlas of the World. Comprehensive Edition. 1985. Times Book Ltd. 1985. 





Information Sources 

Key Guide to Information Sources in Agricultural Engineering*. 1 985. B. Morgan. Man- 
sell. 209 pp. 

Guide to Sources for Agricultural* and Biological* Research. 1981 . J. R. Blanchard and 

L. Farrell. University of California Press. 735 pp. 
Information Sources in Agriculture* and Food Science* . 1981 . G.P. Lilley. Butterworth 

Guides to Information Sources. 603 pp. 
Towards Sustainable Agriculture*. 1988. AGRECO/ILEIA. 

Part I: Abstracts, Periodicals, Organizations: 

Part II: Bibliography. 
Keyguide to Information Sources in Aquaculture*. 1989. D.A. Turnbull. Mansell. 

137 pp. 

Biological* Information: Sources and Limitations. 1981. A.J.H. van Es. lnfic. 

Using the Biological* Literature: A Practical Guide 1 98 1 . E.B. Davis. Books in Library 

and Information Science; Vol. 35. Dekker. 284 p; . 
Information Sources in Biotechnology*. 1986. (2nd Ed.) A. Crafts-Lighty. Stoikton. 

403 pp. 

Guide to Information Sources in the Botanical Sciences*. 1987. E.B. Davis. Libraries 
Unlimited. 175 pp. 

Information Sources in Cartography*, 1989. C.R. Perkins and R.B. Parry. Bovvker- 
Saur. 540 pp. 

Key Guide to information Sources in Cartography*. 1986. A.G Hodgkiss and 

A.F. Tatham. Mansell. 253 pp. 
Information Sources in Chemistry*. 1990. (4th Ed.) R.T. Bottle and J.F.B. Rowland. 

Saur. 320 pp. 

Guide to Basic Information Sources in Chemistry*. 1979. A. Antony. John Wiley and 
Sons. 219 pp. 

Drainage*: An Annotated Guide to Books and Journals. 1984. G. Naber. Bibliography 

Information Sources in the Earth Sciences*. 1989. (2nd Ed.) .I.E. Hardy, D.N. Wood, 

and A. P. Harvey. Bowker-Saur. 518 pp. 
Information Sources in Economics*. 1984. (2nd Ed.) J. Fletcher. Butterworths. 

Environmental Economics*: A Guide to Information Sources. 1979. B.C. Field and 

C.E. Willis. Gale. 243 pp. 
Key Resources on Teaching. Learning, Curriculum, and Faculty Development: A Guide 

to Higher Education* Development. 1988. R.J. Mengesand B.C Mathis. Josscy-Bass. 

406 pp. 

Information Sources in Engineering*. 1985. (2nd Ed.) L.J. Anthony, liuttcrworths. 
579 pp. 

Entomology*: A Guide to Information Sources. 1990. (2nd Ed.) P. Gilbert and 

C.J. Hamilton. Mansell. 259 pp. 
Key Guide to Information Sources in Food Science* and Technology* . 1985. S. Green. 

Mansell. 231 pp. 

A Guide to Information Sources in the Geographical Science* . 1983. S. Goddard. Croom 
Helm. 273 pp. 

339 pp. 



Information Sources on Grain Processing* and Storage*, 1982. UN Industrial Develop- 
ment Organization. 97 pp. 

Information Sources in Grey Literature*. 1989. (2nd Ed.) CP. Auger. Bowker-Saur. 
' 175 pp. 

Information on Hydroponics*. In: Hydroponic Food Production. 1987. (Revised 3rd 

Ed.) H.M. Resh. Woodbridge Press. 384 pp. 
Abstract Journals on Irrigation*, Drainage*, and Water Resources Engineering*. 1977. 

L.F. Abell. Bibliography 13. ILRI, Wageningen. 47 pp. 
Sources of Information in Librarianship* and Information Science*. 1987. (2nd Ed.) 

R. Prytherch. Gower. 153 pp. 
Information Sources in the Life Sciences*. 1987. (3rd Ed.) H.V. Wyatt. Butterworths. 

191 pp. 

Using the Mathematical* Literature: A Practical Guide. 1979. B.K. Schafer. Dekker. 
160 pp. 

Use of Mathematical* Literature. 1977. A.R. Dorling. Butterworths. 260 pp. 
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological* Practices. 1981. (2nd Ed.) WMOTechnical Pub- 
lication 134. 

Plant Pathologist's* Pockethook. 1983. (2nd. Ed.) A. Johnston and C. Booth. Com- 
monwealth Mycological Institute. 439 pp. Covers abstract journals, journals, books, 
international institutions. 

Information Sources in Physics*. 1985. D.F. Shaw. Butterworths. 456 pp. 

Keyguide to Information Sources in Remote Sensing*. 1988. E. Hyatt. Manscll. 
274 pp. 

The Remote Sensing* Sourcebook : A Guide to Remote Sensing Products, Services, Facil- 
ities. Publications, and Other Materials. 1986. D.J. Carter. Kogan Page. 175 pp. 

Remote Sensing* Yearbook. 1986. A. Cracknell and L. Hayes. Taylor and Francis. 
Chapter 14: Guide to Teaching and Learning Sources in Satellite Remote Sensing. 
Chapter 15: Guide to Resources in Remote Sensing. 

Information Sources in Science* and Technology*: A Practical Guide to Traditional 
and Online Use. 1986. (2nd Ed.) C.G. Parker and R.V. Turley. Butterworths. 
328 pp. 

Sources of Information in the Social Sciences*: A Guide to the Literature. 1986. 

(3rd Ed.) W.H. Webb. American Library Association. 777 pp. 
Sociology*: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources. 1987. S.H. Aby. Libraries 

Unlimited. 231 pp. 

Appropriate Technology* Source Book: A Guide to Practical Books for Village and 

Small Community Technology. 1986. (Revised and Enlarged Edition). K. Darrow 

and M. Saxenian. Volunteers in Asia Press. 800 pp. 
Wastewater Management*: A Guide to Information Sources. 1976. C. Tchobanoglous. 

R. Smith, and R. Crites. Gale. 202 pp. 
Sources of Information in Water Resources*: An Annotated Guide to Printed Materials. 

1976. G.J. Giefer. Water Information Centre. 290 pp. 
Water Resources*: A Bibliographic Guide to Reference Sources. 1975. V.H. Ralston. 

University of Connecticut. 1 23 pp. 


Geographical Information 

Africa South of the Sahara. 1 988. ( 1 8th Ed.) 1,1 50 pp. 
Middle East and North Africa. 1988. (35th Ed.) 900 pp. 
South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. 1987. (2nd. Ed.) 683 pp. 
Far East and Australia. 1988. (20th Ed.) 1,100 pp. 
Europa Publications. 

For each country, gives information about physical and social geography; recent 
history; economy; statistical survey. Also presents a directory and a bibliography. 
European Yc-rhook 1988: A World Survey. (29th Ed.) Europa Publications, 1988. 2 
Vols. 3,175 pp. 

Contains general and statistical surveys of every country in the world, constitutions, 
government, political parties Judicial system, religion, press, publishers, radio, tv, 
finance, trade and industry, transport and tourism. In addition, all the principal 
international organizations are listed and described in depth. 

Encyclopedia of the Third World. 1983. 3 Vols. G.T. Kurian. Mansell. 

For each of the countries included, gives information on location and area, climate, 
population, ethnic groups, language, religion, colonial experience, constitution and 
government, freedom and human rights, civil service, local government, foreign pol- 
icy, political parties, budget, finance, agriculture. 

The Statesman's Yearbook: 1986-1987. (123rd Ed.) 1986. J. Paxton (Editor). Macmil- 
lan. 1,686 pp. 

Covers: international organizations, countries of the world (A-Z), history, geogra- 
phy, government, defence, commerce, energy and natural resources, justice. 
The Current History Encyclopedia of Developing Nations. 1982. C.L. Thompson, 
M.M. Andcrbcrg, and J.B. Antell. McGraw Hill. 395 pp. Discusses the economic, 
social, political, and geographical forces that are shaping the development of 93 
developing nations. Includes a brief historical background and an analysis of each 
nations^ future prospects. 

Study Abroad, Courses 

International Guide to Library and Information Science Education. 1985. J. Riss Fang 
and P. Nauta (Editors). Saur. An I FLA Publication. 537 pp. A reference source 
for worldwide educational programs in the information fields. 

Study Abroad: International Scholarships: International Courses 1989-1990-1991 . 
(26th Ed.). UNESCO. 1989. 1,394 pp. 


Agricultural Information Resource C cut res: A \\ 'arid Directory. 1 990. CT A , 669 pp. 
Agricultural Research Centres: A World Directory of Organizations and Programmes. 

1988. Longman. 2 Vols 1,180 pp. 
Arid Land Research Institutions: A World Directory. 1988. (3rd Ed.) B.S. Hutchinson 

and R.G. Varaday. Allerton Press. 290 pp. 


Directory of Online Databases. 1 990. Cuadra Associates. 3,400 descriptions of publicly 

available online databases worldwide. 
Information Sources on Tropical Agriculture. CTA. 

Vol. 1 : EEC Countries. 1987. 181 pp. 

Vol. 2: ACP Countries. 1988. 337 pp. 

Presents information on disciplines covered, literature collection, services and 
equipment available. 

Online Bibliographic Databases: A Directory and Source Book, r 986. J.L. Hall and 

M.J. Brown. Aslib. 589 pp. 
Online Databases in the Medical and Life Sciences. 1987. Cuadra Elsevier. 170 pp. 

Lists 795 databases and presents information on 148 online services through which 

the databases arc accessible. The book is a subsection of the Cuadra Directory of 

Online Databases. 

Yearbook of International Organizations 1988,1989. Union of International Associa- 
tions. 1989. Sauer. 

Vol. 1 : Description and Index. (25th Ed.) 956 pp. 

Vol. 2: International Organization Participation, Country Directory of Secretariat 
and Membership. (6th Ed.) 1,600 pp. 

Vol. 3: Global Action Networks. Classified Directory by Subject and Region. 
(6th Ed.) 1,450 pp. 

World of Learning. 1988. (38th Ed.) Europa Publications. 1,925 pp. Addresses and 
other details of more than 25,000 universities and colleges. 


Fellowship Guide for Western Europe. University of Pittsburgh. 

Grants for Study Visits by University Administrators and Librarians. Association of 
Commonwealth Universities. Describes 43 sources of financial aid. 

Grants Register 1989-1991. 1988. C.A. Lerncr. Macmillan. 779 pp. 

The Individuals Guide to Grants. 1983. (2nd Ed.) J.B. Margolin. Plenum. 295 pp. 

Scholarships Guide for Commonwealth Postgraduate Students. Association of Com- 
monwealth Universities. 



Appendix 9 

Journals on Library Science 

Abstract Journals/Reviews 
. Acquisitions 

• Audio-Visual 

. Lending! Document Supply 

. Microform 

. One-Person Library 

. Security 

• Serials 

Agricultural Libraries 
Collection Management 
Information/Online Retrieval 
Libraries (in a broad sense) 

Portuguese Journals 
Special Libraries 

The journals have been mainly selected from the library part of Ulrich's International 
Periodicals Directory. The selection criteria were: 

As many specialized journals as possible: 

No regional journals; 

Issued by commercial publishers or well-known organizations: 
Cited by abstract journals: 
Not too low in price. 

Abstract Journals/Reviews 

Information Science Abstract* ISA 
1966 -. Monthly. U.S. $350. 

Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York NY 1001 3, U.S.A. 
Also available online: DIALOG. 
Library and Information Science Abstracts LISA 
1969 -. Monthly. £157. 

Library Association Publishing, Ridgmount Street, London WCl F 7 AH, England. 
Also available online: DIALOG, Orbit. 
Also available on CD-ROM. 


♦ 97 

Pascal Thema Part 205: Sciences cie T Information Documentation 
1985 -. Monthly. FF 680. 

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Service des Abonnemcnts, 26 Rue 
Boyer, 759* 7 1 Paris, 20 France. 
Paginas de Contentido: Ciensias de la Informacion 
1979 -.Quarterly. U.S. SI 0. 

Association interamericana de Bibliotecarios Documentalistas Agricolas. Codigo 
Postal 7170. Turrialba. Costa Rica. 


Information and Library Manager 
1981 -.Quarterly. £18. 

ELM Publications, Scaton House. Kings Ripton. Cambs PE17 2NJ. En-land. 
Indexed: LISA. ERIC. 
Journal of Library Administration 
1980 -. Quarterly. U.S.S36. 

H^worth Press, 12 West 32nd Street. New York NY 10001. U.S.A. 
Indexed: LISA. ISA, etc. 
Library Administration and Management 
1975 -. Quarterly. U.S. S25. 

American Library Administration and Management Association, 50 East Huron 
' Street. Chicago, Illinois IL 6061 i . U.S.A. 
Library M anagement 

1976 -.6; Year. U.S.S300. 

MCB University Press. 62 Tollar Lane, Bradford, West Yorks BD8 9BY, England. 


Library Acquisitions: Practice and Theory 
1977 -.Quarterly. U.S. S75. 

Pergamon Press, Headington. Hill Hall. Oxford OX3 0BW, England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 

Audio- Visual 

Audio- Visual Librarian 

1973 -. Quarterly. U.S. S60. 

Library Association Publishing. 7 Ridgmounl Street. London WC1E 7AE, Eng- 



Lending/ Document Supply 

Inter/ending and Document Supply: Journal of the British Library 
1971 -.Quarterly. £23. 

British Library, Document Supply Centre, Publication Section, Boston Spa, Wcth 
erby LS23 7BQ, England. 

Indexed: Curr. Cont, LISA, etc. 


Microform Review 

1972 -.Quarterly. U.S.S75. 
Mcckler Publishing, 1 1 Ferry Lane West, Westport, Connecticut CT 06880, U.S.A 
Indexed: ISA, LISA, etc. 

One-Person Library 

One- Person Library: A Newsletter for Librarians and Management 
1 984-. Monthly. U.S. S45. 

OPL Resources, Box 948, Murray Hill Station, New York NY 1 01 56, U.S.A. 


Library and Archival Security 

1975 - .Quarterly. U.S. $36. 

Haworth Press, 12 West 32nd Street, New York NY 1000 1 , U.S.A. 
Indexed: LISA, ISA. etc. 


Serials Librarian: The International Quarterly Journal of Serials Management 

1976 - .Quarterly. U.S.S40. 

Haworth Press/] 2 West 32nd Street, New York NY 1 000 1, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont, LISA, etc. 
Serials Review 

1975 -.Quarterly. U.S. >25. 

Pierian Press, Box 1808, Ann Arbor, Michigan MI 48106, U.S.A. 
' Indexed: Lib. Lit., ISA, etc. 

Agricultural Libraries 

Agricultural Libraries In formation Notes 
1 975-. Monthly. Free. 




U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, 10301 Baltimore 
Boulevard, Beltsville, Maryland MD 20705, U.S.A. 
Agricultural Information Development Bulletin 

Agricultural Division of U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the 
Pacific, U.N. Building Rajdammern. Nok Avenue, Bangkok, 10200 Thailand. 
Quarterly Bulletin IAALD 
1955 -.Quarterly. U.S. S20. 

International Association of Agricultural Information Specialists; IAALD, C o J. 
van der Burg, Pudoc, P.O. Box 4, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. 


Microcomputers for Information Management: An Internal tonal Journal for Library 
and Information Services 
1983 -.Quarterly. U.S. S30. 

Ablex Publishing Company, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey NJ 07648, 

Access Microcomputers in Libraries 
1981 -.Quarterly. U.S. SI 1. 

DAC Publications, 3354 30th Street, San Diego, California CA 92104, U.S.A. 
Electronic Library 

1983 -.6/ Year." U.S. S63. 

Learned Information Incorporated. 143 Old Marlton Pike, Medford, New Jersey 
NJ 08055, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., etc. 
Information Intelligence Online Libraries and M icrocomputers 
1983 10/ Year. U.S. S35. 

Information Intelligence Incorporated, Box 31098, Phoenix, Arizona AZ 85046, 

Indexed: LISA. 
Program: Automated Library and Information Systems 
1966 -.Quarterly. 55. 

ASLIB, Information House, 26-27 Boswell Street London WC1N 3JZ, England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., etc. 


Catalogue and Index 

1966 -.Quarterly. U.S. SI 2. 

Library Association, Cataloguing and Indexing Group, C o C.J. Koster, 18 Apple 
G.-ovc, Enfield, Middx EN1 3DD, England. 
Indexed: LISA, etc. 
Cataloguing and Classification Quarterly 
1980 -.Quarterly. U.S.S36. 



Haworth Press, 12Wcst32nd Street, New York NY 1 0001, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Bull. Signal, LISA, etc. 
FID News Bulletin 

1951 -.Quarterly. U.S.S30. 

International Federation for Documentation, P.O. Box 90402, 2509 LK The Hague. 
The Netherlands. 
Indexed: LISA, ISA. 

Includes 'Quarterly Document Delivery Reproduction Survey' and 'Newsletter 
on Education and Training Programmes for Information Personnel'. 
International Cataloguing 

1972 - .Quarterly. U.S.S30. 

Longman, Longman House, Brint Mill. Marlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England. 
Indexed: LISA, Lib. Lit. 
International Classification 

1973- .3/Year. U.S. S40. 

Indcks Verlag, Woogstrasse 36a, D-6000 Frankfurt 50, Germany. 
Indexed: Curr. Com., etc. 

A journal devoted to concept theory, to organization of knowledge and data, 
and to systematic terminology. 
Journal of Documentation 
1 945 -. Quarterly. £65. 

ASL1B, Information House, 26-27 Boswcll Street, London WC1N 3JZ, England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., Lib. Lit., etc. 

A journal devoted to the recording, organizing, and dissemination of specialized 

Collection Management 

Collection Management 
1975 -.Quarterly. U.S. S38. 

Haworth Press. 12 West 32nd Street. New York NY 1 0001, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Bull. Signal., LISA, etc. 

Information/Online Retrieval 

Database: The Magazine of Database Reference and Review 
1 979 -.Quarterly. U.S. S65. 

Online Inc., 1 1 Tanner Lane, Weston, Connecticut CT 06883, U.S.A. 
Journal of Documentation Scienc. : Principles and Practice 
1945 -.Quarterly. U.S. $60. 

ASL1P, Association for Information Management, 26-27 Boswcll Street, London 
WC1 N, England. 
Journal of Information Science; Principles and Practice 
1 979 -.6 Year. U.S.S80. 



Elsevier, Mayfield House, 256 Banbury Rd, Oxford 0X2 7DH, England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
Online: The Magazine of Online Information Systems 
1976 6/Year. U.S. $80. 

Online Inc., 1 1 Tanner Lane, Weston, Connecticut CT 06883, U.S.A. 
Online Review: The International Journal of Online Information Systems 
1976 -.6 Year. U.S. $70. 

Learned Information Ltd., Besselsleigh Road, Abbington, Oxford OX 1 3 6LG, Eng- 

American Society for Information Science Bulletin 
1974 -. 6/Year. U.S. S50. 

American Society for Information Science. 1424 16th Street North West, Suite 404, 
Washington DC 20036, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
American Society for Information Science Journal 
1950 -. 6 ; Year. U.S. SI 20. 

John Wiley and Sons, 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 101 58, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
Documentaliste: Science de T Information 

1964 - .6- Year. FF380. 

Association Franchise des Documentalisteset des Bibliothecaires Specialises, 5 Ave- 
nue Franco-Russe, 75007 Paris, France. 
Indexed: Bull. Signal., LISA, etc. 

Information Processing and Management: Libraries. Information Retrieval Systems, 

and Communication Networks 
1963 6/Year. U.S. S250. 

Pcrgamon Press, Headington, Mill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
Information Retrieval and Library Automation 

1 965- . Monthly. U.S. S48. 

Lomond Publications, Box 88, Mount Airy, Maryland MD 21771, U.S.A. 
Information Technology and Libraries 
1968 -. Quarterly. U.S. S35. 

American Library and Information Technology Association, 50 East Huron Street, 
Chicago, Illinois I L 6061 1, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
Optical Information Systems Update: Library and Information Centre Applications 
1986 -.6/Year. U.S. S65. 

Mccklcr Publishing, 1 1 Ferry Lane West, Westport, Connecticut CT 06880, U.S.A. 

Libraries (in a broad sense) 

American Libraries 

1907 -.Monthly. U.S. $40. 

American Library Association. 50 Fast Huron Street, Chicago, Illinois IL6061 1 . U.S.A. 
Indexed: ISA, LISA. etc. 



A SUB Information 
1973 -/Monthly. £30. 

ASLIB, Information House, 26-27 Boswell Street, London WC1N 3J, England. 
Information Development: The International Journal for Librarians, Archivists, and 
Information Specialists 

1985 Quarterly. U.S. S70. 

Mansell Publishing, 35-37 William Road, London NW1 3ER, England. 
IFLA Journal 
1975 -.Quarterly. 

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. IFLA, SAUR 
Verlag, P.O. Box 71 1009, D-8000 Munchen, Germany. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., Lib. Lit., etc. 
International Library Review 
1968 -. Quarterly.' U.S. SI 36. 

Academic Press, 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX, England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont. etc. 
Journal of Librarians/up 
1969 -. Quarterly. U.S. S80. 

Library Association Publishing, 7 Ridgmount Street, London WC1E 7AE. Eng- 

Indexed: Curr. Cont, LISA, etc. 

1899 -. Quarterly. U.S. S55. 

Oxford University Press, Walton Street. Oxford 0X2 6DP. England. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., Lib. Lit., etc. 
Library and Information Science Research: An International Journal 
1979 -.Quarterly. U.S. S30. 

Ablex Publishing Company, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey NJ 07648, 

Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
Library Association Record 
1899 -. Monthly. U.S. SI 14. 

Library Association, 47 Ridgmount Street, London WC1E 7AE, England. 
Indexed: LISA, Lib. Lit., etc. 
Library Journal 

1876 -.Monthly. U.S. S67. 

Bovvkcr, Maga/ine Group, 249 West 17th Street, New York NY 1001 1. U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., LISA, etc. 
Library Quarterly: A Journal of Investigation and Discussion in the Field of Library 

1931 -. Quarterly. U.S. S30. 

University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois IL 60637, 

Indexed: LISA, Curr. Cont.. etc, 





Special Libraries Association: Geography and Man Division Bulletin 
1947 -. Quarterly. U.S. SI 7. 

Special Libraries Association, Geography and Map Division. 

C o AT. Sprankle, 406 East Smith Street. Topton. Pennsylvania PA 19562-1 121. 


Indexed: LISA. Lib. LU.,etc. 

Portuguese Journals 

Associacaa Portuguesa de Bihiioteearios. Arquivistas. e Documentalistas: Noticia 
1 975 Quarterly. Esc 400. 

Associagao Portuguesa de Bihiioteearios, Arquivistas c Documentalistas. Edificio 
da Bibliteca Nacional. Campo Grande 83. 1700 Lisbon. Portugal, 
Brasil Camara clos Deputacios. Documentacdo e Informacao 
1951 -.3. Year. Free. 

Camara dos Dcputados. Ccntro dc Documentacao c Informacao. Anexo 2, 70160 
Brasilia DF. Brasil. 
Cademosde Bihlioteconomia, Arc/uivista. e Documentacdo 
1963 -.Esc 1.500. 

Associagao Portuguesa dc Bihiioteearios. Arcquivistas Documentalistas. Edificio 
da Bibliotcca Nacional. Campo Grande 83, 1700 Lisbon. Portugal. 
Indexed: Bull. Signal. 
Ciencia da Informacao 
1972 -.2 Year. U.S. S40. 

Institute Brasileiro de Informacao em Ciencia e Technologia. SCN Quadro 2. 
Bioco K. CEP 70710. Brasilia DF. Brasil. 
Indexed: LISA. ISA. 
Revista Brasileiro de Bihlioteconomia e Documentacao 
1975 -.Quarterly. U.S. S30. 

Federacao Brasileira de Associates dc Bihiioteearios, 40 rua Avanhandava. 
Conj 110, Sao Paulo. Brasil. 
Indexed: LISA. Lib. Lit., etc. 
Revista de Bihlioteconomia de Brasilia 
1973 U.S. S25. 

Universidade de Brasilia. Dcpartanicnto dc Bihlioteconomia. Caixa Postal 
15 301 1. Brasilia. Brasil. 
Indexed: Bull. Signal.. LISA. etc. 

1972 U.S. SI 5. 

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Escola de Bihlioteconomia. CP. 1906. Bclo 
Hori/onte.MG 31270. Brasil. 
Indexed: LISA, Lib. Lit., etc. 

Special Libraries 

Journal of Academic Librarianship 
1975 -.' 6/Year. U.S. S22. 

Mountainside Publications, 321 South Main Sireet, Box 8330, Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan MI 48107, U.S.A. 

Indexed: Curr. Com., LISA, etc. 
College and Research Libraries 
1939 -.6/Year. U.S. S35. 

American Library Association, 50 East Huron Street, Chicago, Illinois IL 60611, 

Indexed: Curr. Cont., Lib. Lit, etc. 
Focus: On the Center for Research Libraries 
1981 -. 6/Year. U.S. S10. 

Center for Research Libraries, 6050 South Kenwood, Chicago, Illinois IL 60637, 
Special Libraries 

1910 -. Quarterly. U.S. S48. 

Special Libraries Association, 1700 Eighteenth Street N.W., Washington DC 20009, 

Indexed: Curr. Cont., Lib. Lit., etc. 
Outlook on Research Libraries: The Monthly Review of National and International 
Research Library Management 
1979 -. Monthly. U.S. S145. 

Elsevier, Mayfield House, 256 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DH, England. 

Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 
1969 -. 5 Year. U.S.S30. 

Association for Library and Information Science Education, 471 Park Lane, State 

College, Pennsylvania PA 16803, U.S.A. 
Indexed: Curr. Cont., Lib, Lit., etc. 
Education for In formation: The International Review of Education and Training in Lib- 
rary and In formation Science 

1983 -. Quarterly. U.S. SI 00. 

Elsevier, Mayfield House, 256 Banbury Rd, Oxford OX2 7DH, England. 
T raining and Education: A Journal for Library and Information Workers 
1983 -.3/ Year. £22. 

Library Association, Training and Education Group, Lomond, Scotland Lane, 
Horsforth, Leeds LSI 8 5SE, England. 



Appendix 10 

Addresses of Some Library Organizations and 
Their Journals 







Latin America 


Commonwealth Library Association 

P.O. Box 40, Mandevillc, Manchester Jamaica 

• COM LA Newsletter (quarterly) 

International Association of Agricultural Information Specialists'IAALD 
Co J. van der Burg, PUDOC, P.O. Box 4. 6700 A A Wageningcn, The Netherlands 

• Quarterly Bulletin 

International Association of Documentalists and Information Officers 
74 Rue des Saints Peres, 75007 Paris. Fr\nce 

• Monthly News 

International Federation for Information and Documentation IFID = Federation 
Internationale dMnformation et de Documcntation/FID 
P.O. Box 90402, 2509 LK The Hague, The Netherlands 

• FID News Bulletin (monthly) 

• International Forum on Information and Documentation (quarterly) 

• Newsletter on Education and Training Programmes for Information Personnel 

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions 1FLA 
P.O. Box 953 1 2, 2509 CH The Hague, The Netherlands. 

• IFLA Journal (quarterly) 

• International Cataloguing (quarterly) 


Library Association of Australia 

376 Jones Street, Ultimo NSW 2007, Australia 
. Australian Library Journal (quarterly). 



Federacao Brasileira Associates de Bibliotecarios 

Rua Avanhandava40.conj. 1 10., 01 306 Sao Paulo SP, Brasil. 

• Re list a Brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Documentacao 

• Bole tun 

Instituto Brasileiro dc Informacao em Ciencia e Technologia 
SCN Quadra 2, Bloco k. 70710 Brasilia DF, Brasil 

• Ciencia da Informacao (2/year) 

• Sumarios Correntes Brasileiros (monthly) 


Aslib: Association for Information Management 
26-27 Boswell Street, London WC1N 3JZ, England 

• The Journal of Documentation (quarterly) 

• ASLIB Proceedings (monthly) 

• ASLIB Information (monthly) 

• ASLIB Book List (monthly) 

• Program (quarterly) 

• Net link (6 /year) 

• Online Notes (monthly) 

• Current A nareness Bulletin (monthly) 
Library Association 

7 Ridgemount Street, London WC1 E 7AE, England 

• Journal of Lihrarianship (quarterly). 


Association des Bibliotecaires Frangais 
65 Rue de Richelieu, 75002 Paris, France 

• ABF Bullet it i d 7/ if on nat ions (quarterly) 

Association Fran^aisc des Documentalistes et Bibliothecaires Specialises 
5 Avenue Franco-Russe, 75007 Paris, France 

♦ Document aliste. sciences de 1' information (6 year) 


Indian Association of Special Library and Information Centres 

P. 291 CYT Scheme No, 6M, Kankurgachi. Calcutta 700054, India 

. I ASLIC Bulletin 
Indian Library Association 

A 40-41 Flat 201. Ansal Building. Dr Mukherjee Nagar. Delhi 1 10009. India 

• Bulletin (quarterly) 

108 r ; ! . 



Latin America 

Associacion Intcramericana do Bibliotecarios y Documentalistas Agricolas, CP. 7 1 70. 
Turrialba. Costa Rica 

United States of America 

American Library Association. 50 East Huron Street. Chicago, Illinois IL 60611. 

• American Libraries (monthly) 

• Booklist (fortnightly) 

• Choice (monthly) 

• Information Technology and Library (quarterly) 

• College and Research Library (6 year) 

• Library Resources and Technical Services (quarterly) 

• Library Technology Report (6 year) 

Association for Library and Information Science Education 

Janet C. Phillips. 47 1 Park Lane. State College. Pennsylvania PA 1 6803. U.S.A. 

• Journal of Education for Library and Information Service {5 year) 
Association of Research Libraries A RL 

1527 New Hampshire Avenue North West, Washington DC 20036. U.S.A. 

• ARL Sewsletter 

Inter-American Bibliographical and Library Association 

P.O. Box 600583. North Miami Beach, Florida FL 33160, U.S.A. 

• Doors to Latin America (quarterly) 
Special Library Association 

1 700 18th Street North West. Washington DC 20009, U.S.A. 

• Special Libraries (quarterly) 

• Special List (monthly) 


Appendix 11 

Example of a Form Letter for Establishing an 
Exchange Agreement 

Proposal Form 

From: To: 

No: Date: 

Dear Sir or Madam, 

We would like to start an exchange of publications with your institution. We can 
offer one or more of the following series or journals, copies of which arc enclosed: 

We would be pleased to receive from you the following series or journals on an 
exchange basis: 

If you have other publications available, please inform us and, if possible, send a speci- 
men copy. 

A copy of this proposal form and two reply forms are enclosed for your convenience. 
Yours sincerely. 



Reply Form 

From: To: 

No: Date: 

Dear Sir or Madam 

We acknowledge receipt of your proposal (No.: Date: ) tor an 

exchange of publications. 

We are willing to accept your proposal.* 
We arc unable to accept your proposal * 
(* Please delete what is not applicable.) 

Starting from (date), we shall forward the following series or journals 

to vour address: 

In return, we shall be pleased to receive the following series or journals: 

On an exchange basis, we can also offer you the following series, a specimen copy 
of which is enclosed: 

Please inform us which series you could supply on the same basis. 

Yours sincerely. 




Appendix 12 

Example of a Cover and a Page of an Accession 

Miiure 26 F.\ample of a an or of an Accession l.tst 

Geodesie, Kartografie 
Ramirez, J. R. 

Computer-aided Mapping Systems ; The Next Generation, (on) 
In: Photogrammctrie Engineering and Remote Sensing 67( 1 99 1 ) I pp.85-88. 

Teunissen, P.J.G. 

De Geodetisehe li/n (nl) 

In: Geodesia 33( 1 99 1 )3 pp. 1 1 0- 1 1 7 
Eon bewerking van de inaugaurclc rede bij de aanvaurding van het professoraat 
in dc mathematische geodesie en fnmtsbcpaling. aan dc Technische Univcrsiteit 
Delft [STAR IN T39] 

Remote Sensing 
Mulder, N.J. 

Earth Watch: Remote Sensing and Image Analysis (en ) 

Univcrsiteit Twente. Enschede. Netherlands. 1991. 15 pp. [ST A RIN 32 433(57)] 


. i b»ai> V O Bo> 46C0 6 TOO AA Wagon r,).,r 


Pease, C.B. 

Satellite Imaging Instruments: Principles, Technologies, and Operational Systems 
( en } Ellis Horwood Library of Space Science and Space Technology. Series in Space 
Technology. Horwood, New York [etc.] United States. 1991, 

Rees, W.G. 

Physical Principles of Remote Sensing, (en ) Topics in Remote Sensing 1 . Cambridge 
University, Cambridge, United Kingdon, 1990. 247 pp. 

Waters, P. A. 

Integrating Remote Sensing and Gis: Why it Remotely Makes Sense ten). 
In: Mapping Awareness 5(1991)1 pp.48-50 [STARIN T 249] 

Remote Sensing applications 

Azzali. S. 

Calculation of Crop Growth Indicators in Different African Climates L 'sing Remote 
Sensing and Meteorological Data: Case Studies in Zambia and Somalia f en ) 
RESOURCES: PROCEEDINGS; IAH [etc], [S.l] 1990. pp.375-381 [N1WARS 
41- 1082] 

Figure 27 I:\amp1c of a page of an Accession List 

Appendix 13 

Example of a Computer Configuration for a 
Small Library 

Video display 

Ke> board 
Basic module 


Expansion slot 

Printing technique 
Printing speed 

Print pitch 


Olivetti M240 

1 2" monochrome met OGC video controller 
Resolution 640 hfl. 400 pixels 
101 102 keys 

A drive 360 Kb, 5.25" type 
B drive 720 Kb, 3.5" type 

C drive 20 Mb. integrated hard disc 3.5" (85 Msec) 
8086 processor 10 Mhz 
640 Kb 

Parallel (Centronics) 
Serial (RS 232 C) 

7 x 8 bits connector's PC XT bus compatible 

Olivetti DM 280 dot matrix printer 

Impact dot matrix 

1 60 char s draft mode 

35 char s Nearly Letter Quality mode 

1 0 char in. draft mode (80 char max) 

1 7. 14 char in draft mode ( 1 32 char max) 


MODEM Hayes compatible k AT command set compatible with 


Operates online in full or half duplex at a rate of 1200 or 
300 bps. 

Built in one of the sk« : of the M240. 

COMPACT DISC CM 121 CD ROM and audio drive 

Laser Magnetic Storage International 
4425 Arrows West Drive 

Colorado Springs, Colorado CO 80907-3489, U.S.A. 
CM 121 provides random access to data and audio stored 
on compact disc ROM and or CD audio media. 
The 12 cm discs have a capacity of 600 MB. CD ROM for- 
mat Philips Sony standard. 

CONTROLLER CAR D Philips CM 153 CD ROM controller card also from Laser 

Magnetic Storage International. 



To operate the AGRICOLA CD ROM disc on the microcomputer, install Silver Plat- 
ter information system Release 1 .6 and MSCDEX (MSDOS CD ROM extension). 

SOFTWARE Cardbox Version 3.5. from: 

Business Simulation. 
Scriventon House, 
Speldhurst, Kent TN3 0TU 

Relay concurrent PC Communication Software 
Version 2.4. from: V.M. Personal Computing, 
Danbury, Connecticut CT 06810 9990, U.S.A. 

UPS EP 300. U.S.A. Office, Asiatek, 15112 Bcrcndo Av., Gar- 

dena. California CA 90247, U.S.A. 
For stabilizing electric current. 



Appendix 14 
Agricultural Databases 

The following information has been taken from Online Databases in the Medical and 
Life Sciences, which is published by Cuadra. Elsevier. Some of the databases are only 
available on computer tape; others have a hard-copy issue, cither on paper or on com- 
pact disc. 


Subjects covered: 

Other products: 
Time span: 

U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA. National Agricultural 
Library NAL. 

Citations to the literature acquired by the NAL for use bv the 

Agricultural economics and rural sociology: agricultural produc- 
tion; animal sciences: chemistry and engineering; entomology; food 
and human nutrition; forestry; natural resources; pesticides; plant 
science; soils and fertilizers; water resources. 
Also covered arc related fields such as land use. family migration, 
labour and political movements, and the impact of chemicals on 
living organisms. 
Bibliography of Agriculture. 
1970 to date. 

About 12,000 records a month. 

AGRIS (International Information System for the Agricultural 
Sciences and Technology) 

Producer: FAO. 

Contents: Approximately 1 million citations, some with abstracts, to the 

worldwide literature on agriculture. 

Subjects covered: History and geography; legislation: education, extension and advi- 
sory work; economics, development, marketing, and rural sociolo- 
gy; plant production; protection of plants and stored products; for- 
estry; animal production; veterinary medicine; aquatic sciences and 
fisheries; machinery and buildings; natural resources; food science; 
human nutrition; home economics; pollution. 

Other products: Agrindew 

Language: Rnglish. 

Time span: 1 975 to date. 

Updating: About 10,000 records a month. 





(Not accessible online. Onlv available as a journal.) 

Producer: Centre dc Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomiquc 

pourle Deveioppemenl C1RAD. 
Contents: Citations with abstracts to the worldwide literature on tropical and 

subtropical agriculture. 

Subjects covered- Agricultural economics and development: plant science and produc- 

SU - 1C Hon: plant protection: post-harvest technology: lorestry: animal 

science: fisheries: agricultural machinery and engineering: process- 
in- of agricultural products: cereals: sugar plants: oil plants: t.bre 
plants: fruits: vegetables: pastures: seed crops: stimulant plants: var- 
ious other plants. 

Language: English. French, and Spanish editions. 

Time span: 1976 to dale. 

Updating: 500 records each half 


Producer Biosciences Information Services (BIOSIS. 2100 Arch Street. Dept. 

P., Philadelphia. PA 19103-1 309. 'J S.A.). 

Contents: Approximately 4.7 million citations, with abstracts, to the world- 

wide literature on research in the hie sciences. 

Subjects covered- Microbioloav: plant and animal sciences: experimental medicine: 

Subjects agricuUure: pharmacology: ecology: biochemistry: b,o-eng,neermg: 

biophvsics. , 
Approximately 9.000 journals and other publications are screened. 

Other products: Biological Abstracts. 

Language: English. 

Time span: 1969 to dale. 

Updating: About 19.500 records, a month. 


Producer- Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International CAB!. 

Contents-: Approximately 2 million citations, with abstracts, to the 

literature on research in ugiiculture. 
Subiects covered- Animal breeding: engineering: bees: dairy science: crops: loresln. 
Subjects covered. ^ m . nUiolosiv;llonialUurc: vclcrinary medicine: plant breeding: 

protozoology: applied entomology: mycology: plant pathology: 
rural development and sociology: soils and fertilizers: weeds: agri- 
cultural economics; leisure and recreation: tourism: human and ani- 
mal nutrition: arid lands. 

1 17 


Other products: 27 main journals and 20 specialized journals, of which the following 

arc interesting for agricultural scientists: 
Crop Science and Production: 

• Agrqfhrestry Abstracts; 

• Chickpeas and Pigeonpeas Abstracts; 

• Crop Physiology Abstracts; 

• Faba Bean Abstracts; 

• Field Crop Abstracts; 

• Groundnuts Abstracts; 

• Herbage Abstracts; 

• Horticultural Abstracts; 

• Irrigation and Drainage Abstracts; 

• Maize Abstracts; 

• Ornamental Horticulture; 

• Plum Breeding Abstracts; 

• PA//// Growth Regulator Abstracts; 

• Potato Abstracts; 

• Rice Abstracts; 

• Seed Abstracts; 

• SVj/V.v <///</ Fertilizers; 

• Sorghum and Millet Abstracts; 

• SY>n/ Zta/// Abstracts; 

• Tropical Oil Seed Abstracts; 

• ir/icf//. &ir/<n\ <///(/ Triticale Abstracts. 
Crop protection: 

• /far/Vir of Agricultural Entomology; 

• Biocontrol News and Information; 

• Hehnintological Abstracts Series B; 

• hematological Abstracts; 

• T 5 /^/// hematology; 

• /ter/cir of Plant Pathology ; 

• Weed Abstracts. 

Fxonomics, Development, and Sociology: 

• Development Abstracts; 

• H >>/•/</ Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Abstracts. 
Machinery and Buildings: 

• Agricultural Engineering Abstracts. 
Food and Nutrition: 

• Food Science and Technology Abstracts; 

• Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. (Invoicing and distribution of 
this title is done by the publishers: International Food Information 
Service IFIS, Lane End House, Shinfield, Reading RG2 9B, U.K.) 



Producer: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Centre de Documen- 

tation Scientifique et Technique/CNRS/CDST; Institut National de 
la Recherche Agronomique/INRA. 

Contents: Approximately 95,000 citations, with abstracts, to the worldwide 

literature on agriculture. 

Subjects covered: Agricultural bioclimatology; genetics and plant breeding; general 
agronomy; phytopathology; plant physiology; plant yield; plant 
protection; soils; weeds. 

Other products: Pascal: Thema 280: Sciences Agronomiques, Production Vegetales. 

Language: French. 

Time span: 1980 to date. 

Updating: About 1,800 records a month. 


Producer: Royal Institute of the Tropics, The Netherlands. 

Contents: Citations, with abstracts, to the worldwide literature on practical 

aspects of tropical and subtropical agriculture. 

Subjects covered: Crop production and protection; crop processing and storage; fertil- 
izers and soils. Also covered are the social and cultural aspects of 
agricultural development; farming systems; environmental aspects. 

Other products: Abstracts on Tropical Agriculture) A TA . 

Language: English. 

Time span: 1975 to date. 

Updating: About 1 ,000 records a quarter. 

> ii 118 


Appendix 15 

Example of a Leaflet about a Library 


- 29 7 cm - 









UrtvmMada E. Mondlana 
Fac, da Agronomia (b*l,) 
JuIhic Nyti«f*r« 140 

Untvaraidado E, Mondlana 
Fac. da Agronoma (bibl.) 
CP. 257 Maputo 


Monday to Friday: 
07.30- 12.00 
14,00 • 17.00 


07.30 - 12,00 






Mozambtqua's ooty univarstty. 
I ha Eduardo Mondtana Univaraity 
haa thJrtaao. facultraa. one ot 
which ia tha Faculty ot Agronomy 
and Foraat Englnaaring. 


Tha thraa Faculty Dapartmantt: 
a Rural Engwaoring 
• Plant Production 
a Plant Pro taction 
Tha Faculty haa 300 atudami 
and 50 atafl mambara. Tha Fac- 
ulty aHo haa a LtflRARY AND 




Baaaa on botany, biotagy agricut- 
tixa. aotf acWoca, rural angt naartng , 
croaa, crop araadlng, foraatry. 
A fatal at 10.000 baotta, many ot 


W#a-#m©wn tntamaalonaf )oumaia 
on affkuHum and ta i a tad tubfada. 
Abatract j/oumaf Horn CAB) 


Sanaa from a'arnaHonal raaaarch 
oraanteattona aa ClAT, CI WW YT, 

l-'igurc 2X r:\amptc of a Icallcl about a library 


a Manual ratrtaval 

a Comautaritad ratrtaval with 

AOfttCOLA* compact disc 
• Onllna Utaratura ratrtaval via: 





a Aoctatlo n Wat 

• Paoaa ot contanta 

a Loan* tor Faculty •tatt and ttu- 



Appendix 16 

Two Examples of Ground Plans for a Library 

' 1 








\ ' 

■ D 

< .aru 


l-'igurc 29 Ground plan oflhe l.ihrnr\ oflhe l : ueull\ of Agronoim and I'oreM ['nginccriiig oflhe fcduardo 
Mondlanc l'ni\crsii> 

Mudy rnoTii '0' ilud«nn ] l,,m viflec cab.i 

I L 

iner<«* lor t>oc> ■ 

Oltice I vM<» FAO to'lctlton 

CJrrnls <c> lour liD«jr» u 

Oirfl lor lou' library utf ''. 

I I 

figure .10 Ground plan for 1 he new Libran oflhe I ;ietill> of Agronoim muH-nrcsl liniiiiieering ol die 
I duardo Mom) lane I'tmersih 


Appendix 17 
Library Regulations 

1 Organization 

1 . 1 The Library is presided over by a Library Board consisting of: 
The Dean or his substitute as Chairman: 
The Librarian as Secretary; 
Mcmber(s) of the staff. 

2 Opening times 

Monday to Friday: 07.30-12.00 14.00-17.00. 
Saturday: 07.30-12.00. 

3 Rules 

3.1 Bags and the like are not allowed in the Library. 

3.2 Silence should be observed. 

3.3 Smoking, eating, drinking arc not allowed. 

4 Acquisitions 

4.1 All users may suggest acquisitions to the Librarian, who decides on the matter. 
If no agreement can be reached, the Library Board will decide. 

4.2 Each staff member will provide the Library with three copies of any publication 
written by him. Two copies will be placed in the collection . One will be sent 
to a documentation and information service for inclusion in a reference or ab- 
stract journal and or database. 

4.3 Any publication received by a staff member should be offered to the Library 
to be catalogued. Afterwards, it may be borrowed by the staff member perma- 

4.4 If any new research activities are to be initiated, the Librarian should be 

5 Loans 

5.1 Staff members and students may borrow publications from the Library. All 
other persons may only consult them. 

5.2 Reference books, other regularly consulted books (to be decided by the Librari- 
an), and journals may not be borrowed. 

5.3 The loan period is 14 days. Exceptions can be made. 

5.4 A maximum of four books may be borrowed at one time. Exceptions can be 

5.5 It is forbidden to write or underline in the publications. 

5.6 Borrowed or consulted books may not be reshelved by the users. This is the 
responsibility of trained library personnel. 

5.7 Each borrower signing the loan slip is responsible for the book lent to him. 
In case of loss or damage, he must repay its cost, with administration charges 



5.8 Inter-library loan is possible, but only for staff members and students, and only 
after it has been checked that the publication is not available in the Library 

6 Services 

6. 1 The Library management will produce accession lists, pages of contents, current 
awareness bulletins, etc. 

6.2 Each semester, the Library management will organize an instruction session on 
how to make optimum use of the Library's facilities. 

6.3 The Library management will provide each new staff member with a leaflet 
about the Library, a booklet on how to use the Library, and prepared forms 
for question-and-answer services. 



Agricultural researchers, especially in developing countries, face a formidable task 
in keeping track of all the new research findings. If they have access to a well-organized 
library, however, it can help to channel the great flow of information and make it 
available to them. Anyone wishing to start (or to rehabilitate) such a library will be 
helped by this book, even if he has no prior training in library science. 

The book contains six chapters: 
Chapter I: Collection Building; 
Chapter 2: Ways of Overcoming a Shortage of Funds; 
Chapter 3: Library Personnel; 
Chapter 4: Library Management; 
Chapter 5: Agricultural Information Sources; 
Chapter 6: Library Instruction and Public Relations. 

The book includes seventeen appendices containing lists of agricultural journals, jour- 
nals ou library science, reference books, addresses of international research organiza- 
tions, and addresses of publishers and booksellers. Others present an example of a 
form letter for exchange agreements, the cover and page of an accession list, a com- 
puter configuration, a leaflet about the library, possible ground plans for libraries, 
and library regulations. 

International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement/ILRI 
Wafeeningen,The Netherlands 

ISBN 90 70754 274