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Idaho Librarian Survival Manual. A Guide for New 
Librarians . 

Idaho State Library, Boise. 

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DESCRIPTORS Instructional Materials; '''Librarians ; Library 

Acquisition; ^Library Administration; Library 
Automation; Library Catalogs; Library Circulation; 
Library Collections; Library Cooperation; Library 
Funding; Library Material Selection; Library 
Personnel; Library Planning; Library Policy; Library 
Services; Library Statistics; '''Public Libraries; 
State Libraries 

IDENTIFIERS *Idaho; '''Training Materials 

ABSTRACT 

The purpose of this guide is to help new librarians 
in Idaho get started at their jobs. It provides a basic overview of 
library administration, policy, procedure, activities, and services. 
The following topics are covered: library law; working with the board 
of trustees; formulating and writing policies and procedures; 
budgeting and finance; personnel practices and laws; getting to know 
the collection; selection and acquisitions; the catalog and how 
materials are arranged; circulation procedures; public services 
responses to patrons; interlibrary loans and cooperation; keeping 
statistics; learning about automation; planning; and the mission of 
the State Library. (MAS) 



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* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the ordinal document. * 

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ERIC 



U.». DEPARTMENT Of EDUCATION 

Office of Educational Research and Improvement 

EDUCATIONAL RE JOURCES INFORMATION 
CENTER (ER'J) 

□ This document naa bean reproduced aa 
received Irom the p« r «on cr wgennation 
originating it 

□ Minor changes have been made to improve 
reproduction quality 

e Po:nts of view Of opinions stated m thia docu- 
ment do not necessarily represent official 
OERl position or policy 






a 



SiirviviL 




A guide for new librarians 




Published by the Idaho State Library 
325 West State Street 
Boise, Idaho 83702-6072 



(208) 334-5124 



"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BUN GRANTED BY 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



Ann Joslin 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)." 




all© 



LtluTQXIBIk 

Survival 




anna. 



Published by the Idaho State Library 
325 West State Street 
Boise, Idaho 83702-6072 
(208) 334-5124 

ERIC 3 

ummmmmim 



Table of Contents > 



I. Introduction I_ i 

II. Library Law: Or, Is All This Legal? II- 1 to II-7 

III. Working With Your Board: Or, Who Does What? Hi- 1 to ffl-7 

IV. Policies: Or, Get It In Writing IV- 1 to III-8 

V. Procedures: Or, Where's the Light Switch? V- 1 to V-8 

VI. Budgeting and Finances: Or, Free Libraries Aren't Cheap VI- 1 to VI-9 

VII. Personnel: Or, "... And I Thought We Were Friends" VII- 1 to VII-8 

VIII. The Collection: Or, "Do You Have A Good Book on VIII-1 to VIII-8 

IX. Selection and Acquisitions: Or, More Books for the Bucks IX- 1 to IX-9 

X. The Catalog: Or, I Know We've Got It Somewhere X- 1 to X- 13 

XI. Circulation: Or, Check It Out! XI- 1 to XI- 15 

XII. Public Services: Or, Face To Face XII- 1 to XII-4 

XIII. Interlibrary Cooperation: Or, Help! I Need Somebody! XIII-1 to XII-6 

XIV. Statistics: Or, Count On It! XIV- 1 to XIV-8 

XV. Automation: Or, Take Two Computers and Call Me In The A.M. XV- 1 to XV-9 

XVI. Planning: Or, If I Knew Where We Were Go<ng, I Wouldn't Be Lost XV- 1 

XVII. The State Library: Or, Your Friends In Boise, Moscow and Idaho Falls XVII- 1 



ERIC 



4 



If you are reading this, you are probably a brand new librarian. On your 
first day on the job, you may have looked around and wondered what you 
got yourself into. What once looked like a new quiet place where people 
sat around and read now has revealed itself for what it is: a maze of paper, 
policies, procedures, and politics. 

Please rsst assured that it will get better! Within a few months you will 
have a much better idea of how your library operates. You will start to 
feel more at home in your job. Of course, you will still feel like smacking 
anyone who says: -I wish I could work in the library; it must be nice to 
do nothing but sit and read books all day." No librarian sits and reads 
books all day. In fact, many librarians read less after they've become 
librarians. They just don't have the time! 

That, of course, doesn't mean that we don't think reading is important. 
To be a good librarian, you must like to read, and the more you read the 
better librarian you will be. Library work usually doesn't pay that well. 
Most librarians work in libraries because they think the work is impor- 
tant. In one sense, then, you are a missionary for reading and libraries. 
You are trying to promote something that you think is important for your 
community. Your enthusiasm for reading and libraries combined with 
love of people and all of the library skills that you can develop are what 
will make you effective in this task. 

The purpose of this survival manual is to help you get started. It is not 
designed to give you in-depth information about any particular aspect of 
your job. Instead, its purpose is to help you move through your first few 
months in the library. We hope that it will help answer some of your 
questions, or at least help you to know what questions to ask. It will also 
give you lists of resources that you can use to get more information. 

If you have questions that you can't answer or if you are j ust feeling a little 
lost, don't hesitate to call your area's public library consultant. Their 
telephone numbers and areas covered are shown on the map which is at 
the beginning of this guide. 



Library Law: br, Is All This Legal? 




Section II: 



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(10/93) 



Library Law 

Page II- 1 



You don't have to be an attorney in order to be a library director, but you 
do need tc understand the basics of many state and federal laws that 
affect your library. You should also know about any local ordinances 
that might pertain to your library. 

Much of what is in the law is just common sense, phrased in complicated 
language. Areas where legal requirements may most seriously affect the 
library are in its fiscal management, personnel, buildings and political 
dealings. When making decisions in these areas, be careful. If some 
action that the library is about to take seems controversial, it should 
send up a warning flag, and you should consider whether your action 
might have some legal ramifications. 

State Library Laws 

The sections of Idaho Code that deal specifically with city and district 
libraries are in Title 33. The laws governing city libraries are found in 
Sections 33-2602 through 33-2611. District library laws are in sections 
33-2701 through 33-2729. School-community libruy laws are in 
section 33-2737 to 33-2740. 

These laws cover responsibilities of trustees and librarians, reports, tht 
appointment or election of trustees, donations to libraries, and the 
establishment, annexation or consolidation of libraries. 

In many cases, district library law refers to Idaho school district law. 
District librarians need to understand school laws as they relate to 
trustee andbond elections, filling board vacancies, and selling property. 

District Trustee Elections 

District libraries are required to hold trustee elections on the fourth 
Tuesday in May of each year. You may be appointed by the board to act 
as the library district clerk and have the responsibility of organizing the 
election. This responsibility includes posting and publishing notices 
that nominating petitions are available; making sure that absentee 
ballots are prepared and accessible; posting and publishing the re- 
quired notices of the election; hiring an election Judge and clerk. These 
are Just a few of the election requirements. 

The election is a complicated procedure. To help you, the State Library 
publishes a trustee election calendar each year that lists important 
dates and deadlines. Look for this in your mail each March. Yourpublic 
library consultant will be happy to help you too. 



6 



Library Law: Or, Is All Tliis Legal? - 



State Laws for Both Districts and City Libraries 

Bidding Requirements. The Idaho Code contains other sections that 
pertain to municipal or taxing district boards. For example . Section 50- 
341 and Section 33-601 contains competitive bidding laws for cities 
and library districts, respectively. These laws require an open bidding 
process for city libraries when they purchase equipment valued over 
$ 10.000 or any other item over $5,000. The bid requirement for library 
districts kicks in when any item is valued more than $15,000. 

Open Meetings Law. Another vitally important law is the "Open 
Meetings Law". Sections 67-2340 to 67-2347. The Open Meeting Law 
requires the following: 

1. That notice of all meetings, regular, special, and executive sessions 
be given. The notice must include an agenda. 

2. That all meetings be held in places that do not discriminate on 
the basis of race, creed, color, sex, age, or national origin 

3. That all public boards provide written minutes of all meetings and 
that these minutes be available to the public. 




4. That public board meetings be open to the public except to: 

a. consider hiring, evaluating, or disciplining an employee 



b. conduct labor negotiations 



c. to consider purchasing property 

d. to negotiate trade or commerce 



e. to consider its attorney's advice in pending or possible law 
suits 



5. That no final action or decision can be made in an executive (closed) 
session. In other words, all votes must be taken in public sessions. 

6. That members of a board who knowingly conduct or participate in 
a meeting in violation of this law will be subject to a $ 150 fine for the 
first violation and a $300 fine for all subsequent violations. All action 
taken in such a meeting shall be null and void. 



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Section II: Library Law 

(10/93) p a g e n-2 



Library Law: Or, Is All This Legal? 



o 

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Section II: Library Law 

(10/93) p a ge n- 3 



Idaho Tort Claims Act The Tort Claims Act", Sections 6-902 through 
6-928, contains the laws that govern board and employee liability and 
protection. These laws define when governmental entities, including 
libraries, maybe held liable for damages as a result of their actions and 
give them authority to purchase necessary liability insurance and to pay 
for the premium through a separate tax levy. 

PubltcRecordsAct. A relatively new law that affects both district and city 
libraries is the "Public Record Act," Sections 9-337 through 9-348. This 
act safeguards the privacy of library circulation records. This means 
that your library cannot let any person or representative of a law 
enforcement agency examine these records. 

If you receive a subpoena for library records, you ai:d your board should 
consult an attorney in order to prepare a motion to modify or quash the 
subpoena. When the court reviews your motion, it may decide to drop 
its request or issue an order to show these records. Again, at this time, 
you and your board should consult an attorney. 

Federal Laws 

Federal laws which apply to your library are generally concerned with 
the areas of personnel, especially in the areas of hiring and firing. For 
comments on some of these laws, see Chapter VII. 

i 

If you receive a Library Services and Construction Act (L«CA) grant, your 
library must agree to abide by a number of federal laws and regulations. 
These provisions are particularly important when you consider building 
construction that uses federal funds. You need to be aware of these 
provisions before you agree to accept the grant funds. 

When to Call an Attorney 

In case of legal disputes, you and your board should not represent the 
library. You need to have an attorney's advice. If you. are a city librarian, 
get to know the city attorney and understand what she or he will be able 
to do for you. If you are a district librarian, you might consider asking 
your board to hire an attorney on retainer. By paying a monthly fee, you 
will have an attorney's ear when you need it. If you are a small district, 
however, and you don't foresee any legal problems, it might be cheaper 
to hire an attorney on an "as needed" basis. 

Even when you are working with an attorney, however, it is important 
for you to have an understanding of the law. Library law is rarely 
disputed in court, so when you first approach an attorney you may know 
more about it than s/he does. You will also know a great deal more about 



Library Law: Or, Is All This Legal? j 



what your library wants or needs In any given legal situation. What an 
attorney will bring you will be a wider perspective of how library laws fit 
into the general framework of law. Thus, working with an attorney 
should be seen as a partnership, in which both of you will be bringing 
important perspectives to a problem. 

Help from the State Library 

The Idaho State Library publishes a compilation of Idaho's library laws 
each summer. This publication contains all new additions to library 
laws. Each library receives a complete edition, with most of the 
pertinent Idaho laws and five copies of the basic edition, with only the 
laws specifically governing libraries. The copies of the basic edition 
should be given to your board members. 

In addition, from time to time, the State Library publishes "Fact Sheets" 
that cover specific laws or changes in the law. These Fact Sheets are 
included with the State Library Newsletter. 

The best way to understand the laws is to read them. Don't tackle them 
all at once, but read through the comprehensive publication section by 
section. If you find something that you don't understand, call the public 
library consultant for your area. She or he will help you understand the 
laws and how they affect your library. 



ERIC 



J 




Section II: Library Law 

(10/93) p a g e 1M 



' Working with Your Bo&rd: Or, Who Does What? 




Section III: Working with 
Your Board 

9 (10/93) Page III-l 

ERIC 



When you were hired, you became an employee of your library's board 
of trustees. Most of the time, working with your board will be easy, 
because you all have a common interest and a common mission: to 
provide your community with the best possible library service. Good 
board members will be your best allies In working for better service. They 
will bring ideas, encouragement and enthusiasm to the library. A 
librarian that has a hard-working, knowledgeable board will find them 
to be an invaluable help. In this chapter we will discuss some general 
principles about the library board / library director relationship. 

In theory, the library board's function is to set policy for the library, and 
the library director's role is to see that these policies are carried out. In 
reality, the line between these two functions may not always be that 
clear. 

While it is true that the library board is charged with setting policy, you 
know more about the day-to-day operations of the library. Boards 
sometimes have ideas that simply are not workable or that will end up 
hurting the library. As the librarian, it is your duty to inform the board 
of what you expect the practical consequences of their decisions will be. 
However, once the decision is made, it is your responsibility to carry it 
out to the best of your ability, even if you don't agree with it. 

Another problem that sometimes occurs is when a board member gets 
over zealous, and interferes with the administration of the library. The 
trustee may come in and tell you to make changes, interfere with the 
work of your staff, or go out into the community and misrepresent the 
library's position on various issues. In these cases, it is important foryou 
to remember that legally individual board members have no power over 
the library. It is only when the board acts as a group at an official 
meeting that library policy is made. 

It is all well and good to know that an individual board member doesn't 
have the authority to Interfere with the administration of the library, but 
s/he still represents one-fifth of your boss. If this trustee has been on 
the board for a long time or is an officer of the board, s/he may even have 
more power than that with the board. What do you do in a case like this? 

The keys to working with your board-both in good times and bad- 
-are respect, communication, and tact. As a new librarian, recognize 
that the library and the library board has a history. The board is used 
to doing things in certain ways. Unless they have had serious problems, 
board members are not likely to interested in changing what they see as 
successful. They are notlikely to change things unlessyou can give them 
good reasons, and even then, it may take some time for them to develop 
trust of your judgement. 

10 



W%^fjg^4th Your Board: Oiy Who^Do^sSVhat? 



■■aft I 



During your first year, you probably will want to spend more time In trust 
building rather than in problem solving with your board. Try to get to 
know each board member personally, find out what they think about the 
library and where they want the library to be going. 

Does this mean that you should not bring up problems? No, but it may 
mean that you should pick your "battles" carefully. Certainly, if you 
know that the board is doing something that is illegal, for example, you 
need to inform them of that. But you may not want to bring up issues 
that are only mildly irritating to you. 

During this time, it is also vitally important to communicate as much 
information as possible to your board members. If you see a potential 
difficulty coming up, make sure that the board is aware of it, even if you 
are afraid it reflects badly on you. No one likes to be surprised by a major 
problem that everyone else saw coming. At the same time, do not dwell 
on the negative. Make sure that the board knows about the library's 
successes too. 



a 

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If you treat board members with respect and communicate well with 
them, you will probably not have problems with any of your trustees. But 
what should you do when a problem does occur? What should you do, 
for example, if a board member demands that you change a policy 
without waiting for board action? First, remember to keep your cool. 
Treat the request with respect and tact. Second, tell the board member 
that you do not feel comfortable making the change without the full 
board acting on it. Tell the board member that you will ask the board 
chair to put the issue on the agenda for the next board meeting. Third, 
look for some alternative that you can use without board approval to 
solve the problem between the time the problem arises and the next 
board meeting. Make sure that the alternative that you choose conforms 
to present policy. 

What should you do if the board makes a decision that you do not agree 
with? As the board's employee, except in those cases where a decision 
forces you to do something that is illegal or unethical, it is your 
responsibility to carry out the decision as best you can. Try to make it 
work, and most importantly, don't express your negative opinion to the 
public or to other members of the staff. No one likes to be second 
guessed, and to do so is only asking for trouble. If the decision creates 
problems for the library, document these and bring them to the board. 
Don't forget if the decision turns out to be a good one, however, to 
complement the board on it. 



11 



Section III: Working with 
Your Board 

(10/93) Page III-2 



■5 ■ ' , 



Working with Sour Board: Or, Who Does Wh'at? 




ERIC 



Section III: Working with 
Your Board 

(10/93) Page III-3 



Recruitment and Orientation of New Trustees 

Although trustees are either appointed by the mayor and city council 
or elected, most trustees seek the office because they are encouraged 
to do so by other board members. As a librarian, you can help your 
board by suggesting potential trustees from people who use the library 
and have shown an interest in it. 

Once new trustees have come on the board, it is very useful if you can 
give them an orientation to the library. Such an orientation can 
include a tour and a discussion of some of the issues that are currently 
affecting the library. You should also make sure that new trustees 
have received a copy of the State Library's Guide for Trustees of Idaho 
Public Libraries, as well as copies of important local documents, such 
as by-laws, policy statements, and minutes from the previous year. 

By working with trustees while they are new on the board, you can 
build the kind of positive relationship that will most benefit your 
library. 



1 



Policies: Or, Get It in Writing 




O (10/93) 

ERIC 



Section IV: Policies 

Page IV-1 



We like to think of libraries as nice quiet places where people are always 
nice to each other. Most of the time this is true. There are times, 
however, when libraries are not so quiet. In fact, sometimes libraries get 
downright controversial. 

For example, sometimes people don't like some of the books that a library 
has in it. Or an employee may feel that s/he has been treated unfairly. 
Or a bunch of kids may disturb other patrons. Or someone claims that 
books have been returned when your records show that they haven't 
been. 

What do you do in these situations? 

One way is to make up rules as you go along. Each situation is handled 
as the staff sees fit, with little or no guidance from the library board. 
There are several problems with this approach. 

For one thing, the system is arbitrary. What the librarian decides to do 
may be based on the mood s/he is in or on previous experiences with the 
ps'xon. The librarian naturally will like some people more than others. 
S/he may treat some people more leniently than others. Even if the 
librarian treats everyone the same, without written guidelines from the 
board, there may be the appearance of unfairness. This problem is 
magnified when different people are handling the same problem at 
different times. Each brings his or her own standards and methods of 
problem solving to the job. 

Secondly, if there are no written policies, the staff is unprotected. The 
librarian may make a good decision, but the board doesn't agree with it. 
Such second guessing may diminish the librarian's authority in the 
minds of the public, and it can lead to strained relations between the 
librarian and the board. In extreme cases, it may even mean even leave 
the staff legally exposed without board support. 

Thirdly, written policies add extra authority to the staff when a confron- 
tation occurs. Most library users tend to believe things when they are 
written down. (They are readers, after all.) So, when a question arises, 
the staffs ability to show the patron the policy in black and white can 
often be very helpful. 

Written policies, then, are an important library management tool. What 
kind of policies should you have? At a minimum, your library should 
have the following policies: 

• A PERSONNEL POLICY which includes job descriptions and informa- 
tion on general job expectations, salaries and job benefits, and evalu- 
ation. 

13 



1 



Policies: Or, Get It in Writing 



• A COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT POLICY that outlines the kinds 

of materials that will be selected, who will do the selection and what 
criteria will be used In selection, how donated materials will be 
handled, weeding procedures, and how the library will respond to 
complaints about its materials. 

• OPERATIONAL POLICIES that include such things as the library 
hours, its loan periods, how it will deal with overdue materials, and 
expectations of persons using the library. 

• SPECIAL POLICIES that deal with recurring problems that may 
be unique to your own library. For example, if you have a meeting 
room, you should have a policy on who can use it, and how it is to 
be scheduled. 

If you are a new librarian, how can you find out about your library's 
policies? 

First, look around to see if you can find a policy manual. It usually will 
be kept at the librarian's work desk or at the circulation desk. If such 
a book exists, read the policies. Check the dates when the policies were 
established. If the policies are old, check to see if they represent the way 
things are actually done. If the policy book exists, and it accurately 
portrays the way things are done , you are all set. The only thing you will 
need to do is to annually review the policies with your board to see if any 
changes need to be made and develop new policies as circumstances 
require them. 

If you cannot find a policy book in the library, check with the ex- 
librarian or board president to see if such a book exists. If it does, get 
a copy for your own use, and check the policies as outlined above. 

If a policy book does not exist, you will need to compile one. You may 
be able to find some individual policies that have not been collected 
together. Checktheboardminutesforthepastfiveyears. Somepolicies 
may appear there, although they might have to be rewritten a bit. 

In general, a policy statement should include (1) a concise title, (2) a 
purpose statement, (3) a detailed description of the policy, (4) the date 
that the policy was approved by the board, and (5) any dates that the 
policy was reviewed and revised. Any policy that you rewrite from board 
minutes should be reviewed by the board to make sure that it accurately 
reflects their original intention. 

Once you have collected the policies you already have, you may find th at 
there are some gaps. If you need to write some new policies, you will 
q want to call your State Library Public Library Consultant for help. 

ERIC 1 4 



(10/93) 



Section IV: Policies 

Page rV-2 



Policies: 




O (10/93) 

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Section IV: Policies 

Page IV-3 



Developing a policy book may take quite a bit of time, but In the long run 
it will also save a lot of time. If you need to develop a number of different 
policies, do it over several months, and present policies to the board one 
at a time, so that they will have time to adequately think about and 
respond to each one. It is also good to present different policy options 
so that the board may choose the one that they feel will work best. When 
options are presented, advantages and disadvantages in terms of staff 
time, finances, space, and other management considerations should 
also be given. 

Remember that policies are the outline on which your library's services 
are based. They are also legal documents, and they are ultimately the 
board's responsibility. It is important that you, your staff, and your 
board understand them and follow them. 



i J 



^^Procedures; Or, Where's the Light Switch? " 




Section V: Procedures 

0 (10/93) PageV-1 

ERIC 



A brand-new librarian walked into her one-person library for the first 
time. She had worked in libraries before. She had highly developed 
library skills. The library board had been lucky to find such a qualified 
person. They had given her a key and a policy manual. She arrived early 
enough to open the library with plenty of time to spare. Unfortunately, 
no one had bothered to tell her where the light switches were located. She 
looked around as best she could in the dark. Then she tried the 
telephone, which shared one of several lines with city hak. City hall was 
closed. She could not get an outside line. On her first day on the Job she 
had to return home to call the board president. He also didn't know 
where the light switches were located. Two hours later, a janitor was 
found who could turn on the lights. The library was two and a half hours 
late in opening. It was not an auspicious start for a new librarian. 

Whether we like it or not, public libraries, like all organizations, are 
dependent on routine. We keep the same hours every week; we shelf 
books in the same manner each day; wc use the same procedures to 
check out materials and check them back in; we catalog materials using 
the same system, day-in and day-out. If we did not follow these routines, 
our libraries would be disorganized, no one could ever find anything, and 
our patrons would never know what to expect from us. 

An important part of keeping the library running smoothly and consis- 
tently is the ability to develop good procedures. While policies are 
"philosophical" statements that explain what we do and why we do it, 
procedures are the practical statements that explain how we get it done. 
Procedures are usually developed over time. Once they are established, 
they are changed only when they is some compelling reason to do so. As 
long as procedures don't interfere with policy matters, they are the 
province of the staff. They do not need to be acted on by the board. 

Procedures, however, should be written down. Details such as the 
location of important equipment should be included in a procedure 
description. Imagine how different the story that began this chapter 
would have been, if the new librarian had a procedure manual that told 
where the light switches were located. Procedure manuals do not have 
to be great works of art. They can be written in an outline format, step- 
by-step, with only the most basic information. 

What procedures should be included in a procedure manual? Certainly 
any routines that occur dairy, weekly, or monthly should be covered. 
These would include: 

• Procedui ;s for opening and closing the library 

• Circulation procedures: checking out, checking in and 
reserving materials, and overdues 

•i rt 



* Procedwes: Or; 



• Interlibrary loan procedures 

• Procedures for ordering materials 

• Procedures for receiving new materials (don't forget 
magazines) 

• Technical processing procedures 

• Procedures for collecting statistics 

• Procedures for setting up board meetings 

• Procedures for special events, such as story hour or programs 
for adults' 

• Other special procedures, such as, reseiving the meeting room 

Some of these procedures require special forms. Copies of the forms 
should be included in the procedure manual. 

The procedure manual should also contain emergency procedures and 
telephone numbers. It should tell what to do in case of a break-in, a 
medical emergency, and a fire, for example. 

In addition to routines that occur frequently, the procedure manual 
should also include a calendar that shows procedures that must be 
carried out each year. Such annual procedures would include: 

✓ Budget preparation 

✓ Election routines (for district libraries) 

✓ Summer Reading Program 

✓ Annual reports 

As with the policy manual, the first thing you need to do is to see if a 
procedure manual already exists. If it does, then all you have to do is 
make sure that it is accurate and complete. If it isn't accurate or 
complete, or if no procedure manual exists, you will need to write up your 
procedures or have them written. 



Who should write the procedure manual? The person who is primarily 
responsible for any given routine should write the description of that 
procedure. Remember that this can be done in an outline format. It 
doesn't have to be great literature. In larger libraries, it probably will be 
best to have a procedure manual for each department, although a master 
manual containing all procedures should also be kept by the director. 
Where a large number of procedures are going to be written by a single 
person, it is a good idea to space the writing out over several months. The 
procedure manual should be reviewed annually to make sure that it still 
reflects accurately how routines are really done. 



ERIC 



New employees should be provided with a description of all procedures 
for which they will be responsible. Then they should be able to find the 
light switch their first day on the job. 



Section V: Procedures 

(10/93) Page V-2 



± ( 



Your library board is legally responsible for establishing the library's 
budget and for practicing good fiscal management. Often, however, much 
of this responsibility is delegated to the librarian. 




Section VI: 



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(10/93) 



Budgeting and 
Finances 

Page VI -1 



As a new librarian, one of your first jobs should be to find out how much 
you will be involved with the fiscal management of the library. Here are 
some questions that you should ask your board: 

What is the library's budget for this year? (Get a copy!) 

Who receives the bills and verifies that the goods or services 
charged for have been received? 

Who assigns the bills to budget categories? 
Who prepares the monthly financial statement? 

If you are responsible for preparing the financial statement, 
what format should you use? Are there forms that are set 
up for this purpose? 

Who prepares and signs the checks? (For city libraries, it is 
often city officials.) 

If the fiscal management is handled primarily by someone other 
than the staff, how is the staff kept informed of the library's fi- 
nancial status? 

Is there a limit set on the size of expenditures that can be 
made by the staff without board pre-approval? 

Knowing answers to these questions will give you a good handle >n your 
library's fiscal situation. 

The Budget Year 

The fiscal year in Idaho runs from October 1 to September 30. District 
libraries are required to have their budgets to the county commissioners 
no later than the second Monday in September. City governments are also 
required to have their total city budget, including their library's budget, 
to the county on that day. 

Library districts are required to have a budget hearing before their budget 
is submitted to the county. City governments are also required to have 
a hearing on their budget, which includes the library budget, before giving 
their budget to the county. 

Because city library budgets have the extra step of being approved by the 
city council, city libraries usually must get their budgets completed 
somewhat earlier than library districts. If you work for a city library, it is 
a good idea to ask the city clerk when you should have your budget ready. 
In fact, it is a good idea to cultivate a good relationship with your city clerk. 
It can save you a lot of headaches. 



Budgeting & 



o 

ERIC 



Given that budgets must be In to the county commissioners early in 
September, the formal budget process usually takes place in July and 
August, but you should start thinking about the budget in the spring. 
Ask the board to begin discussing the budget in March or April, by 
outlining their service goals for the following year. 

Information should be collected throughout the whole year. It is wise to 
keep a budget file, where you can keep newspaper clippings, notes, and 
other information about potential changes in costs. In this way, you will 
have all that information together when you need it. 

You will also need to find out how the board does its budget. Does the 
board ask you to present a draft budget, or does it have a budget 
committee of its own members? It is vitally important that you as the 
librarian have input into the budget, as you will know the day-to-day 
operation of the library better than any other person. 

Once you know what the board wants to do in the next year, you can 
begin to develop cost figures. You will need to gather cost information 
from a variety of sources, such as the present year's expenditures, 
catalogs, information on utility rates and the cost of living that appears 
in newspapers and other sources, and information you gather from 
service vendors. Remember that in budgeting you are making a series 
of educated guesses. The more information you have, the better your 
guesses will be. 

Levy Limits Figuring out potential costs is only one part of the budget 
equation. The other side is income. For most public libraries, the major 
source of income is property taxes. There are limits on how the levy rates 
for library services. District libraries can raise their levies to no more 
than .06% of the market value for assessment purposes on the property 
within the district. Cities can levy no more than. 1% of the market value 
for assessment purposes for library services. Most libraries in Idaho, 
however, are not close to their levy cap. Still, you should check to make 
sure that your proposed levy does not exceed your cap. 

One problem that sometimes occurs in setting your levy is that your 
county may only have preliminary market value figures during the time 
you are setting your budget. These figures generally are fairly accurate, 
but they will not be exact. Occasionally, libraries have also reported 
difficulty in getting any marke t value figures from their counties. If this 
happens or if you are having other problems figuring your levy, call your 
State Library Public Library Consultant. 

Truth in Taxation. Idaho Code 63-2224 through 63-2226 sets 
stringent requirements for all taxing districts to inform the public if they 
plan to raise their levyytate or if they think that the amount that your 
current levy rate will bring in will exceed 105% of last year's amount. 
Briefly some of the important things to remember are: 

13 



Section VI: Budgeting and 
Finances 

(10/93) PageVI-2 



I 




Section VI: 



0 (10/93) 

ERIC 



Budgeting and 
Finances 

Page VI-3 



By August 1st each year, each taxing district in a county must report the 
time, date, and place oftheir budget hearing to their county commission- 
ers. (Note: you don't have to hold your budget hearing by August lst.you 
just have to set the hearing.) 

If you are plan to raise your levy rate at all, or if you think your current 
levy rate will raise 5% more from ad valorem taxes than you had the 
previous year, ycu must buy a quarter page ad in your local newspaper 
to be run for two consecutive weeks before the budget hearing. The ad 
must be published in the news section of the paper, and must be 
surrounded by a quarter inch black border. It must contain estimated 
taxes on a $50,000 house, a $] 00,000 farm, and a $200,000 business, 
compared to the previous ye?r's taxes. 

If you raise your levy at all, or if your budget assumes that your current 
levy rate will raise 5% more money than the previous year, your board 
must pass a resolution showing their approval of the levy rate and send 
this resolution along with their budget to the State Tax Commission. 

If these procedures are not followed, the Tax Commission will only 
authorize alevyratethatproduces the lesserof: the dollar amount raised 
by the previous year's levy or the dollar amount of the previous year's 
certified tax charges. 

The Carryover Period. Although the fiscal year begins on October 1, 
tax dollars for the year usually don't come in until January. This means 
that for the months from October to January, your library has little or 
no tax income. During this period, you will need to use the previous 
year's money to "carry you over." This should be remembered in the 
fiscal management of the library. Generally, you do not want to spend 
all of your money by the end of the fiscal year. Typically, you should have 
between one-quarter and one-third of a year's operating budget still on 
hand at the end of September. 

For library districts, the carryover issue is usually not too important, as 
long as they remember not to spend all of their money during the fiscal 
year. They are authorized in state code to carry money over. 

For city libraries, however, it can sometimes be a bit trickier. The city 
government may want you to spend all your money during the fiscal year, 
and they will take care of the carryover period from the general fund. If 
you don't spend all your money in this situation, they may try to take any 
money that is left over and put it in the general fund. Other cities may 
want their libraries to be responsible for carrying over money for the 
period between October and January. It is a good ide<. lo talk to your city 
clerk about this so that you will know what is expected. It is even better 
if you can also get whatever the policy the city is following in writing. City 
clerks sometimes leave, and new ones with different ideas take their 
place. 




Carryover funds should be distinguished from a "rainy day account." 
Because many libraries have small budgets, they feel that they have to 
set money aside for emergencies. In some cases, libraries have managed 
to set aside as much as a whole year's budget or more for this purpose. 
This is not a good idea! Tax dollars should be used for the purposes for 
which they have been collected. Setting aside money In undesignated 
accounts for future use does not use tax dollars wisely. If the taxpayers, 
for example, find out that you have a large amount of money sitting 
around, they may well ask why you are asking for more. 

There may, however, be legitimate reasons for holding money from year 
to year. For example, many kinds of building repairs are very expensive, 
and trying to pay them out of a single year's budget could mean a severe 
cut in library service for that year. Money for these repairs, which could 
include such things as the roof, furnace, carpet or air conditioning 
replacement, can be saved in a depreciation account which can be 
designated for this kind of expense. In other words, if you are going to 
have a "rainy day account,"you should be able to tell the taxpayers what 
kind of rainy days you are expecting. 

Re-opening Your Budget. On rare occasions, a library may need to re- 
open its budget during the year. This typically happens when the library 
receives a large amount of unexpected income that must be spent during 
the year. For example, if the library receives a large grant that must be 
used within a year, and the total amount of expenditures will therefore 
be greater than is listed in the expenditures anticipated in the budget, 
then the budget must be re-opened. 

To re-open the budget, a budget hearing must be advertised and held. At 
this hearing the whole budget, not just the part that has created the need 
for the budget hearing can be re-considered. 

Usually, it is not a problem for library districts to re-open their budgets, 
but it can be a major problem for city libraries. This is because it will not 
just be the library's budget that will be re-opened, but the whole city 
budget. In re-opening the library's budget, in other words, the city 
council may have to deal with all kinds of other budget questions on 
things like streets, police, and garbage collection. Needless to say, this 
can be an real inconvenience, and they don't like to do it. If it is possible, 
unanticipated income should be held until the next budget year. The 
problem can also be avoided by guessing high on your income and 
expenditures in the original budget. If this is done, however, it needs to 
be thoroughly explained in your budget notes and presentation. 



ERIC 

UMMimmmM 



21 



Section VI: Budgeting and 
Finance* 

(10/93) PageVI-4 



Personnel: Oi:, "...And I Thoiight We Were Friends" 




|er|c 



Section VII: Personnel 

(10/93) PageVII-1 



Most libraries spend at least half of their budgets on personnel. The 
people working in the library are its most important resource. They can 
cause the library to be a smooth running, efficient organization, or they 
can throw a monkey wrench into everything the library is trying to do. 

Personnel management is one of the most challer"" Tg of all managerial 
tasks. It is challenging for two reasons. First, . .a foremost, it involves 
working with other people, who bring their own needs and agendas to the 
work place. Some people have sought library work because they are 
interested in the "mission" of the library; others have sought the job for 
different reasons. Workers with different levels of commitment to the job 
may require different levels and styles of management. 

In addition to the problems of dealing with a number of different 
personalities and levels of interest, personnel management is also the 
area where your library is most likely to get into legal trouble. No library 
should feel that it is small enough to be immune from the legal 
implications of bad personnel procedures. In Idaho, libraries serving 
populations as small as 700 people have experienced problems serious 
enough to result in threatened law suits. This means that personnel 
procedures must be equitable for all employees, no matter how small the 
library. 

It is this combination of trying to impose uniformity on diverse personali- 
ties that makes personnel work challenging. At the same time, it should 
be remembered that most personnel problems can be handled relatively 
painlessly by using good communication techniques and by having 
equitable procedures. 

The Personnel Policy. The heart of any good personnel management 
system is a well thought out, written personnel policy. If you work for 
a city library, all employees of the library, except the director who serves 
at the pleasure of the board, are covered by the city's personnel policies, 
unless the city council has passed an ordinance that states library 
employees will be treated differently. [See Idaho Code 33-2608]. As the 
director of a city library, then, you should become thoroughly familiar 
with the personnel policy of the city or with whatever substitute policy 
the city has created for library employees. 

If you are a district library director, your board should have an approved 
personnel policy for your employees. This policy should include: 

• The Mission Statement for the library 

• General expectations of all employees, including a policy 
against sexual harassment. 

• Job descriptions for all positions 

0 ') 



* Personnel; Or, " tt< And I Thought We Were Friends" v 



• General description of compensation 

• Description of benefits. Including paid leave 

• Description of staff development and continuing education 
opportunities 

• Hiring procedures 

• Job evaluation procedures 

• Procedures for promotion 

• Disciplinary Procedures 

• Grievance procedures 

• Procedures to terminate employment 

Because your personnel policy is a legal document that may be 
treated as part of an implied contract between the library and its 
employees, it should be reviewed by your library's attorney before 
it is finalized and approved. 

Job Descriptions. Job descriptions are one of the most important parts 
of the personnel policy because they will serve as the basis for both 
hiring and, if necessary, discipline. They should include: 

✓ A detaLod description of the work to be done by the person 
holding the position. 

✓ A description of the minimum educational and experiential 
requirements of the person holding the position. 

✓ A description of other desired educational and experiential 
traits of the person holding the position. 

Hiring. To avoid discrimination or any appearance of discrimination, 
all job openings at the library should be advertised in the local 
newspaper. Larger libraries should advertise professional positions 
more widely, through the national library media. The advertisement 
should briefly describe the position and the minimum requirements. It 
can also include the anticipated starting salary. Those interested 
should be encouraged to ask for further information and an application 
form from the library. This further information should include the 
complete Job description, along with the anticipated starting salary, if 
O this has not been Included in the advertisement. 



ERIC 




23 



Section VII: Personnel 

(10/93) PageVI-2 




The only exception to this procedure is when your library has a written 
policy of filling positions by promotion from within the agency. 

The application form, in addition to asking for name, address, and 
telephone number, should ask for information that will tell you how well 
the applicant meets the minimum requirements and desired traits of the 
person holding the position. It should not, however, askfor unnecessary 
information that could lead to a charge of discrimination. Such 
information would include, for example, race, marital status, number of 
children, pregnancy status or religion. In other words, if you don't need 
information in order to evaluate the person's ability to do the job, don'L 
ask for it. A reasonable deadline for applications should be set. 
Applications receive d after the deadline should not be considered. 

If it is possible to quantify information, that is the best way of evaluating 
applications. For example, if years of applicable schooling are important 
for the position, you could award a certain number of points for each year 
of schooling. The same can be done with years of relevant experience. 
This scoring system needs to be worked out before looking at the 
applications. It should be applied in writing to each application. 

IC 65-502 through 65-506 also spells out a requirement that military 
veterans be given some preference for hiring for public employment in 
Idaho, which means that you should ask for veteran status on your job 
applications. This requirement can be met by using a 100 point scoring 
system, as outlined above, that automatically adds f> points for veterans 
orveterans' widows, or 10 points for disabled veterans. Ifyoudonotwish 
to use such a system, you would probably be wise to interview all 
veterans who apply. 

From the written applications, the top three to five applicants can be 
chosen to interview. The interview should help you explore the appli- 
cants' qualifications further, and it should also help you determine how 
well they satisfy the more "personal" traits that you might be interested 
in. For example, if you are hiring someone to work with the public, but 
they come across as very shy or very aggressive in the interview process, 
you may want to think about whether they will meet your needs. You 
do not have to hire the person who gets the highest score on the 
written application; the interview can be used as a separate test of 
an applicant's suitability for the job. As with the written evaluations, 
an objective way of scoring these interviews should be worked out before 
the interviews take place. Each applicant should be asked the same set 
of questions during the Interview process. A written evaluation of each 
interview should be made immediately after the interview is completed. 



ERIC 



0 (10/93) 



Section VII: Peraonnel 

Page V1-3 



When the decision has been made, and the person you have choseii has 
accepted the position , / 1 is a matter of courtesy to inform other applicants 
of the decision. This is usually done with a short note through the mail. 



24 



' Personnel: Or/^JAn^^^ 



o 

ERIC 



Such a note should simply state that the position has been filled, and 
it should wish them luck in their future job search. You should ngi 
explain your decision in the note. All applications and evaluation 
materials should be kept on file. 

Job evaluations. Some libraries conduct evaluations for new employ- 
ees after their first six months on the job. Whether or not this is your 
policy, each person in the library should have a job evaluation by his/ 
her immediate supervisor once a year. When you are conducting a job 
evaluation, you are not evaluating the person, you are evaluating how 
well s/he does the job. There should be two components to a job 
evaluation. The first is a written evaluation on how well the employee 
accomplishes all the different task elements of the job. The task 
elements should be found in the job description. This evaluation should 
be written by the employee's immediate supervisor. Both negative and 
positive evaluations should be explained in writing. Some libraries also 
have employees evaluate themselves on the task elements in writing. 
They then compare their self-evaluations with the evaluations of their 
supervisor. 

The second part of the process is an interview between the supervisor 
and the employee about the written evaluation. This interview allows 
the employee to respond both positively and negatively to the written 
evaluation. If there are problems, the employee can talk about these and 
sometimes a mutually satisfying solution can be found. For example, 
a negative comment about an employee's speed in performing a task 
might be explained by the employee as a result of poor equipment. If 
there is agreement on the issue, the written evaluation can be amended. 
If there is disagreement, the employee should be allowed to tell her/his 
side of the story in writing, and this document should be placed in the 
employee's file. 

One common mistake that supervisors make in evaluating employees is 
to withhold the truth, based on a desire "not to hurt their feelings." This 
mistake has two negative results. First, it means that employees will not 
improve their performance, because no one has told them they are not 
meeting expectations. Second, if disciplinary action ever becomes 
necessary, it will be harder because there will be no documentation that 
there have been long standing problems. It is more difficult to discipline 
employees if you have never told them there is a problem. 

Promotions. Many libraries promote employees from within the 
organization before attempting to hire new employee. In most cases 
there is no problem with this procedure as long as it is explained in your 
personnel policy. However, you should always be careful that the 
employee you are promoting meets theminimum qualifications that you 
have listed on the job description for the position. Since promotion is 

2d 



Section VII: Personnel 

(10/93) PageVI-4 



Personnel: Or, l? „.And ^ I.ThougJit We Were Friends'* : 

* " - " ■ * - I 



a reward for better than average service, you should also be able to 
document that the employee you are promoting has had better than 
average evaluations in the lower level position. This is especially 
important if more than one employee has expressed an interest in being 
promoted to the higher position. 

Progressive discipline 



Except in extreme cases, such as when someone has endangered 
patrons or other staff members, the library should use a progressive 
discipline approach to employees who are having problems. One of the 
most important tools for preventing discipline problems is setting clear 
standards and expectations for performance— not only in what tasks 
should be accomplished and how they will be measured, but also our 
expectations of how we will treat each other and our library's users. 



A progressive discipline approach begins with relatively mild measures 
of discipline, and proceeds to more serious steps if the problem is not 
corrected. The emphasis of this approach is communication and giving 
the erring employee a chance to improve. Some typical steps in 
progressive discipline are as follows: 



Section VII: Personnel 

Q (10/93) PageVl-5 

ERIC 



Informal discussion. The supervisor discusses the problem with the 
employee informally, trying to understand the problem and reach a 
mutually acceptable solution. 

Oral warning. The supervisor warns the employee that his/her 
behavior is unacceptable, and that if improvements are not made other 
actions will be taken. 

Written reprimand. The supervisor writes a formal reprimand, copies 
of which are sent to the employee and the supervisor's superior. The 
reprimand describes the problem and consequences that might occur if 
the problem is not corrected. The reprimand is placed in the employee's 
file. At this point, there may also be some outside intervention from the 
supervisor's superior. The existence of a written reprimand in the file 
generally would mean that no merit raise would be warranted for that 
time period. 

Suspension. The employee is sent home for a specific period of time. S/ 
he is not paid for the time missed. The employee should be afforded 
notice of the allegations and an opportunity to be heard prior to 
suspension without pay. A note explaining the action is placed in the 
employee's file. 

Termination. The employee is fired. The reasons for the firing are 
documented and placed in the file, along with a summary of the history 
of the progressive discipline process. 

4 b 



Personnel: Or, "...AiirfL I Thought We Were Fnends" 



ERIC 



Grievance procedures. Because supervisors are not always fair, your 
library should have a grievance procedure which employees can use if 
they feel that they are being treated unfairly. The grievance procedure 
should be explained in the personnel policy, and it should be the 
responsibility of the supervisor to make an unhappy employee aware of 
it. The policy should clearly establish the lines of authority that are to 
be used in filing a grievance. 

If an employee tries to "end-run" the poh-y, s/he should be told t to 
follow the procedure. This seems to happen most often when an 
employee goes directly to a board member rather than to the superior 
on staff. Board members should be informed of any staff problems 
where this might happen and be reminded of the proper procedure. 

Grievances should be filed in writing. The first step in the grievance 
procedure usually is fact finding and mediation between the employee 
and supervisor, if it is warranted. Fact finding and mediation should be 
done by a superior in the organization, or if that is not possible by a 
competent, disinterested outsider. In small libraries it is usually done 
by the library board. If it is found that the grievance was war-anted, any 
disciplinary action should be overturned, and a note to this effect should 
be placed in the employee's personnel file. 

If it is found that the grievance was unfounded, the supervisor should 
be warned not to take retaliatory action. If tne grievance involves an on- 
going dispute involving disciplinary action against the employee, at this 
state, the normal disciplinary procedures may continue. 

Some Important Employment Laws 

Although we cannot cover in detail the all of the employment laws that 
might affect your library, we will give you a short list of important laws 
and what they do. These descriptions are not intended to fully explain 
the law, but to send up some "warning signals" of areas that you should 
be concerned about. 

MINIMUM WAGE— FEDERAL AND STATE. Almost all library workers 
will fall under the federal minimum wage laws. Make sure that you are 
paying them at minimum wage or more. 

FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA). This includes the federal 
minimum wage, and it also lists requirements for overtime pay and 
compensatory (comp) time. It also prohibits employees from contribut- 
ing volunteer hours doing the same thing that they get paid for. 

The Fair Labor Standards Act also includes child labor provisions, 
which set certain limitations on the use ofjuveniles as employees. If you 
use students under 18 years of age as pages, you should be aware of 
these restrictions. 

27 



Section VII: Personnel 

(10/93) Page VI-6 




STATE AND FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS prohibit employers from 
discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national 
origin, in hiring, promotion, and other employment policies. 

AGE DISCRIMINATION EMPLOYMENT ACT (ADEA) prohibits employ- 
ers from discriminating on account of age. The protected age group is 
40 years old and older. 

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) is a new law that strength- 
ens prohibitions on discrimination against the disabled and requires 
employers to make their facilities accessible to the disabled and to make 
reasonable changes in their accommodations for the employment of 
disabled people. 

IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT requires that employees 
complete a 1-9 form within three days of starting work, verifying their 
identity and authorization to work. Employers may condition an offer 
of employment on the successful applicant's completing the form, but 
may not specify what documents must be used to complete the form. 

PROHIBITED CONDUCT BY PUBLIC SERVANTS. Idaho Code 
and 18-1359 to 18-1362 lists prohibited conduct on the part of Idaho 
public servants. One of the prohibitions is against nepotism, the hiring 
and employment of a person's relatives. 




© (10/93) 



Section VII: Personnel 

Page VI-7 



ERIC 



23 



1 




Section VIII: The Collection 

0 (10/93) PageVIII-1 

ERIC 



There is only one way to learn about your library's collection. You have 
to use it. The longer that you work in your library the better you will know 
/our collection. There are some ways, however, that you can more 
quickly learn about what you have. 

First take a slow "tour" of your library's collection. Begin by looking at 
how it is arranged. Here are some questions to answer: 

Where is the reference collection, and how big is it? (Reference books are 
those that are not designed to be be read through, instead are used to 
answer questions in the library. They normally are not checked out.) 

How is the non-fiction section arranged? Usually, non-fiction in public 
libraries is in the Dewey classification system. However, sometimes 
special sections, such as biographies or Idaho materials, are placed in 
a section that is out of order. Be very aware of these special sections, as 
they are usually separated for a reason. 

How is the fiction arranged? Almost always fiction is shelved alphabeti- 
cally by author, so that all fiction written by the same person is together. 
Sometimes, though, there are special sections for popular genres, such 
as westerns, mysteries, science fiction or romance. This allows fanciers 
of these books to find all of them in one place. Since these sections 
contain very popular items, be aware of them. 

How are paperbacks arranged? If they are on racks, do different racks 
contain specific kinds of books, or are they all intermixed? 

Is there a separate section for children's non-fiction? Many small 
libraries now interfile children's and adult's non-fiction together so 
patrons can more easily find all the information on a subject in one place. 

How are children's fiction books divided? Most libraries have a separate 
section for "picture" books for younger children. These books may be 
kept in bins, so they are easier to see. In general, they are very difficult 
to keep in any order, although some libraries use colored tape to identify 
authors in broad alphabetical categories. Many libraries mark these 
books with the letter "E" for easy readers. 

Older children's fiction is usually shelved in alphabetical order. Typi- 
cally, they have a special call number designation such as "J" or "JF" to 
indicate they are juvenile books. A few libraries still try to divide 
children's books according to grade level. This is not recommended, as 
it may discourage good readers from reading "above" their grade, and It 
may embarrass poorer readers wheal they have to choose books below 
their grade level. 



J 



-TOe CoUectfo^ 



What magazines does the library receive? How long does it keep back 
issues? Are current and back issues kept together? 

What kind of audiovisual materials does the library have and where are 
they kept? Are there special precautions to prevent theft of these 
materials? 

Are there sections that look very strong and that have a lot of newer 
books? Are there sections that look weak, that is have few or no books 
or the books look old or dilapidated? From what you know of your 
community do these strengths and weaknesses make sense? 

Are new books kept in a special section? If so, how long are they kept 
there? 




While you are "touring" the collection to find out where things are, you 
should also look at the condition of the materials. Does the collection 
look new and vibrant, or is it made up of books that look worn and 
dilapidated. Are the shelves crowded or are they half filled? Are you 
using the top and bottom shelves to store materials? 

In general, you should probably not make major changes In the way the 
collection is arranged until you have been on the job a year. For one 
thing, it can be very time consuming, and you will have plenty of other 
things to do the first year on the job. Making major changes right away 
also will not allow you to know why things were done the way they were. 
Something may look foolish on the face of it, but you will then find out 
that the previous librarian had a very good reason for doing it that way. 
(Make sure that the "very good reason", however, has to do with 
convenience for library users, not just the convenience of 4ie library 
staff.) Lastly, major changes can be very disconcerting to your patrons 
and your staff. It is best to establish a good trusting relationship before 
stirring the waters too much. 



This does not mean that you can't begin planning for changes In the first 
year. You can find out why things are the way they are , and you can plan 
a new arrangement if you findjit to be necessary. You can also get you 
collection development policy In order. You canmake sure your weeding 
policy is ready to go, and you can discuss weeding with your board. 

Lastly, during the first year, you may want to begin a formal collection 
assessment process In a few parts of the collection. For help in doing 
this, you will want to call your Public Library Consultant. (For more 
information on arranging your collection, see Chapter X.) 



ERIC 



30 



Section VIII: The Collection 

(10/93) Page VIII-2 



The Collection: Or, Do you Have a Good Book on. „ " " 



Censorship and Intellectual Freedom 

Unfortunately, we cannot talk about library collections without also 
talking about the problem of censorship. As a librarian. It is your duty 
to provide as much information on as many different subjects of interest 
to your community as possible. Because some of these subjects are 
controversial, people may occasionally become upset because your 
library contains certain opinions or materials. This situation becomes 
particularly difficult for people when it involves their children. 

.A a librarian it is your professional responsibility to support the cause 
o: .atellectual freedom. No individual or small group in your community 
should have the power to tell other people what they cannot read. 
Because of this, it is vitally important that your library board write a 
collection development policy which includes a strong statement of 
support for intellectual freedom, and procedures about how such 
challenges are to be handled. All staff members should know this policy, 
and they also should know exactly what they are suppose to do if the 
challenge is brought to them. The typical procedure is to ask the person 
challenging the material to fill out a form, which states their objections. 
If the person refuses to put their objection in writing, then the matter 
goes no further. If they do fill out the form, the librarian or the board then 
make a written response. If this does not satisfy the patron, the matter 
is then taken to a hearing at a board meeting. The board's decision at 
this point is final. 

You should remember that the people who are challenging library 
materials are people who care about their children and their community. 
Treating these people with respect will often help you to avoid a more 
major confrontation later. In most cases you will find that simply hearing 
people out will be enough. In a few cases, the challenge may go to your 
board. It will then be important that they understand the principles of 
intellectual freedom that they are called upon to defend. 

Giving in to a censorship will only lead to more challenges, and it is not 
just "dirty" books that are attacked. Among books that have been 
subjected to challenges are The Bible, Hucklebeny Finn, and Silas 
Mamer. In a real sense, then, when you and your board are defending 
one book in your library, you are defending them all. 



ERIC 



Section VIII: 

(10/93) 



The Collection 

Page VIII-3 



31 



Selection & AcquisitionsrOr, More Books for the Bucks 




ERIC 



Section IX: Selection and 
Acquisitions 

(10/93) Page IX- 1 



Now that you know what is in your collection, how do you know what to 
add to it? The first thing to do is to look at the library's collection 
development policy, if one exists. This may tell you very specifically the 
kinds of materials that you are expected to buy. If no such policy exists, 
ask your board to give you some general guidelines until they can 
complete a full policy. 

There are many ways to find out about new materials that you can add 
to the collection. Publishers will be more than happy to send you all 
kinds of advertising about their books— whether you want it or not. 
Indeed, you will probably find that you will be overwhelmed with the 
amount of advertising mail that the library receives. 

While advertisements will help to keep you informed about what new 
books are being published, remember that the purpose of this advertis- 
ing is to sell books. You can hardly expect them to give you an objective 
view of what they are trying to sell. 

It is better to purchase most books based on more objective book reviews. 
While you can find some reviews in places like general newspapers and 
magazines, normally you will not find a wide enough variety to meet your 
library's needs. Because of this, there are several library-related 
magazines that you should consider purchasing. 

Booklist is published by the American Library Association, 50 E. Huron 
Street, Chicago, IL 60611, twice a month except in July and August, 
when it is only published once. It reviews both adult and children's 
materials, and has a pre-publication section which reviews new books 
that are likely to be best-sellers before they are published and a special 
section on reference books. It includes reviews of audiov _,ual materials. 
Booklistis generally considered to be the best single source of reviews for 
smaller public libraries. 

Library Journal (PO Box 1977, Marion, Ohio 43302) is issued 21 times 
a year. While the primary purpose of the magazine is to carry news about 
libraries, it has also has an extensive review section, concentrating on 
adult fiction and non-fiction books, but also including audiovisual and 
magazine reviews. It is a valuable resource for the library information 
it contains as well as the reviews. 

Publishers Weekly (PO Box 1979, Marion, Ohio 43302) is published 
weekly. It primarily carries news about the publishing industry, but it 
also has a review section that includes adult and children's books, as 
well as some audiovisual reviews. 

All of these magazines are expensive. If your book budget is small, try 
to find another library in your area to share the subscription. 

32 



Selection & Acquisitions: Or, More Books 



When selecting a book from reviews ask yourself the following ques- 
tions: 

Does this book fit into the collection policy or guidelines that the 
board has given me? 

Is this likely to be asked for by anyone in my community? 

Is the book by a popular author whose works are frequently 
requested? 

Does the review indicate that this is a high quality book? 

Do we already have current materials on this subject? 

Does the potential use of the book Justify its cost? 

By answering these questions, you can determine whether or 
not you should purchase a particular title. 

Once you have made your selection, you enter the acquisitions phase 
of the process. If you order a large number of books and use more than 
one review source, it is a good idea to make sure that you haven't already 
ordered the book. This can be done by keeping an "on-order" file on 
cards or on a computer data base. Simply check the titles of the books 
being considered against the books already on order. If they are not on 
order, you add. them to the on-order list. If they are, you need to 
determine whether or not you need additional copies. 

Once you have your list of books to order and have checked them against 
the on-order file, you are ready to place your order. Generally, it is 
advisable for libraries to use "book jobbers" for their orders. Such . 
jobbers make books and other materials available at substantial 
discounts— up to 45% in some cases. The size of the discount, however, 
will depend on how much, if any, discount the jobber received from the 
publisher of a particular book. Using jobbers can also save you time and 
money because you can consolidate orders with one or two jobbers 
instead of sending orders to dozens of publishers. To get the names of 
appropriate jobbers for your library, if the library is not already using 
Jobbers, get recommendations from other librarians, or call your public 
library consultant. 

While most of your books should probably be ordered through jobbers, 
books published locally are sometimes only available from the publisher 
or in local bookstores. Bookstores should also be used when you need 
a book in a hurry, as jobbers may take several weeks to fill an order. 
Bookstores also sometimes offer discounts to libraries. Make sure to 
ask about it. 



a 

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Section IX: Selection and 
Acquisitions 

(10/93) Page IX-2 



33 



« 



Selection & Acquisitions: Or, More Books for the Bucks 



Some publishers, such as those who publish encyclopedias, do not sell 
to either book jobbers or book stores. If in doubt, contact the publisher 
or place the order with a jobber. If the jobber cannot supply the Item, 
you will receive a reply suggesting that you order directly from the 
publisher. 




The next step In the acquisitions process is to receive the books you have 
ordered. When books are received, check the titles against the invoice, 
so that you know the bill is correct. You then should check the invoice 
against your on-order file to remove the record of those books which 
have been received. The books are now ready to be processed and placed 
on the shelf. 

The Materials Budget 

Throughout the acquisitions process, you need to keep track of how 
much you are spending. How do you know how much to spend? Some 
librarians simply take their materials bu dget items, divide by twelve and 
spend that much each month. However, publishers tend to bring more, 
books out in the spring and the fell, so it may be that you will want to 
plan on spending more money during those months and less in the 
winter and summer. It can help to track your expenditures from the 
previous year to see what percentage of your materials budget has been 
expended each month In the past. 



Because you will always have some books in your on-order file, and 
because you will also never be certain about the amount of discount you 
will be receiving on each item, expending money for materials can never 
be an exact procedure. However, by keeping tabs of where you are each 
month, you should be able to spend close to the budgeted amount each 
year, without drastically underspending or overspending. 



ERIC 



Section DC: Selection and 
Acquisitions 

(10/93) p a g e ix-3 



31 



> 




Section IX: The Catalog 

q (10/93) PageX-1 

ERIC 



Adapted from: Kolb. Audrey. A Manual for Small Libraries In Alaska. 
Juneau, Alaska: Alaska State Library, 1987. 

It is not enough for libraries to simply have lots of books. These books 
must also be arranged and indexed so that people know where to find 
them. Many books have indexes. Libraries are indexed in the same way. 
This index is called the library catalog, and it helps you and your patrons 
find books by particular authors, books with particular titles, and books 
about particular subjects. 

The catalog is such an important part of any library that many people 
tend to think of library work and cataloging as being synonymous terms. 
Cataloging also has a mystique. It seems complicated. However, 
cataloging is an art, not a science. By and large cataloging follows the 
rules of comrnon sense. The most important element of cataloging is 
consistency. As long as you catalog and classify the same way each time, 
you are not likely to get into too much trouble. At the same time, in order 
to make your library consistent with most others, it is best to follow 
standard library practice whenever possible. 

Arrangement of the Collection 

Simplicity is important In the arrangement of books in the library. It is 
easier for users to find the materials they want, and it is easier to train 
new staff or substitutes. 

A library should have as few separate shelving arrangements as are 
feasible. Yet books shouldn't all be placed In one continuous filing 
arrangement for you would find picture books far above the heads of the 
children who want them. These same children would have trouble 
finding books suitable to their reading skills. We also want to separate 
fiction books from nonaction, or factual books; consequently some 
separate shelving arrangements are necessary. 

All adult fiction can be Interfiled in one alphabetic sequence, instead of 
grouping books by reading Interests of westerns, mysteries, romances, 
science fiction, etc. 

Some separate groupings of materials are necessary: 

✓ By broad READING LEVELS (picture books, juvenile 
books, adult books). 

✓ FICTION (story books) and NONFICTION (facts, real things 
or true events). 

✓ FORMAT, that is magazines, books, pamphlets, audio 
cassettes or other media. 

✓ REFERENCE, and other materials to be used only in the 
library. 




The groupings or categories found most commonly In libraries 



are: 



(preschool through grade 3) 
Grades 4 through 6) 
(Grades 7 through 9) 
(Grades 10 through adult) 



ERIC 

jjMaiMBBimiu 



Easy or picture books 
Juvenile fiction 
Young adult fiction 
Adult fiction 
Nonaction 
Idaho special collections 
Reference 

Magazines & Newspapers 
Paperback exchange 

£ or Picture Books 

Easy or picture books are those to be read aloud or which students 
in primary grades can read. These can be arranged by first letter of 
the author's last name: all the A's together, B's, C's, D's, etc. 

Juvenile and Young Adult Fiction 

Juvenile fiction and young adult fiction are often shelved in separate 
shelving units. The reasons are: reading skills, reading interests, and 
the height of the library user. Make sure the books for younger children 
are on low shelves within their reach. Shelve these alphabetically by the 
first three letters of the author's last name or by the full last name. The 
label on the spine, card and pocket should have a J or Ybefore the author 
letters. YA fiction can be on taller shelves. 

Adult Fiction 

Fiction is usually shelved in alphabetical order by the author's last 
name. In processing, F or Fic is placed above the first three orfour letters 
of the author's name on the label, cr d and pockst. 

Some libraries have separate shelves for particular genre of adult fiction, 
including western, mysteries, and science fiction. However, interfiling 
of all adult fiction has advantages: 

• Shifting books or rearranging the collection is easier, so 
there is more flexibility for the library. 

• Stories by one author are all shelved together. 

• Readers may be attracted to another title which they would 
not intentionally seek out. 

• reprocessing services do not idencify specific genre (westerns, 
science fiction, etc.). Therefore such identification must be 
done by the library staff. This requires staff time, labeling may 
be forgotten, or it may be necessary to read each book before 
identifying its type of fiction. 



3u 



Section X: The C,\t*l:»<j 

(10/93) Page X-2 



Nonfiction 

Nonfiction books are "true": that Is, facts, about real things, people, or 
events. For a small library. Interfiling of all nonfiction (juvenile, young 
adult and adult) has advantages: 

• Children's nonfiction books often are better illustrated and 
since adults don't usually look in the children's section to 
satisfy their own interests, they may miss some fine books. 

• Adult poor readers are not stigmatized by using the 
children's section of the library. 

• Advanced children can readily find materials when all the 
books on the same topic are shelved together. 

• The collection is less fragmented in arrangement. 

Children's nonfiction books can use the J before the classification 
number on the spine label even when nonfiction is shelved together. The 
books are shelved by the number first (not the J), and then in alphabeti- 
cal order by the author. The J is an aid to the library user in making a 
selection. 

A biography is an account of a person's life, or several people's lives. 
Biographies have several options for classification, and the choice of 
classification numbers affects the shelving arrangement. These choices 
are 920-928, 92, B, Dewey number (occupation of person the book is 
about). The Dewey numbers include: 



920 - 


Collective biography (lives of several people; for example, 
early explorers, the Presidents, the Kings of England) 


921 - 


Philosophers and psychologists 


- 100s 


922 - 


Religious leaders, workers 


- 200s 


923 - 


Persons in social sciences 


-300s 


924 - 


Philologists and lexicologists 


- 400s 


925 - 


Scientists 


- 500s 


926 - 


Persons in technology 


- 600s 


927 - 


Persons in arts and recreation 


- 700s 


928 - 


Persons in literature 


- 800s 



37 



Libraries selecting either the B or the 92 option must establish u special 
section for biographies. If the 920-928 or the Dewey class numbers 
(I00s-800s) are chosen, biographies can be shelved in their normal 
Dewey Decimal order. An advantage of shelving by the Dewey number 
is the greater flexibility for shelving arrangement, and for ease of 
rearrangement and shifting at some future time. 

Classification Options for Biographies 



B or 92 



920 



100 
to 
899 



& 

920 to 
928 



Advantages 

Books can be shelved 
alphabetically by last 
name of the person the 
book is about. 

Easy for user to 
distinguish since the 
classification number 
is so different. 

Numbering sequence is 
not logical because num- 
bers change from 919 to 
92 and back to 929. 



May need separate 
shelving section. 



Follows usual 
non-fiction sequence. 

Easier to shift books. 

Fewer exceptions to 
train staff members. 

Groups people with 
similar occupations: 
presidents would be 
together, explorers, etc. 

Is consistent with 
classification of 
other non-fiction. 



ERIC 



Disadvantages 

Biographies can't be 
found together in subject 
categories 



Does not follow 
numerical arrangement 
of other non-fiction. 

May cause confusion as 
these are the only 
numbers with fewer than 
three digits in the Dewey 

classification system. 

Exceptions require more 
training of users 
and staff. 

Users will probably need 
to use the card catalog or 
to locate the classification 
number of a particular 
biography. 




Section X: 



(10/93) 



J, 



The Catalog 

Page X-4 



The Catalog; Or, I Know It's Here Somewhere S 



Section X: 



|er|c 



(10/93) 



The Catalog 

Page X-5 



Idaho Collections 

Many questions are asked about Idaho; its history, wildlife, native 
cultures, pioneers. Libraries often try to establish a separate shelving 
area for books about Idaho. 

Stories about Idaho are popular too; consequently many libraries find it 
useful to shelve both fiction and nonfiction books about Idaho in the same 
shelving area. 

Reference 

Reference books are those used for information and are not intended to 
be read from cover to cover. These include encyclopedias, dictionaries, 
atlases, almanacs, indexes, etc. Some libraries do not allow reference 
books to be checked out at all; others permit them to circulate for a short 
period of time, either a few hours or overnight. This reference collection 
is usually placed near the librarian's desk or the circulation desk because 
people may need assistance in locating information. 

Magazines and Newspapers 

Different formats of materials require different types of storage. Books 
stand upright on a shelf because of their nard covers, magazines and 
newspapers do not; therefore special shelving is needed. 

Magazines: 

Companies which sell library shelving have special display units for 
periodicals. These are slanted shelves which allow the magazines to be 
displayed with the cover facing outward. Small libraries usually shelve 
most magazines in alphabetical order by title. Children's magazines 
should be placed on the lower shelves so that they can be reached by 
shorter library users. 

The library staff needs to decide how long it wants to keep back issues. 
Most libraries try to keep all issues of the current year and at least one 
year of back issues. Titles which are used frequently may be kept longer. 
The amount of shelf and floor space available are deteraiining factors. 

Back issues of magazines can be laid flat on shelves, but those of the 
bottom of a stack are difficult to get out. Keeping the periodicals in 
chronological order is difficult too. A more convenient storage is by the 
use of pamphlet file boxes in which magazines can stand upright. Most 
library supply firms sell file boxes of plastic or fiberboard. Some of the 
fiberboard ones are shipped and stored flat, then folded into a sturdy, 
upright box when ready for use. 













he Catal 


og: Or, I Kn 


o^ Itfs ' Her « Somewhere ^ 



Newspapers: 

Special shelving units are available for newspapers, but they aren't a 
necessity. Newspapers can be laid flat on shelves. 

Some newspaper racks use a long stick with slits. The sections of the 
newspaper are slid onto the stick, and the stick is hung on a rack. Some 
racks are free standing, others are built into wall shelving units. Another 
design for newspaper shelving units holds the folded newspaper on 
slanted shelves. The choice of shelving design is dependent upon its cost 
and the available floor space. 

Back issues of newspapers are retained for varying periods of time 
depending on use, place of publication and availability in microform. 
Major national newspapers and those of the larger cities in the state are 
available in microfilm or microfiche, consequently it is not necessary to 
keep more than one of three months of back issues of those titles. 

Local newspapers are an important historical record of the community 
and if back issues are not available in microform, the library should try 
to retain a permanent collection of back issues. Some of these newspa- 
pers may be weekly or published irregularly. Some are mimeographed 
by local residents. The important thing to remember is that they may be 
unavailable elsewhere in the state. The library should try to keep two 
sets of the local newspaper, one for public use and one complete set for 
converting to microform sometime in the future. 

Paperback Exchange 

A paperback exchange can be one of the most popular services of the 
library. In an exchange, people donate paperbacks which they have 
read, and then borrow other paperbacks which they have not read. The 
library does not catalog books in an exchange collection, nor keep any 
record in the shelf list. Consequently these books do not need to be kept 
in a particular order. Since there is little concern that particular titles 
be returned, the exchange collection can be placed in an out-of-the way 
location. Some libraries place them in the entry, or in a public corridor 
so that people can get books when the library is closed. 



a 

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40 




Section X: The Catalog 

(10/93) p a ge X-6 



; '" ■ " The Catalog: Or, I Know It's Here Somewhere - 



Section X: 



a 

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(10/93) 



The Catalog 

Page X-7 



Classification and Cataloging 

Fiction books (story books) are usually placed in alphabetical order on 
library shelves by the author's last name. Usually most libraries put the 
first three or four letters of the author's last name on a label attached to 
the spine of the books for ease of shelving. 



Example: 



Armstrong, Charlotte 
Benchley, Nathaniel 
Chandler, Raymond 
Clavell, James 
DeVries, Peter 
Fowles, John 
etc. 



Classification 



Nonfiction, or "true" books are assigned a number, which is called a 
classification number. Its purpose is to group books on the same subject 
(class) together. Just as schools have science class or history class, 
libraries group books by !ass. Most small libraries use the Dewey 
Decimal Classification (DDC) System. Its name comes from the man who 
developed the system (Melvil Dewey) and it uses numbers with decimals 
— like money is divided into dollars and cents by a decimal point. 



Example: 



$378. 14 (dollars and cents) 
374.28 (DDC for adult education centers) 



The DDC system established numbers for ten classes of knowledge: 



000 Generalities 
100 Philosophy 
200 Religion 
300 Social sciences 
400 Language 



500 Pure science 
600 Applied science (Technology) 
700 The Arts 
800 Literature 
900 General Geography and 
history 



The DDC system keeps dividing each class by tens. Here is an ex- 
ample from the social sciences: 

300 SOCIAL SCIENCES (main class) 



310 Statistics 
320 Political science 
330 Economics 
340 Law 

350 Public Administration 



360 social problems and services 

370 Education 

380 Commerce (Trade) 

390 Customs, etiquette, folklore 



41 



<*r»> "' 



The Catalog: Or, I Know* It's Here Somewhere 



Each division is further divided into 10 sections. Example: 



370 Education 

371 Generalities of education 

372 Elementary education 

373 Secondary education 

374 Adult education 

375 Curriculum 



376 Education of women 

377 Schools and religion 

378 Higher education 



Each section is further subdivided by decimals for more specific num- 
bers for a subject. Example: 

374 Adult education 

374.1 Self-education 

374.2 Group education 

374.21 Special interest groups 

374.22 Reading and discussion groups 

374.26 Use of radio 

374.27 Use of mass media 

374.28 Community centers for adult education 

374.29 Institutions and agencies 

374.4 Correspondence schools and instruction 

The DDC uses decimals, so in order to understand the values of the 
numbers, think of them as money. The numbers to the right of the 
decimal point would be the cents. The order in which the books would 
be shelved is: 



Book numbers 


Money 


940 


$940.00 


940.1 


940.10 


940.232 


940.23 


940.3 


940.30 


940.401 


940.40 


940.42 


940.42 


940.449 


940.44 


940.5 


940.50 



Cataloging 

The purpose of cataloging the library collection is to provide an index to 
the materials. It enables a person to find an item when the author, or 
the title, or a subject is known. The catalog indexes the holdings of the 
library by a certain author, or on a certain topic. 



9 

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42 



Section X: The Catalog 

(10/93) Page X-8 




Section X: The Catalog 

© (10/93) PageX-9 

ERIC 



For a book or other printed materials, the cataloger examines the title 
page and notes the: 

• author 

• title 

• publisher and place of publication date 

• its physical description (number of pages, 

• height in centimeters, illustrations, maps, etc.) 

• identifying numbers (ISBN, ISSN) and other 
information specific to the item (series, 
edition, etc.) 

Then the content of the book is examined to determine what the book is 
about. These topics are translated to "subject headings", which are 
standard phrases. Many libraries use the Sears subject headings 
published by H.W. Wilson or the subject headings developed by the 
Library of Congress. If a library is using or intends to use automation, 
they should consider using the Library of Congress subject headings. 

The cataloging of films, filmstrips. maps, music, etc. is similar, except 
the information differs somewhat. The producer, the number of frames, 
the speed and size of the phonorecord. the performers, the scale of the 
map and other identifying information is recorded. Subject headings are 
assigned, similar to those used for books. 

The information about these library materials is produced in a standard 
library format, and becomes the library's catalog. This catalog may 
consist of cards in a card catalog or be In a computer, etc. 

Pre -printed catalog cards and blank catalog cards are widely available. 
Automation is used to produce the pre-printed cards and the larger firms 
and most libraries have adopted a standard format of headings, punc- 
tuation and spacing. 

Many libraries in Idaho use LaserCat as their online catalog. LaserCat 
is produced by WLN Bibliographic Information Services in Lacey, 
Washington, and is published on compact disc (CD-ROM). In order to 
use LaserCat a library needs a computer and three CD-ROM players. 
WLN also makes available a software program called UltraCard Marc 
that can be used along with LaserCat to print cards for a library's card 
catalog. 

It is recommended that libraries purchase the catalog card sets or use 
UltraCard Marc along with LaserCat rather than typing their own. 

A card for a card catalog is prepared for each way a person might look 
for a book, phonorecording, film, etc.; that is by author, composer, title, 
subject, and so on. A group of cards for one item is called a card set. The 
cards are filed in the card catalog and become the index to the library 

43 



The Catak>g: bi; I Kiiow It f s^ ileie Somewhere 



collection. People can look in the card catalog to find which books are 
likely to have the information they want, or whether th.2 library has 
books by a certain author or a recording by a certain composer-or 
similar questions. 

Card Catalog & Shelflist 

A card catalog consists of a cabinet with a series of drawers or trays 
containing cards which index the library collection. The card catalog 
is a tool to locate library materials and should be placed in the public 
area of the library. 

The cards in a catalog can be filed in different ways. A dictionary card 
catalog has all cards, whether author, title, subject, or added entry, filed 
in one alphabetic sequence. 

A divided catalog has one or more types of cards in a separate filing 
sequence. For example: 



Authors & Titles 
Subjects 



(filed in two separate filing 
sequences in the catalog) 



or Authors 
Titles 
Subjects 

(filed in three separate 
filing sequences in the 
catalog) 



9 

ERIC 



In a small library, either the divided catalog or a dictionary catalog is 
quite satisfactory. 

The shelflist is an inventory record of the materials in the library. These 
cards are filed in the same order that the books are arranged on the 
shelves. The shelflist card is one card of the card set and is a duplicate 
of the main entry card. On it the librarian lists information such as the 
number of copies the library has. the cost, and the date added to the 
collection. Tracings list all the subject and added entries in the card set. 

In a shelflist the cards are in the same order as the books on the shelves. 
If there is a separate shelving section for easy reading picture books, 
then there is a separate section in the shelf list for them. If all non- 
fiction is filed together, then all non-fiction will be interfiled in the shelf 
list. 

A non-fiction drawer would have the cards arranged in order by the 
classification number. So these cards would be in numerical order. 
If the library has a separate shelving section for Idaho, this would be 
another filing sequence in the shelflist. as are reference books. 

44 




Section X: The Catalog 

(10/93) PageX-10 



Section X: The Catalog 

q (10/93) Page X- 11 

ERIC 



A shelflist is generally retained in the library work area since it is 
maintained for inventory and operation of the library. 

Card Set 

A card set consists of several cards. These can be: 

1. Main entry card (author, editor, etc.) 

2. Subject cards (words all in capital letters on the top line) 

3. Title card 

4. Added entries (title, illustrator, a second author, etc.) 

5. Shelf list card (inventory record) 

Not all books have all these cards. You can tell which cards are in a set 
by looking nearthe bottom of the card. The subjects are numbered 1 ,2,3 
etc. The added entries are numbered with Roman numerals, I, II etc. 

In the example below the subjects are: 

1. Industrial Management 

2. Personnel Mangement 

3. Quality of Worklife 

4. Success in Business 

The added entry is: I. Title. 



658.4 
ROSEN 



In 
306) 



Rosen » Robert H. 

The healthy company - eight 
strategies to develop people* 
produ tivityf and profits / Robert H« 
Rosen with Lisa Berger 5 foreword by 
James A. Autry. — 1st ed. — Los 
Angeles 5 J. P. Tarclien cl931. 
xix » 315 p • t 24 cm. 
eludes bibliographical references ( p. 303— 
and index. 



1. Industrial management. 2. Personnel 
management. 3. Quality of work life. 4. 
Success in business. I. Bergen Lisa. II, 
Title. 



UD31.S723 1991 



658.4'012 [201 



So this set of cards would consist of 8 cards as follows: 



1. Rosen, Robert H. 

2. Industrial Management 

3. Personnel Management 

4. Quality of Life 

5. Sucess in Business 

6. Berger, Lisa 

7. The Heathly Company 

8. 658.4 Rosen 



main entry 

subject 

subject 

subject 

subject 

added entry, author 
added entry, author 
shelf list card 



If there are more than 8 cards for this title, the extra cards should be 
thrown away! 



f BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



The Catalog: Or; X Know It's Here Somewhere 



ERIC 



In filing in the card catalog, the top line is the one considered first. 
Remember, all capital letters on the top line indicate a subject card. The 
shelf list cards are filed separately in the same order as the books are on 
the shelves. 

Card Catalog - Filing 

The card catalog is the index to the library collection-author, composer, 
editor, title and subject. Depending on local practices it can also index 
by illustrator, series name and more. Phonograph recordings, films, 
filmstrips, audiotapes, photographs, maps and other library materials 
can be indexed in the card catalog. 

The catalog is complicated library tool, and over the years, rules have 
developed on filing in the catalog. Libraries throughout the country have 
followed these rules, with some local variations. One reason for 
consistency with filing is so users can leam how to find materials in one 
library-and with that learning, know how to use libraries in another 
community, in schools, and in colleges and universities. 

Automation has forced some changes in filing rules. People can make 
judgments, but a computer hasn't that degree of flexibility. Libraries 
making extensive revisions or refiling may want to use the new rules for 
consistency, as an aid to library users. 

A couple basic principles shaped the new filing rules: 

✓ Elements in filing entry should be taken in exactly the 
form and order in which they appear. 

An example of the new rules means that no longer will titles beginning 
with numerals, like 101 Dalmatians, be filed as "one hundred and one," 
nor will Mac and Mc be interfiled, nor will St. George be filed as "Saint 
George." The numbers 101 will be filed with other numbers, Mac will 
precede Mc, and St. will precede longer words beginning with the letters 
St. as in state or street. 

✓ Related entries should be kept together if they would be dif- 
ficult to find when a user did not know their precise form. 

Headings beginning with the same words are grouped together; a 
longstanding rule which hasn't changed. 

You will find filing rules beginning on the next page so that they can be 
duplicated for staff or filed in a procedure manual-whichever is 
convenient. The i-ules will require slight modification if the library has 
a divided catalog because author, title, and subject cards will not be in 
just one alphabetic sequence. ^ 



Section X: The Catalog 

(10/93) PageX-12 





0 (10/93) 

ERIC 



Section X: The Catalog 

Page X- 13 



Rules for filing in a small dictionary catalog: 

1 . File by the top line of the catalog card. Ignore the articles "a", 
"an", or "the" when appearing as the FIRST word of a line. 

2. File cards on which the top line begins with numbers, either 
expressed in digits or in another form of numbers (e.g. Roman 
numerals), before cards beginning with letters, and sequence 
them according to their numerical value. 

3. Letters (A-Z) follow numerals and are sequenced according to the 
English alphabet (a.b.c.d.etc), except Ignore the articles "a", 
"an", or "the" when the first word of a line. Upper case (capital 
letters) and lower case letters (small letters) have equal filing 
value. 

Articles, a, an. the, within a title or phrase are filed as written. For 
example, in Managing the school library, "the" is used in filing. 

Example: 

AtoZ 

The Almanac of world military power 

An Apple a day 

The Child and society 

Dogs, dogs, dogs 

Games for everyone 

The Hotel guide 

A nightmare in the closet 



4. 



6. 



File word by word with shorter words before longer, and letter 
by letter within the word. 

Initials separated by punctuation are filed as separate words. 
Abbreviations without interior punctuation are filed as single 
whole words in alphabetical order, for example "U.S." as two 
separate words, "IBM" as one word. 

Numbers expressed as words are filed alphabetically. 
Example: 

"One hundred" Is filed with the letter "O". 



47 



^rte<5atalog; Or,**; Know It^s Here Somewhere 



7. Punctuation marks are Ignored In filing unless they Indicate a 
subarrangement. 

Example: 

IGNORE Apostrophes, dashes, parenthesis, commas 

USE Periods, semicolons 

A-Apple (the dash is treated as a space) 

ALASKA-ANTIQUITIES (The two dashes indicate a 

subarrangement) 

8. When one author has written several books, file alphabetically 
by title. 

. Example: 
Asimov, Isaac 

ABC's of the ocean 

Before the golden age 

Earth: our crowded spaceship 

9. Names and abbreviations are filed as written regardless of how 
they are pronounced or how similar to other forms of the name. 

10. Forenames used by several people follow the alphabetic arrange- 
ment, if possible, followed by a descriptive phrase, which is filed 
alphabetically. For royalty the numerals are arranged chrono- 
logically, earliest, first. 



ERIC 



Henry II. King of England, 1 133-1 189 
Henry IV. King of England, 1367-1413 
Henry IV. King of France, 1553-1610 
Henry V. King of England, 1387-1422 
Henry VIII. King of England, 1491-1547 
Henry, Athapascan Chief 
Henry, Duke of Lancaster 
Henry, Huslia, Alaska, Chief 
HENRY, CHARLES, 1859-1926 
Henry, Charles Eugene, 1835-1906 
Henry, Zunia 
Henry 
Henry 3 

Henry A Wallace 
Henry Adams 
Henry and Beezus 

43 



Section X: The Catalog 

(10/93) Page X- 14 



• Or, I Know Its^ Here Somewhere 



: 'mi 



Section X: The Catalog 

^ (10/93) PageX-15 

ERIC 



1 1 . File works by an author before works about the author (author 
as a subject). 



Blume, Judy 

BLUME, JUDY 

BLUME, JUDY-BIOGRAPHY 



(author) 
(subject) 
(subject) 



12. 



Subject subdivisions (identified by dashes) file ahead of inverted 
modifiers (punctuated by commas or parenthesis). 



CHILDREN 

CHILDREN-SURGERY 

CHILDREN-AFRICA 

CHILDREN-UNITED STATES 

CHILDREN, ADOPTED 
MOLDS (BOTANY) 



(subject) 

(subject & subdivision) 
(subject & subdivision) 
(subject & subdivision) 
(subject & modifier) 
(subject & modifier) 



13. 



Subject subdivisions (following the dashes) are filed In the 
following sequence: 

Period subdivisions (time In years or historical period) 
Form and topical subdivisions 
Geographical subdivisions 



a. 
b. 
c. 



AMERICAN LITERATURE 




(subject) 


AMERICAN LITERATURE- 


-COLONIAL PERIOD 


(period 
subdivision) 


AMERICAN LITERATURE- 


-19th CENTURY 


(period 
subdivision) 


AMERICAN LITERATURE- 
ESSAYS. LECTURES 


-ADDRESSES. 


(form 

subdivision) 


AMERICAN LITERATURE- - 
AFRO-AMERICAN AUTHORS 


(topical 
subdivision) 


AMERICAN LITERATURE- 
STUDY AND TEACHING 




(form 

subdivision) 


AMERICAN LITERATURE- 


-IDAHO 


(geographical 
subdivision) 



UMMimmmM 



AMERICAN LITERATURE-NORTHWEST. PACIFIC 
ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS 

4cJ 



(geographical 
subdivision) 

(subject) 



The Catalog: Or, I Know It's ^ere Somewhere *"?? 



ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS-TAXATION 



ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS-INDIA 



ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS-SOUTH AFRICA 



(topical 
subdivision) 

(geographical 
subdivision) 

(geographical 
subdivision) 



ENGLISH NEWSPAPERS-IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES (phrase) 

14. Period subdivisions in the form of TO (date)" precede all 
other dates in the chronological sequence: 

Example: 

EGYPT— HISTORY— TO 640 A.D. 
EGYPT-HISTORY-640- 1 150 

15. Period subdivisions are arranged in chronological sequence, 
even when the dates do not appear: 

FRANCE-HISTORY-CHARLES VI. 1380-1422 
FRANCE-HISTORY- 16th CENTURY 

16. Terms of honor (Dame, Lady, Lord, Sir) and terms of address (e.g. 
Mrs.) which precede a first name are files as though they follow 
the forename. 

Reynolds, John Hamilton, 1794-1852 
Reynolds, Josephine 
Reynolds, Joshua, Sir, 1723-1792 
Reynolds, Kay, 1911- 



From: Rather, John C, and Susan C. Biebel Library of Congress 
$ Filing Rules. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1980. 




Section X: The Catalog 

(10/93) PagcX-16 



a 

ERIC 



Checking In Materials. When a book is returned, the staff member 
looks at the due date stamped in the book. They then go to the date in 
the card file, find the card, place it in the book, and place the book with 
others to be shelved. 

Overdues. As each due date passes, the book cards are moved to an 
overdue file, again filed by date. People with overdue books should be 
notified soon after the books become overdue. Studies have shown that 
the longer a book is overdue, the less likely it is to be returned. 
Reminding people with overdue books to return their books within a 
week or two of the due date, therefore, is likely to be more effective than 
waiting longer. After a certain amount of time or number of warnings, 
patrons with, overdue materials should be sent a bill for the materials. 
This overdue policy should be written and included in your policy 
manual. 

Other Problems. 

Telephone Renewals. When patrons wish to renew books over the 
telephone, you should ask them to write the new due date on the book's 
date due slip. Patrons sometimes will forget to write in the new due date, 
however, and so renewals that are made over the phone can cause 
problems since the new due date does not appear in the book. This 
makes it difficult to find the book card when the book is returned. This 
problem can be alleviated by not renewing a book unless the patron 
returns it to the library. This, of course, makes it much less convenient 
for the patron. 

Another solution is to renew materials for the normal loan period past 
the original due date. For example, if the book was due on the 1st of the 
month, and you have a two week loan period, it is renewed to the 15th, 
even if the patron calls later than the 1st. In this way, you would only 
have to look in two date files (the 1st and the 15th) for the card. 

Lost Book Cards. This occurs when a book gets replaced on the shelf 
without a book card. You can look through you files for the original card, 
but this can be time consuming for the patron. The other solution is to 
make a "temporary" card and search for the original later. Make sure 
that the temporary card is clearly marked as a second card, or you can 
get very confused about who has the library's book. 

Automation. Because circulation procedures involve large amounts of 
filing, which computers can do faster and more accurately than human 
beings, circulation is often the first major library procedure to be 
automated. For more information on automated circulation, see the 
chapter on automation. 



51 



Section XI: Circulation 

(10/93) PageXI-2 



0ircul^ionrt)n Check Itlout 




o 

ERIC 



Section XI: Circulation 

(10/93) PageXI-1 



When most people think about public library service, they think prima- 
rily about checkingbooks out and occasionally getting an overdue notice. 
The circulation system of your library will undoubtedly be the first thing 
that you will need to know about the library. It is hoped that either your 
predecessor or another staff member will show you how to check out 
books, or that the procedure was written down somewhere. If this hasn't 
happened, here's how to go about learning. (The rest of this chapter 
assumes that you are using a manual circulation system, rather than an 
automated one.) 

At the circulation desk there should be some stacks of book cards. These 
stacks are usually divided by date . These stacks of book cards represent 
all the books that are checked out. On the cards will be the title and 
author of a book, and a date will be stamped or written, along with a 
person's name or a number. 

Patron numbers are used to Insure that a patron's right to privacy is 
protected, and this protectlonis required by the Public RecordsAct. Your 
library should use patron numbers, and If it doesn't you should move to 
this system as soon as possible. When you use patron numbers, you will 
need to have a list of numbers so you can find out who has a book when 
it is checked out and a listing of patrons byname, so you can tell patrons 
what their numbers are If they forget or lose their cards. 

Patron numbers are usually listed in numerical order in a book with a 
person's name by each number. 

There should also be a stack of registration cards. These cards represent 
all the patrons who have registered with the library. They are usually 
filed alphabetically by patron name. The cards will contain the patron's 
name, address, telephone number, and patron number. 

Checking Out Materials. When a person wishes to check out a book, 
you find the book card In the book, write the person's number on the 
card, and stamp the card with the due date. You then also stamp the due 
date In the book so the person will know when it Is suppose to be back. 

If the person has lost her/his card, you can look up their number in the 
registration file. 

At the end of the day, the book cards are arranged In alphabetical order 
by author or title and then are filed by date. There can be variations on 
this. In some libraries, for example. If a person takes out a large number 
of books, these are all kept together in the file. This is not recommended; 
it Is best to keep you system as simple as possible. 



52 



Public Services: Or, Face to Face 



Approach the patron if it appears that help is needed. Sometimes library 
users are afraid to ask a question, but will respond if you ask them one. 

Use open ended questions that encourage the patron to talk. For 
example, instead of saying "May I help you?" which can be answered 
with a simple yes or no, ask "How can I help you?" 

Don't just point patrons in a direction, but go with them so you can see 
if their need has been met. If you don't have time to go with a patron, 
make sure that you follow up by going to her/him as soon as you have 
an opportunity. 



If patrons are working on something complicated, give them something 
to start with, such as an encyclopedia article, so they will have 
experienced some success in working with you. While they are using 
this material, you can look for more resources. 



Similarly, if you will be using interlibrary loan to meet patron needs, try 
to find something in the library to hold them over until the ILL arrives. 



Remember what you feel like when you go into a strange library, and 
treat your patrons the way in which you would like to be treated. 



Reference Services: 



ERIC 



While it is not possible in this survival manual to discuss reference 
materials in depth, we will give you some quick advice. 

Don't forget your encyclopedia and almanac. Many ready reference 
questions can be answered in these two sources. 

When you have time, look at your reference books in depth. Many of 
these books have special features that provide information you wouldn't 
expect. 

Before beginning to actually look for an answer in your reference 
collection, try to think of several different sources for the information. 
Then begin with the most likely source of information. 

Remember thit the more reference work you do, the better you will get 
at it. 

If you can't find an answer, don't forget to offer to s'-ek the information 
through another library. 



53 




(10/93) 



Section XII: Public 
Services 

Page X1I-2 



I 



Public Services: ^Oi^ace to feace 

' ^ ■ 



Although we tend to think of a public library as books, magazines and 
other materials, a vital element in any library is the human connection. 
Most people who come into a library will know little about what the 
library contains or how to find what they want. They often will not even 
have a clear idea about what it is they want. Because of this, they may 
be nervous or even anxious. 



It is the responsibility of the library staff to help library users relax and 
take full advantage cf the resources that are available to them. 

The Library Environment 




© (10/93) 

ERIC 



Section XII: Public 
Sendee* 

Page XII-1 



A library is like few other buildings. With the exception of a bookstore, 
no other building is filled with book stacks and magazine racks. 
Typically, human beings feel uncomfortable when they go into an 
environment that is unfamiliar to them. It is wise, therefore, for a library 
to try to make the environment as familiar as possible . Chairs and tables 
in highly visible locations, signs that help guide a user from place to 
place, attractive decorations on the walls, all will make a user feel more 
at home. 

In arranging the library remember that simplicity is best. There should 
be a flow to the library's arrangement. It should be logical. For example, 
non-fiction items, which are often used in reference work should be 
located near the reference section. 

A useful exercise for librarians and trustee members is to occasionally 
ask themselves: "What would I think of this library, if I had just stepped 
into it for the first time?" 

Staff Attitude 

Staff attitude is the single most important factor in making people feel 
comfortable in the library. No matter what the library looks like, a smile 
and a friendly greeting will make a library user feel welcome. Here are 
some tips for showing your good attitude. 

Always greet a patron. A simple "Hello" can help break the ice. 

Be aware of your body language. Look at the patron. Be open, but not 
too familiar. 

If you are working on something else, when approached by a patron, put 
it aside physically, so the patron will see that you are giving your full 
attention. 

Name tags can help, if you feel comfortable wearing one. 

54 



Interl^)j:ary Cooperation: Or, Help! IlTCeed Somebody 




Section XIII: Interlibraiy 
Cooperation 

0 (10/93) PageXIII-1 

ERIC 



The majority of patron needs can and should be filled through the 
resources of the local library. However, there will always be a demand 
for materials and information that cannot be found in the collection at 
hand. To satisfy the needs that are not met locally, most libraries turn 
to interlibraiy loan (ILL) to obtain desired materials from other libraries. 

Interlibraiy loan covers a broad spectrum of exchanges of material: 
the loan of books, recordings, videos and software, and the furnishing 
of photocopies of periodical articles and book chapters are familiar 
examples. This exchanging of materials consumes a good deal of staff 
time: the borrowing library stafT must identify the requested item, 
determine what libraries own it, and request it; and the lending 
library staff must locate the item, check it out or photocopy it, and 
prepare it for mailing. Standardizing procedures Is essential to the 
smooth running of ILL. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ILL 
Gathering Information 

When a request is made for an item that you will want to borrow from 
another library, get as much information about the item as possible. 
Be sure to write down at least: 

✓ the tide of the item wanted, 

✓ the author or editor, and 

✓ the date published. 

Any additional information, such as publisher or series, will be helpful 
in locating the item. 

If the request is for a magazine article, find out: 

• the name of the magazine, 

• the date and volume number (if known) of the magazine, 

• the title of the article, 

• the author of the article, and 

• the pages on which it is found. 

Also ask about a deadline — Is there a date by which the patron must 
have this item, or a date after which it will no longer be needed? 

Charges: Libraries often charge for loaning books or providing photo- 
copies. If your patron is asking for something which may incur charges. 
And out what price s/he would be willing to pay for it (unless your library 
pays these charges for patrons). 



55 



Interlibrary Cooperation; Or, Help! I Need Somebody! 



o 

ERIC 



Genealogy requests: Most libraries will not lend family or local history 
books. When requesting such a book, specify the names of people about 
whom the patron is seeking information. Often a library will photocopy 
pertinent pages from a book if the book is noncirculating. 

Best sellers: Interlibrary Loan is not an appropriate procedure in all 
cases. No library should try to borrow an in-print mass-market 
paperback, because most libraries will not honor such a request. Also, 
because of the high demand, libraries usually will not fill requests for 
books on the current best-seller lists. 

Verification 

If you plan to ask another library to furnish something for your patron, 
you should verify that your information is complete and accurate. In 
other words, you want to check the information you have been given 
against another, generally reliable, source to catch errors in spelling and 
wording. Also, if your patron was not able to furnish you with complete 
information ("I don't know the name of it, but it's the first book Stephen 
King wrote") , you can often use a verification tool to identify an unknown 
title or author. 

Most ILL verification is done by looking for a cataloging record in a major 
bibliographic database. The WLN database is the most widely used tool 
for verification in Idaho. The database contains bibliographic informa- 
tion on more than five million books, periodicals, recordings and other 
items. Attached to about two million of these records are the holdings 
symbols and call numbers of the WLN member libraries (nearly all of 
them in the Pacific Northwest) which own the items. 

Many public and academic libraries in Idaho have access to WLN in one 
of two forms: 

WLN online. The online database is updated on a daily basis. It is 
accessed via a PC and a leased telephone line, or a PC and modem for 
dial-up access. 

LaserCat. The database is stored on CD-ROM discs, searchable with 
a PC and CD-ROM drives; contains all the records in the database to 
which holdings are attached, plus some new records without holdings. 
The CD-ROMs are updated quarterly. 

If you have no access to a bibliographic database, or if the book your 
patron wants is too new to be included in your version of WLN, you may 
want to search Cumulative Book Index (CBI). Books in Print (BIP), or 
Forthcoming Books. If you cannot find any verification for the book your 
patron has requested, fill out the ALA form and send it to the State 
Library anyway. 

f~ ■ ■> 
\J0 



Section XIII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-2 



1 



Interlibrary Cooperation; Or, HelpH Need Somebody! 



Section XIII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

q (10/93) Page XIII-3 

ERIC 



When a patron requests a magazine article, you should always ask for 
the source of the citation to the article (such as in a bibliography). If it 
was cited in another magazine article or a book, that refere e (including 
page number) will usually be enough. It is better, however, to be able 
to confirm the accuracy of the information by checking it in a periodical 
index such as Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. On the ILL request, 
give the name of the index, volume number, date of its publication, and 
the page number on which you found the verifying citation. 

CREATING REQUESTS 

The next step, after verifying the information given to you, is to create the 
request. Before you create it you must decide where you want to send 
it and determine what transmitting options you have. 

The American Library Association (ALA) ILL Form. The most common 
request form used by U.S. libraries is the ALA-approved interlibrary loan 
form. The ALA ILL form is used for both title and periodical article 
requests and is usually mailed to potential loaning libraries. 

The form is mostly self-explanatory, but there are some sections that are 
sometimes misunderstood. Please see the sample ILL form on the 
following page; its numbered parts match the numbered sections of the 
following instructions. As with any ILL request, completeness and 
accuracy of information are essential when filling out the form. 

1. NEED BEFORE: Complete this part only when your patron has a 
deadline. Most libraries handle requests as soon as possible, so there 
is no need to include a reminder to do that. 

2. REQUEST NUMBER: This space is provided in case you want to 
number your requests for record keeping. Filling it out is optional. 

3. CALL NUMBER: Leave this blank, unless there is only one known 
location or unless all locations have the same call number. 

4. PATRON INFORMATION: Fill in the patron's name. If you wish to 
protect your patron's privacy, you may leave this blank. 

5. BOOK.. .PERIODICAL: Include all the information mentioned on the 
form. If you're not sure about spelling, dates, or any other data, attach 
a note or a worksheet and explain your problem. If you have not been 
able to verify the requested item, include as much information as 
possible. 

6. VERIFIED IN: Where you found the book or article mentioned and any 
other helpful data. Library of Congress (LC). WLN record identifier (RID), 

r- m 
J ( 



^InterUbrary Cooperation: Oii Help! IlVe^i Sbmebodyl 



ISSN, and ISBN numbers are particularly helpful for the State Library or 
other loaning library to quickly search a database to find locations. 

7. TYPE OF REQUEST: Fill this in if your library or your patron has any 
limits on cost, for either loans or periodical articles. If that figure is $0, 
show $0. (You should expect to have to reimburse for postage, regardless 
of your limit.) 



8. LENDING LIBRARY: Leave it blank; the lending library will fill it in. 

9. REQUEST COMPLIES WITH CCG/CCL: This indicates your compli- 
ance with copyright law covering photocopies of periodical articles. It's 
a must, and some libraries will return your request unfilled if the 
appropriate box isn't checked. 



Check £CJ2. when the request is for a photocopy of an article or a portion 
of a copyrighted work less than five years old. With some exceptions, no 
more than five copies from any one periodical title dated within a five year 
period can be requested without making provisions for payment of a 
royalty. 

Check CjQL when the article or portion of a copyrighted work is more than 
five years old. 

10. AUTHORIZED BY / TITLE: Fill in the name of the person responsible 
for interlibrary loans. Some libraries will not fill requests when this is 
left blank. 



The right side of the form is where you find responses from libraries that 
handled your request. Check it carefully, because this is where you will 
find out the status of the item you requested, when it is due, and how 
much, if anything, you are being charged. 

SELECTING LOANING LIBRARIES 

When sending your request to another library, bear these suggestions 
in mind: 



Section XIII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-5 



Try to distribute your requests among a large number of libraries. 

Staff at even the nicest libraries will tire of seeing your requests if they 
think they are always your first choice. 

Route to same-type libraries when possible. That is, public libraries 
should try to borrow from other public libraries, school libraries from 
schools, etc. Of course, borrow from libraries with which you have 
interlibrary loan agreements. 



^ Si 
0 0 



Interlibraxy Cooperation: Or, Help! I Need Somebody! 



o 

ERIC 



Consider geographic proximity when selecting potential lenders. 

The closer the library, the more Inclined staff will likely be to loan to you 
and (usually) the faster the item will be delivered. Borrow from Idaho 
libraries v/hen possible. The demand on other Northwest libraries from 
instate ILLs is considerable. Also, the mail from Alaska can take three 
or four weeks to arrive. 

Do not route to Seattle Public Library (WaS) unless it is your only 
choice, or make it last on a list of routing selections. Seattle Public 
will not fill a request unless it is the only or last location. (Keep this 
thought in mind for all the large libraries. They have so much ILL traffic 
that it is not fair to send them requests that could be filled by a smaller, 
less busy library.) 

Public libraries only: Do not route directly to libraries that charge 
for loans unless you are prepared to pay the loan charges. Instead, 
route those requests to Idaho State Library and let staff there forward 
them for you. When you receive a bill from a WLN library for a request 
routed by the State Library, send the bill to the State Library with a copy 
of the original ILL request. We will pay the invoice in those cases. 

If you have not been able to locate a copy of the book in another library, 
send your request to the State Library, where it will either be filled or sent 
on to another appropriate library. 

If there are no Northwest holdings, or if the Northwest libraries cannot 
supply the requested item. State Library ILL staff will then route the 
request to other libraries outside the Northwest Group Access area. 
There is no charge to the requesting library for the referral service. 
Charges may be levied by the lending library. Book loans are normally 
free, but there is usually a charge for photocopies. That charge, 
averaging between $2.00 and $5.00, is levied by the providing library 
and must be paid by the requr ting library or patron. 

Lending libraries will not photocopy materials unless ISL fills in the 
MAXCOST portion of each request. You can help speed up the process 
by noting on each of your requests the maximum amount your library 
or your patron is willing to pay for photocopied materials. 

A few words of explanation and instruction: when the State Library 
init'ates a request outside of WLN, it uses a system called OCLC. When 
it accesses OCLC for another library, that library receives a copy of the 
request from ISL, with the ILL number highlighted. Keep this copy. That 
number and the patron's name are the only links between the requesting 
library, ISL and OCLC. When the item arrives, log the date received or 
returned, as appropriate, and return the updated request to ISL. At each 
OCLC step, ISL will send you a printout highlighting what action is 
needed next. That action must be taken and the printout returned 

53 



Section XIII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) PageXIII-6 



Interlibrary ^operationt Or^elpll 5 





ERIC 



Section XIII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) PageXIII-7 



to ISL. It is important that each OCLC step be monitored - a process 
requiring everyone's cooperation. 

One more thing regarding OCLC: If you need an item borrowed via OCLC 
renewed, ask the ISL ILL staff to request a renewal. Please get the 
renewal request to the State Library before the due date. ISL will not ask 
for renewals on overdue items. Use our toll free number, if necessary. 
You will receive a printout showing the new status and due date. Please 
avoid communicating directly with the lending library; it only compli- 
cates the process. 

Communicating with the Idaho State Library 
Interlibrary Loan Staff 

In addition to the mail (U.S. and electronic), there are two other way. ;o 
quickly communicate with the State Library about interlibrary loan 
requests: 

The TOLL FREE TELEPHONE NUMBER for Idaho public libraries to 
reach ISLs Reference. Circulation, and Interlibrary Loan staff is: 1/ 
800/533-6923. 

Call ISL with rush requests for specific titles. The State Library will 
respond as positively as possible: please be sure there is a legitimate 
rush involved. 

Call ISL with reference questions that urgently need answering and you 
don't have necessary resources available, or when a patron's question 
seems so complex that you are not sure how to phrase it in writing to ISL. 

Call ISL with renewal requests that cannot be handled by mail, but not 
more than three at any one time. Telephone renewals take longer to 
process and are difficult to handle when the circulation desk is busy. 

Call ISL any time you have a question on procedure or a problem you 
think we can help you solve. 

ISL'S TELEFAX MACHINE NUMBER IS (208)334-4016. Libraries with 
access to a FAX machine can send and receive photocopied items in 
hours, rather than days by regular mail. State Library will also FAX 
material to a local machine whose owner has agreed to accept messages 
for your library. For example, most real estate offices and newspaper 
offices around the state have FAX machines. 



60 



Iirte^iibrary Coop^a^ioni Oi; Help! I Need Somebody! 



Interlibrary Loan Services Provided By The State Library 
For All Idaho Libraries 

The State Library provides certain services for all Idaho libraries at no 
charge. Among these services are: Loan of books, recordings, films and 
videos, government documents, and photocopies from periodicals in the 
ISL collection. State Library will lend from the reference collection at 
stafT discretion. Reserves may be placed on any item if it is not available 
at the time of your request. 

For Idaho Public Schools 

Idaho State Library will accept and, if possible, fill interlibrary loan and 
photocopy requests for titles known to be at ISL, as verified in LaserCat 
or another source. Requests must be sent on standard ALA interlibrary 
loan forms, or via EMS, and be as complete as possible. We will route 
a request to other libraries if we cannot fill it, provided that other 
locations are listed on the request. 

The State Library will not accept "blind" requests for which there has 
been no verification that ISL holds the title. We also cannot accept 
subject requests directly from school libraries. Students and teachers 
are encouraged to use their local public library first. If appropriate, the 
public librarian may forward their reference questions to ISL. 

For Idaho Public Libraries Only 

State Library can assist in verification of elusive items requested on ILL. 
The State Library will accept requests for items that have not been 
verified, although we strongly discourage sending an unverified request 
to any other library. Ifyousendus a request that you have not been able 
to verify, be sure to attach a note or a worksheet explaining: what the 
book is about, approximately how old it is, how certain you are of the 
spelling of the author's name, where the patron heard about it, and any 
other information you think might be useful. The more information we 
have, the better are our chances of verifying the request. 

Idaho State Library will pay interlibrary lean fees charged by WLN 
libraries for Idaho public library requests only when the requests are 
forwarded by ISL to one of the charging libraries listed below. The invoice 
for each loan is usually sent to the borrowing library (not to ISL), so you 
must forward the invoice to State Library, along with a copy of the ILL 
request. 



a 

ERIC 



61 



Section XTII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-8 



Interlibrary Cooperation: Or^Help! I Nee4 Somebody ! 



Reference Service for Public Library Patrons: 

The State Library serves as the backup to public libraries in the provision 
of reference service. If a local library patron asks a question that cannot 
be answered locally, a request for the desired information may be sent 
to the State Library. ISL reference staff will search the reference and 
circulating collections, periodical indexes, the WLN database, and any 
other sources that seem appropriate for the question. Reference staff will 
send printed information or will suggest an organization with whom the 
patron can correspond. Often a list of books or periodical articles on the 
desired subject will be included in the response, and occasionally ISL 
staff will initiate an ILL request for the patron. 

It is important for you to realize that the State Library's collection 
is not like a public library collection. It is specialized to answer 
reference questions and to meet the job-related needs of state 
government employees. It does not contain fiction (except in large 
print), popular non-fiction, or children's materials, unless they 
relate to Idaho or the work of the state government. 

When filling out a Subject Request form, interview the patron until you 
understand exactly what information is wanted. Write down complete 
details, be specific, and define technical terms. (Remember that State 
Library staff has not met your patron.) Explain how the patron will use 
the information. Also, please tell us where you have searched, and 
include the titles of books your patron has used or is requesting on ILL. 
Don't forget to include the deadline if there is one — but only if there is 
one. Specify the number of items (books, articles, etc.) your patron hopes 
to see, especially if numbers of sources are important. 

If you are having difficulty explaining your patron's question, if your 
patron has a rush request, or if you are not sure of ISL's ability to answer 
the question from its collection, please call the toll-free number, 1-800- 
533-6923, and explain your problem to the reference staff. 



ERIC 



Section XIII: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-9 



6^ 



Interllbrary Cooperation: Or; Help! X Nee^Somebodyr 



ERIC 



Section XIII: Interllbrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-5 



ISSN, and ISBN numbers are particularly helpful for the State Library or 
other loaning library to quickly search a database to find locations. 

7. TYPE OF REQUEST: Fill this in if your library or your patron has any 
limits on cost, for either loans or periodical articles. If that figure is $0, 
show$0. (Y ou should expect to have to reimburse for postage, regardless 
of your limit.) 

8. LENDING LIBRARY: Leave it blank; the lending library will fill it in. 

9. REQUEST COMPLIES WITH CCG/CCL: This indicates your compli- 
ance with copyright law covering photocopies of periodical articles. It's 
a must, and some libraries will return your request unfilled if the 
appropriate box isn't checked. 

Check £CH when the request is for a photocopy of an article or a portion 
of a copyrighted work less than five years old. With some exceptions, no 
more than five copies from any one periodical title dated within a five year 
period can be requested without making provisions for payment of a 
royalty. 

CheckC_£L when the article orportion of a copyrighted workismore than 
five years old. 

10. AUTHORIZED BY / TITLE: Fill in the name of the person responsible 
for interllbrary loans. Some libraries will not fill requests when this is 
left blank. 

The right side of the form is where you find responses from libraries that 
handled your request. Check it carefully, because this is where you will 
find out the status of the item you requested, when it is due, and how 
much, if anything, you are being charged. 

SELECTING LOANING LIBRARIES 

When sending your request to another library, bear these suggestions 
in mind: 

Try to distribute your requests among a large number of libraries. 

Staff at even the nicest libraries will tire of seeing your requests if they 
think they are always your first choice. 

Route to same-type libraries when possible. That is. public libraries 
should try to borrow from other public libraries, school libraries from 
schools, etc. Of course, borrow from libraries with which you have 
interllbrary loan agreements. 



63 



Interlibrary Cooperation: Or; «elp! I Need «^ 



er|c 



Consider geographic proximity when selecting potential lenders. 

The closer the library, the more Inclined staff will likely be to loan to you 
and (usually) the faster the item will be delivered. Borrow from Idaho 
libraries when possible. The demand on other Northwest libraries from 
Instate ILLs Is considerable. Also, the mall from Alaska can take three 
or four weeks to arrive. 

Do not route to Seattle Public Library (WaS) unless it is your only 
choice, or make it last on a list of routing selections. Seattle Public 
will not fill a request unless it Is the only or last location. (Keep this 
thought in mind for all the large libraries. They have so much ILL traffic 
that it is not fair to send them requests that could be filled by a smaller, 
less busy library.) 

Public libraries only: Do not route directly to libraries that charge 
for loans unless you are prepared to pay the loan charges. Instead, 
route those requests to Idaho State Library and let staff there forward 
them for you. When you receive a bill from a WLN library for a request 
routed by the State Library, send the bill to the State Library with a copy 
of the original ILL request. We will pay the invoice In those cases. 

If you have not been able to locate a copy of the book in another library, 
send your request to the State Library, where it will either be filled or sent 
on to another appropriate library. 

If there are no Northwest holdings, or if the Northwest libraries cannot 
supply the requested item. State Library ILL staff will then route the 
request to other libraries outside the Northwest Group Access area. 
There is no charge to the requesting library for the referral service. 
Charges may be levied by the lending library. Book loans are normally 
free, but there is usually a charge for photocopies. That, charge, 
averaging between $2.00 and $5.00, is levied by the providing library 
and must be paid by the requesting library or patron. 

Lending libraries will not photocopy materials unless ISL fills in the 
MAXCOST portion of each request. You can help speed up the process 
by noting on each of your requests the maximum amount your library 
or your patron is willing to pay for photocopied materials. 

A few words of explanation and instruction: when the State Library 
Initiates a request outside of WLN, it uses a system called OCLC. When 
it accesses OCLC for another library, that library receives a copy of the 
request from ISL, with the ILL number highlighted. Keep this copy . That 
number and the patron's name are the only links between the requesting 
library, ISL and OCLC. When the item arrives, log the date received or 
returned, as appropriate, and return the updated request to ISL. At each 
OCLC step, ISL will send you a printout highlighting what action is 
needed next. That action must be taken and the printout returned 



Section Xm: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-6 



64 



Interllbrary Cooperation; QrV ^Help ! l ^e6^Soitt^^dyl 




o 

ERIC 



Section XIII: Interllbrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) p a g e xm-7 



to ISL. It is important that each OCLC step be monitored - a process 
requiring everyone's cooperation. 

One more thing regarding OCLC: If you need an item borrowed via OCLC 
renewed, ask the ISL ILL staff to request a renewal. Please get the 
renewal request to the State Library before the due date. ISL will not ask 
for renewals on overdue items. Use our toll free number, if necessaiy. 
You will receive a printout showing the new status and due date. Please 
avoid communicating directly with the lending library; it only compli- 
cates the process. 

Communicating with the Idaho State Library 
Interllbrary Loan Staff 

In addition to the mail (U.S. and electronic), there are two other ways to 
quickly communicate with the State Library about interllbrary loan 
requests: 

The TOLL FREE TELEPHONE NUMBER for Idaho public libraries to 
reach ISL's Reference. Circulation, and Interllbrary Loan staff is- 1/ 
800/533-6923. 

Call ISL with rush requests for specific titles. The State Library will 
respond as positively as possible: please be sure there is a legitimate 
rush Involved. 

Call ISL with reference questions that urgently need answering and you 
don't have necessary resources available, or when a patron's question 
seems so complex that you are not sure how to phrase it in writing to ISL. 

Call ISL with renewal requests that cannot be handled by mail, but not 
more than three at any one time. Telephone renewals take longer to 
process and are difficult to handle when the circulation desk is busy. 

Call ISL any time you have a question on procedure or a problem you 
think we can help you solve. 

ISL'S TELEFAX MACHINE NUMBER IS (208)334-4016. Libraries with 
access to a FAX machine can send and receive photocopied items in 
hours, rather than days by regular mail. State Library will also FAX 
material to a local machine whose owner has agreed to accept messages 
for your library. For example, most real estate offices and newspaper 
offices around the state have FAX machines. 



6j 



Inteiiibrary Cooperation: Oi; Hel^l I IN^d Soiil^bo^yl 



Interlibrary Loan Services Provided By The State Library 
For All Idaho Libraries 

The State Library provides certain services for ail Idaho libraries at no 
charge. Among these services are: Loan of books, recordings, films and 
videos, government documents, and photocopies from periodicals in the 
ISL collection. State Library will lend from the reference collection at 
staff discretion. Reserves may be placed on any item if it is not available 
at the time of your request. 

For Idaho Public Schools 

Idaho State Library will accept and, if possible, fill interlibrary loan and 
photocopy requests for titles known to be at ISL, as verified in LaserCat 
or another source. Requests must be sent on standard ALA interlibrary 
loan forms, or via EMS, and be as complete as possible. We will route 
a request to other libraries if we cannot fill it, provided that other 
locations are listed on the request. 

The State Library will not accept "blind" requests for which there has 
been no verification that ISL holds the title. We also cannot accept 
subject requests directly from school libraries. Students and teachers 
are encouraged to use their local public library first. If appropriate, the 
public librarian may forward their reference questions to ISL. 

For Idaho Public Libraries Only 

State Library can assist in verification of elusive items requested on ILL. 
The State Library will accept requests for items that have not been 
verified, although we strongly discourage sending an unverified request 
to any other library. Ifyousendus a request that you have not been able 
to verify, be sure to attach a note or a worksheet explaining: what the 
book is about, approximately how old it is, how certain you are of the 
spelling of the author's name, where the patron heard about it, and any 
other information you think might be useful. The more Information we 
have, the better are our chances of verifying the request. 

Idaho State Library will pay Interlibrary loan fees charged by WLN 
libraries for Idaho public library requests only when the requests are 
forwarded by ISL to one of the charging libraries listed below. The invoice 
for each loan is usually sent to the borrowing library (not to ISL), so you 
must forward the invoice to State Library, along with a copy of the ILL 
request. 



ERIC 



60 



Section XHI: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) PageXIlI-8 



Reference Service for Public Library Patrons: 

The State Library serves as the backup to public libraries in the provision 
of reference service. If a local library patron asks a question that cannot 
be answered locally, a request for the desired information may be sent 
to the State Library. ISL reference staff will search the reference and 
circulating collections, periodical indexes, the WLN database, and any 
other sources that seem appropriate for the question. Reference staff will 
send printed information or will suggest an organization with whom the 
patron can correspond. Often a list of books or periodical articles on the 
desired subject will be included in the response, and occasionally ISL 
staff will initiate an ILL request for the patron. 

It is important for you to realize that the State Library's collection 
is not like a public library collection. It is specialized to answer 
reference questions and to meet the job-related needs of state 
government employees. It does not contain fiction (except in large 
print), popular non-fiction, or children's materials, unless they 
relate to Idaho or the work of the state government. 

When filling out a Subject Request form, interview the patron until you 
understand exactly what information is wanted. Write down complete 
details, be specific, and define technical terms. (Remember that State 
Library staff has not met your patron.) Explain how the patron will use 
the information. Also, please tell us where you have searched, and 
include the titles of books your patron has used or is requesting on ILL. 
Don't forget to include the deadline if there is one — but only if there is 
one. Specify the number ofitems (books, articles, etc.) your patron hopes 
to see, especially if numbers of sources are important. 

If you are having difficulty explaining your patron's question, if your 
patron has a rush request, or if you are not sure of ISL's ability to answer 
the question from its collection, please call the toll-free number, 1-800- 
533-6923, and explain your problem to the reference staff. 



ERIC 



Section XHI: Interlibrary 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII-9 



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Sect: n XIII: Intcrlibraiy 
Cooperation 

(10/93) Page XIII -4 



CD 



rnidu^'traiMlllIlltEa^ 



Statistics: 1 ©!-, Coupt On It ! 




ERIC 



Section XIV: Statistic* 

(10/93) PageMV-1 



Some people get a uncomfortable when the topic of "statistics" comes up. 
They envision complicated mathematical formulas and jargon they don't 
understand. In the library, however, statistics basically have to do with 
counting. 

Statistics are used as one way to measure how the library is doing in 
meeting the needs of its community. There are basically two kinds of 
measures that are used. One kind of measure tells us what the library 
provides. Some of these measures would include the number of volumes 
owned, the number of hours the library is opened, and the number of 
staff members. This kind of measure is sometimes called an input 
measure. 

The other kind of measure tells us how much the library is used. Some 
of these measures include: number of people visiting the library, number 
of items circulated, and number of reference questions answered. This 
kind of measure is sometimes called an output measure. 

Statistical measures can be very useful in helping evaluate library 
services. Using statistics, libraries can compare themselves to other 
libraries in similar communities. They can also compare how they have 
done in one period of time with a similar period of time in the past. For 
example, it is not unusual for a monthly library report to show how the 
present year's monthly circulation compared with last year's. 

Typical Statistical Measures for Libraries 

Some of the typical statistical measures that libraries use are: 

Budget Figures. These show how much money the library has in income 
and expenditures. These figures are usually broken down into general 
categories, such as tax income and other income on the income side. 
Personnel, library materials, and building expenses are typical expendi- 
ture categories. 

Collection Figures. These statistics show how many books and other 
kinds of materials the library makes available to its clientele. To 
determine the number of items that they have, librarians typically start 
with a base figure for the year, subtract the items that are known to be 
weeded or otherwise eliminated from the collection, and add the number 
of items that have been purchased or otherwise added. This creates the 
base for the next year. If you are not certain what your base number is, 
you can look on your last annual report. If you think that your base 
figure is inaccurate, you can determine a new base by measuring the 
cards in your shelf list. To leam the proper procedure call your public 
library consultant. 



70 



Attendance. Here you are trying to measure how many people actually 
walk Into the door of the library, regardless of their reason for doing so. 
In smaller libraries this can sometimes be done simply by counting 
people as they come in the door. In larger libraries, turnstile counters 
or other counters are sometimes used. If you cannot use these methods, 
you may simply estimate a number by using random count days, during 
which staff members or volunteers are used to count people as they 
come through the door. 

In Library Use. This measures the number of items that people use in 
the library without checking them out. The best way to get this measure 
is to ask patrons not to reshelve their materials, but to place anything 
they use in special bins. Staff members then reshelve the items and 
count them as they do so. If this can't be done on a regular basis, it can 
be done on randomly selected days to get an estimate. 

Reference Transactions Completed. This is a relatively easy measure 
to collect. As the reference staff successfully answers a reference 
question, they simply make a hash mark on a piece of paper. (Reference 
questions are those questions which require the use of library materials 
or a referral to answer. Thus, "Where is the card catalog?" is not a 
reference question; "How tall is the Empire State Building?" is a 
reference question.) At the end of the day, the hash marks are counted 
and the figure written into the statistic book. Some libraries also try to 
determine the number of reference questions asked aswell as answered, 
so they can see how successful they are in answering these questions. 

Circulation. Circulation is measured simply by counting the number 
of materials that have been checked out each day. If you use a manual 
system, this is usually done at the end of each day by counting the cards 
for the books that have been checked out. If you use an automated 
system, the computer should do this for you. Many times circulation 
statistics are broken down into juvenile and adult circulation. Other 
libraries keep track of the circulation of different formats, such as books . 
magazines, video cassette, audio cassettes. The statistics that you keep 
will depend on what you are trying to evaluate. For example, if you are 
just starting a video collection, you may want to keep separate statistics 
on the circulation of these items. 



a 

ERIC 



Interlibrary Loan. Your library's involvement with the interlibrary loan 
system is measured in two ways: first in how many items you borrow 
from other libraries, and the number of items you lend to other libraries. 
Typically, these statistics can be kept on a monthly basis, simply by 
counting the number of forms for the items received and the items 
loaned. Sometimes to check the effectiveness of interlibrary loan, 
libraries also count the number of items they requested from other 
libraries as compared to the number that they actually received. 

71 



Section XIV: Statistic* 

(10/93) Page XIV-2 



Statistics: Or, Count On It 



Daily, Monthly and Annual Statistics 



Some statistics, most notably circulation, reference transactions, and 
sometimes library attendance are collected on a daily basis. Libraries 
can either purchase forms for collecting these statistics or make up their 
own. A computer program can also be used to eliminate time consuming 
arithmetic. 



At the end of each month, daily statistics are compiled into a monthly 
report for the library board. Often it is useful for the board to see the 
month's statistics compared to the same month of the previous year. 

At the end of the fiscal year, all public libraries in Idaho are required by 
law to fill out an annual report and send it to the State Library. These 
reports, while time consuming, are not difficult to fill out, if good monthly 
financial and service statistics have been kept. Forms for the annual 
report are provided by the State Library. Normally you will receive the 
forms for these annual reports in September, and they are due in 
December. If you have never filled out these reports before, you might 
find them to be a bit intimidating. Feel free to call your area's public 
library consultant if you need help. 



Using Statistics 



In the spring of each year, the Idaho State Library publishes a compila- 
tion of statistics for all public libraries in the state In addition to giving 
you "raw" statistics for all libraries, this report will show some of your 
library's statistics in comparison to libraries in similar size communi- 
ties. 



Many of these comparative statistics are expressed in "per capitas." A 
per capita statistic is simply the average number of whatever you are 
measuring for each person in your service area. For example, let's say 
that your library circulates 10.000 items a year, and you serve 1,000 
people. To get the per capita circulation, we divide the circulation 
(10,000) by the number of people (1,000) and come up with a figure of 
10 circulations per capita. In other words, for each person served, 10 
books were circulated, or the "average" person in your community 
checked out 10 books last year. 



Section XIV: Statistic* 

^ (10/93) Page XTV-3 

ERIC 



By using this kind of statistic, you can show taxpayers or funding 
agencies the kind of value that your library is providing to your 
community. At times you may also be able to appeal to community pride 
to gain support for the library. For example, if your library is supported 
at $7 per capita, while the average library in the state is supported at $ 10 
per capita, you can make a case that your library is underfunded 
compared to others. 

72 




You need to realize, however, that statistics can cut both ways, and they 
normally need to be explained. For example, let's say that Library Ahas 
5 volumes per capita, and Library B has 3 volumes per capita. Does this 
mean that Library A is a better library? Not necessarily. It may mean 
that Library A has never been weeded, and that a large number of its 
books are old, dilapidated and will never be checked out. This might be 
checked by looking at the turnover rate, which Is the circulation figure 
divided by the number of volumes. Let's say that Library A circulated 
20,000 items last year, and it has 20,000 volumes. It's turnover rate 
is 1. Library B circulated 18,000 items last year, and it has 12,000 
items. It's turnover rate is 1.5, which means that the average volume 
In Library B circulated more frequently than the average volume In 
Library A. However, if Library A and Library B both serve 4,000 people, 
then Library A circulated 5 items per capita to only 4.5 items per capita 
for Library B. Thus, statistics can be used to show that either library 
is doing a "better" job. 



Thus, while statistics are useful tools in evaluating library services, they 
should not be taken out of context. In evaluating how the library is 
doing, it is best to look at a wide variety of measures. When statistics 
change radically from one year to the next, it is an indication that 
something changed in the library or the community, and you should try 
to find out what it is, if you don't already know. Statistics, then, serve 
as a kind of windvane that helps you to know which way the wind is 
blowing for your library. 



We also should not assume that more is necessarily better. For example, 
a library can increase its circulation fairly easily by buying more popular 
fiction and videos. But the question then becomes, is the library more 
valuable because it circulates 20 light romances, as compared to one 
book containing information that saves a business thousands of dol- 
lars? 




ERIC 




(10/93) 



Section XIV: Statistic* 

Page XTV-4 



Automation: Or, Take 2 Computers & Call Me In The A M 




Section XV: Automation 

q (10/93) Page XV- 1 

ERIC 



Computers are a hot topic these days in libraries. Most of us have a lot 
of questions about their use and their role in the library. As anew public 
library director you may find that your library is automated. If so, there 
are a number of steps you can take to learn about how the system works. 

What Should You Do If There is an Automated System in Place? 

If you are lucky, someone on your staff can tell you about how the system 
works. Find the in-house procedure manuals. If none exist and someone 
on the staff knows how the system works, take the time to document the 
system during your first year on the job. 

Find the software user manuals for the system. If you can't find the 
manuals, call the vendor and ask for replacement copies. 

Vendors provide training sessions for their customers. Arrange to have 
such a session for yourself and members of your staff as soon as possible. 

Make sure the 800 customer service number of your vendor is available 
for use. Establish a rapport with your vendor. Call them and ask 
questions when something is not working properly. 

Remember that your library has purchased an automation product from 
your vendor and, above all, you have the right to expect service. 

What Should You Do If Your Library Is Not Automated? 

During the first year on thejob.it is a good idea to take care of the tasks 
that keep the library open and serve the patrons. It takes time to learn 
all the details you need to know in order to manage the library. Planning 
for and utilizing computers can come later when everything else is 
running smoothly. 

If, after you have settled into your job, you want to start looking at 
automation, consider all the roles the computer can play in the library 
environment. When you do, remember: 

• People use a variety of tools to complete a job. The computer is 
a tool. On one level it is no different from a pen, a typewriter, or 
an electric eraser. You do your work with it, around it, through 
it, and without it. 

• It is appropriate for certain tasks, inappropriate for others. It 
is not an end-all, or a be-all. Its applicability is definitely limited 
by the task to be accomplished and the power built into the 
computer and appropriate software. 



74 



Automation: Or, Take 2 Computers $ Call Me In The 1A.M. 




o 

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Section XV: Automation 

(10/93) page XV-1 



Computers are a hot topic these days in libraries. Most of us have a lot 
of questions about their use and their role in the library. As a new public 
library director you may find that your library is automated. If so, there 
are a number of steps you can take to learn about how the s^ stem works. 

What Should You Do If There is an Automated System in Place? 

If you are lucky, someone onyour staff can tell you about how the system 
works. Find the in-house procedure manuals. If none exist and someone 
on the staff knows how the system works, take the time to document the 
system during your first year* on the job. 

Find the software user manuals for the system. If you can't find the 
manuals, call the vendor and ask for replacement copies. 

Vendors provide training sessions for their customers. Arrange to have 
such a session for yourself and members of your staff as soon as possible. 

Make sure the 800 customer service number of your vendor is available 
for use. Establish a rapport with your vendor. Call them and ask 
questions when something is not working properly. 

Remember that your library has purchased an automation product from 
your vendor and, above all, you have the right to expect service. 

What Should You Do If Your Library Is Not Automated? 

During the first year on the job it is a good idea to take care of the tasks 
that keep the library open and serve the patrons. It takes time to ieam 
all the details you need to know in order to manage the library. Planning 
for and utilizing computers can come later when everything else is 
running smoothly. 

If, after you have settled into your job, you want to start looking at 
automation, consider all the roles the computer can play in the library 
environment. When you do, remember: 

• People use a variety of tools to complete a job. The computer is 
a tool. On one level it is no different from a pen, a typewriter, or 
an electric eraser. You do your work with it, around it, through 
it, and without it. 

• It is appropriate for certain tasks, inappropriate for others. It 
is not an end-all, or a be-all. Its applicability is definitely limited 
by the task to be accomplished and the power built into the 
computer and appropriate software. 



75 




Why automate? Just because everyone else is automating shouldyou? 
Why should libraries use a computer? In other words, why automate? 

• Computers can be used as a way of making a repetitive job 
easier. 

• By using computers and telephones, libraries can expand the 
boundaries of their collection to become as big as all the libraries 
in the state, region, or nation. 

What can computers do for libraries'? What products are available for 
libraries to use? There are numerous computer software products 
which make running a library easier. Libraries can choose from three 
basic types of electronic products: 

1. General purpose programs are used in a variety of business 
environments for administrative tasks. These programs can be 
used for library applications. 

i 

Word processing software can be used for: 

• day to day correspondence 

• form letters and requests 

• handbooks and policy statements (selection policy, 

user manuals, staff procedure guides) 

• requisitions and/or purchase orders 

• bibliographies. 

Database management software is useful for: 

• inventory (e.g., AV equipment, software collections, 

special holdings) 

• film bookings 

• union serial lists/periodical check-in 

• consideration files/book orders 

• bibliographies. 

Spreadsheet software can be used for: 



• budget management 

• fund accounting 

• circulation statistics 

• library use statistics 

• interllbrary loan/system/state statistics 

• orders (especially supply). 



0 



(10/93) 



Section XV: Automation 

) Page XV-2 



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Automation: Or, Take 2 Computers & CalT Me In The AJVL 




o 

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Section XV: Automation 
(10/93) Page XV-3 



2. There are a number of software programs designed specifically 
for use in various areas of library management. Areas in a library 
that lend themselves to the use of library specific software in- 
clude: 

• acquisitions 

• cataloging 

• circulation 

• computerized version of a library's card catalog 

• interlibrary lean 

An example of a program designed specifically for library use is the 
following: 

Libraries can use LaserCat to find information about the books they buy. 
They can then use that information to make cards for their card catalog. 
Libraries can also find out who owns a book not in their collection. In 
most cases the library can borrow the book from the library that owns 
it. 

3. Publishers are producing information in new media forms. Some 
of these forms require the use of a computer to make them available 
to the patrons. These can include, among others: 

✓ the use of CD-ROM technology to publish such works as encyclo- 
pedias combining text, pictures, and sound. 

✓ the use of computer sctware to aid in teaching adult literacy. 

Where do I start? Most computers in the library world are IBM or IBM 
compatible. In order for computers to operate they must make use of a 
disk operating system or DOS. In order for you to use a computer, it is 
important for you to: 

Become computer literate 

If you have never operated a computer before, you should take a basic 
computer literacy class. This kind of course will teach you how to turn 
the computer on. use floppy disks, and other very basic computer skills. 

Learn how to use DOS 

Learning DOS is the basic building block upon which many other 
computer skills are built. Your local school district, community college, 
university, or computer vendor offer DOS classes. The Idaho State 
Library has videotapes on how to use DOS available through the 
videotape collection. You can also purchase similar tapes for your 
library's collection to use for staff training and for the patrons to use. 



( ( 



Automation: Or, Take 2 Computers & Call*Me*In TheAM?* 



As you begin to look at how to use computers In your library, build your 
knowledge base by considering the following: 

Be aware of and make use of the services and consultants of the 
Idaho State Library. 

Attend workshops and meetings when possible to learn about 
new library technologies. 

Visit other libraries who have already automated the library 
operations being considered by you. 

There are user groups, consultants, and hundreds of books and 
j ournal articles that will be useful when you decide to implement 
computer technology in your library. The Idaho State Library 
can help you identify appropriate publications for your automa- 
tion projects. 

What are some of the critical resources to consider when dealing with 
automation? 



The key to effective use of computer technology is planning. 

The amount of time it takes to successfully implement com- 
puter technology will almost always be longer than expected. 

Computer technology costs money. 

Experience counts. Don't take on a major automation project 
without some experience in simpler projects. 

It takes people to make computers work. 



ALL AUTOMATION SHOULD START WITH A NEEDS ASSESSMENT 

Before considering the purchase of computer technology it is important 
to assess the needs of the library as they relate to the services provided 
to the public. This is a process that will likely occupy much of your time 
during your first year. The benefit of looking at a library's needs comes 
from understanding what is currently going on and making needed 
improvements. The benefits realized from the introduction of a com- 
puter system are often secondary. Through such an analysis the 
decision may even be made not to automate. 



a 

ERIC 



73 




Section XV: Automation 

(10/93) PageXV-4 



Automation: Or,Takfe2 Computers & Call Me In The iClVI^ 



Summary- 



Remember that your first year on the job will be a full one as you learn 
what it takes to provide library service to your community. Implement- 
ing projects that use computers takes more time than most of us realize 
and/or allocate. If you take this time to learn how to use computers and 
what they can do for you before implementing them in your library, you 
will save a great deal of time, money and energy in the long run. 



ERIC 



Section XV: Automation 

(10/93) PagcXV-5 



73 



Planning: Or, if I Knew Where We Were Going, I Wbulo^t Be Lost 




ERIC 



Section XVI: Planning 

(10/93) PageXVl-1 



Planning is becoming an increasingly Important part of the work of 
librarians and library boards. With limited resources, it is important 
that your library use what it has in a systematic matter. Unplanned 
changes usually cost more in time and money than changes that have 
been thought out in advance. 

Planning Is considered to be so important by the State Library that 
Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) grants are no longer 
available to public libraries without long range plans. 

Writing a plan is not enough, however. Once the plan is written, you have 
to follow it and monitor it. If your library already has a written plan, you 
and your board should be using it as you make decisions throughout the 
year. 

To find out if you have a plan, look for a copy in your policy manual or 
other materials that you obtained from the previous librarian. If you 
cannot find a plan, ask your board president if such a plan has been 
written. If it has, ask for a copy. 

In a well written plan, you will find objectives for each year. You can use 
these objectives to help you make decisions about what your library will 
be doing. Sometimes objectives cannot be met, in which case your board 
should decide whether to continue, modify, or drop the objective. This 
should be done on a monthly basis, with an overall review of the plan 
once a year. 

If your library has not yet written a plan, you need to think about doing 
so. The planning process that is recommended for public libraries 
appears in a book entitled Planning and Role Setting for Public Libraries. 
which was published by the Public Library Division of the American 
Librarian Association. A copy of this book was sent to all public libraries 
in Idaho by the State Library, so your library should have one. 

Planning is a large task for a new librarian to take on. If your board needs 
to write a long range plan, call your public library consultant for help in 
getting started. 



80 



ISL: Or, Your Friends In Boise, Moscow and Idaho Falls 




o 

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Section XVXt: The SUte Library 

(10/93) PageXVlI-1 



When you run into a question that you just can't answer by yourself, 
don't forget that there are other resources available to you. One of the 
primary missions of the Idaho State Library is to serve the library 
community. This includes not only providing back-up reference services 
and interlibrary loan, but also consulting and continuing education. 

To better serve the Idaho library community, the State Library has three 
offices. The main library is located at 325 West State Street in Boise. In 
addition to housing.ihe State Library's collection, this office provides 
state-wide services for networking, continuing education, literacy, sum- 
mer reading, and other special services. The office also houses the 
consultant staff that s^. /es southwestern Idaho. The telephone num- 
bers at this office are 334-2153 and (800) 458-3271. 

The State Library field office serving eastern Idaho is located at the Idaho 
Falls Public Library at 457 Broadway. Its telephone numbers are 525- 
7211 and (800) 548-6212. 

Northern Idaho is served by the field office located at 502 Jefferson in 
Moscow. The telephone numbers for this office are 882-5934 and (800) 
541-8638. 

The map located in this manual shows the areas served by each field 
office. Please feel free to call your area consultant any time that you have 
a question or a problem. We are here to serve you. 

Each year the State Library also provides workshops on basic library 
skills. These workshops, plus a summer institute on smaU library 
management which is held every other year, make up the Alternative 
Basic Library Education (ABLE) program. Designed to be completed in 
four years, this program gives small town librarians training in basic 
library skills. The workshops are available at no charge. They are 
announced in the State Library Newsletter and special brochures that 
are sent to all libraries in the state. 

Anytime that you have a question about State Library services, please 
call either the consultant in your area or the Associate Director for 
Library Development in Boise. 



81 



Tablte of Contents 



I. 


Introduction 


T. 1 


II. 


Library Law: Or, Is All This Legal? 


TT- 1 fr\ TT *7 
11- 1 lO li- 1 


III. 


Working With Your Board: Or, Who Does What? 


TTT 1 +r\ TTT 7 
ill- 1 lO 111- / 


IV. 


Policies: Or, Get It In Writing 


TV- 1 tn III ft 


V. 


Procedures: Or, Where's the Light Switch? 


v-i to V-o 


VI. 


Budgeting and Finances: Or, Free Libraries Aren't Cheap 


\7T- T tr» ATT Q 

vi- 1 to vi-y 


VII. 


Personnel: Or, "... And I Thought We Were Friends" 


VTI- 1 tn VTT.ft 
v 11 l LO Vll-O 


VIII. 


The Collection: Or. "Do You Have A Book on 


VIII -1 tn VfTT-fi 

V ill 1 i\j V 111 o 


IX. 


Selection and Acquisitions: Or, More Books for the Bucks 


TV. 1 ir\ TV Q 


X. 


The Catalog: Or, I Know We've Got It Somewhere 


X- 1 to X- 1 3 


XI. 


Circulation: Or, Check It Out! 


V7_ 1 to YT-1 


XII. 


Publio Services: Or, Face To Face 


XII- 1 tn VTT-4. 


XIII. 


Interlibrary Cooperation' Or Heln' I NppH ^mpHnHirf 


XIII- 1 to XII-6 


XIV. 


Statistics: Or, Count On It! 


XIV- 1 to XJV-8 


XV. 


Automation: Or, Take Two Computers and Call Me In The A.M. 


XV- 1 toXV-9 


XVI. 


Planning: Or, If I Knew Where We Were Going, I Wouldn't Be Lost 


XV- 1 


XVII. 


The State Library: Or, Your Friends In Boise, Moscow and Idaho Falls 


XVII- 1 



ERIC 



8