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Canada ! Maple-land 1 land of i^roat mountains ! 

Lake-land and river-land ! Land 'twixt the seas! 
Grant us, God, hearts that are large as our heritage, 

Spirits as free as the breeze. 

Grant us thy fear that we walk in humility, 
Fear that is rev'rent — not fear that is base — 

Grant to us righteousness, wisdom, prosi)erity, 
Peace — if unstained by disgrace. 

Grant us thy love and the love of our country ; 

Grant us thy strength, for our strength's iti thy name ; 
Shield us from danger, from every adversity, 

Shield us, oh Father ! from shame ! 

Last born of nations ! The offspring of freedom ! 

Heir to wide praii'ies, thick forests, red gold! 
God grant us wisdom to value our birthright, 

Courage to guard what we hold ! 


Gentlemen : 

From the list of subjects which were forwarded with your 
re(iuest, I have chosen " The Greatness of our Heritage " as being 
suitable for the occasion, though ill adapted for compression into a 
short article ; and if I address principally the ehler scholars, it is 
because their knowledge of the history ol our own and of other 
nations will enable them to elaborate what I must condense. 

The Physical Greatness of our Heritage, 

" Whose flanks are mighty Oceans, 
Whose base the Northern Sea," 
needs little |)roof ; a single glance at an ordinary School Geography 
shews it to l)e in form, as in size, one of the most valuable portions 
of the Earth's surface ; and as if Providence had kept in reserve 
its best gifts for this latest born of nations, we have, wafted into 
our spacious western harbors and along our picturesque Pacific 
coast, the trade winds of the Western Ocean, and with them that 
ocean stream, heated in the cauldrons of the Asiatic coast, to aid 
in making flowers bloom and trees bud, near the Arctic circle, as 
early as on the mighty Mississippi, or the still mightier St, Law- 
rence, just as the great stream poured out by the Mexican Gulf 
foils the Ice King's blockade of the magnificent harbors of our 
Eastern coasts, and nourishes those deep-sea pastures of which 
Canada possesses the richest in the world. As a means of access 
to the inner part of this favored land. Nature has cleft our rugged 
Eastern coast with a wide and deep Gulf, from the head of which 
mighty rivers aiid great lakes bear the home-hunter to near the 
vei'ge of our jjrcat Cereo.l Table-land, where, through future wdieat 
fields, turn and wind the Rivers of the great Plain, the Red, 
Assiniboine, Souris, Qu'Appelle and Saskatchewan, and over it all 
there has been given to us a climate which breeds no malaria, and 
this great area, wii>h its southern latitude that of Rome, is free 
from the pestilences which have from time to time scourged the 
peoples of Western Europe. I might go on indefinitely le- 
counting our blessings, but I must limit what I would v/ish to say 
about the Physical Great'iess of our Heritage, to be able to speak 
of its other aspects within the space allowed ; and so close with 
an unchallenged statement made in the Legislature of the Dominion 
regarding its then less well-known Western portion, as follows ; 

" That it has the greatest extent of coast line ; the greatest 
number of miles of river and lake navigation ; the greatest extent 
of coniferous forest ; the greatest coal measures ; the most varied 
distribution of precious and economic minerals ; the most exten- 
sive salt and fresh w^ater fisheries ; and the greatest extent of ara- 
ble and pastoral land of any country in the world," 




Possessing tliis great northern heritage is a noithorn race, 
ruled hy a northern Queen. Our national characteristics are 
northern, and tlie country we are so proud of is the Norland 
of this continent; to the northern races of the old world whence 
we sprang we look for our national characteristics ; and although 
we form part of an em pile so vast as to dwarf, with its popula- 
tion of over three hundred nnllions, our six or seven, yet it is these 
northern characteristics which, serving us so well in the past, will 
place us with the foremost in the time which is to come. 

Who then is this Queen, whose people in this American 
Northland so tenderly love and deeply reverence her ? Celtic she 
is by her descent from Arthur, Norman by her descent from Wil- 
liam of France, Saxon from Alfred, and from her old Norse 
ancestry deriving her right to sway the sceptre of the sea. As 
she is Celt and Saxon, Norman and Dane, so are we; for we have 
in this Doniinion more Celts than had Brien when he placed his 
heel upon the neck of Odin, more Saxons than had Alfred when 
he founded his kingdom, more Normans than had William when 
he drew from them the armed host with whicli he invaded 
England, more of Norse blood than there were Norsemen when 
their kings ruled Britain and their galleys swept the sea. We 
are the descendants of all the northern kingdom-founders of 
Western Europe. We have the laws of Edward, of Louis, Magna 
Charta and the Roman Code ; we have copied the constitution 
which English .statesmen, legislators, patriots and martyrs lived 
or died to secui-e or save. We have territory, resources by sea 
and land, civil and religious liberty; we are heirs, equally with 
those who live in the British Isles, of the glory and traditions 
of the British Empire. The Canadian has fought side by side 
with the Englishman, Irishman and Scot on the burning sands 
of India and Africa, on the bleak battle fields of the Crimean 
Peninsula, fought as well, died as bravely, as any of them all ; 
and if a degree of valor may be estimated by a single instance, 
it should be remendoered that, by general consent of his surviving 
comrades. Captain Dunn, born near Toronto, received the Victoria 
Cross as the " bravest of the brave " in the charge of the Light 
Brigade ; and, indeed, we need go no further than our own his- 
tory to determine the military qualities of our people ; for the 
odds and the result tell their own story, when we remember, 
amongst many ethers, Queenston and Chateauguay; and it is an 
historical fact that ours is one of the few countries where no foe 
held a long, much less a permanent footing. 

But enough of war. While with just pride we remember the 
deeds of our ancestors for the past thousand years, and know that 
when necessary the blood of the sea-kings, the sturdy Saxon, the 

piUant Norman and the fiery ^*olt, which is in our veins, will assert 
itself again, yet thanks be to Ahnighty God, our national life began 
and has continued in peace ; and as we chose for our national em- 
blems the Canadian beaver and our own beautiful maj)le leaf, so 
have we sought to build up, harmonize and iK^autify our splendid 
heritage; and during the short period, less than a quarter of a 
century, of our national life, we have made it possible for the ship 
which sails from Vancouver westward to land her unbroken cargo 
at Port Arthur; we have girded the continent with bands of steel, 
piercing mountains, spanning toi rents; and crossing the snow-capped 
giants of the Rocky and Selkirk chains, linked Canada, the youngest, 
to Japan and China, the oldest of the empires of the Orient. We 
have accom})lished in this short time on land that which astonishes 
every visitor to our shores, while we have justified our traditions 
on the sea, in making Canada third in rank of the mai-itime na- 
tions of the world; and at this moment the sails of Canadian ships 
whiten every sea, commanded by Canadian descendant.j of Drake, 
ami Hawkins, Frobisher and Richard Orenville, Nelson and Col- 
lingwcod, Cartier and D'Iberville. Better still than even this 
material progre.'^s is the fact that we are* building the foundations 
of our nationality broad and deep, cemented by the mutual respect 
and confidence of the several parts, endeavoring to solemnize Law 
with the moral sanctity of Religion, and to crown it with its only 
appropriate capital. Lawful Constitutional Authority. 

If we fulfil the traditions of our heritage, we will be a hardy, a 
healthy, and a moral people, and if worthy of our ancestiy, a dar- 
ing and a dominant race. Before the Romans knew much of the 
valor of our ancestors, who were destined to sack Rome and defeat 
them on the plains of Italy, they had learned to admire the moral 
character of these northern peoples. " No one among them," says a 
Roman historian, " makes a jest of vice, for it is not with them, as 
with us, an age of corrupting and corruption." 

I have said nothing of our mental (jualities. I havespace to say 
but little, but no one can attend an examination in one of our pub- 
lic schools or in any of our colleges, nor be much with those new 
entering upon the nmch harder school of actual life, without being 
convinced that in all mental qualities the youth of (^nada are 
second to none. On them rests the future of this great country, the 
exemplification of the attributes of our great race ; recreant to this 
trust they may possibly be, but I see no sign of it in the present 
and nothing in the future to disturb my deep-seated conviction that 
they will continue as we have begun ; and building this nation in 
the fear of Him Who gave ua this Great Heritage, with love for Her 
who giive UK national life, endeavoring, as we have done, to dissolve 
all differences and melt ^way all jealousies in the crucible of 




moderation and justice, that they and their chihiren will bequeath 
it to their children's children free from national stain, that they 
will be strong enough to preserve its unity and successful enough 
to cause the day we now celebrate to be even more deeply honored, 
and to rejoice in their birthiight, which to my mind is even now 
the highest and best the world contains. 

I have two pictures which are garlanded with Maple Leaves. 
One is that of our beloved Sovereign, the Queen of Canada, on 
whose fair young brow the Crown was placed tifty-four years ago; 
the other, that of the wise, experienced and patriotic men who 
composed the Confederation Conference at Quebec, from which 
sprang our national life. Honourable Oliver Mowat, Sir Etienne 
Tache, Geo, Bn wn, Sir John Macdonald, Grey, Chapais, Johnston 
and D'Arcy Mc;.rue are all there shewn, amid the wisest statesmen 
from all the Provinces. Only half of those then assembled are 
now living; but they who have passed away, lived and died in the 
belief the^< the Constitution then adopted and recommended to our 
Queen was the best which human intellect could devise for the great 
northern race upon this continent; and this is the heritage we re- 
ceive from those founders of Confederation ; this is the noble 
heritage this generation will leave intact, extended and strength- 
ened, to you, the youth of this country. You will prosper so long 
as you are w^orthy of this great trust; you will be blessed in pre- 
serving and strengthening it, so long as you seek His aid to main- 
tain it as the most precious of your birth-rights, and you will rise 
to that place as a people in the great Empire, of which we foim a 
part in proportion as you follow His precepts and obey His Divine 
Law. Great as you are now, greater you will become, and as 
citizens of Canada, citizens of the Great British Empire fulfil the 
prophecy of the Druid priest to Boadicea, the first British Queen, 
that in 

" Regions Cajsar's legions never knew 

"Our posterity shall sway, 
"Where his eagles never flew, 
"None invincible as they." 

I have included in the foregoing the words and opinions of men 
far more able than I to judge of the present and forecast the 
future, and might have sent some extracts from the speeches of the 
Fathers of our C^onfederation which are full of confidence and 
hope, and calculated to strengthen and confirm the loyalty and 
patriotism of our young people; but as space does not admit, I must 
conclude by thanking you most cordially for the opportunity you 
have given me of addressing them. 

and remain, very faithfully, yours, 

John Schultz. 



A problem of singular interest is being solved here. Two races, 
the foremost in the ranks of hiunanity, long rivals in arts and 
arms : the stolid, slow, but long enduring Saxon ; the lively, im- 
pressible, gallant Frank,— are here invited to share a common 
destiny, and work out a future of their own. The Norman and 
Saxon of elder centuries have united with the Celt to make Eng- 
land what she is. Saxon, Norman, and Celt meet here anew, under 
other fortunes, to make of our common Dominion what futuie gen- 
erations will know how to prize. Men of the old French monarchy, 
before the era of revolutions, have been succeeded by those, who, 
here, under the aegis of England, have been admitted and trained 
to all the rights and privileges of a free people. LEtat, cest moi, 
was the maxim of Louis le Grand ; and his descendant, Louis XVI., 
reaped the ample harvest of such a seed time. Happy, indeed, 
would be th(! Paris of to-day, if it could borrow the art of self- 
government from Quebec ; and strangely constituted must his mind 
be, who, amid the absolute freedom of self government which we 
enjoy, can dream of casting in* his lot either with the sturdy Re- 
public on our own borders, or its Gallic sister beyond the sea. 

It is a privilege not to be lightly thrown away, that we share 
the destinies of an empire where the Rajah of a British province 
on the Indian ocean — beyond the farthest foot-print of the Mace- 
donian Alexander, — sends as his loyal gift to the Olympian Games 
of our common nationality, the prize cup which victors from our 
young Dominion recently brought in triumph to our shores. The 
generation has not wholly passed away wliich stood undaunted 
against the banded powers of Europe ; and should the necessity 
for it recur, it will be seen that England to herself can still be 

Our living present, as well as the sacred memories which we 
inherit, as a member of that great British Confederacy which em- 
braces in one united empire, India and Canada ; New Zealand and 
Newfoundland ; the Bahamas ; the Antilles ; Australia and the 
Cape ; are too precious to be lightly cast away. But if the time is 
ever to come — 

" Far on in sunnners that we shall not see," 

when this young Dominion shall stretch across the continent, a 

free nation, with duties and with interests all its own ; it will be 
for its interest as well as its honor that it can then look back only 
with loving memories on the common mother of the Anglo-Saxon 
race ; while it emulates her example, and aspires to her worth. 

Daniel Wilson, LL.D. 









In extern of territory the Dominion of Canada is larger than 
the United States, and nearly equal to the European Continent. 
But bigness is not greatness. It may be opportunity for greatness, 
but it is not greatness itself. A tall Frenon general reached over 
Napoleon's head and handed him a book, saying, " Permit me, Sire, 
I am greater than your Majesty." " You are longer," said Napoleon. 
\ man's greatness is not measured by his length, nor do length and 
breadth of teri'itory make a nation great. 

In climate, soil and crude material wealth, our Dominion equals 
any country in the world. But money does not always giv ' 
strength. Athens in its palmiest days was not so wealthy as Chi- 
cago, yet no people has scored deepen marks Uj)on the world's hi.s- 
tory than the Athenians. Where money is made the main object, 
the most unscrupulous men usually come to the surface. If we 
make money our main pursuit, we shall rise among the nations of 
the earth, but we shall rise as scum. 

We have borrowed from the wisdom of all past a^es to establish 
one of the best educational systems to be found on earth — but edu- 
cation does not always give national strength. Education is but a 
weapon to be used for good or evil according to the cliaracter of 
those who possess it. The three R's if liot founded upon truth, 
honesty, justice and purity will only produce what some one calls a 
fourth R of rascaldom. 

Least of all is the strength of this Dominion found in the num- 
ber of its inhabitants. The question of numbers is wholly imma- 
terial compared with that of character. A little milk and flour are 
better than much chalk and arsenic, and a few good and healthy 
men are more to be desired than a multitude of diseased rogues. 
The strength of this Dominion is not in its extent of territory, its 
gold, government, education nor multitude, but only in its sound 
multitude. The strength of this country is in iis good men and 
good women ; its weakness is in its bad men and bad women. Bad 
men are to a nation's wealth as a robber to treasure; they are to a 
nation's strength as rust to armor. They have power to blast, rot 
power to bless. 

We love our country, and our country is worth loving. Its 
queen, its government, its climate, its soil, its schools, its sanctuaries, 
supply charms which command our warmest affection and loyal • . 
The first demand made upon us by our country is that we be good 
men. Every bad person is according to the measure of his power, 
forcing his country down into weakness and shame. Every boy, 
girl, man and woman who is truthful, just, pure and honorable is 
building up this Dominion into greatness and strength. 

James Allen. 



The school children of to-day are the nation of to-morrow. 
Now at your desks and books seeking the knowledge essential to 
guide you through the life that is before you, soon you will bs 
called upon as citizens to aid in directing the interests of your 
country. This page must necessarily fall into the hands of a num- 
ber of the statesmen, orators, church dignitaries and men of profes- 
sional eminence of the future central and western Canada. Among 
its readers will probably be no small number of the great Canadian 
women of the twentieth century. Is it strange that one should 
feel diffident about addressing people of such importance ? 

The responsibility of the school children of Western Canada, 
and of Winnipeg particularly, which is the centre of education for 
this new country, is no doubt far more serious than many, perhaps 
any, of them imagine. Confederation, when it was proclaimed on 
the 1st July, 1867, was a trifling affair compared with what it is 
now. It then included Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick, or, as has been said, a few scattered settlements along 
the banks of a single river and the lakes. It was not until 23rd of 
June, 1870, when Rupert's Land and the Northwestern Territories 
were added to the Dominion, that the future greatness of Canada 
revealed itself like a splendid vision to her people. British Colum- 
bia and Prince Edward Island were added during the two years 
following. This completed the formation of our Dominion, and 
brought under the pleasing shade of the Canadian maple leaf a 
country more than three million and a half square miles in extent, 
nearly thirty times as large as the United Kingdom, larger than 
the United States and almost as large as the continent of Europe, 
the home of nearly all the greatest nations of the world. This is 
the country whicl^ you will soon have to unite in building up, de- 
veloping and governing. Belgium in Eur'jpe is not much more than 
half the size of Nova Scotia, our second smallest Province, and yet 
there are fewer Canadians to promote the welfare and uphold the 
honor of our great Dominion than there are Belgians to take care 
of little Belgium. 

You know, too, that since the addition of this great Northwest 
and British Columbia to Confederation, six-sevenths of Canada are 
in the west and nearly all <-he people are in the east. Right here 
in the centre and west of the Dominion the efibrts which are to 
determine whether Canada shall have a glorious or an inglorious 
future must be put forth. The work is heavy, the hands are few, 
and the responsibility correspondingly great. It is because our 
country needs, and will continue to need in an increasing degree. 

the unswerving devotion and intelligent assistance of every Cana- 
dian, that it is never too soon to cultivate the deepest possible in- 
terest in her past history, present condition and in the ]»roblems of 
her future. Let every Canadian school bi)y and school girl, who is 
old enough to do so, study Canadian history. 

What is the moral oi;' Canadian history ? Are we an enter- 
prising nation ? Where else could you find a handful of people 
willing to tax themselves forty millions of dollars for a railway in 
the eastern provinces, and one hundred millions for so huge an un- 
dertaking as our transcontinental road ? What other country with 
an equal population can boast of such railway and canal systems, 
of such public works ? Was not the very formation of Confedei-a- 
tion an enterprise that would be great in any history '{ 

Is any nation more capable of self-government ? Read of the 
struggles of our pioneers for honest politics, imj)artial judges and 
responsible government, and see how from their efforts grew up the 
Canadian parliamentary and nmnicipal systems of to-day. "No- 
where," it has been said, "have the loyalty of the subject and the 
prestige of the nation been more sorely tried, and nowhere have 
they been more nobly vindicated or more honorably sustained than 
in Canada." 

Are the Canadians a brave people, worthy of so great a trust 
as that which has been reposed in them ? History points us in re- 
ply to the events of 1775, and 1812, to Queenston Heights, Stoncy 
Creek, Moraviantown, Chateauguay, Chrysler's Farm and Lnndy's 
Lane :— 

" O thou that bor'st the battle's brunt 
At Queenston and at Lundy's Lane, — 
On whose scant ranks but iron front 
The battle broke in vain ! 

" Whose was the danger, whose the day, 

From whose triumphant throats the cheers. 
At Chrysler's Farm, at Chateauguay, 
Stormi>ig like clarion bursts our ears ?" 

Whatever may be the future of our great country — and no dis- 
honorable future can await the Canadian people — read her history, 
become familiar with the genius of her institutions, the instincts 
and aspirationc of her people, and, above all, stand \y her, rain or 
shine ! 

— F. C. Wade. 



Canada is not merely a string of Provinces, fortuitously strung 
together, but a single nationality ; young, but with a life of its 
own ; a colony in name, but with a national spirit, which though 
weak, is growing stronger daily ; a country with a future, and 
worthy of the lo^'alty of its sons. It means in the next place the 
settled conviction that the honor of Canada must always be main- 
tained, no matter what the cost, and that Canadian interests are of 
first importance. Any man who is animated by these convictions 
is a true Canadian, no matter what his views may be as to the 
political form that the Dominion is ultimately to assume. 

It is a wide and goodly land, with manifold beauties of its own, 
with boundless resources, that are only beginning to be developed, 
and with room and verge for empire. Each province has attract- 
ions for its children. * * * It has been my lot to live for a 
time in almost every one of our provinces, and to cross the whole 
Dominion, again and again, from ocean to ocean, by steamer or 
canoe, by rail and buck-board, on horse-back and on foot, and I 
have found, in the remotest settlements, a remarkable acquaintance 
with public questions and much soundness of judgment and feeling 
wHh regard to them ; a high average purity of individual and 
family life, and a steady growth of national sentiment. 

I have sat with the blackened toilers in the coal mines of Pictou 
and Capo Breton, the darkness made visible by the little lamps 
hanging from their sooty foreheads, have worshipped with pious 
Highlanders in log-huts, in fertile glens and on hill sides, where the 
forest gives place slowly to the plough, and preached to assembled 
thousands, seated on grassy hillocks and prostrate trees; have fished 
and sailed with the hardy mariners, who find "every harbour, from 
Sable to Causeau, a home;" have ridden under the willows of 
Evangeline's country, and gazed from north and south mountain 
on a sea of apple-blossoms ; have talked with gold miners, fisher- 
men, farmers, merchants, students, and have learned to respect my 
follow countrymen and to sympathize with their Provincial life, 
and to see that it was not antagonistic, but intended to be the hand- 
maid to a true national life. 

Pass from Annapolis Royal into the Bay of Fundy, and then 
canoe up the rivers, shaded by the great trees of New Brunswick. 
Live a while with the habitants of Quebec, admire their industry, 
frugality and courtesy ; hear their carols and songs, that blend the 
forgotten music of Normandy and Brittany with the music of 
Canadian words ; music and song, aS well as language -^nd religion, 
rooting -in them devotion to "Our Language, our Laws, our Insti- 
tutions." Live in historic Quebec, and experience the hospitality 
of Montreal. Pass through the Province of Ontario, itself possess- 


ing the resources of a kingdom. Sail on lakes great enough to be 
called seas, along rugged Lauren tian coasts, or take the new North- 
west passage by land, that the Canadian Pacific has opened up from 
the upper Ottawa, through a thousand miles once declared im- 
practicable for railways, end now yielding treasures of wood, and 
copper and silver, till you come to that great prairie ocean, that sea 
of green and gold in this month of May, whose billows extend for 
nigh another thousand miles to the Rocky Mountains, out of which 
great provinces like Minnesota and Dakota will be carved in the 
immediate future. And when you have reached the Pacific, and 
look back over all the panorama that unrolls itself before your 
mental vision, you will not doubt that the country is destined to 
have a future. You will thank God that you belong to a genera- 
tion to whom the duty has been assigned of laying its foundations ; 
and knowing that the solidity of any construction is in proportion 
to the faith, the virtue and the self-sacrifice that have been wrought 
into the foundation, you will pray that you, for one, may not be 
found wanting. 

Rev. G. M. Grant, D.D. 

- • *• 


Above all, remember, things are not with you as they were a 
few short years ago. British North America is no longer a conge- 
ries of disconnected Provinces, destitute of any strong bond of 
sympathy or mutual attachment. You are no longer Colonists or 
Provincials — you are the owners, the defenders and guardians of 
half a continent — of a land of unbounded promise and predestina- 
ted lenown. That thought alone should make men and soldiers of 
you all. Life would scarcely be worth living, unless it g^Arf* us 
something for whose sake it was worth while to die. Out )ur 

domestic circle there are not many things that come up ..^ that 
standard of value. But one at least you possess — a country you 
can be proud of; and never should a Canadian forget, no matter 
what his station in life, what his origin or special environments, 
that in this broad Dominion he has that, wliich it is worth while 
both to live for and to die for. 

Lord Dufferin. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

When men unto their noblest rise, 
Alike for ever see their eyes ; 
Trust us, Grand England, we are true, 
And, in your noblest, one with you. 




But mark, by Fate's sti-ong finger traced, 
Our country's rise ; see time unt'okl, 

Tn our own land, a nation based, 
On manly worth, not lust of gold. 

It's bourne the home of generous life, 
Of ample freedom, slowly won. 

Of modest maid and faithful wife. 
Of simple love 'twixt sire and son. 

Nor lessened would the duty be. 
To rally then around the throne, 

A filial nation, strong and free. 

Great Britain's child to manhood grown. 


You have a variety of pursuits in this country. Determine to 
be of use to the land which has given you birth. Determine to be 
a credit to it. Remember you are Canadians, and remember what 
til is means. It means that you belong to a people who are loyal to 
their Queen, whom they reverence as one of the most perfect of 
women, and as their Sovereign ; and who see in her the just ruler 
under whose impartial sway the various races, creeds, and nationa- 
lities of this great Empire are bound together in happiness and 
unity. But to be loyal, means even more than this. It means that 
you are true to your duties to your fellow countrymen, and that 
you will work with and for all, for the common weal and brother- 
hood and tolerance. It means, finally, that you will be true to 
your self-respect, that you will do nothing unworthy of the love ot 
your God, who made you in His image, and set you in His fair land. 
I believe that you will each and all of you be loyal and true 
Canadians, tL«,v. you will devote your energies throughout your 
lives for the good of your native province, and for the welfare of 
this wide Dominion, and I feel in speaking to you that I address 
those whose children will assuredly be the fathers of a mighty 

Lord Lorne,