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Full text of "Pinney and Arnoult's French grammar, a new method, combining both the oral and the theoretic: particularly calculated to render the speaking of French easy to learners of different ages and capacities. With the pronunciation of all the words and a lexicon"

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\  \  AJ^./^C:A^       L 

OL-U^a-H  f  •   -^     ■  •■     •  "^  ^  >^UL  O-A 

."^  . 
















ON;-  ( 

EsTEBED,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1S60,  by 


In  the  Clerk's  Office  of  the  District  Court  of  the  United  States,  for  the 
Soatbem  District  of  Nevf  York. 

JOHN  7.  TROW, 
4Sk  48  *  60  OrMne  Btrset, 
New  York. 


Ths  snperiority  of  the  oral  method  for  teaching  the  modern  languages  is 
now  so  generally  understood,  that  little  need  be  said  in  its  favor.  Years  of 
experience  have  proved  beyond  all  question  that  he  who  studies  faithfully  by 
this  method,  with  a  competent  teacher,  can,  in  no  great  length  of  time,  not 
only  translate  the  language  which  he  studies,  but  can  also  write  and  speak  it 
sufficiently  for  all  necessary  purposes, — a  result  which  can  seldom,  if  ever,  be 
attained  by  the  old  methods.  On  this  point,  therefore,  we  need  not  dwell. 
But  there  are  other  characteristics  of  the  present  work  on  which  more  should 
be  said. 

It  is  now  about  twenty  years  since  Ollendorff  first  published  his  improTe- 
ment  on  Manesca^s  System.  During  this  time  various  works  have  appeared 
on  this  method,  which  possess  their  merits  and  their  use.  But  it  is  no  dispar- 
agement to  these  to  say  that  experience  calls  for  important  improvements  in 
them  all.  Some,  prepared  chiefly  for  oral  purposes,  havo  had  too  much  the 
character  of  mere  phrase-books,  lacking  system  and  grammatical  complete- 
ness. Others  again  have  inclined  to  an  opposite  course,  and  have  sacrificed 
much  of  oral  ease  and  simplicity  without  attaining  all  that  was  to  be  desired 
in  point  of  grammar. 

It  is  to  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  best  grammar  for  the  French  learner  is 
not  the  best  grammar  for  the  English,  and  that  rules  may  bo,  and  very  often 
are,  given,  which,  though  perfectly  correct,  are  absolutely  detrimental  to  the 
learner.  A  rule,  for  instance,  on  a  mere  common  phrase  which  is  best  learned 
by  example,  is  worse  than  useless,  as  are,  also,  rules  on  those  parts  of  the 
language  where  the  French  does  not  differ  from  the  English,  so  that  the  un- 
aided learner  can  not  go  wrong.  Such  rules,  by  presenting  an  appearance  of 
difficulty  where  none  exists,  tend  to  confuse  and  perplex  the  learner,  and  to 
draw  off  his  attention  from  things  of  real  use.  On  the  other  hand,  in  those 
parts  of  the  grammar  where  the  languages  differ,  the  rules  and  examples 
should  be  fulL    Too  much  pains  can  not  he  taken  to  present  and  illustrate 


these  with  clearness.  Now  nn  ordinary  French  Grammar,  written  for  the 
French,  is  deficient  in  both  these  respects.  Three-fourths  perhaps  of  such 
a  work  are  occupied  with  matters  on  which  the  English  learner  needs  do 
instruction,  while  the  remainder,  where  he  needs  all  help,  is  passed  over 
with  a  brevity,  whicli,  though  suflScient  for  the  French,  is  entirely  Inadequate 
to  his  wants,  and  much,  too,  which  Ls  of  vast  importance  to  him  is  entirely 

This  is  a  subject  which  deserves  to  be  well  considered ;  for,  we  are  apt  at 
first  to  suppose  that  a  French  Grammar,  which  has  reputation  among  the 
French,  and  is  useful  in  their  schools,  must  be  good  also  for  ours.  But  a 
little  reflection  shows  us  that  this  is  by  no  means  so.  What  the  English 
learner  chiefly  needs  is  an  explanation  of  the  differences  between  the  French 
language  and  his  own.  These  must  be  clearly  and  carefully  laid  before  him, 
and  the  rest  ho  understands  as  a  matter  of  course.  Now  these  are  precisely 
the  points  of  which  a  foreign  grammarian  has  no  idea.  They  do  not,  and 
ought  not  to  enter  the  mind  of  a  Frenchman  who  is  preparing  a  book  for  the 
schools  of  his  own  country.  His  sole  object  is  to  meet  the  wants  of  the 
French  learner,  and  as  these  differ  vastly  from  the  wants  of  the  English 
learner,  his  grammar  of  course  contains  much  which  the  latter  does  not  need, 
and  omits  no  less  that  he  does  need.*  Hence,  too,  it  is  not  strange  that  oral 
methods,  though  designed  particularly  for  English  learners,  should  have  more 
or  less  of  this  character ;  that  they  should  contain  many  mles  which  ought  to 
be  entirely  omitted,  while  they  pass  over  in  silence  equally  much  which  is  very 
necessary  to  the  learner. 

Here,  then,  is  the  first  great  advantage  of  the  present  work.  Combiuing, 
as  it  does,  the  united  care  of  experienced  native  teachers  in  both  languages, 
it  will  be  found,  we  think,  to  unite  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  idioms  and 
pronunciation  of  the  French  with  a  more  perfect  adaptation  to  the  wants  of 
thd  English  learner.  The  lessons  are  comparatively  short,  the  oral  exercises 
easy,  and  very  gradually  progressive ;  all  superfluous  matter,  which  tends  only 
to  perplex  the  learner,  has  been  carefully  avoided,  while  the  peculiar  difficul- 
ties which  the  language  presents  to  the  English  student  have  been  still  more 
carefully  explained.  As  a  grammatical  treatise,  the  improvements  made  in 
the  present  work  can  not  hero  be  specified  in  detail ;  but  it  will  be  found,  we 
believe,  on  trial,  to  contain  not  only  much  of  the  ordinary  g^mmatical  mat- 

♦  On  this  subject  we  qnote  from  the  prcf^e  of  Dr.  AmouU's  Pronouncing  Reader, 
In  which  ho  says :  **  AmericaD  grammars  are  necessary  to  teach  the  theory  of  the  hm- 
gaage,  and  notwithstanding  some  Inoocnracies  (which  ought  to  be  mended  in  eabfiequent 
editions),  wo  certainly  prefer  them  for  teaching  Americans  to  any  French  grammars,  writ- 
ten In  Paris  solely  for  native  learners,  and  reprinted  in  New  York  for  the  nse  of  American 
etndents.  French  grammarians  do  not  know  a  word  of  English.  Their  books  therefore 
can  not  contain  the  most  necessary  part,  the  corresponding  idiomatic  features  of  both  lan- 
guages. They  give  but  one  side  of  the  subject  Hence  it  is  that  the  worst  American  gram- 
mar, written  for  Americans,  and  containing  the  whole,  Is  fiir  more  uaefhl  for  teachers  and 
•cholars  in  American  schools,  than  the  best  one-sided  book  pabllshed  in  Parls^*^ 


ter  presented  in  an  easier  form,  but  many  useful  rules  and  much  valuable  in« 
struction  on  the  use  of  the  language,  given  in  no  previous  book. 

Another  important  advantage  of  the  present  work  consists  in  its  method 
of  teaching  the  pronunciation.  This,  it  will  be  seen  by  examining  the  pre* 
liminary  lessons  and  exercises,  is  united  with  the  matter  taught  in  a  peculiar 
way.  After  the  simple  vowel  and  the  consonant  sounds  have  been  given,  the 
words  and  phrases  which  form  the  oral  exercises  are  selected  and  introduced 
in  such  a  way  that  all  the  vowel-sounds,  and  such  of  the  consonants  as  require 
practice,  are  called  into  use  one  at  a  time,  and  made  familiar  by  repetition, 
until  the  whole  are  learned.  Thus,  without  the  sacrifice  of  any  time,  and  with- 
out retarding  in  the  least  the  learner's  progress  in  the  acquisition  of  words, 
phrases,  and  grammatical  principles,  he  Is  exercised  in  a  systematic  course  of 
pronunciation  in  all  its  parts.  It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  any  marked  pro- 
nunciation can  at  all  supply  the  place  of  the  oral  teacher ;  but  after  the  simple 
sounds  have  been  given  by  the  living  voice,  the  annotation  of  each  new  word 
at  the  bottom  of  the  page  throughout  the  course,  with  its  division  into  syllables 
and  its  silent  letters,  must  be  convenient  to  the  teacher,  and  of  much  value  to 
the  learner. 

Another  advantage  of  the  present  work  is  its  capability  of  abridgment 
without  any  sacrifice  of  grammatical  system.  The  French  language  is  studied 
among  us  by  learners  dlifering  widely  in  age,  talents,  and  attainments.  Some, 
too,  as  children,  who  begin  it  young,  have  ample  time  for  its  acquirement 
Others,  as  the  students  in  our  colleges  and  high-schools,  can  give  but  a  brief 
period  to  the  study.  Now,  no  one  book  can  be  suited  to  all  these  various 
wants  without  the  provision  of  longer  and  shorter  courses.  These  accordingly 
are  here  provided  in  this  way.  At  the  end  of  each  lesson,  excepting  a  few  of 
the  first,  are  given  a  quantity  of  exercises  termed  optional^  intended  only  for 
fuller  practice  on  words  and  rules  previously  introduced.  At  the  end,  too, 
after  the  grammatical  course  Is  completed,  is  a  series  of  lessons  styled  supple- 
mentary;  while  at  the  beginning,  those  called  preliminary  are  designed  merely 
to  facilitate  the  pronunciation,  and  make  the  oral  exercises  more  gradually 
progressive.  By  the  omission,  therefore,  of  any  or  all  of  these,  at  the  discre- 
tion of  the  teacher,  and  according  to  the  wants  of  the  learner,  the  work  may 
be  abridged  to  the  extent  of  one-half,  or  even  more,  without  destroying  its 
completeness  as  a  grammar,  or  breaking  the  chain  of  its  oral  exercises. 

The  introduction  of  the  optional  exercises  is  attended,  also,  with  this  fur- 
ther advantage.  It  gives  opportunity  for  the  use  of  connected  dialogues  of 
some  length,  on  the  same  subject,  of  which  they  will  generally  be  foimd  to 
conast.  This  serves  not  only  to  give  more  reality  and  interest  to  the  dia- 
logue, but  to  call  more  into  exercise  that  class  of  words  whose  chief  use  is  to 
show  the  relation  of  sentences  to  each  other,  and  which  can  not  be  so  well 
employed  in  those  disconnected  questions  and  answers  which  are  given 
merely  to  make  exercises  on  certain  words,  or  to  illustrate  the  application  of 
particular  rules. 

The  last  advantage  of  this  work  which  we  shall  specify,  is  the  dictionary  of 


all  the  English  words  into  FreDch,  given  at  the  end.  By  the  aid  of  this,  the 
learner  who  has  forgotten  the  French  for  any  English  word  previously  given, 
can  recall  it  without  resorting  to  the  key.  Learners  in  classes  who  chance 
from  any  cause  to  have  lost  a  few  lessons,  may  by  the  aid  of  this  avoid  falling 
behind  their  companions.  And,  as  the  place  of  introduction  of  each  word  is 
marked  in  it,  it  may  serve  as  a  complete  verbal  index  when  the  book  is  to  be 
consulted  on  the  use  of  any  term  or  phrase. 


N.  B.  Teachers  can  omit  at  discretion  all  that  precedes  page  65 ;  as  that 
which  follows  contains  the  entire  grammar,  and  presupposes  a  knowledge  of 
nothing  which  precedes,  except  the  table  of  pronunciation,  page  8. 

In  the  marked  pronunciation  at  the  bottom  of  the  pages,  some  words  will 
be  found  marked  dififercntly  from  the  general  rule.  These  are  not  misprints, 
but  anomalous  cases,  whore  French  usage  differs  from  the  general  analogy  of 
the  language. 



A,    «,      .    . 

.    ah. 


n,    .     . 

.    .  en. 

B.    b.  .    . 

.     .bay. 


0,       . 

.      .      0. 

0,     c      . 

.    say. 


P,   .     . 

.    .pay. 

D,    d,  .    . 

.    .  day. 


q,    . 

.    .    ktt. 

B,     e,      .    . 

.    a. 


r,    .    . 

.    .air. 

F,     f,    .    . 

.    .ef. 


s,      . 

.    .    ess. 

6,    B.     •    • 

.    jay(zhay). 


t,    .    . 

.    .tay. 

H,    h,  .    . 

.    .ash. 


u,       . 

.     .    u. 

I.     i,      .    . 

.    e. 


V,     .       . 

.     .vay. 

J.    J,    .    . 

.    .jee(zhee). 


X,    . 

.     .    eeks. 

K,    k,     .    . 

.    kah. 


Ti   •     • 

.    .  e-grek. 

I^    1.    .    . 

.     .el. 


z,      • 

.    .    zed. 

M,     B,      .      . 

.    em. 


Thertt  are  throe  accents  in  French ;  the  aeuU  (A),  the  ffrave  (d),  and  the  eireun\fie»  (A). 

Th«  aeuU  aeeent  is  never  placed  over  any  vowel  but  e;  as,  </A  The  «  is  then  always 
aoonded  long  at  the  end  of  words. 

The  ffrate  accent  is  sometimes  placed  over  a,  e,  ti ;  as,  2c2,  pria,  oik  Over  a  and  v  it 
marks  no  change ;  over  e  it  marks  a  change  of  sound. 

The  drcumjleao  acoerU  is  used  over  any  vowel  except  y;  as,  ^ge,  hiU^  ipUre^hUs, 
Jl&U.    The  vowel  thus  accented  is  long,  with  very  few  exceptions. 

Tm  csDiLLA  is)  is  placed  under  c  before  a,  o,  u,  to  give  it  the  sound  of  «. 

Tun  APOSTROPns  C)  marks  the  ellsiou  of  a  final  vowel  before  another  vowel  or  silent  h  ; 
as,  Vanimal^  for  2e  animal ;  rhomme^  for  le  homme. 

Elision  takes  place  in  the  following  words :  ce,  de^  je,  ki^  U,  tne,  fi«,  qus^  det  que.jtU' 
qtUy  paree  qu4^  lou  que  ;  also  in  loreque,  pui^ue,  and  quotque,  before  </,  iU,  eUe^  ellea^  en, 
cm,  «n,  fine ;  In  enire  and  preaque  when  compounded  with  other  words,  as  entr"  aider, 
prt9qu^  tie;  in  quelque  before  un  and  avire,  as  quelqiC  un  ;  in  H  before  t7,  iU.  Ecfin  bo 
elided  or  not  before  tiaa,  elU,  Eot  grande  is  always  elided  in  grands  mire,  grand*  tanU, 
grands  chatnbre^  grand*  ckoae,  grand"  eroix,  grand*  mewt,  and  flroqnently  In  gran^  peine, 
grand" peur,  gran<C  pUU,  and  grandP  honte,  when  not  immediately  preceded  by  an  article 
or  pronominal  adjective. 

Oe,  <fe,  20,  suffer  no  elbion  before  ouiy  onze,  huit,  and  derivatives;  aSf  U  oui,dshuitd 
oiue^  ce  OTwUms  chapUre. 

DuEKssn  (")  is  placed  over  e,  i,  u,  to  indicate  that  the  foregoing  vowel  is  to  be  Bounded 
separately;  as,  ambigui,  laiqtie,  J^saii. 

Tns  nrrtaa  (•)  is  used  to  connect  words  or  syllables ;  as,  aprSs-midi, 



'fiit,        soonded  as 

a  in  oA,  represented  b  v  | 


a  in  arm. 

^'!r.*°^ " 

tffi  in  encore, 

tt  in  ttf. 


t  in  «66, 

e!  i. 

a  in  faie. 




ai  in  oir, 
«  in  ibAav, 



r  *'^* ,   r 

eugh  in  eu^Ar, 

,h!eu  (before  r). 

t>  in  sir. 


i  in  jfiqittj 
ee  in  ««/, 

\14.  in,  luuial,      " 

aft  in  anchcr. 



m  o  (before  r% 

aw  in  aiw, 


oin  no, 


Ifi'r              " 



oo  in  mooif, 

tra  in  watAj 

^2Lon,,iia«al,    " 

on  in  wrong. 


u  in  9tie«n, 
u  in  queen. 


.24  un,t  nasal,  " 


a,ea,  a 

OH,  en,  4BH,  tm,  tun, 

e,  ve,  etc.  * 

e,  e,  et,  er,  est,  etc.  • 

e,  ai.  Mi,  eg,  er,  etc.  * 

e,  £*,  ex,  er,  aie,  etc  * 

e,  ai,  ne,  ' 

en,  oeu,  oei,  * 

eik,  oeu,  eue,  eu,  * 

eu,  oeu,  ' 

»,  ««»  y.  * 

«,  y»  »^,  * 
in,  im,  ain,  dn,  ym,  yen,  *■ 

o,  oi,  ' 

o,  au,  eo,  ao,  * 

6,  au,  eau,  * 

ou,  aou,  oil,  ' 

ou,  oue,  * 

oi,  oy,  voi,  oie,  ua,  * 

on,  om,  aon,  ' 

u,eu,  • 

ti,  ii«,  uie,  *' 

Vn,  «i»,  f  MH,  ' 

Bevakk. — F 18  generally  sounded  as  t ;  between  two  Towels  it  is  soonded 
as  i  i,  forming  two  syllables.    A  cipher  over  e  niarisa  that  it  is  entirely  mlent. 

*  ThU  8<mnd  is  dlstiDgnished  from  eu  by  being  pronouncod  like  « in  (A«  before  a  con- 
■oiiant,  M  tUe  man. 

JSatthe  end  of  a  word,  at  the  end  of  a  syllable  after  a  alngle  consonant,  and  in  combioa- 

0  0  0 

tiona,  Is  often  sUent;  as,  eaU,  gelera,  nemsU. 

t  E  followed  by  a  consonant  In  the  same  syllable,  and  i  at  the  beginning  or  in  the  mid- 
dle of  a  word,  hare  commonly  tbis  sound. 

t  Ek  and  un  hare  no  rery  near  representative  eonnda  in  English,  and  leqaire  the 
cqwdal  instmction  of  the  teacher. 

S  (H  has  the  nature  of  a  compoond  sound  made  up  of  the  15  and  1.  In  several  in- 
stances, also,  the  soands  marked  above  with  different  figures  may  consist  of  the  same  do- 
ments,  differing  only  In  quantity  and  oombinationa. 









































es,  6dit, 
































en  quote, 










seul.  Evrope 




























13' dime, 












































































































ai   as  in  maU. 





































ien  as 
ien  ** 
ian  " 
ieu  " 
ion  " 
iou  " 
oe  " 
ua  " 
one  " 
ui  " 
uin    " 

in   rien. 



Consonants,  when  not  silent,  arc  pronoanced  as  in  English,  with  the  fol- 
lowing exceptions : 

C,  before  a,  o,  u,  has  the  sound  of  A;,  as  cap^  col,  cuve;  before  e,  t,  that 

of  8,  as  ccci  ;  p  is  only  used  before  a,  o,  «,  and  has  the  sound  of  «,  as 
fa,  Icron^  ?*cft/. 

D,  F.  At  the  end  of  a  word,  and  preceding  another  word  beginning  with 
a  Towcl  or  silent  A,  d  has  the  sound  of  ty  and  /  of  t> ;  as,  grand  ami, 
grand  homme,  neuf  annees. 

O,  before  e,  »',  y,  has  the  sound  of  8  in  pleasure,  as  dge,  gite,  g^se;  be- 
fore a,  0,  u,  and  the  liquids  /,  n,  r,  it  has  the  hard  sound,  as  gant, 
gond,  aigu.  When  final,  and  followed  by  a  word  beginning  with  a 
Yowel,  it  has  the  sound  of  k,  as  rang  eleve.  It  generally  forms  a  liquid 
Round  with  n.     (See  liquid  sounds,  below.) 

n  is  said  to  be  aspirated  in  words  which  do  not  require  or  admit  of  any 
elision  of  a  vowel  preceding  them,  and  not  aspirated  (or  silent)  in  words 
which  require  such  elision.  Thus  h  is  aspirated  in  le  hommard,  and  not 
aspirated  (or  silent)  in  IfJiomme,    It  is  hardly  ever  sounded  in  French. 

J  has  the  sound  of  5  m pleasure;  Qa,jalouXjjeu,joue. 

L  is  sometimes  liquid  (see  liquid  sounds),  otherwise  it  is  sounded  as  in 

Q  is  always  followed  by  u.  They  are  commonly  sounded  like  k ;  as,  que, 
question.    Sometimes  qu  is  sounded  as  in  English ;  as,  quadrupede, 

R  is  pronounced  stronger  than  in  English,  and  is  always  sounded  as  r  in  rose, 

S.  A  single  s  between  two  vowels,  and  s  final  before  a  word  beginning 
with  a  vowel,  has  the  sound  ofz;  as,  rose,  pas  icu 

T  before  ion.,  ial,  iel,  and  before  t  in  a  few  other  cases,  has  the  sound  of  s  ; 
as,  action,  martial,  partiel.  In  the  final  syllable  tie,  t  has  the  sound  of 
s,  when  preceded  by  a  vowel,  in  all  words  except  chdtie  or  a  past  parti- 
ciple ;  as,  demoeratie,  thhcratie, 

X  alone,  or  after  e  at  the  beginning  of  a  word,  when  followed  by  a  vowel, 
has  the  sound  of  gz,  as  Xerces,  examen ;  in  a  few  words  it  has  the 
sound  of  s,  as  soixanie,  six,  dix,  dix-sept,  Bruxelles,  X  final  is  silent 
when  preceded  by  a  diphthong  or  compound  vowel,  in  words  pronounced 
alone  or  preceding  a  consonant  or  aspirated  h  ;  as,  paix,  maux,  choix, 
jaloux,  aux  livres,  aux  hiros,  deux  mille.  Before  c  it  is  always  sounded 
like  A:,  as  in  excite,  etc.  At  the  end  of  a  few  words,  when  preceding  an- 
other word  beginning  with  a  vowel  or  h  not  aspirated,  and  in  most 
compound  numerals,  x  has  the  sound  of  z ;  as,  dtux  enfanta,  six  ans, 
dix  homines,  dix-huit,  dix-neuf,  also  in  deuxieme,  sixieme,  dixieme,  and 
their  derivatives.    In  other  cases  it  is  sounded  as  in  English. 


W  does  not  properly  belong  to  the  French  alphabet.  It  ia  used  only  in 
words  adopted  from  foreign  languages,  and  then  takes,  in  some  words, 
the  sound  which  it  has  in  those  languages ;  as,  loAt^,  whiskeyf  whist, 
Wiuhington,  Wellington,  Walter  Scott.    The  French  generally  sound  it 


On  is  generally  liquid  in  French,  in  which  case  it  has  the  sound  of  m  in 
onum  ;  as,  mignon.    In  a  few  words  gn  is  pronounced  as  in  magnate, 

L,Uj  in  the  middle  or  at  the  end  of  a  word,  when  preceded  by  t,  have 
usually  the  sound  of  gli  in  teraglio,  or  Hi  in  brilliant.  They  are  pro- 
nounced by  manf  JFxenchmen  also  with  the  sound  of  y  in  yoke. 


In  English  we  pronounce  the  terminations  le,  re,  like  td,  tir,  as  if  the  con- 
sonant were  placed  last.  Care  must  be  taken  to  aToid  this  pronunciation  in 
French  as  very  harsh  and  erroneous.  Such  syllables  must  be  pronounced  as 
follows : 

fre  as  fru  in  frustrate. 

ble  as  blu  in  blush. 






























As,  InUe,  candelabre,  acre,  camphre,  tnonatre^  t/Udtre. 

IiiPORTAKT  Beuabk. — S  IS  ucTcr  sUent  in  French,  when  two  consonants  are 
to  be  found  before  it :  at  the  end  of  words,  the  three  letters  form  a  plain,  dis- 
tinct half-aueUble  sound,  as  in  all  the  above  final  syllables ;  and,  in  the  middle 
of  words,  the  e  is  articulated  mfuU  sound  yrith  the  last  of  the  foregoing  conso- 
nants, as  in  distinetxment,  par/iment,  paWiront,  gouyemsment,  etc. 



E.    FOURTH  BODim. 

4.  E  sounded  as  it  in  tu;  Fourth  Sound. 









this  or  that 






one's  self. 

de,       . 



£  sounded 

as  a  in  fate;  Sixth  Sound. 


.      key. 














I  have. 

ii6,  n6e, 



I  know. 


E  sounded 

use  in  ebb  ;  Fifth 




^  sounded 

as  ai  in  air;  Seventh  Sound. 



T   0 
































small  cup. 












£  sounded 

as  0  in  where  ;  Eighth  Sound. 

t       0 



•       0 



















*  When  a  flgnre  or  mark  of  eoand  is  placed  orer  a  vowel  f  n  the  followins  colamns,  H  la 
meant  to  apply  luso  to  Uie  words  placed  immediately  under  it  in  the  same  eoiomn,  as  4  here 
appllea  also  to  «  in  m«,  te,  and  bo  on. 




4       •  S  4    7 

Ce  d6  est  de  fer. 

4  •  •  7 

Ce  h\6  est  cner. 

s    r    f         7 

Ce  lait  est  frais. 

5  •       7       0   6  7        0 

Cette  crdme  est  fraiche. 

so        7     0  C  CO 

Cette  fndse  est  belle. 

S  t        »  *     0 

Cette  £&te  est  belle. 

S  7  •  7  7 

Cest  Tni,  c^est  tr^yrai. 

4      7        4       S       0        7      0 

Je  fais  le  m6me  thSxne. 

4     7        4  S 

Que  fait  le  chef? 

47       4        7044  I 

Qoe  fait  le  fr^re  de  ce  chef  P 

This  thimble  is  of  iron. 

This  wheat  is  dear. 

This  milk  is  cooL 

This  cream  is  cool. 

This  sirawberry  is  handsome. 

This  festiral  is  beautiful. 

It  is  true,  it  is  Terj  true. 

I  do  the  same  exercise. 

What  does  the  chief? 

What  does  the  brother  of  that  chief? 


1.  A  sounded  Baa'mah;  First  Sound. 



1     0 





































2.  A  sounded  as  a  in  arm;  Second  Sound. 



t   0 




















.        pale. 



12.  I  sounded  as  t  in 

pique;  Twelfth  Sound. 









row,  file. 










eye -lash. 





free,  discharged. 








pis,  worse.                 souiis,  mooae. 

prix,  price.                  si,  if. 

qui,  who.                    bAti,  built, 

riz,  rice.                    Biz,  six. 

13.  t  sounded  ma  ee  in  eel;  Thirteenth  Sound. 
(Also  ie,  y.) 














0  sounded  as  (» in 

not;  Fifteenth  Sound ;  and 


0  sounded  as  ato  in  awe;  Sixteenth  Sound. 




14    0 








































0  sounded  as  o  in  no;  Seventeenth  Sound. 




IT     0 








































4         11 


Le  chat  est  1^. 

The  cat  is  there. 

4          1* 

Le  drap  est 

4        IS 


The  cloth  is  dry. 

Le  plat  est  4  sa 


The  dish  is  m  its  pUce. 

Le  tas  de  sacs  est  lA. 

CO      rot         so 
Cette  daine  est  grasse. 

4     0       10     4         V    0 

Cette  salle  est  belle. 

The  pile  of  bags  is  there. 
That  doe  is  fat. 
That  hall  is  beautiful. 



4  1      1     «       I 

Le  cbat  a  le  rat 

4         S     1     1         10 

Le  chef  a  la  malle. 

110   14         < 

La  dame  a  le  the. 

»      0     1  oil        6 

Cette  femme  a  la  clef. 

«  1        6  17     i  S 

Ce  chat  est  gros  et  gras. 

i0t06  17     0  4 

Cette  b6te  est  grosse  ct  grasse. 

Cl        704110 

JTai  la  craie  de  la  dame. 

•       IfOftlB        0 

«rai  la  pelle  et  la  bdchc. 

0       110       4      4  0 

J^ai  la  cage  de  ce  geai. 

oil       04001 

J^ai  la  bague  de  cette  femmc. 

39    1     4      1         «        1 

11  a  le  dard  et  Tare. 

IS    1    4    U        4       4  ft 

II  a  le  lit  de  ce  chef. 

U    1     1        U  1       10     0 

11  a  la  scie  et  la  corde. 

4        •     1     4      17  0      u 

Le  chef  a  le  pot  et  le  bol. 

1       1       0   I     1     17   0 

La  dame  a  la  rose. 

UllUO       41       1      0 

Qui  a  la  cire  de  la  dame  ? 

U      0      1     1     U  0 

Georges  a  la  cire. 

IS  1    4  17  17 

Qui  a  le  beau  seau  ? 

li     0       1     4         17   •       4        17       17 

Georges  a  le  seau  et  le  gros  pot. 

The  cat  has  the  rat. 

The  chief  has  the  trunk. 

The  lady  has  the  tea. 

That  woman  has  the  key. 

That  cat  is  big  and  fat. 

That  animal  is  big  and  fat. 

I  have  the  chalk  of  the  lady. 

I  have  the  shovel  and  the  spade.  ' 

I  have  the  cage  of  that  jay. 

I  have  the  jeweled  ring  of  that  woman. 

He  has  the  dart  and  the  bow. 

lie  has  the  bed  of  that  chief. 

He  has  the  saw  and  the  cord. 

The  chief  has  the  pot  and  the  bowl. 

The  lady  has  the  rose. 

Who  has  the  wax  of  the  lady  ? 

George  has  the  wax. 

Who  has  the  handsome  bucket  f 

George  has  the  bucket  and  the  big  pot. 


22.  27  sounded  as  u  in  ^ue^n;  Twenty-second  Sound. 



SS     0 








of  the. 
















U  Eoanded  as  u 

prolonged  -,  Tvrenty-third  Soand. 


SS       0 












,    mulberry. 
















.  Eu  sounded  as  v  in  im;  Ninth 

Sound,  and 


.  Eu  sounded  as  i  in  Hr  ;  Eleventh  Sound. 



9     0 





















1    11 

















E^  sounded  as  evLgh  in  eughr  ; 

Tenth  Sound. 

10    0 

10  M 

















18.  Ou  sounded  as  in  you;  Eighteenth  Sound,  and 

19.  (XI  sounded  as  (w  in  mood;  Nineteenth  Sound. 




























we,  us. 
















Oi  sounded 

as  tra  in  wash  ;  Twentieth  Sound. 



W  0 



















_•     a     M     4      T 

JTai  bu  tout  le  lait. 

•  tl      M        U     0       7 

J'ai  eu  du  beurre  frais. 

•  ,     M    1      •      •       4         so 

•Tai  vu  la  b(kche  de  chtoe. 

I  have  drunk  all  the  milk. 
I  have  had  some  fresh  butter. 
I  have  seen  the  log  of  oak. 



m    0   a   a      4     a  o 
n  a  bu  du  nM  de  mures. 
niaauc      a      uo 
II  a  ea  du  riz  et  da  beurre. 
aia4      »      «o      u 
II  a  Til  le  bsuf  et  le  bouc. 

•  «iaU47  4       111 

£lle  a  bu  tout  le  lait  de  sa  soeur. 

ftoiai      uoa     4     a 
£Ue  a  Tu  la  poule  sur  le  mur. 

soiaiiso         10 
Elle  a  eu  sa  robe  bleue. 

Moiai     aof     0 
Georges  a  eu  la  plume  neuye. 

1      tei        oiaiiyo 
La  jeone  femme  a  eu  la  rose. 

1       lOlBl       8       0        »0 

La  dame  a  eu  la  p6che  mCLre. 

4      •    f       If     a     • 
Ce  th6  est  trop  8ucr6. 

1  HOC  IB       0    IS 

La  poule  est  sous  le  lit. 

1  10  •  a  c  f  t 
La  queue  du  geai  est  bleue. 

luot  ai  90 
La  corde  est  sur  la  meule. 

4        1  9        S  • 

Ce  drap  bleu  est  neuf. 

4        17  •        i         •  I         !• 

Ce  gros  bceuf  est  jeune  et  fort. 

4       10     ft        7    a 
Ce  noeud  est  tr^s-dur. 

U  «  M       4      17     0 

Qui  est  sous  ce  dome  ? 

4      17     0       4  17  17 

Ce  dome  est  haut  et  beau. 

•     aiuoa4i7 
J*ai  vu  la  cire  sur  le  pot. 

ttiai       aoiB      4      17) 
n  a  TU  ma  plume  sous  le  seau.  V 

•  iaU4       754         UO 

Elle  a  eu  tout  le  lait  et  le  beurre. 

He  has  drunk  some  mulberry  juice. 

He  has  had  some  rice  and  some  butter. 

He  has  seen  the  ox  and  the  he-goat. 

She  has  drunk  all  the  milk  of  her  sister. 

She  has  seen  the  hen  on  the  wall. 

She  has  had  her  blue  gown. 

George  has  had  the  new  pen. 

The  young  woman  has  had  the  rose. 

The  lady  has  had  the  ripe  peach. 

This  tea  is  too  sweet. 

The  hen  is  under  the  bed. 

The  tail  of  the  Jay  is  blue. 

The  rope  is  on  the  grindstone. 

This  blue  cloth  is  new. 

That  big  ox  is  young  and  strong. 

This  knot  is  very  hard. 

Who  is  under  that  dome  ? 

That  dome  is  high  and  handsome. 

I  (have  seen)  saw  the  wax  on  the  pot. 

He  (has  seen)  saw  my  pen  under  the 

She  has  had  all  the  milk  and  the  butter. 


3.  An  sounded  as  en  in  eTicore  ;  Third  Sound. 














In  sounde 










S    0 














In  sounded  as  an  in  anchor;  Fourteenth  Sound. 

14        0 

peintre,  painter. 

crainte,  fear. 

mainte,  many. 

nymphe,  nymph, 

sound.  sein,  bosom, 

holy.  yin,  wine. 



21.  On  sounded  as  <?»  in  9ong  ;  Twenty-first  Sound, 

n  21    0 

BoDf  good.                          monde,                   world, 

long,  long.                           ronde,                     round, 

rond,  round.                         honte,                     shame, 

done,  then.                           ombre,                    shadow, 

font,  make.                         taon,                      breeze-fly. 

24.  Tin  sounded  as  un  in  uhng  ;  Twenty-fourth  Sound. 





•      34 


a,  one. 



(Also  um^  eun,) 

1  u 



24  0 


each  one. 




s      1    M       n  3 

Jean  a  un  long  banc. 

4    14     «       d      ft     a 
Ce  pain  est  blanc  et  bon. 

6     22     24  17  S 

JVi  vu  un  beau  paon. 

12  1      32    94  17  9  24 

U  a  vu  un  gros  bopuf  hrun. 

4         1  4    14        ft  7  3 

Ce  champ  de  lin  est  tr^s-grand. 

21       7    0    1      22    13    14 

Mon  p^re  a  du  fil  fin. 

•        22     22       14       IS 

J'ai  bu  du  Tin  doux. 

4       0  ft  14  4      2 

Ce  boeuf  est  plein  de  sang. 

21  21  ft  21      0        10 

Son  gond  est  long  et  fort. 

n        1        21  ft  7        21 

Mon  plat  rond  est  trds-bon. 

4  244  8       17     Oft  17 

Jje  plan  de  ce  grand  dome  est  beau. 

4  21        4         2  ft       22  21        2 

Le  nom  de  Jean  est  sur  son  banc. 

John  has  a  long  bench. 
This  bread  is  white  and  good. 
I  have  seen  a  beautiful  peacock. 
He  has  seen  a  big  broton  ox. 
This  field  of  flax  is  very  large. 
My  father  has  some  fine  thread. 
I  have  drunk  some  sieeet  wine. 
This  ox  is  full  of  blood. 
His  hinge  is  long  and  strong. 
My  round  dish  is  very  good. 
The  plan  of  that  large  dome  is  fine. 
The  name  of  John  is  on  his  bench. 


On  sounded  as  ni  in  onion;  ZZ  or  Z  as  lli 

in  brilliant 

12      0                                                                        12   0 

Dignc,          worthy.                       bille, 
cygne,         swan.                         fille, 
ligne,           line.                            grille, 
signc,           sign.                            quille, 
vigne,          vine.                            vrille, 






peigne,        comb.                         gril. 


rbgne,          reign.                          treille, 
Avignon,     Avignon.                     veille, 





4     13       0     T        e     U  17 

he  cYgne  r^inie  sur  Teau. 

«oiso»         7      i«o 
Cette  b'gne  est  tres  forte. 

1S14        7         0       4*0190 

Qui  a  le  peignc  de  cette  fiUc  ? 

luoa      iiai     la     o 
La  fille  du  chef  a  un  cjgne. 

IISO*  124  710 

La  Tigne  est  sur  le  treillagc. 

4  t  S        0'    1         X     0 

Le  bosuf  mange  la  paille. 

110   5         S2       4         IS 

La  caille  est  sur  le  gril. 

110»  U170 

La  paille  est  sous  la  treiUe. 

40    uo        7M13       0 

Cette  fille  fait  un  signe. 

ISl         11304         lUO 

Qui  a  ma  yrille  ct  ma  ligne  ? 

MO*        u      0    ss       ll 

Georges  est  digue  du  prix. 
isiioai      u       18      luo 
II  signe  son  nom  sous  la  ligne. 

The  swan  reigns  on  the  water. 

That  line  is  vcrj  strong. 

Who  has  the  comb  of  that  girl  ? 

The  daughter  of  the  chief  has  a  swan. 

The  Tine  is  on  the  trellis. 

The  ox  cats  the  straw. 

The  quail  is  on  the  gridiron. 

The  straw  is  under  the  trellis. 

That  girl  makes  a  sign. 

Who  has  my  gimlet  and  my  line  ? 

George  is  worthy  of  the  prize. 

He  signs  his  name  under  the  line. 


Ul      4 








to  trust. 

























1*1     0 








291     0 


























4     tit      0   *         13  10 

Ce  diacre  est  pieux. 

4   Itl      0   *  UO 

Le  fiacre  est  vieux. 

4   U»     *  0 

Le  ciel  est  bleu. 

uoio      u      a    17      7     uo 
Dicu  voit  tout  du  haut  €lea  cieux. 

4       10     14        S)         4        » 

Je  vois  un  toit  de  hois. 

4        ft    S      U7     »         a* 

Ce  chef  est  fier  et  cruel. 


That  deacon  is  pious. 

The  hackney-coach  is  old. 

The  sky  is  blue. 

God  sees  all  from  the  height  of  the  skies. 

I  see  a  roof  of  wood. 

That  chief  is  proud  and  cruel. 



a     KM      ai  •    » 
11  voit  un  nuage  noir. 

1  uuo  •       sa     4     »      n   ssn 
La  fiole  est  sur  le  toit  du  puits. 

<a4U80       4      4       U7   0 

<rai  lu  le  po6me  de  ce  po^te. 

4uif         6      auio 
Le  fouet  est  prds  du  po61e. 

4    au  f      iixk    uii 
Ce  buis  est  bien  joU. 

4  sii     s      6     4     an 
Je  suis  tranpe  de  sueur. 

He  sees  a  black  cloud. 
The  Tiol  is  on  the  roof  of  the  welL 
I  have  read  the  poem  of  that  poet. 
The  whip  is  Dear  {of)  the  stove. 
That  box-wood  is  very  pretty. 
I  am  tof  <  through  with  sweat. 


4U1S  a  41      17 

Le  forcat  est  dans  le  cachot. 

4    U  a     •  14         4      1  uc 

Ce  tiroir  est  plein  de  papier. 

a  ISM      uu      ir      1  ~iT 
Void  un  bien  beau  tableau. 

UU      4     1        17       i  7       «  17 

Qui,  ce  tableau  est  vraiment  beau. 

•  a  4     ait    a    « u  s 
J\ii  vu  Ic  fruit  du  paysan. 

4uiiia      nil 
Le  voleur  a  pris  mon  tabac. 

4        18      17       1        7        f  a  14 

Ce  nouveau  laquais  est  mutin. 

ai4       11»5       4         1        17 

YoilA  le  rabot  et  le  marteau. 

escM       4u       a« 

•Tai  mange  un  melon  tnuaque. 

4     ai95   t        18    7       4     an 
Ce  murier  est  couvcrt  de  fruit. 

aio    iiin     70 
Gustave  va  k  la  fontaine. 

4         U     IS     01  as   OS        8       0 

Co  droguiste  a  une  lancette. 

4       U708  7    14ao 

Le  notaire  est  trds-injuste. 

ii8ao4ia8       <         no 
La  fortune  de  la  duchesse  est  erande. 

•  u     1     a  0  ° 
J^ai  pris  Tardoise. 

4         18    S        81M         lU* 

Le  boulanger  a  un  flageolet. 

4       OlS    S       S         C         1SI4    14      IS        C 

Ce  petit  enfant  est  bien  indiscret. 

4in        15       10        41U)8S 

Le  garcon  paresseux  sera  iirnorant. 

4     IS  If    S        41M         18  $°S    1 

Ce  colonel  sera  un  jour  c^n6ral. 

8010S010S  7 

Cette  allemandc  parle  francais. 

4     aiss    1     7    a  0    a    0 
Ce  voilier  a  fait  une  voile. 

4       18  laU        17        18       4       17 

Le  balayeur  balaie  avec  le  balai. 

47      sissiaaiso  a7 

Le  ferblantier  a  du  cuivre  et  du  fer. 

4      1   8  1914     1    1     188      n         IS    0 

Ce  gaUrien  a  avou6  son  crime. 

n  4  1SIS8  8  1  8  4  aia 
Mon  cerisier  est  charge  de  fruit. 

4  1  1S1S8  110  1  a  0  a 
Ce  jardinier  travaille  adroitement. 

The  convict  is  in  the  dungeon. 

That  drawer  is  full  of  paper. 

Here  is  a  very  fine  picture. 

Yes,  this  picture  is  truly  fine. 

I  have  seen  the  fruit  of  the  country- 

The  thief  has  taken  my  tobacco. 

That  new  lackey  is  stubborn. 

There  are  the  plane  and  the  hammer. 

I  have  eaten  a  musiCrmelon. 

That  mulberry  tree  is  covered  with 

Gustavus  goes  to  the  fountain. 

That  druggist  has  a  lancet. 

The  notary  is  very  unjust. 

The  fortune  of  the  duchess  is  large. 

I  have  taken  the  slate. 

The  baker  has  a  flageolet. 

That  little  boy  is  very  indiscreet. 

That  lazy  boy  will  be  ignorant. 

This  colonel  will  be  one  day  general. 

That  German  woman  speaks  French. 

That  sailmaker  has  made  a  sail. 

The  sweeper  sweeps  with  the  broom. 

The  tinman  has  some  copper  and  some 

That  gallcy-slave  has  confessed  his 

My  cherry-tree  is  loaded  with  fruit. 

That  gardener  works  skilfully. 



«M8         t         4iose 

he  pain  est  dans  le  garde-manger. 
40]aint        n      iiio 
Ce  petit  garcoQ  est  mon  camarade. 
isai      701S      ossiaos 
II  d^cach^ie  la  lettre  furtivement. 

«U7  4        UU9UIS0S 

Je  connais  ce  monsieur  intimement. 

11SIS7  0    18    0     iiaos 
La  rividre  coule  rapidement. 

The  bread  Is  in  the  pantrj. 
That  little  boy  is  my  comrade. 
He  unseals  the  letter  stealthily. 
I  know  that  gentleman  intimately. 
The  river  flows  rapidly. 


When  a  word,  ending  with  a  eonsooBiit,  precedes  one  begliniiog  with  a  Towel  or  an  A 
not  aspirated,  tho  two  are  often  connected  Id  pronunciation,  though  no  rule  but  euphony 
can  be  given  for  making  or  avoiding  the  connection. 

In  the  following  sentences  the  mark  w  is  used  to  denote  such  a  connection,  in  which 
ease  d  is  sounded  m  /;  /  as  «  ;  o,  gr,  and  ^,  as  t;  »  and  cb  as  c,  and  final  oonsonanta  which 
are  naturally  silent,  in  such  cases  are  sounded  upon  the  following  vowel. 

•     SS  115U0 

Get  enfant  ra  k  F^cole. 

S^^U  0   5  SMI     UU5 

Get  faomme  est  dans  un  cabriolet. 
♦'^^n      «     »      1  M*^»     s  u    IS  s 

Le  prix  de  cet  habit  est  exorbitant. 

IS   1  S  1    U~0    1    S        ^1JU6 

II  apprend  k  lire  avec  facility. 

4       0  U   S^~^S        $  7    14     5    S       S 

Ge  petit  enfant  est  tr^s-int6ressant. 

issT'siai        s^^iio 
Tons  6te8  6videmment  malade. 

4  t  y     S*^    B       11       IS  S       5    4 

Gela  est  un  bonheur  inetph'k 

IB       1^        11        it's         0    IS 

NoQs  allons  h  hi  boulangcrie. 

s   If      s*^    u      u     0     s 
Xentends  un  bourdonnement. 

5  U^7S»        s         IISO 

Get  homme  fait  une  extravagance. 

1^^  Ills      4^        IS  OS       ISllS 

La  maladie  de  cet  homme  est  imagi- 
7  0  "-  "^ 


4  1  t  11S17SS00S 

Ge  marchand  agit  frauduleiisement. 

IS        1   SSUSi  0^4S1      issio      s 

n  traduit  une  le^on  litt^ralement. 

5  S      s''^        1      1     0      IS   18      10    0      s 

Get  enfant  travalUe  vigoureusement. 

4^^B       4  IS    0     s       1     lawu    s 
Je  mets  le  livre  dans  la  biblioth^que. 

S     1      1     S      ISISU    S  7        1      S 

Get  acad^micien  est  tr^-savant. 

i^U  0   1   IS       M    IS  1     4       s 

Get  homme  agit  honorablement. 

IS  ^  4     1     S    13  iSu  « 

Utkde  la  sensibility 

^IS     1     SI        IS        17   » 

Nous  allons  k  cet  hdtel 

1«^     IS   ^1    iT'lS   1      4     s 

Yous  ^crivez  abominablement. 

S^        •**i057U14S 

Get  homme  parle  d^nusonnablement. 

That  child  goes  to  school. 

That  man  is  in  a  gig. 

The  price  of  that  coat  Is  exorbitant. 

He  learns  to  read  with  facility. 

That  little  child  la  very  interesting. 

You  are  evidently  sick. 

That  is  an  unhopedfor  happiness. 

We  are  going  to  the  baker^s  shop. 

I  hear  a  buzzing. 

That  man  commits  an  extravagance. 

The  sickness  of  that  man  is  imaginary. 

That  merchant  acts  fraudulently. 
He  translates  a  lesson  literally. 
That  child  works  vigorously. 
I  put  the  book  in  the  library: 
That  academician  is  very  learned. 

That  man  acts  honorably. 
He  has  (some)  sensibility. 
We  go  to  that  hotel. 
You  write  abominably. 
That  man  speaks  unreasonably. 



£kt  is  silent  la  the  third  person  plural  otTerbs;  but  then  the  preceding  letter  shoold 
be  Deealiarly  eonnded :  if  a  rowel,  it  is  loriff:  If  a  consonant,  it  must  be  very  distinctly 

•^  '  18  6  a     IS  M 

heard ;  as,  Ss  rien^  (th^  laugh),  Us  ^tadi^fU  (they  stady) ;  ils  contend  (they  relate),  ils 

parent  (they  adorn),  etc 

£nt  1b  sounded  as  in  nasal  in  the  third  person  Hngular  of  the  yerbs  tbhix  and  vxkik, 

IS  14  1316  a      1314 

and  all  their  derivatlyes,  as,  II  tien^  (ho  holds),  il  yient  (he  comes),  il  convien^  (he  agrees,  or 

it  is  suitable),  etc 

£kt,  in  all  other  cases,  has  the  sound  of  en  nasal,  as  patient  (patient),  agen<  (agentX 
1  s 
parent  (relation),  etc. 

IT  IS        iiao         IS       u 
Nos  agents  Aglsaeni  pour  nous. 

M     l^    S       O"^   4     8S1S     0    1     S       4      1        S 

lis  axgenient  le  cuivre  avec  de  Targent. 

yis       on       0       uis 
Ces  hommes  compt^n/  leur  argent. 

y      1  s         10       11      t'^^s 
Les  parents  parent  leurs  enfants. 

7  8  13   9  0  12   0  18        1       IS       ' 

Ces  presidents  president  tour  d  tour. 

7  1*  0        U158  MUO"*^     18     S 

Les  hommes  vioUnta  violent  souvent 

les  lois. 
u    n     la  14        IS     SI    ISO       ii       i    u 
11  convient  quUls  convient  leurs  amis. 

11        SS  7         111  134        60 

II  pressent  les  malheurs  qui  Ic  pressent. 

11         1        13  1  5     5    17 19  6  4 

lis    admir^nt    la    generosity    de 

^*^    »         15  0 

cet  homme. 

UlSllSo         7  ISIISO 

lis  ^indient  les  matbSmatiques. 

7^M«       111  a  55108 

Les  ttsurpateura   sont    g6n6ralement 



IS     5    93130  11         4    U  5     IS    1  S 

lis  6tudie»t  leurs  lemons  negUgemment.     They  study  their  lessons  negligently. 

A  single  «  between  two  yowels  has  the  sound  of  «,  except  in  a  few  compound  words, 
but  M,  and  a  (single)  between  two  consonants  or  between  a  vowel  and  a  consonant,  are 
sounded  as  «s  in  hlisa. 

Our  agents  act  for  us. 

They  plate  the  copper  with  {wme) 

Those  men  count  their  money. 

The  parents  adorn  their  children. 

These  presidents  preside  by  turns. 

Violent  men  often  Tiokte  the  law. 

It  is  suitable  that  they  invite  their 

He  foresees  the  misfortunes    which 

press  him. 
They  admire  the  generosity  of  that 


They  study  the  mathematics. 
Usurpers  are  generally  detested. 

Baiter,  to  Idss, 

3    0 

baxc,      baae, 

3    0 

ca.Ye,      hut, 

17  0 

chose,    thing, 

18  14 

coutin,  cousin, 

7     « 
baisser,    to  lower. 


3      0 


1       0 


la    14 



desert,  desert, 

90    SI 

poison,  poison, 

17  0 


S3    0 



IS       " 

dessert,    dessert. 

90       31 

poisson,  fish. 

U     0 

rosse,      jade. 

33      0 

russo,      Russian, 
iwa    -         -    — 

observation,  abstraction. 

The  addition  of  s  to  an  adjective  or  past  participle  ending  with  a  consonant,  causes  that 
consonant  to  be  sounded.  The  addition  of  a  (or  any  other  vowel-wunft)  causes  also  the 
syllables  an^  an^in^on^  im,  to  lose  their  nasal  sound. 
















S       0 


IT      0 


*      »  0 


so  0 


17     0 





13  IS  0 


T      0 


7     0 


















18  14 






90  14 



»    0 


U  0 


t      0 


IT     0 


u      0 


18    12  0 

la  0 

7     0 














SncAax.— Bnt  tbers  are  only  four  words  in  French  which  lose  their  nasality  when  n 
final  is  carried  over  to  the  following  word;  they  are  the  monosyllables  mony  ion^  son,  and 

M        IS       1    U 

Un  bon  ami, 

a  good  friend. 

IS     1      13 

mon  ami. 

my  friend. 

IS  s  r- 

IS  r 

son  enfimt, 

his  child. 

ton  arbrc. 

thy  tree. 

In  speaking,  e  is  often  silent  in  words  where  it  has  naturally  the  soond  of  «.    Thia 
occais  chiefly  when  several  monosyllables  sncceed  each  other. 

9     4     0       15       0 

Je  te  le  doune. 

4      0     4     0       U       0       1 

Je  ne  te  le  donne  pas. 

4     0       90 

Je  le  Tois. 

4      0     4       SS         1 

Je  ne  le  tois  pas. 

04     19         040490         1 

Je  te  dis  que  je  ne  le  Tois  pas. 

19         4     0       U       0 

II  me  le  donne. 

19      4     0       S 

II  te  le  Tend. 

IS       4      4     0       8  1 

II  ne  te  le  Tend  pas. 

n       1914  4        0     19  0       0  1 

On  Tient  de  me  dire  cela. 

0   1  S  10  0        IT  0 

Cehi  est  peu  de  chose. 

I  give  it  to  thee. 

I  give  it  not  to  thee. 

I  see  it. 

I  see  it  not. 

I  tell  thee  that  I  see  it  not 

He  giTes  it  to  me. 

He  sells  it  to  thee. 

He  does  not  sell  it  to  thee. 

One  has  just  told  me  that 

That  is  a  small  matter. 

The  Towels  «,!,«•  when  marked  with  the  diseresis  ("). 

Bai,  hated. 

IBIS     s     0 

ba'ionnette,  bayonet. 

lis     0 

caique,        long-boat 

119      0 

]aIq[oe,        layman. 




lis   s 
caiman,  alligator. 
*.  »« 
Esaii,     Esau. 




Moise,  Moses. 


pa'ien,  pagan. 

MT   0 

poete,  poet. 
Saol,     Saul. 


naif,        artless. 

UT     0 

poeme,    poem. 

1        18 

Raphael,  Baphael. 






a  «  u  a* 

Bonjoar,  moasieor. 

MftdAine,  Je  toqs  sonhaite  le  bozjoor. 

as  •   t     »  c  • 

Bonsoir,  madenuMsene. 

•    •»••«■      isT««a 
Mademoisene,  je  toob  aonhaite  le  bott- 



/     Comroeut  rovt  pcrtez-ro 

f      nu      4      i       4      C      B 

^  •  -y        Trts-bien,  je  toos  lemercie. 

"  U  •  4U«11»1 

Comment  se  porte  madame  A.? 

u      «        4u«n«n«      • 
Ck>mment  se  porte  toot  le  monde  cbes 

IS  "^^ 

1        T  •      t        ttU 

Par&itement  bien. 

IS       •      B      0     4     u   t    mi 

Tout  le  mondo)8e  porte  bien. 

•       ^         U  t        §         1S4SC 

£t  TOII9,  comment  est  rotie  sant^  ? 

U  0MlSr04«UtlC 

Comme  d^ordinaire,  je  me  porte  aasex 

1S14       r  IS        "^  "^ 

bien,  mercL 

M      T      1S14        17         s 

i^  II  fait  bien  beau  lfimD& 

11       7       S«       S  S   S 

U  fait  un  temps  superbe. 

ISM   "Y    M      7  MS 

Qui,  mais  il  fait  trop  seo. 

iiifs     i  U    M    • 

La  chaleur  est  ^touflSmte. 

IS      1    «  ^^    4^^814       4        MIS 

hous  avona  besoin  de  pluie. 

M       I'^^t       SS        U14    IT 

^x.'         H  Ta  pleavoir  bient6t. 

4        so  •  4        Bl     0 

L        Je  Toifl  quelques  nuacres. 

»l      7         SOMS     17       as 

II  a  fait  froid  bier  jm  sotr. 

?i  *'.     ,  "      *      **^ 
II  fait  chaud  ce  matin. 

•       IS 


M     '^U     IS  11  7     IS      S  0 

Non,  monsieur,  mais  il  g^le. 

M       7      •        IS       7         «^S 

II  neigo.    II  fait  du  Tent 
IS  »       1  n    so 

II  est  tard.    Bonsoir. 

I     MS  IT      4     so 

Adieu.    Au  reroir.  ' 

Good  daj  (or  good  morning),  or. 
Xadim,  I  vish  joa  a  good  daj,  cr  a 

good  morning. 
Gooderening,  mias. 
IGss,  I  wish  TOO  a  good  eTening. 

Hov  do  jon  dt>r 

Veiy  wen,  I  thank  yon. 

Ho  V  does  madame  A.  do  ? 

Hov  is  ererr  body  at  your  house  f 

•I  wm  perfectly  weH 

Every  body  is  weD. 

And  you,  hov  is  your  health? 

As  usual,  I  am  pretty  well,  thank  you. 

It  is  very  fine  weather. 
It  is  splendid  weather. 
Yes,  but  it  is  too  dry. 
The  heat  is  suffocating. 
We  have  need  of  rain. 
It  is  going  to  rain  soon. 
I  see  some  douds. 
It  was  cold  yesterday  erening. 
It  is  warm  this  morning. 
Does  it  rain  ? 

No,  sir,  but  it  freezes. 

It  snows.    It  is  windy. 

It  is  late.    Good  evening. 

Adieu.    Until  we  see  each  other  again. 



Sound  of  E  and  of  01. 


01  loiuided  M 1M  in  with. 

•     4      4        4        4        4              90 

Js,  U,  6e,  de,  me,  ns,      poU,  IcU,  doiffi,  fndd,  paids,  roi,  ioU,  wU. 

I.    lue. 

/e.«    JevoM. 

The.     7%i9,  that. 

Le  (before  a  noun).     C«. 

Eim^U.    I  see  it  or  him. 

Le  (before  a  yeib).    Je  le  rois. 

The  king.    This  kiog. 

Le  rot.    Ge  roi. 

The  wood.    That  wood. 

Le  boU.    Ce  hols. 

The^M^.    This  finger. 

Le  doigt.    Ce  doigt. 

The  weigkL    That  weight. 

Le  poidt.    Ge  poids. 

The  pta.    This  roof. 

Le/x>M.^  Qetmt. 

CM.    Of,  from. 

Froid.    De. 

Of  wood.    From  that  king. 

Debois.    Deceroi. 

I  see  the  roof. 

Je  Tois  le  toik. 

I  see  it. 

Je  le  Toia 

I  see  the  king. 

Je  Tois  le  roi. 


Je  le  Tois. 

I  see  the  wood  of  this  king. 

Je  vois  le  bois  de  ce  roL 

The  roof  of  wood. 

Le  toit  de  bois. 

The  cold  pea.    The  cold  finger. 

Le  pois  froid.    Le  doigt  froid. 

Moflt  a^i^^vM  sn  placed  after  their  nooiiB  in  French. 

Je  vols  le  poids.  Je  le  vois.  Je  vols  ce  pois.  Je  vois  le  pois 
fond.  Je  le  yois.  Je  vois  le  roi.  Je  vois  ce  roi  Je  le  vois.  Je 
vois  le  bois.    Je  vois  le  doigt  de  ce  roi    Je  vois  ce  poids.    Je  vois 

f.    r  see  ,uiis  king.  ^  Lsee  mm.    I  see  the  wood. 
<X8ee iT"   Ll'ee'ltne  fingir  of  mSucmg.  <^ see  it 

•  Worda  introdneed  fl»r  the  flnt  time  are  printed  In  ItaUoi. 

-y.  .  \^, 

06  /  PRELIMINARY  EXERCISES^    /   •  / 

I  see  that  weight.     \  see  the  pea.     I  see  the  cold  pea.     I  see  it. 
I  see  the  roof.     I  see  this  roo£     I  see  the  roof  of  wood.     I  see  it. 


1  « 

Sound  of  A  and  £. 

A  Bounded  as  a  in  aA,  maw.       £  soonded  as  a  in/!i<«. 

11  1  1  1  1  10  60e61611« 

2ae,  «ae,  pat,  drap^  plat,  chat,  pape.*     dd,  lie,  pre,  tM,  cafi,  canapi. 

The  lake.    The  sack  or  bag.  Le  lac.    Le  sac. 

The  cloth.    The  dish.  Le  <irap.    Le  plat. 

The  ca/.    The  ^j^e.  Le  chal,    Le  />a/)e. 

i^o^    I  do  not  see.  Ne-pas,    Je  ue  Yois  pas. 

ITot  Is  two  words  In  French ;  ne  before  the  verb  and  pas  after  it 

This  thimUe.    That  corn.  Caje.^   Ccble^ 

TloB  meadow.     Th&t  tea.  Ce  pre.     (%  t^L 

This  coffee.    That  sofa,  Ce  <ra^    Cc  canapS. 

I  do  not  see  the  lake.  Je  ne  Tois  pas  le  lac. 

I  do  not  see  the  bag.  Je  ne  vols  pas  le  sac. 

I  do  not  see  the  cloth.  Je  ne  vols  pas  le  drap. 

I  do  not  see  the  dish.  Je  ne  toIs  pas  le  plat. 

I  do  not  see  the  cat  Je  ne  vols  pas  le  chat 

I  do  not  see  the  pope.  Je  ne  Tois  pas  le  papc. 

Je  ne  Tois  pas  le  roi.  *  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  bois.  Je  ne  rois  pas 
le  doigt.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  poids.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  pois  froid. 
Je  ne  vois  pas  le  toit  de  bois.  Je  vois  ce  de.  Je  le  vols.  Je  vois 
ce  bl6.  Je  le  vois.  Je  vois  le  pre.  Je  vois  le  th^  froid.  Je  le 
vois.  Je  vois  le  ca£6  de  ce  roi.  Je  vois  le  canap6  de  ce  pape.  Je 
.  r  vois  le  pape.  Je  le  vois.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  de.  Je  ne  vois  pas 
/;     U^V*peble. 

\f^^  the  lake.  I  see  this  bag.  I  see  this  clotlr.  I  see  that 
dijn^  I  see  this  cat.  I  see  the  pope.  I  see  him.  I  see  the  thim- 
ble. I  see  the  com.  I  see  it.  I  see  the  meadow.  I  see  the  tea 
of  this  king.  I  see  the  cold  coffee.  I  see  the  sofa.  I  do  not  see 
the  meadow.  I  do  not  see  the  tea  of  this  king.  I  do  not  see  the 
coffee.     I  do  not  see  the  sofa.     I  do  not  see  the  sac  of  cloth. 

*  A  cipher  orer  e  ebowi  tbat  it  is  silent ;  tbis  is  often  the  case  at  the  end  of  words. 


3.--TR0ISl£ME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  £  and  of  E. 
£  as  0  in  ebb.         ^  as  ai  in  air. 


href,  cA^M  **•       ^rf^fery  verre^  ver,  vert,  raU,  daia^  laitt  palaie. 

The  brief.    The  eluef.  Le  bref.    Lq  ehef. 

The  jet.    And.  Lejet.    Et. 

The  ttag.    This  iron.  Le  eerf.    Ce  fer. 

That  gla»Sy  tumbler.    The  toortn.  Ce  verve.    Le  ver. 

Green.    This  «poil«.  Ter^.    Ce  rata. 

The  eancgDy.    The  milk.  Le  dbtt.    Le  /ai<. 

The  palace.    The  green  canopy.  Le  palais.    Le  dais  vert 

I  do  not  see  the  brief.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  bref. 

I  do  not  see  it.  Je  ne  le  yob  pas. 

I  do  not  see  the  chief.  Je  ne  Tois  pas  le  chef. 

I  do  not  see  him.  Je  do  le  toIs  pas. 

I  see  the  iron  and  the  glass.  Je  vols  le  fcr  et  le  Tcrre. 

Jc  vois  le  cerf.  Je  le  vols.  Je  ne  vols  pas  le  jet  froid.  Je  ne 
le  V018  pas.  Je  vois  le  ver.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  rais.  Je  ne  le  vois 
pas.  Je  vois  le  dais  vert  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  lait  de  ce  pape.  Je 
vois  le  palais  de  ce  roL  Je  ne  le  vois  pas.  Je  vois  le  lac.  Je  ne 
vois  pas  le  sac.  Je  vois  le  drap  et  le  chat.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  plat. 
Je  vois  le  palais  de  ce  pape.     Je  vois  le  de  de  fer. 

I  do  not  see  the  green  com.  I  do  not  see  it.  I  see  the  green 
meadow.  I  do  not  see  the  tea.  I  do  not  see  it,  I  see  the  coffee 
and  the  milk.*  I  do  not  see  the  sofa.  not  see  it.  I  see  the 
king  and  the  pope.  I  see  the  cold  jet.  I  do  not  see  the  chief.  I 
do  not  see  the  stag.  I  do  not  see  him.  I  see  the  glass.  I  do  not 
see  the  iron.  I  see  the  spoke  of  wood  and  the  green  canopy.  I  do 
not  see  the  palace.     I  do  not  see  it.    I  see  the  cold  milk.    I  see  it. 

4.— quatriJ:me  LEgON. 


Sound  of  A. 

A  sounded  as  a  Infather,  arm. 

sits  rrirr 

mat,  has,  tas,  grae.    Soonds  before  giyen,  frain^  laid,  balai,  vera, 

1  1  101  llflO 

rat,  dard,  cadenaa,  mittunre. 

The  mast.    That  heap,  pile,  Le  mdt.  Ce  ^. 

The  ttoeking.    Fat.  Le^.  Oraa. 

Low.  Baa. 

Thero/.    That  dor/.  Le  raf.  Ce  dard. 


This  padloek.    This  Woom,  €e  cadenoi.    Ge  baloL 

OoU,  fresh.     Ugly.  IhiU.    Laid. 

This  aeeowU^  memcrandum,  memcrial.  Ce  mhnoire. 

The  low  roofl    The  cool  milk.  Le  toit  has.    Le  lut  frmls. 

The  ugly  chief.    The  fat  king.  Lecheflud.    Le  roi  gras. 

I  see  the  mast  of  wood.  Je  Tois  le  mit  de  bois. 

I  do  not  see  the  |^  of  wood.  Je  ne  vois  paB  le  tas  de  boia. 

I  do  not  Bee  it.  Je  ne  le  vois  pas. 

Je  ne  vois  pas  le  bas.  Je  ne  le  vois  pas.  Je  Tois  le  bois.  Je  vois 
le  canap^  baa  et  le  balai  de  bois.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  rat  Je  ne  le 
▼ois  pas.  Je  vois  le  dard  et  le-eqtfiasr  Je  vois  le  dard  de  fer  et 
le  bslai.  Je  vois  le  vers.  Je  le  vois.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  memoire. 
Je  ne  le  vois  pas.  Je  vois  le  bref  de  ce  pape.  Je  vois  le  palaia 
de  ce  chef.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  cerf.  Je  ne  le  vois  pas.  Je  vois  le 
ver  et  le  fer.    Je  ne  vois  pas  le  ver.    Je  vois  ce  cadenas. 

I  see  the  spoke  of  wood.  I  do  not  see  the  green  canopy.  I  do 
not  see  it  I  see  the  fresh  mUk.  I  see  the  low  mast  I  do  not 
see  the  pile  of  wood.  I  do  not  see  it  I  do  not  see  the  stocking. 
I  see  the  cat  and  the  rat  I  see  the  dart  and  the  padlock.  I  see 
the  glass  of  this  ugly  and  fat  chief,  and  the  memorial  of  this  king. 
I  do  not  see  the  mast  I  see  the  pile  of  iron.  I  see  the  stocking 
and  the  bag.  I  see  the  wood  and  the  dart  of  iron.  I  do  not  see 
the  rat  I  do  not  see  him.  I  see  the  glass  and  the  memorial  of 
this  chief.     I  see  the  fresh  milk  and  the  stag. 



U     16  17 

SoundofO,  0,  andO. 
O  M  o  In  not       O  M  oto  In  atM.       6  as  o  In  ^,  no. 

U      U         li     •         U     »      Ml        U     M  le         M  IT  IT     .  IT         1   4  IT      1     IT 

oolt  globSt  roehsr,  croe^si^  §oidat:  or./brt^  moH^porc:  Mats  groi^  biau^  mofaM;  haUam^ 

The  howL    The  globe.  Le  bol.    Le  globe. 

ThAirock.    That  aoUter.  Ceroeher.    Ce  eoldat. 

ThisAool;.    This  aimW.  Ce^oBtetiL    Cepore. 

The  gM.    T\u»gold.  LV.    Cet  or. 

Leaadde  become  T  and  cT,  and  o#  baoomei  cei^  before  a  Towel  or  a  sflent  JL 

The  bowl  of  gold.    The  globe  of  gold.    Le  bol  d'or.    Le  globe  d*or. 
Strong.    Dead.  Fort.    Mort. 

The  buek€t    Big^eoaree.  Leeeau.    Oroe. 


HankdMome^finie,    The  wUor,  Beau,    Le  maielot. 

This  hoai.    The  Btrong  soldier.  Ge  baUmL,    Le  soldat  fort 

The  dead  stag.    The  hig  sailor.  Le  cerf  mort.    Le  groa  maielot. 

Most  a^l^^^**!  ^  ^*  ha^*  '^^  (LesBon  1),  are  pkoed  altar  their  naona.  Boma  ara 
plaead  befora  tham.  &rM  and  hsau  an  of  this  kind.  Such  a4)aetiTas  will  be  markad  in 
these  Lsasona  with  the  abbravlatlon  (be£  n.) 

The  big  boat.    The  handsome  globe.      Le  gros  bateau.    Le  beau  globe. 

Je  Tois  le  gros  bol.  Je  le  Tois.  Je  ne  vols  pas  le  globe.  Je 
ne  le  vois  pas.  Je  vois  le  gros  rocher.  Je  ne  7ois  pas  le  soldat 
laid*  Je  vols  le  crochet  et  le  dard.  Je  ne  yois  pas  le  pore.  Je 
TOIS  Tor  de  ce  matelot.  Je  vois  le  matelot  fort  Je  ne  vois  pas 
le  cerf  mort.  Je  vois  le  seau  de  bois.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  m&t  de  ce 
batean.  Je  ne  vois  pas  le  beau  seaa.  Je  vois  le  pore  gxas  et  le 
bol  de  ce  soldat  Je  vois  le  rocher  bas.  Je  vois  le  tas  de  bois  gras. 
Je  ne  vois  pas  le  bean  bas. 

I  see  the  cat  and  the  rat  I  see  the  padlock  of  iron  and  the 
broom  of  wood.  I  do  not  see  the  handsome  glass.  I  do  not  see 
it  I  see  the  fresh  milk.  I  do  not  see  the  memorial  of  this  soldier. 
I  do  not  see  it  I  see  the  bowl  of  wood  and  the  handsome  globe. 
I  do  not  see  the  big  rock.  I  do  not  see  it  I  see  the  fat  pork.  I 
do  not  see  the  gold  of  this  ugly  sailor.  I  see  the  big  cat  I  do 
not  see  the  dead  soldier.  I  do  not  see  him.  I  see  the  backet  of 
strong  wood.  I  do  not  see  the  handsome  boat  I  do  not  see  it 
I  see  the  gold.    I  see  this  gold. 

6.— SIXIIaO)  LEgON. 

U  IS 


Itniinptqvs^       lasMlnM^ 

nn     iisuuiuuiT     isio     4Uiiit       isomouoisssd     lu 
M; Um,  tapU,ja,Jttei,il,Hrop,piraU, petit, rideau:  dim^ eidre^gtU^U^wU^rdUau, 

S       It       1       u 

gdttaUf  eadeau. 

The  bed.    The  %.  LelU.    Le /it. 

The  carpet.    The  ikreaeL  Le  tapit,    LejU. 

The  net.    That  eyrup.  LeJUet.    Le  atrop. 

The  pirate.    JETe,  it.  Le  pirate.    II. 

This  etertam.    Bmall^  litOe,  Ce  oibiBt^    Petit,  (bef.  n^Phlyy  ■ 

The  eider.  Le  eidre. 

Tbheake.    That  route.  Ce  gdteau.    Cerdteau. 

Thepreeents    He  aeei.  Leeadeau.^    llvcit. 


He  sees.    He  docs  not  eee.  1\  voit    I\  ne  Toit  pas. 

He  sees  it.     He  does  not  see  him.  H  le  voit    II  ne  le  Toit  pas. 

The  soldier  sees  the  pirate.  Le  soldat  voit  le  pirate. 

He  sees  him.  II  le  voit. 

The  pirate  does  not  lec  tlic  boat.  Le  pirate  ne  voit  pas  le  bateau. 

He  docs  not  see  it.  II  ne  le  voit  pas. 

Le  matelot  voit  le  gros  rocher.  H  le  voit.  II  ne  voit  pas  le 
crochet  d'or.  U  ne  le  voit  pas.  Le  soldat  voit  le  lit  et  le  tapis. 
II  ne  voit  pas  le  beau  lis.  Le  matelot  voit  le  petit  filet,  il  ne  voit 
pas  le  fil.  Le  soldat  voit  le  cidre  et  le  sirop,  il  ne  voit  pas  le  petit 
rideau.  H  voit  le  filet  de  ce  chef.  II  ne  voit  pas  le  gdteaa  de  ce 
matelot,  il  voit  le  petit  rdteau  de  fer.  Le  pirate  voit  le  cadeau  de 
ce  soldat.  Je  vois  le  gros  lit  et  le  beau  tapis.  Le  pirate  voit  le 
pore,  et  le  soldat  mort.     II  ne  voit  pas  le  matelot  fort 

The  sailor  sees  the  small  bucket.  He  sees  the  hook  of  iron 
and  the  hook  of  gold.  He  does  not  see  the  handsome  lily.  He 
does  not  see  it.  I  see  the  thread  and  the  net.  I  do  not  see  the 
handsome  curtain.  The  soldier  sees  the  cider  and  the  cake  of  that 
pirate.  I  see  the  syrup  and  the  little  cake.  The  soldier  sees  the 
(]ii|)lMent  of  this  king.  He  sees  the  handsome  carpet,  he  does  not 
see  the  bed.  He  does  not  see  it.  He  sees  the  thread  and  the  small 
net,  he  does  not  see  the  syrup.  He  sees  the  rake  of  wood  and  the 
rake  of  iron.     I  see  the  handsome  curtain. 

7.-SEPTl£ME  LEgON. 

The  same  Sounds  continued. 

<  ir   0     r      17       1      ir    1       ir       is    s      s    is    5     is    it    u  la     i«     o     is  s 
Jir&me.  taUteau,  tnarieau,  anneau.  Coquet,  perroquel,  roseaUyjoli,  Georges^  Joseph, 
15        oiiaaooaooiiio 
fiomme^  fiabit,  mohUj  voile,  catnarade. 

Jerome.     The  «/a/).  Jirouie.     Itf  VfffHfifltff 

This  fiammer.     This  latch,  Ce  jjiartcau.     Qi€tCgMft. 

The  rinff.     That  ritiff.  Vanneau.     Get  anneau. 

That  parrot.    That  reed.  Ce  paroquet.     Ce  roseau. 

The  veal.    Pretty.  Le  voile.    Mi,  (bcf.  n.) 

George.     Joseph.  Georges.     Joseph. 

That  man.     The  man.  Cct  homme.     Vhomme. 

This  coat.     The  coat.  Cct  habit.     V habit. 

The  cotnrade.     The  mank.  Le  camaraile.     Lc  moine. 

Does  he  sec?    Docs  he  not  sec ?  Voit-iU    Ne  voit-il  pas? 


The  Bnbject  pronoun  after  tlie  Torb  b  always  Joined  to  it  by  a  hyphen. 
Does  he  see  the  ship  ?  Voit-il  le  yaisseau  ? 

Does  he  not  see  the  hammer  ?  Nc  voit-il  pas  le  marteau  ? 

Jerome  voit  le  loqnet  de  fer.  Voit-il  le  perroquet  de  Joseph  ? 
n  le  Toit  Ne  roit-il  pas  le  joli  roseau  ?  II  ne  le  voit  pas.  Voit- 
il  le  joli  Yoile  t  II  ne  le  voit  pas,  il  voit  le  tapis  et  le  beaa  rideaa. 
Voit-il  le  camarade  de  ce  moine  1  Hie  voit.  Georges  voit  le  vais- 
seaa  de  J^idme,  voit-il  le  gros  marteau  t  II  voit  le  marteau  de  fer 
et  le  loquet  de  bois.  Voit-il  I'anneau  d'or  ?  II  voit  Tanneau  d'or 
et  le  joli  voile.  Voit-il  le  perroquet  de  cet  homme  ?  II  voit  le 
perroquet  de  Gfeorge  et  le  joli  roseau.  Joseph  voit  le  camarade  de 
ce  moine,  ne  voit-U  pas  I'habit  de  cet  homme  ?     II  le  voit 

Jerome  sees  the  pretty  reed,  does  he  see  the  handsome  lilj  ? 
He  sees  the  lilj,  he  does  not  see  the  reed.  Does  he  not  see  the 
bed  of  this  monk  ?  He  does  not  see  it  He  sees  the  thread  of 
George  and  the  handsome  net.  Does  he  not  see  the  comrade  of 
Joseph  ?  He  does  not  see  him,  he  sees  the  monk  and  that  ugly 
man.  Does  he  see  the  cider  1  He  sees  the  cider  and  the  syrup. 
George  sees  the  present  of  Joseph,  does  he  not  see  the  handsome 
cake ?  .He  sees  the  handsome  cake  and  the  fresh  milk.  I  see  the 
small  Q^Stam,  the  rake  of  iron,  and  the  prettv  present  of  Jerome. 
I  see  the  latch  of  iron,  the  pretty  vail,  and  the^ftaTof  that  man. 


u  1» 

OU  as  in  you,       OXJ  as  oo  In  mood. 

MS       IS   18     13    u 

oEcnCf  Uvu,  eotcrf,  bottcher^  bouUi,  hibou^  Idiou^  couteau^  ou,  cAo«  /  oura,  voiiU, 
panorama,  poteau^fromage,  plat,  noir. 

The  nail.    The  hoU,  Le  clou.    Le  trou. 

Short.     This  knife.  Courts     Ce  couteau. 

The  butcher.    The  cannon  hail.  Le  boucher.    Le  bouUL 

The  owl.    This  jewel.  Le  hibott,    Ce  bijou. 

Or.    That  cabbage.  Ou,    Ce  eliou. 

The  bear.    The  panorama.  Vours.    Lc  panorama. 

This  cheege.    Thai  post.  Ce/romaje.    Ceooteau. 

Black.  Noir.  ^-^ 

The  knife  or  the  dish.  Le  couteau  ou  le  plat 

That  bkck  bear.    That  black  dish.  Cet  ours  noir.     Ce  plat  noir. 


Je  vols  le  cloa  de  &r.  Le  boncher  voit  le  petit  hiboa.  Ne 
Toit-il  pas  le  chou?  H  ne  le  Toit  pas.  Le  rat  voit  le  fromage, 
Toit-il  ce  trout  II  le  voit  Le  boacher  volt  le  boulet,  ne  voit-il 
pas  le  poteaa  court  t  H  voit  le  poteau  oourty  et  le  mat  court  Yoit- 
il'  le  clou  ou  le  boulet?  II  voit  le  clou.  Le  hibon  voit  le  chat^  ne 
voit-il  pas  le  trou  f  Ne  voit-il  pas  le  couteau  de  ce  boucber  t  U  ne 
le  voit  pas.  Voit-il  le  chou  ou  le  fomiaget  H  voit  le  chou,  il  ne 
Yoit  pas  le  fromage.  Greorges  voit  le  drap  noir,  ne  Toit-il  pas  le 
panorama  f    H  voit  le  panorama  et  le  palais  de  ce  cbef. 

Jerome  sees  the  hammer^  does  he  see  the  latch  t  He  does  not 
see  ity  he  sees  the  ring  of  gold,  and  the  post  of  iron.  The  parrot 
does  not  see  the  owl.  The  butcher  sees  the  naily  does  he  see  the 
cannon-ballt  Does  he  see  the  black  vail  or  the  black  coat?  The 
comrade  of  Jerome  sees  the  panorama,  does  he  not  see  the  black 
bear!  He  does  not  see  him.  Does  he  not  see  the  knife  of  this 
man  ?  He  sees  it  The  owl  sees  the  rat,  does  he  not  see  this  small 
hole  t  I  see  the  dish,  I  do  not  see  the  post  of  iron.  Joseph  sees 
the  big  post,  does  he  not  see  the  pretty  dish?  He  sees  it  Does 
he  see  the  nail  or  the  latch  ?  He  sees  the  nail,  he  does  not  see  the 

Sound  of  AN  and  of  IN. 

AN  •Mtnin  mieort.       IN  u  an  in  oneKmr. 

8    ^     ,a  .  I  .1  SI  S  14        14       14  14      14     f         U 

prmOMt  iHimc,  Uam^  tXamp^  Jtan,  grand,  gaiU  ;  Un,  pin,  tin,  pain,  Unge,  da4M^ 

1S14     17       19        4 

bUn,  autH,  gtt6, 
WhiU,    The  bench,  Blane.    he  hone. 

TheJUld.    John.  Le  champ.    Jean. 

Large.    The  ghve.  Grand  (het  n.)    heganl, 

The  Jiax.    The  linen.  Le  lin.    Le  linge. 

This  pine.    This  wine.  Ce  pin,    Cevin. 

Thtii  deer.     Very.  Ce  daim.    BUn. 

What  {what  thing?)    Alio.  Que.    Aueau 

I  take.    Betakes.  Jeprends.    Uprend, 

Does  be  take?    What  does  he  take  t      Prend-il?    Que  preml-il  ? 

1  take  the  large  pine.  Je  prenda  le  grand  pin. 

.He  takes  the  white  gloTe.  H  prend  le  gant  blano. 

I  take  the  flax  and  the  linen  also.  Je  prends  le  lin  et  le  Unge  aiusL 

Very  large.    Very  white.  Bien  grand.    Bienblanc. 


Jean  voit  le  prd,  voit-il  le  grand  champ  T  H  le  voit  Ne  voit- 
il  pas  le  Gouteaa  de  ce  boucher  t  U  ne  le  roit  pas.  Qne  prend-il  ? 
n  prend  le  boolet  de  fer  et  le  gros  choa.  Prend-il  le  gant  noir  on 
le  blanct  Je  prends  le  banc.  Qae  prend  Jean?  H  prend  le  lin 
de  cet  faomme.  Prend-il  le  linge  aussi  T  Je  vois  le  gros  daim  blanc. 
Qae  prend  le  soldat  ?  II  prend  le  pain  et  le  yin.  Prend-il  le  fro 
mage  aussi  f  II  prend  le  fromage  et  le  lait  aussi.  Je  prends  le 
pain  et  le  vin.  Qae  prend  le  matelot  T  H  prend  le  gdteaa  de  Jean. 
Je  prends  le  banc  court  Qae  yoit  ce  bibon  t  H  voit  le  petit  troa 
et  le  grand  champ. 

The  soldier  sees  the  vrhite  deer,  does  he  see  the  large  bench 
also  t  He  sees  it  Does  he  not  see  the  large  field?  He  does  not 
see  it  John  takes  the  glove,  does  he  take  the  flax  also?  He 
takes  the  flax  and  the  linen  also.  I  take  the  white  bread,  what 
does  George  take  ?  He  takes  the  cake  and  the  wiae.  Does  he  not 
see  the  white  deer  ?  He  does  not  see  him.  Does  he  see  the  large 
pine?  He  sees  it,  and  he  sees  the  small  wood  also.  I  take  the 
black  glove  of  John,  what  does  he  take?  He  takes  the  white 
bread  and  the  fresh  milk.  I  take  the  wine  of  John,  does  he  take 
the  bread  or  the  cake  ?    He  takes  the  bread  and  the  cake  alsa 

10.— DIXIfiME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  U  and  of  tJ, 

17  M  In  quetn.       XS^  th«  same  sound  prolonged 
sfltt     ao      9s»Bi«      MIS  niiu        n     »        .>*.'*       H     * 
ta,  dUt  dur,  Jvlu,  mulet^  rubU^fruU^  JuU&n :  miir,  jug* :  honlanff^r^  imIii<p«» 

MM  A 

numeKaiTf  quel. 

7%cu.     0/the.  Tu.    Du, 

The  handkerehief.    What  (tidy).  Lemouehoir.     Quel. 

Juliuu    Hard,  JuU»,    Dur. 

Th«  muU,    The  ni6y.  Le  mulct,    Le  rubU, 

Julian.    The  fruU.  Julien,    1^  fruit, 

Thie  judge.    Ripe.  Lejuge,    MUr. 

The  baker.    The  painter.  Le  houlanger.    Le  peinire. 

Thoaseest.    Thou  takest.  Tu  vom.    Tu  prend*. 

Thoa  dost  not  see.  Tu  ne  vois  pas. 

Thou  doet  not  take.  Tu  ne  prends  pas. 

Doet  thou  see?    Dost  thoa  take f  Yois-tu?    Prends-tu? 

IHiai  ruby  dost  thoa  see  ?  Quel  rubis  Tois-ta  ? 

I  see  the  rabj  of  the  painter.  Je  tois  le  rubis  du  peintre. 

Of  the  judge.    Of  the  baker.  Bujuge.    Du  boulanger. 


Qae  voLs-tu  ?  Je  vols  le  mouchoir  da  boulanger.  Qae  prends- 
tu?  Je  prends  le  fruit  Quel  fruit  prends-tut  Je  prends  le 
fruit  dur.  Prends-tu  le  fruit  mur*?  Je  ne  le  prends  pas,  Jules  le 
prend.  Que  vois-tu  ?  Je  vois  le  mulet  Quel  mulet  vois-tu  ?  Je 
vois  le  mulet  du  peintre.  Que  prend  le  boulanger !  11  prend  le 
mouchoir.  Quel  mouchoir  prend-il  ?  II  prend  le  mouchoir  de  Ju- 
lien.  Vois-tu  le  mulet  de  Jules  1  Je  le  vois.  Prends-tu  le  fruit 
durl  Je  ne  le  prends  pas,  je  prends  le  fruit  bien  miir.  Vois-ta  le 
camarade  de  Julien  1  Je  ne  le  vois  pas.  Que  prends-tu  ?  Je  prends 
le  rubis  du  juge  et  le  fruit  dur. 

Julius  sees  the  mule  of  the  baker,  what  dost  thou  see  t  I  see 
the  ruby  of  Julian.  Dost  thou  see  the  coat  of  the  judge?  I  do 
not  see  it  What  fruit  dost  thou  takel  I  tabg^lh^^pe  fruit. 
Dost  thou  take  the  glove  or  the  stocking  f  I  take  the  glove  and 
the  stocking  also.  What  ruby  dost  thou  take  t  I  take  the  ruby  of 
the  painter.  Thou  takest  the  hard  fruit,  dost  thou  take  the  cheese 
also  1  I  do  not  take  it.  Julius  takes  the  bowl  of  Julian.  What 
bread  dost  thou  take?  I  take  the  bread  of  the  baker.  What 
dost  thou  take  ?  I  take  the  ring  of  the  painter,  and  the  wine  of 
the  judge.  I  see  the  ripe  fruit  Dost  thou  see  the  field  or  the 
meadow  t     I  see  the  field  and  the  meadow  also. 

11.— 0NZI£ME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  EU,  of  EU  (before  r),  of  ECt. 
£U  08  v  in  UA       EUIl  as  ir  in  sir.        K  C  as  eugh  in  eughr. 

9        •       »•  •  9    12  5  9  U      0       11  11  1     11  10  10       1« 

/eu,  ^eu,  lieii^  hc&vf,  meunier,  ncRiul :  beurre^  ccRur,  leur^  nugeur^  deuOf  peu,/eii : 

4     U      5      so         29  S3  17       18  10 

chemiiiy  elroit:  sur,  mur,  heaucoup^  large. 

The  Jire.    The  play^  pame.  Le/e?<.     hejeu. 

That  plitee.    That  miller.  Ce  lieu.     Ce  meunier. 

The  knot.     The  ox,  or  beef.  Le  nawL     Le  bceuf. 

The  heart.     27ieir  butter.  Le  cceur.    Leur  beurrt. 

The  swimmer.    Little  (not  much).  Le  nageur.     Pei^^ 

Wide.     The  wall.  Large.     Le  nmr. 

On.     Much,  many.  Sur.     Beauconp  «fe. 

The  pat/i.     Harrow.  Le  ehemin.     ii troll. 

~Peu  and  heawsoup  take  de  befaro  tho  following  nouns. 

Hach  beef.     Little  butter.  Bcaucoup  de  boeuf.     Pcu  de  beurre. 

The  wide  path.   Tho  narrow  path.  Le  ehemin  large.     Le  ehemin  ^troit. 


Je  voia  ce  jea,  le  Tois-tu?  Je  ne  le  yens  pas.  Le  mennier  voit 
le  mnr ;  ne  voit-il  pas  le  chemin  t  II  ne  le  voit  pas.  Ne  yoit-il 
pas  le  feu  t  II  le  Toit.  Le  nageor  ne  voit  pas  ce  beau  lieu ;  voit-il 
le  chemin  etroitt  II  le  voit  et  il  yoit  le  feu  aossL  Prends-ta  oe 
petit  noead  t  Je  ne  le  prends  pas.  Ne  prends-ta  pas  le  coeor  da 
hosaL  Je  piends  le  coeor  da  boeuf  et  le  pain  da  nagenr.  Ne  prends- 
ta  pas  beaaconp  de  beorre?  Je  prends  beancoup  de  beorre  et  pen 
de  boeof?  Que  voit  ce  chat?  II  voit  le  perroquet  ear  le  mar.  Que 
voit  le  mennier  1  H  voit  le  beau  jeu.  Quel  mar  voit-il  ?  H  voit  le 
gros  mar.    Ne  prend-il  pas  le  ooeur  da  boeof?     II  ne  le  prend  pas. 

What  dost  tboa  see  ?  I  see  the  parrot  What  parrot  dost  tbo^ 
see?  I  see  th^ pretty  parrot  on  the  walL  Dost  thoo  see  the  wide^'t^ 
road  or  the  ^VfSh  I  see  the  wide  and  the  narrow  alsa  Dost 
thoo  see  this  beautiful  j^ag^i  r  see  it.  What  does  the  miller 
take  ?  He  takes  the  coat  of  the  swimmer.  Does  he  not  take  the 
little  knot?  He  does  not  take  it  Does  he  not  take  much  hotter? 
He  takes  little  hotter  and  little  beef.  Dost  thoa  not  see  the  cat  on 
that  wall  ?  I  see  him,  and  I  see  the  parrot  on  the  big  rock.  Dost 
thoo  take  the  big  knot  or  the  little?  I  take  the  little  (one). 
Dost  thoo  not  take  the  handkerchief  of  the  swimmer  ?    I  do  not  , 

take  it     Dost  thoo  see  the  large  fire  ?     I  do  not  see  it     The  mill-  PM^Jd7^ 
er  sees  this  beautiful  place,  does  he  not  see  the  game  ?    He  does 
not  see  it 

Sound  of  UN. 

XJlSf  aoanded  uhng  (ff  aUent),  or  yery  nearlj  u  «n  in  tunJb, 

M  M  1    M  1     M  M         MO  0  9  »M        M       T       J?»     »    ^    M    i*    - 

«n«  &r«f»,  c^aeun,  parfum,j€uny  humblt :  veux,  ««tf<,  euir,  mauvaU^  dicmani^  4iUphaiUt 

1    us         8       IT  »         4   1  1    14 

papier,  manUaity  lUtt,  rtnard,  lapitk 

A^  one.    Brown.  Un.    Brun. 

The  per/tone.    Each  one,  Le  patfian.     Chaeun. 

Bad,    The  leather,  Mauvait  (before  n.).     Le  euir, 

A  diamond.     An  elephant.  Un  diamant,     Un  iUphant, 

A  eloak.    This  paper,  Un  manteau,    Ce  papier, 

A /ox.     A  rabbit,  Un  renard.    Un  lapin. 

Blue,    A  blue  cloak.  Bleu,    Un  manteau  bleu. 

/  with  for,  tfiou  vntheat  for^  he  mahea  Je  va4x^  tu  veuxy  il  veut. 
for,  0^^^  ".(J 

J>ost  thou  with  for  i  does  he  wish  for  ?  Veux-tu  ?  veut-il  ? 




I  do  not  wish  for,  thou  dost  not  wish  Jo  ne  renx  ptf,  ta  ne  toox  pas,  il  ne 

for,  he  does  not  wish  for.  Teat  pas. 

Dost  tbou  not  wish  for?  does  he  not  Ne  yeox-ta  pas?  ne  veat-il  pas? 

wish  for? 

I  wish  for  it,  thou  wishest  for  it,  he  Je  le  reox,  ta  le  Tenx,  il  le  renU 

wishes  for  it. 

I  do  not  wish  for  it,  thou  dost  not  wish  Je  ne  le  veux  pas,  tu  ne  le  reox  pas, 

for  it,  he  does  not  wish  for  it.  fl  ne  le  veut  pas. 

What  dost  thoa  wish  for  ?  Que  yeux-tu  ? 

1  wish  for  the  brown  paper.  Je  Teux  le  papier  bran. 

George  does  not  wish  for  the  rabbit  Georges  ne  veut  pas  le  lapin. 

He  does  not  wish  for  it ;  I  wish  for  it.  II  ne  le  veat  pas ;  je  le  veux. 

Je  veux  le  parfum.  Que  veax-tu  ?  Je  veux  le  cuir.  Chacun 
vent  on  ooateau.  Georges  vent  le  diamant^  vent-il  aussi  ce  maavais 
cnirT  H  ne  la  vent  pas.  Ne  yenx-tu  pas  le  renardt  Je  ne  le 
veux  pas,  je  reox  I'^l^phant  Tu  veux  le  manteau  brun,  ne  venx- 
tu  pas  le  bleu  aussi?  Je  le  veux.  Charles  veut  le  parfimi,  ne  veut- 
il  pas  le  diamant  aussi  t  II  le  veut  Chacun  veut  un  plat  et  un 
g&teau.  Yeux-tu  ce  manvais  papier  t  Je  ne  le  veux  pas.  Que 
veut  le  meunier?  II  veut  I'^l^phant  Yeut-il  le  renardt  II  ne 
le  veut  pas.     Ne  veut-il  pas  le  lapin  t     II  le  veut. 

Dost  thou  wish  for  the  brown  cloak  or  the  blue  t  I  wish  for 
the  brown  and  the  blue  also.  Dost  thou  not  wish  for  this  perfume  t 
I  wish  for  it.  Each  one  wishes  for  a  rabbit  Each  one  wishes  for 
a  stag  and  a  fox.  Charles  wishes  for  the  bad  leather.  He  wishes 
for  it  I  do  not  wish  for  it  Does  he  not  wish  for  the  diamond  ? 
He  does  not  wish  for  it  I  wish  for  it  I  do  not  wish  for  the  ele- 
phant, dost  thou  not  wish  for  him  ?  Thou  dost  not  wish  for  him. 
I  wish  &r  him.  Charles  wishes  for  the  paper,  does  he  wish  for  the 
leather  also  ?  He  wishes  for  the  paper,  and  the  bad  perfume.  What 
does  the  soldier  wish  for  T  He  wi^es  for  the  elephant  Dost  thou 
wish  for  this  cloak  ?    I  wish  for  it 


Sound  of  ON. 
ON  sooBdfld  «8  on  in  wrong. 

man,  ton,  9on,  fton,  gond,  canot^  Uo»t  fiM^oM,  garcon^  voyont^  prmums,  vokanm,  long, 

ftoiM,  no<r#. 
My.     Thy.  Mofu     Ton, 

Hu,  her,  iti.     Our.  Soti.  ^  Kotre.  * 


My  Ats^.    Thy  etmtum,  Voajfoivi^  Ton  emuMu 

Hw  lum.    Oar  mamm.  Son  liton.    Notre  HMfon. 

A  6oy.     We,  Un  garpm.    Nimi* 

OoofL    Long,  Ben.    Ztrng, 

We  Mv.    We  take.  Koub  voyoiM.    Now^wmoiM. 

We  wUh/or  the  good  bread.  Nou»  vtrnhm  le  boo  pain* 

Do  we  take?    Do  we  wish  for?  PreDons-nous?    Voulone-noai? 

Do  we  see  the  long  cannon f  YoyoDS-nous  le  long  canon? 

Do  we  take  the  hinge  ?  Prenons-noos  le  gond? 

We  take  it.    We  do  not  take  it.  Nona  le  prenona.    Nona  ne  le  prenona 


We  see  it.    We  do  not  see  it.  Nous  le  voyons.  Nous  ne  le  Toyons  paa. 
We  wish  for  it.     We  do  not  wish    Noos  le  Toulona.    Nous  ne  le  Toulona 

for  it.  pas. 

Do  we  not  see  the  good  mason  f  Ne  Toyons-nous  pas  le  bon  ma^ on  ? 

Do  we  not  take  the  hinge  of  iron?  Ne  prenons-nons  pas  le  gond  de  fer? 

Do  we  not  wish  for  our  tiiek  /  Ne  Toulons-nous  pas  notre  bdiam  f 

Que  Yoyonfl-noiist  Nona  yoyons  mon  cbamp  et  ton  pr^.  Ne 
Yoyons-noos  pas  le  fer  da  magon  t  Nous  le  voyons.  Voyons-nons 
son  bois  ?  Nous  ne  le  voyons  pas.  Que  prenons-nons  t  Noos  pre- 
nons  noire  gond  de  fer.  Prenons-nons  le  canon  da  chef  t  Noos  ne 
le  pienons  pas.  Ne  prenons  noos  pas  son  lion  t  Noos  le  prenons. 
Qoel  Mton  yonlons-nons  ?  Nous  voulons  mon  Uton.  Youlons- 
nons  le  long  canon  f  Noos  ne  le  voulons  pas.  Ne  voulons-nous 
pas  le  bon  fromagef  Nous  le  voulons.  Nous  voulons  le  marteaa 
da  ma^n,  nous  ne  voulons  pas  son  lion.  Nous  voulons  le  long  ta- 
pisetlebonUt.^.  ,,,^^ 

What  do  we  see  t  We  see  mv  ox  and  thM  mule.  Do  we  see 
our  good  mason  T  We  see  him.  Do  ¥^^^t'  sdanis  long  cannon  t 
We  do  not  see  it  Do  we  take  the  good  hinge  t  We  take  it  Do 
we  not  take  the  good  cloak  T  We  do  not  take  it  Do  we  wish  for 
the  diamond  t  We  wish  for  it.  Do  we  not  wish  for  the  fox  t  We 
do  not  wish  for  him.  What  do  we  wish  for  ?  We  wish  for  our 
stick.  Dost  thou  see  the  palace  of  the  king  f  I  see  it.  What 
does  the  monk  see  ?  He  sees  the  palace  of  the  pope.  Dost  thou 
take  the  padlock  or  the  hinge  T  I  take  the  padlock.  What  does 
the  soldier  take  ?  He  takes  the  fruit  of  the  baker.  We  take  our 
fruit  What  paper  do  we  wish  for?  I  wish  for  the  white  paper, 
and  thoa  wishest  for  the  blue.  Each  one  wishes  for  a  knife  and  a 



Sound  of  RE  final. 

BE  flmU  sonnded  as  rv  In  brtuh  (half  aadible). 

1         4  1         414        741494  S4        ftS4U4Ur4       1S         SI 

arbre^  marbre,  mbre^  cedre,  eadre^  9uerA,  pldtre^  fhtatre^  Uvr^  Uitf^  qui,  plomb^ 
n    11       4     u  n       ti    17 
eoncomhrt^  pigeon^  gruan. 

The  tree.    This  tree,  Varhrt.    Get  arbre. 

The  marble.    The  suford^  taher,  Le  marhre.    Le  sabre. 

The  cedar.    The  sugar.  Le  chdre,    Le  xucre, 

T\i\s  plaster,    II  frame,  Ce  pldtre.    Tin  cadre, 

^  A  theater.     A  dool*.  Un  thedtre.     Un  /i  we. 

The  hare,    A  cucumber.  Le  /tevre.     Un  eoneombr^ 

f    t^  ^  The  /eodL     A  pigeon,  Le  plomb,     Un  pigeon. 

>-  ^  The  ^rrue/.     lF%o.  .Le  jTruau.     Qui. 

Who  wishes  for  this  book  ?  Qui  veut  ce  livre  ? 

The  mason  wishes  for  it.  Le  ma9on  le  veut 

Dost  thou  wish  for  it  ?  Le  Teux-tu  ? 

Dost  thoa  not  wish  for  it  ?  Ne  le  veux-tu  pas  ? 

Dost  thou  see  it  ?  Le  vois-tu  ? 

Dost  thou  not  see  it?  Ke  le  vois-tu  pas? 

Dost  thou  take  it?  Le  prends-tu? 

Dost  thou  not  take  it  ?  Kc  le  prends-tu  pas  ? 

Qui  veut  le  sucre  blanc  t  Je  le  veux.  Que  vois-tu  ?  Je  vois 
le  grand  arbre.  Que  voit  le  maqon  t  U  volt  le  beau  marbre.  Que 
voyons-nous?  Nous  vojons  le  pl&tre  blanc  Vois-tu  le  sabre  T  Je 
le  vois.  Le  veux-tu  t  Jti  le  veux.  Ne  le  prends-tu  pas  !  Je  ne 
le  prends  pas.  Nous  voulons  le  c^dre  du  ma^on,  ne  le  veux-tn  pas  t 
Je  veux  le  cddre  et  le  marbre.  Nous  ne  prenons  pas  le  beau  cadre, 
le  prends-tu  ?  Je  prends  le  beau  cadre  et  le  long  sabre.  Noua 
voyons  le  grand  theMre ;  ne  le  vois-tu  pas  t  Je  vois  le  grand  the- 
atre et  le  grand  arbre.  Qui  prend  le  sucre  ?  Je  prends  le  sucre 
et  le  gruau.  Qui  voit  mon  livre,  le  vois-tu  t  Veux-tu  le  licvrel 
Je  veux  le  lievre  et  le  pigeon. 

What  dost  thou  see  1  I  see  the  cucumber  and  the  lead.  We 
see  the  pigeon ;  dost  thou  see  him  ?  I  see  the  pigeon  and  the  hare. 
Who  takes  the  gruel ;  dost  thou  take  it  t  I  take  the  gniel  and  the 
sugar.  We  see  the  white  plaster ;  dost  thou  not  see  it  ?  I  see  the 
plaster  and  the  lead.  I  take  the  cucumber ;  dost  thou  wish  for  it  ?  I 
wish  for  the  cucumber  and  the  gruel.  We  do  not  take  the  book  ;  dost 
thou  not  take  it  ?    I  take  the  book  and  the  frame.    What  dost  thoa 


see  t  I^see  the  white  marble,  the  long  sword,  and  the  cedar  of  the 
mason.  We  wish  for  the  lead ;  dost  thou  not  wish  for  it  t  I  wish 
for  the  lead,  the  marble,  and  the  plaster.  Dost  thou  see  the  hand- 
some theater  t  I  see  the  handsome  theater  and  the  large  tree.  We 
wish  for  the  hare  and  the  pigeon. 

15.— QUINZIfiME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  £Z  final. 


£Z  final  sounded  as  tf,  or  a  in/aiA, 

«      1        e       8t>IS«  46         IBS  «1«1C116  IS  15oTO         70  S  4 

IMS,  OMCB,  voff0»,  preneSf  wnOea^  reM^  awt^  aavwy  HeM :  ooim,  voire,  pire,  frtr^  eAanvre, 

n       16      17       18  21      n  s 

rond,  taureau,  bouton^  ruban. 

The  nose.    Sufficiently^  enchtgh,  Le  nez.    Auez, 

Tou.    You  see.  Vents.    Yous  voyez. 

You  take.    Yon  toish  far.  Yousprenez.    Youavo^iles. 

Your.    Hound.  Voire.     Rond. 

Your  father.    Your  brother.  Y  otre  pere.     Yotre  frere. 

The  hemp.    The  btdl.  Le  chanvre.    Le  taureau. 

My  button.    Your  ribbon,  Hon  bouton.     Yotre  ruban. 

Sufficiently  long.    Sufficiently  short.  Assez  long.     Assez  court. 

Do  yon  see  ?    Do  you  take  ?  Voyez-vous  ?    Prenez-vous  ? 

Do  you  wish  for?    Do  you  not  sec  ?  Youlez-vous ?    Ne  voyez-voua  pas? 

Do  you  not  take  ?    Do  you  not  wish  No  prcnez-YOus  paa  ?    Xe  voulez-vous 

for?  pas? 

Does  he  see  it  ?    Docs  he  not  sec  it  ?  Le  Toit-il  ?    Ne  le  Toit-il  pas  ? 

Does  he  take  it  ?    Does  he  not  take  it  ?  Le  prend-il  ?    Ne  le  prend-il  pas  ? 

Does  he  wish  for  it  ?    Does  he  not  wish  Le  veut-il  ?    Ne  le  veut-il  pas  ? 

for  it? 

Voulez-vous  le  bouton  rond  1  Je  le  veux.  Ne  voulez-vous  pas 
le  chanvre  t  Je  ne  le  veux  pas.  Voyez-vous  le  taureau  de  mon 
pere  ?  Je  vois  le  taureau  de  votre  pere  et  le  bceuf  de  votre  fr^re. 
Que  prenez-vous  t  Je  prends  le  ruban.  Quel  ruban  prenez-vous  f 
Je  prends  le  long  ruban.  Je  veux  le  ruban  long.  Que  voyez-vous  T 
Nous  voyons  le  chanvre  de  votre  frfere ;  le  veut-il  ?  II  ne  le  veut 
pas.  Ne  le  prend-il  pas?  II  ne  le  prend  pas.  Le  voit-il?  II  le 
voit.  Prenez-vous  le  bouton  rond  t  Je  le  prends.  Vous  voyez  le 
sabre  de  votre  frire.  Vous  prenez  le  sucre  blanc.  Vous  voulez  le 
cbdie  du  ma^on  ;  le  veut-il  aussi  ?  II  ne  le  veut  pas.  Votre  frfere 
veut  son  livre ;  ne  le  prend-il  pas?     II  ne  le  prend  pas. 

Do  you  wish  for  this  little  cucumber!     We  do  not  wish  for  it 


Do  yoQ  seethe  handflome  frame?  I  see  it  What  do  70a  take  1 
I  take  the  round  button  and  the  long  ribbon.  I  take  it  sofficientl j 
long.  Who  wishes  for  the  hemp  T  My  father  wishes  for  it  Does 
he  take  itt  He  takes  the  hemp  and  the  flax.  Who  wishes  for  the 
roond  cake  t  Mj  brother  wishes  for  it  Does  he  not  see  it  t  He 
does  not  see  it.  What  does  yonr  fother  wish  for!  He  wishes  for 
his  bulL  Does  he  see  him  t  He  sees  him.  Does  he  not  take  him  t 
He  takes  his  bull  and  his  ox.  Do  70a  see  the  field  of  your  father? 
I  see  it  What  do  70a  take  ?  I  take  the  book  of  m7  brother.  Do 
70a  wish  for  the  long  ribbon  t  Yes,  I  wish  for  it  Do  70a  wish  for 
the  sugar  or  the  milk?    We  wish  for  the  sugar  and  the  milk  alsa 

16.— SEIZIfiME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  £. 

£  Bounded  u  « In  vhsre, 
■  •lorry       tosots        t'n         14       I4       4«inra4 

I      14     1    nt      n«     mni9     0     •      1  nf    raao   0 

The  oak.    The  toM.  Le  ehent.    Le  mime. 

A  peach-tree,    AJUhermafu  VnpSeher.    Vn  pSeheur. 

The  master.    The  beeeh.  Le  tnaitre,    Le  hStre, 

The  melon.    The  copper,  Le  melon,  -  Le  ctUvre, 

A  garden.    The  friend.  Vnjardin.     Vami. 

That  inketand,    The  uniform,  Cet  enerier.    Vuniforme, 

Thisc^^.    The  eteel,  Cet  auf    Vacier. 

The  ivory.    This  ivory,  Vivoire.    Cet  ivoire. 

Do  you  Bee  it  ?    Do  you  not  see  it  ?  Le  voyez-voua  ?  Ne  le  Toyea-roua  pas  f 

Do  you  take  it?     Do  you  not  take  Le  prenes-vous?    Ne  le  prenez-vous 

it?  pas? 

Do  you  wish  for  it  ?    Do  you  not  wish  Le  Toulez-Toua?    Ne  le  Toulez-Toua 

for  it?  pas? 

A  noon  placed  as  an  a^jecUve  before  another  noon,  in  Engllah,  Is  tianeUted  Into  Frcneh 
by  plaeing  it  after  the  noon  to  which  it  belongSt  ^i^h  de  between  them ;  as, 

The  oak  wood.    The  copper  nail.  Le  bois  de  chene.    Le  clou  de  cuiTpe. 

The  iTory  inkstand.    The  steel  knife.      L^encrier  d*iToire.    Le  couteau  d'acier. 
The  oak  bench.    The  steel  sword.  Le  banc  de  ch^ne.   Le  sabre  d*acier. 

Quel  arbre  vo7ez-vous  t  Je  vois  le  prober.  Vo7ez-vous  le  mdme 
arbre  t  Je  vois  le  p^her  et  le  ch^ne.  Que  prend  le  p^cheur  ?  II 
prend  son  bateau.  Qui  veut  l*encrier  de  cnivre  T  Le  maitre  le  veut. 
Voulez-vous  le  meme  enerier?    Je  ne  reux  pas  le  m^me.    Je  vois  le 


petit  h^tre^  ne  le  YoyeE-voas  pas  ?  Je  Ycim  le  hdtre  et  le  chdne. 
Yotre  ami  Tent  ce  melon,  le  yonlei-TOiis  aussi?  Je  ne  yenz  pas  le 
mtoe  melon.  Voos  yoyez  le  petit  oea^  ne  le  prenez-yons  pas  t  Je 
ne  le  prends  pas ;  le  soldat  prend  le  petit  ceuf  et  son  muforme.  Que 
yoyez-yons  t  Je  yois  le  bean  jardin  de  yotre  ami  Qui  yoit  le  b»> 
teaa  da  p^heur?  Notre  ami  le  yoit  Je  yois  le  jardin  de  notre 
maitre ;  que  yoyez-yons  t  Je  yois  I'miiforme  da  soldat  et  I'encrier 
d*iyoiie  de  yotre  ami 

I  take  the  big  melon ;  do  yon  wish  for  itt  I  do  not  wish  for 
the  melon,  I  wish  for  the  egg.  Do  you  see  the  peach-tree?  I  see 
it ;  do  yoa  not  see  it  T  I  see  the  peach-tree,  and  the  large  garden 
of  oar  master.  Do  you  see  the  boat  of  the  fisherman!  I  see  the 
boat  of  the  fisherman,  and  the  ship  of  the  king.  I  take  the  copper 
hammer ;  do  you  wish  for  it  ?  I  wish  for  the  copper  hammer  and 
the  steel  knife.  We  see  the  broom ;  do  you  not  see  it  t  I  see  the 
broom  and  the  oak.  You  wish  for  the  iyory  inkstand ;  do  yon  not 
take  it  t  We  take  the  iyory  inkstand  and  the  steel  knife.  The 
soldier  wishes  for  his  uniform ;  do  yon  see  it  ?  I  take  the  small 
^gg ;  ^o  you  not  wish  for  it  t  I  wish  for  the  egg  and  the  melon. 
The  soldier  wishes  for  this  uniform ;  do  you  wish  for  the  same  T  I 
do  not  wish  for  it.  Do  you  see  this  handsome  garden  ?  I  see  the 
handsome  garden,  and  the  green  meadow.  Who  wishes  for  the 
iyory  knife  ?    Our  master  wishes  &r  it. 


Sound  of  LE  final  and  CH. 
LE  final  tmht  In  Iduni  (half  aadible).       CH  as  «&  In  $ha(U, 

«4       1,««4        S1,4     1S14-U4  1«I4  41  ISl  1  • 

edbU,  §dbUt  M0Uf  apeetaeU^  affriabU^  double:  cMen,  chewtl^  eharbim^  fnarchand^ 
f     <  1     IT       .  1      17        «     II         r     n 

miehant^  eAamMis  ehapeau,  ekanUur,  chardon. 

Aeahle.    The  $and.  TJn  edble.    Le  Moble. 

A  hufalo,    A  tpeciaele.  Un  buffle,    Un  tpeetacle. 

Agreeable.    Double,  AgriabU,    DoMe. 

A  dog.    A  horse,  Un  chien,    Un  chevai. 

The  coaL    A  trader.  Le  ehttrbon.    Un  marehand. 

Wicked,    The  eamel.  Mkhant.    Le  ehameau, 

A  hat,    A  einger,  Un  chapeau.    Un  ehanteur, 

A  thitUe,    Enough  sand.  Un  ehardoti,    Aeeez  de  sable. 
^iMi,  like  beaueoup  and  p«u,  takes  <fe  before  the  fbllowtng  i 


This  agreeable  perfome.  Ce  parfam  agrdable. 

The  double  knot.  Le  noeud  double. 

The  wicked  man.  Le  m6chant  homme. 

Prenez-vous  le  gros  c4ble  t  Nous  ne  le  prenons  pas.  Voyez- 
vous  le  c&ble  de  ce  bateau  1  Nous  ne  le  voyons  pas.  Que  yojoiis- 
nous  ?  Vous  voyez  le  buffle  et  le  chameau.  Je  vois  un  spectacle 
bien  agreable,  le  voyez-vous  *?  Nous  le  voyons.  Que  voit  le  petit 
cbien  1  II  voit  le  mecbant  cbeval  et  le  gros  chameau.  Prenez- 
vous  le  cbardon  ?  Nous  ne  le  prenons  pas.  Nous  voyons  le  cha- 
peau  du  marcband ;  le  veut-il  ?  II  ne  le  veut  pas.  Le  cbanteur 
veut  son  livre;  ne  le  prend-il  pas  f  II  prend  son  livre  et  son  cba- 
peau.  Voyez-vous  le  cbeval  noir?  Je  vois  le  cbeval  noir  et  lo 
cbien  noir  aussi.  Ne  voyez-vous  pas  le  grand  buflSe  1  Je  ne  le  voia 
pas,  je  vois  le  gros  taureau.  Je  prends  assez  de  cbarbon  et  assez 
de  sable. 

Do  you  see  this  beautiful  spectacle  1  I  see  it,  and  I  see  the  large 
garden  of  the  trader.  What  do  you  take  ?  I  take  the  thistle  and 
the  double  knot.  I  take  this  agreeable  perfume ;  do  you  wish  for 
iti  I  wish  for  this  agreepble  perfume  and  the  book  of  the  singer. 
What  does  the  singer  wish  for?  He  wishes  for  his  hat  and  his 
dog.  Who  wishes  for  the  long  cable  ?  The  sailor  wishes  for  the 
long  cable  and  the  boat  of  the  trader.  Do  you  see  the  big  buffalo  ? 
I  see  the  big  buffalo  and  the  wicked  horse.  Do  you  wish  for  much 
sand  ?  I  wish  for  little  sand,  and  much  charcoal.  Do  you  take 
sufficient  charcoal  ?  I  take  sufficient  charcoal,  and  the  singer  takes 
sufficient  wood.  What  spectacle  do  you  see  ?  I  see  the  great  spec- 
tacle. What  knot  do  you  take  ?  I  take  the  double  knot  I  see 
the  mule  of  the  trader  and  the  big  thistle.  We  see  the  wicked  dog ; 
do  you  see  him  ?  I  see  the  good  camel,  the  white  hat,  and  the  big 


Sound  of  ENT,  and  of  ENT  final. 
ENT  final,  in  the  third  porson  plural  of  verbs,  silent.     EXT  final  otherwise  as  en. 

so    0  »       0  4      0  IS  15     8  IS  S  19  1  8         )8 19     19      21 

toient  prenneni.  veulent :  argent  fromenL  comment :  iU.  chartnanL  (?ui,sf,  non^ 

IS  0   12  90  J       I       0         10        3060 

moiudeur^  mad/ume^  mademoUelU. 

The  »i/wer,  money.     The  wheat,         Vargent.     Lq  frornetit. 
CTiarming.     They.  CharmanL     Ha. 


Tet,  tir.    No^  madam^  Out,  numneur.    Kcn^  madame* 

Tes,  mut.    No,  miu.  Si,*  madan<nselU,  Non,  mademoUelU, 

They  tee.     They  take,  Ila  voieni.    lis  prenneni. 

They  wish  for.    They  do  not  see.  Us  veulent.    Us  ne  voient  |)as. 

They  do  not  take.    They  do  not  wish  lis  ne  prennent  pas.    lis  ne  veulent 

for.  pas. 

They  see  it.    They  take  it  Us  Ic  voicnt    Us  le  prennent 

They  wish  for  it     They  do  not  see  it  lis  le  veulent    lis  ne  le  voient  pas. 

They  do  not  take  it.    They  do  not  Us  ne  le  prennent  pas.     lis  ne  le  Teu- 

wish  for  it.  lent  pas. 

Do  they  see  ?    Do  they  take  ?  Voient-ils  f    Prennent-ils? 

Do  they  wish  for  f    Do  they  not  see  ?  Veulent-ils  ?    Ne  voient-ils  pas  ? 

Do  they  not  take?    Do  they  not  wish  Ne  prennent-ils  pas?    Ne  veulent-ils 

for  ?  pas  ? 

Do  they  see  it  ?    Do  they  take  it?  Le  voient-ils  ?    Le  prennent-ils  ? 

Do  they  wish  for  it?     Do  they  not  Le  veulent-ils?    Ne  le  voient-ils  pas? 

see  It? 

Do  they  not  take  it?     Do  they  not  Ne  le  prennent-ils  pas?    Ne  le  veu- 

wish  for  it  ?  lent-ils  pas  ? 

Mon  p^re  et  mon  fr^re  yealent  le  bon  cheyal ;  veulent-ils  lecha- 
meaa  anssi !  Us  ne  le  veulent  pas.  Veulent-ils  le  froment  ?  Non, 
monsieur,  ils  ne  le  veulent  pas.  Ne  veulent-ils  pas  I'argent  1  S$^ 
monsieur,  ils  veulent  Targent  et  Tor.  Voient-ils  ce  charmant 
petit  jardin  ?  Non,  madame,  ils  ne  le  voient  pas.  Voient-ils  le 
gios  elephant  ?  Qui,  madame,  ils  le  voient  Prennent-ils  Targent 
du  marchand  ?  Non,  mademoiselle,  ils  ne  le  prennent  pas.  Pren- 
nent-ils son  froment  t  Oui,  mademoiselle,  ils  prennent  son  froment 
et  son  beurre.  Qui  voit  ce  lieu  charmant  t  Le  chanteur  et  le  sol- 
dat  le  voient  Voyez-vous  ce  charmant  spectacle  ?  Oui,  monsieur, 
je  le  vois.  Le  soldat  et  le  matelot  veulent  le  bon  melon ;  ne  le 
prennent-ils  pas  !  Non,  monsieur,  ils  prennent  le  beurre  et  le  fro- 

Do  you  wish  for  much  silver  ?  Yes,  madam,  I  wish  for  much 
silver  and  much  gold.  Who  wishes  for  the  wheat  of  the  trader  ? 
My  father  and  my  brother  wish  for  it.  Do  they  wish  for  this  charm- 
ing garden  ?  Yes,  madam,  they  wish  for  it  Do  they  take  the 
white  sugar  t  Yes,  miss,  they  take  it.  What  do  the  judge  and 
the  master  see  t  They  see  the  palace  of  the  pope.  Do  they  see 
the  green  meadow?     Yes,  miss,  and  they  see  the  ship  of  the  trader. 

*  French  people  most  generally  \ae  »i  Instead  of  out,  In  answoring  interrogatiyo  sen- 
tenecs  conAtractea  wiib  a  negation. 


Dost  thon  see  the  glass  inkstandt  Yes,  sir,  I  see  the  glass  ink- 
stand and  the  white  paper.  What  does  the  master  take  ?  He  takes 
his  hat  and  his  handkerchief.  Do  you  wish  for  the  ivory  knife  T 
No^  sir,  I  do  not  wish  for  it  What  do  the  mason  and  his  boy  wish 
for?  They  wish  for  much  copper  and  much  iron.  Do  you  take 
sufficient  milkT  Tes,  madam,  I  take  sufficient  milk  and  sufficient 

19.-DIX-NEUyit:ME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  Y  between  vowels. 

T  hekcMfi  two  9WDtU,  and  wmtitixD/b^hiiwetnatowiland  a  eontonani^  m  ML 

iisfi     9onM      619  14        sni  0      y       r      r     v       r      ir      ir    .n       u 
crayon^  doytn^  payan^  paytoffs:  Ua,  met,  fai^  Mt,  cm,  «kM,  w,  Uur,  ImtrB. 

My  pencil.    This  dean,  Mon  crayon.    Ce  doyen. 

The  countryman.    The  landaeape,  Le  paytan,    he  paytage. 

The  plonl  of  French  noanfl  and  a^jecttTes  is  generally  formed  by  adding  e  to  the  alngnlar. 
The  great  man.    The  great  men.  Le  grand  homme.  Les  grands  hommes. 

The  small  pencil.    The  small  pencils.      Le  petit  crayon.    Les  petits  crayona 
The  article  and  a^JeetiTee  in  French  agree  with  their  Boons  in  noinber.    The  IbUowtng 
an  the  plural  of  the  artide  and  pronominal  a^Jectlyes  thus  ftr  glyen. 

My,    7%y.    HU^her.iU,  Me*.    Tei.    iSe«  (plural). 

Our.     Your,    Theu^  thon.  Nob,     Fo#.     Ccb, 

2%e,    l%eir,  Les,    Zeur  (sing.).    Zeurs  (plaral). 

Cfthe,    Of  the  deans.    Of  the  men.  J>M(plttr.).  Des  doyens.  Des  hommes. 

The  dean.    The  deans.  Le  doyen.    Les  doyens. 

This  countryman.  These  countrymen.  Ce  paysan.    Ces  paysans. 

That  landscape.    Those  landscapes.  Ge  paysage.    Ces  paysages. 

My  dog.    My  dogs.  Mon  chien.    Mes  chiens. 

Thy  melon.    Thy  melons.  Ton  melon.    Tes  melons, 

ffis  inkstand.    His  inkstands.  Son  encrier.    Ses  encriers. 

Our  book.    Our  books.  Kotre  li^re.    Nos  liyres. 

Tour  long  pencil    Tour  long  pencils.  Yotre  long  crayon.  Yos  longs  crayons. 

Their  round  button.    Their  round  but*  Leur  bouton  rond.     Leurs  boutons 

tons.  ronds. 

Voyez-Tons  ce  cbarmant  paysage  f  Oai,  monsieur,  je  le  vois. 
Que  prennent  les  doyens  t  lis  prennent  lears  bons  crayons.  Yea- 
lent-ils  nos  livres  t  Non,  madame,  ils  veolent  les  livres  de  yos  frdres. 
Qae  vealent  les  paysanst  lis  veolent  les  petits  sacs  de  ces  gar- 
^ons.  Queroient  ces  matelots?  lis  voient  les  soldats.  Yoient- 
ils  les  pr6s  verts?  Ooi,  mademoiselle,  ils  les  voient  Qae  voales- 
vous  ?  Je  venx  mes  encriers  de  verre.  Ne  veox-tn  pas  tes  des  d'ar- 
gentt    Non,  monsieur,  je  venx  mes  bons  canapes.    Que  prend  le 


doyent  H  piend  sea  papiera  et  ses  cnjons.  Voyes-voiu  mea 
gantsf  Old,  madame,  je  voia  yos  gants  et  yob  monchoirB  blancs. 
Qae  Yeat  ce  garqon?  H  Yent  noa  balaia  et  noa  banca.  Que  pren- 
nent  cea  payaang  t  II  prennent  leur  beorre  et  leura  mel<Hia.  Yoyez- 
Yous  ce  beau  payaage  t  Oui,  mademoiaelley  et  je  Yoia  le  beaa  jar- 
din  aoasL 

Do  joa  wiah  for  yonr  bookat  I  wiah  for  my  booka  and  my  pa- 
pers. What  do  thoae  men  wiah  for  t  They  wiah  for  their  mulea 
and  their  oxen.  Do  they  take  their  cheeae  t  Yea,  air,  they  take  it 
What  dost  thon  aeet  Iseeapalace.  What  palace  dost  thoa  aee t 
I  see  the  large  palace  of  the  king.  Charlea  takea  the  big  cake ;  doea 
he  wiah  for  it?  He  wiahea  for  it.  What  doea  the  aaikr  aeet  He 
sees  the  large  maata  of  hia  ahip.  Do  you  aee  my  brothera  f  I  aee 
your  brothera  and  yonr  father.  Do  you  wiah  for  thia  melon  ?  No, 
sir,  I  do  not  wiah  for  it  We  aee  the  horse  of  thoae  comitrymen ; 
do  they  wiah  for  him  f  They  wiah  for  their  horae  and  their  oxen. 
Do  yoa  wiah.for  the  white  handkerchiefa  or  the  black  ?  We  wish 
for  the  white  handkerchiefa  and  the  black.  Do  you  take  the  fruit 
of  the  countryman  t  We  do  not  take  it.  What  do  thoae  soldiers 
wish  for?  They  wish  for  mnch  ailYer  and  much  gold.  Do  you  wiah 
for  their  cheeae  ?  I  wiah  for  their  cheese  and  their  batter.  We 
take  oar  booka,  oar  pencils,  and  oar  paper. 

20.— VINGTIfiME  LEgON. 


8  between  two  yowels  eoonded  as  c    88  sounded  as  M  in  nUa, 

«  «         »H       »a       »14  »    «        N      »4   ,»  1      IS      •?,»,«      T     » 

^ossois,  o0««Eis  Hmm^voUta: poitaon^  eousHnt  Ifitsae^avm,  o^  ti, platt,  rmuroU, 
The  poi«m.    The^A.  Jjopoiaon,    Lepaiuan, 

The  eoMftn.    The  cuskUm,  Le  eoimfi.    Le  eouinn. 

Tear  6t«m.  Yotre  buan. 

The  neighbor.    If,  Le  voiatn.    Bi, 

PUatet.    Thank.  Plait.    Itemereie, 

If  yam  pUa$e  (if  U  pieaaei  you).  ffU  wju$  plait. 

I  thank  you  (/  you  thank).  Je  tfoua  remereie. 

Ihawt.     You  have.    Have  If    Have    XaL      Vaut  avest.    .Ai-Jef     Avesh 
foaf  voutf 

I  hftre  not    Ton  have  not  Je  n'ai  pas.    Voas  n*ayez  pas. 

I  have  11.    Too  have  it  Je  Pai.    YousraTez. 

I  have  U  not    Too  have  it  not  JeneVaipaa.    Voiia  ne  raves  pas. 


Have  I  not  ?    Have  joa  not  ?  ITal-Je  pas  ?    N^avez-TOus  pas . 

Have  I  it?    Have  you  it?  L'ai-je?    L'aTez-vous? 

Have  I  it  not  ?    Have  you  it  not  ?  Ne  Tai-je  pas  ?    Ne  I'avez-voua  pas?  ] 

Je,  ne,  ^,  H^  que^  become/,  n\  T,  »\  qu\  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  A* 

Have  you  the  fish  ?    I  have  it.  Avez-vous  le  poisson  ?    Je  I'ai. 

Have  you  not  the  poison  ?    I  have  A  ITavez-vous  pas  le  poison  ?    Je  ne  Tai 

not.  pas. 

Have  I  your  cushion  ?    You  have  it.  Ai-je  votre  cousan  ?    Vous  I'avez. 

Have  I  not  your  bison  ?    You  have  it  ITai-je  pas  votre  bison  ?    Yous  ne  IV 

not.  vez  pas. 

What  have  you  ?    I  have  the  fish.  Qu^avez-vous  ?    J^ai  le  poisson. 

Avez-vons  le  bison  f  Non,  monsieur,  je  ne  I'ai  pas.  N'avez-vons 
pas  mon  coussin?  Je  Tai.  N'ai-je  pas  votre  poisson?  Si,  mon- 
sieur, vous  Tavez.  N'ai-je  pas  le  poison  I  Vous  ne  I'avez  pas.  Que 
prend  votre  cousin  1  H  prend  mon  encrier  d'ivoire.  Que  voit  notre 
voisin  ?  n  voit  le  bison  noir  de  mon  cousin.  Youlez-vous  le  the  ? 
Oui,  monsieur,  s'il  vous  plait.  Quel  tli6  voulez-vous  ?  Je  veux  le 
bon.  Voulez-vous  ce  fruit  t  Non,  monsieur,  je  vous  remercie.  Quo 
veulent  ces  hommes  ?  lis  veiilent  beaucoup  de  fruits.  Que  voient 
nos  voisins  ?  Us  voient  les  bisoiis  de  ces  paysans.  Prennent-ils  le 
poison  ?  lis  ne  le  prennent  pas.  Voulez-vous  mes  livres  ?  Ooi, 
monsieur,  s'il  vous  plait  Voulez-vous  vos  gants  ?  Non,  madame, 
je  vous  remercie.  Qui  prend  le  gros  poisson  1  Nos  cousins  le 
prennent.     Us  veulent  leurs  poissons  et  leurs  fruits. 

Have  you  my  fish  ?  No,  sir,  I  have  your  fruit.  Have  you  the 
cushions  of  my  cousin?  Yes,  madam,  I  have  his  cushions  and  bis 
benches.  Have  you  not  the  books  of  our  neighbors  ?  I  have  their 
books  and  their  sacks.  Do  you  not  take  the  fish  ?  I  do  not  take 
the  fish,  I  take  the  sugar  and  the  milk.  What  bisons  do  you  see  ? 
I  see  the  bisons  of  your  cousin,  and  the  oxen  of  the  neighbor.  Do 
you  wish  for  this  round  cake  ?  No,  madam,  I  thank  you.  Do  you 
wish  for  the  milk  and  the  sugar  ?  Yes,  miss,  if  you  please.  Have 
you  not  my  papers  ?  I  have  not  thy  papers.  Have  you  the  gloves 
of  my  brother  t  I  have  his  gloves  and  his  handkerchief.  Have  I 
not  your  pencils  I  You  have  our  pencils  and  our  inkstand.  Have 
you  the  fish  of  those  men  ?  I  have  their  fish  and  their  fruit.  I 
have  the  beautiful  lily  ;  do  you  wish  for  it  ?  Yes,  sir,  if  you  please. 
Who  takes  the  white  hat  ?     Your  cousin  takes  it. 


•  21.— VINGT  ET  UNffiME  LEgON. 

Sound  of  GN. 

GN,  oommonlj  as  ffni  In  bagnio;  nrelj  as  gn  in  ttagncte. 

n    0    n   IS    0     B      1      SI       ?      o  n  is  s  i    nn     o  i      i  u        i    is 

cif/nt,  tignoble,  eompagnon^  P^Ut**^  ignorant :  magnifique^  as,  avona,  eanif. 

A  twan,     A  vineyard.  Un  eigne,    Un  vignobU. 

Tour  compftDion.    A  eomb,  Yotre  camarade  or  ami    Un  peigne. 

Ignorant,     Magnificent,  Ignorant,     Magnifique, 

'nhoviJuut,     Hast  thou?  Tm  as,     As-tu? 

Thou  hast  not.    Hafit  thou  not?  Tn  n^aa  paa.    ITaa-tu  pas? 

We  hare.    Have  we?  Nonsavoiw.    ATons-uous? 

We  have  not.    Hare  we  not  ?  Nous  n^avons  pas.    N'avons-nous  pas  ? 

Hast  thou  it?    I  have  it.  L*as-tu  ?    Je  Tai. 

HaTQ  jou  it  not?    We  have  it  not.  Ke  l^arez-vous  pas  ?    Nous  ne  Tayons 


Il  penknife.    Them,  Un  cant/.    Z€«  (before  the  verb). 

Hast  thou  them ?    We  have  them.  Les  as-tu?    Nous  les  ayons. 

We  hare  them  not ;  thou  hast  them.  Nous  ne  les  avons  pas,  tu  les  as. 

Whof     Whom,  thai,  which.  Qui?     Que, 

Whom  interrogative  Is  qui,  not  interrogatlvd  is  que. 

Whom  do  you  see  ?  Qui  voyez-vous  ? 

I  see  the  man  whom  you  see.  Je  rois  l^homme  que  toub  voyez. 

As-tu  ton  canif  ?  Je  ne  Tai  pas,  ne  Tas-tu  pas?  J'ai  ton  canif 
et  ton  peigne.  Arons-nous  le  peigne  de  notre  camarade  (or  ami)  ? 
Nous  I'avons.  Arons-nous  les  cignes  du  voisin?  Nous  les  avons. 
Ayez-Tous  nos  poissons  t  Nous  les  avons.  N'avons-nons  pas  yos 
cignes  ?  Yoos  ne  le»  avez  pas.  N'as-tu  pas  mon  canif?  Je  ne 
I'ai  pas.  N'avons-noos  pas  les  coussins  de  notre  ami  ?  Nous  ne 
les  avons  pas.  As-tu  le  fruit  de  ce  petit  ignorant!  Je  ne  I'ai 
pas.  Vois-tu  le  eigne  magnifique  de  notre  voisin?  Je  le  vois. 
N'avons-nons  pas  le  peigne  de  cet  homme  ignorant  ?  Nous  ne 
Tavons  pas.  Voyez-vous  ces  vignobles  magnifiques?  Nous  les 
voyons.  Que  voyez-vous?  Nous  voyons  les  vignobles  du  voisin. 
Qui  voulez-vous?  Je  veux  le  gar9on  que  vous  voyez.  Que  voit  ce 
gargon  ignorant  ?  II  voit  notre  camarade.  Nous  voyons  le  soldat 
que  vona  voyez. 

Have  you  those  magnificent  swans?  We  have  them  not.  Hast 
thou  the  hat  of  that  ignorant  man  ?  I  have  it  not.  What  combs 
hast  thou?  I  have  the  combs  of  the  trader.  Have  you  his  pen- 
knives?    We  have  them  not.     Do  you  see  them?     We  do  not  see 


them.  What  do  yoa  seet  We  see  the  white  gwaiu  and  the  mag- 
nificent vineyard  of  our  neighbor.  What  does  your  oompanioi^  see  t 
He  8ee8  the  large  vineyard.  Hast  thou  not  oar  papers?  I  have 
them  not  Have  yon  the  silver  inkstands  t  We  have  them  not 
Have  yoa  not  the  ivory  buttons  I  We  have  them.  Do  yoa  insh 
for  this  fraitt  Yes,  sir,  if  you  please.  Dost  thoa  wish  for  these 
glovest  No,  madam,  I  thank  yoa.  I  see  the  man  whom  I  wish 
for,  whom  do  yoa  see  ?  I  see  the  ignorant  little  boy  of  year  friend. 
Hast  thoa  the  good  tea  and  the  white  sagar?  I  have  them  not 
Dost  thoa  wish  for  themt  Yes,  miss,  if  yoa  please.  Whom  dost 
thoa  seet  I  see  the  men  whom  I  wish  for.  Thoa  hast  thy  pencils^ 
and  we  have  oar  books  and  oar  papers. 


Sound  of  L  and  LL. 

L  or  LL  llqiiid,aa  m  in  (rOttofit^ 

The  coral.    The  sun,  Le  ecrail.    Le  9oUil, 

Brilliant,     II  mallet,  Brillant,     VnnuUllet, 

CurdUd.    The /fn<  (stone).  CaHU.    Le  eaill<m. 

The /an.    That  drunkard.  VevantaU,    Cet  ivroffne. 

The  pewter.     Old.  VStain.     VUuz  (Jbef,  Jx,). 

The  ton.    The  un^  Lejih.    Vonde. 

ffathef    He  hat.    Haahenott    He  A-t-ilf    Ha.    N'a-t-U  pas?     H  n*a 
has  Dot.  pas. 

L  When  U  follows  a  rerb  ending  with  a  rowel,  -t-  is  InArted  for  better  souid. 

Has  he  it?    He  has  it.  L Vt-il  f    II  Ta. 

Has  he  them?    He  has  them  not  Lesa-t-il?    Ilnelesapas. 

The  curdled  milk.    The  old  midlet  Le  lait  caill6.    Le  vieux  maillet. 
i.  Noons  and  atQeottTes  ending  in  a,  a%  or  ■,  are  the  same  in  the  planiL 

The  stocking,  the  stockings.  The  nose,  Le  has,  les  has.    Le  nez,  les  nez. 
the  noses. 

The  big  spoke,  the  big  spoke&  Le  gros  rais,  les  gros  rais. 

The  old  carpet,  the  old  carpets.  Le  vieux  tapis,  les  Vieaz  tapis. 

This  bad  verse.    These  bad  verses.  Ce  mauvais  vers,  ces  mauvaia  vers. 

Qa'a  le  fils  da  vieux  matelot  t  H  a  le  petit  cailloa  et  T^vantail 
d'ivoire.  N'a-t-il  pas  mon  encrier  d'6tain !  II  ne  Ta  pas.  Qu'a 
cet  ivrogne  t    H  a  le  vieux  chien  de  mon  oncle.    Qui  a  le  beau  co- 

*  L  and  U  hare  genenUy  this  sound,  in  the  middle  or  at  the  end  of  a  word,  when  pre- 


rail  f  Le  fils  da  maQon  I'a.  Voyez-vous  ce  paysage  magnifique  ? 
Je  vols  le  beau  paysage  et  le  soleil  brillant.  Qiii  a  le  maillet  de 
noire  oncle  ?  Le  fils  du  voisin  I'a.  A-t-il  le  lait  caill6 1  H  ne  I'a 
pas.  Qu'a  ce  petit  gar^on?  H  a  le  joli  caillou  et  le  plat  d'etain. 
A-t-il  les  6irantails  d'ivoire  ?  II  ne  lea  a  pas.  Voulez-vous  ce  co- 
rail?  Oui,  monsienr,  s'il  vous  plait  Qui  a  le  chapeau  de  I'i- 
vrognel  Le  gar^on  de  mon  oncle  I'a.  Je  vois  le  beau  jardin  et  le 
soleil  brillant  Nous  avons  les  gros  bas  et  les  vieux  tapis,  et  vous 
avez  les  maavais  dais. 

What  has  the  son  of  our  old  baker  I  He  has  the  handsome 
coral  and  the  big  mallet.  Has  he  not  the  curdled  milk  ?  He  has 
it  not  Has  he  the  ivory  fan  ?  He  has  it.  Who  has  the  pewter 
inkstands!  Your  uncle  has  them.  Who  has  the  hat  of  that 
drunkard  ?  That  little  boy  has  it.  Has  he  not  the  little  flint  ? 
He  has  it  not  W^hat  do  you  seel  I  see  the  fine  sun,  and  the 
beautiful  landscape.  What  has  the  old  mason  ?  He  has  his  mal- 
lets and  his  inkstand  of  shining  pewter.  Dost  thou  wish  for  this 
flint  ?  No,  sir,  I  thank  you.  Do  you  take  the  big  fans  ?  We  do 
not  take  them.  What  has  that  drunkard  I  He  has  the  old  gloves 
of  my  uncle.  Whom  do  you  see  ?  I  see  the  sailors  whom  you  see. 
Have  you  the  big  stockings  or  the  little  ones  ?  I  have  the  big  and 
the  little  ones  alsa  Who  has  the  large  fans?  Your  brother  has 
them.  Has  he  the  white  handkerchiefs '?  He  has  them  not,  the  son 
of  our  neighbor  has  them. 


Sound  of  ER  final. 

EB  In  most  noans  (polysjllablea)  ending  in  i«r,  yer.  cher^  Qtr^  and  iUer^  sonnd  as  e 
(or  e  in  thh\  when  r  u  silent 

1    iSS         Miss         t     1S5      »ni  1        a     195  4«II3]2S        1        13J9S  1     «  I?«     91 

eahUr^  noulUr^  tahlUry/oyery  charpentier^  menuisier^JardinUr,  dhapelUr^  ont, 

7  4     9 

mais^  neveu. 

A  copy-hook.     A  shoe.  Uii  cahier.     Un  Soulier. 

lij  apron.    The  hearth,  TAon  tablier.   Le  foyer  {or  Vdtre), 

The  carpenter.     The  joiner,  he  c/iarpentier,    Le  menuisier. 

The  ffardener.     Tlie  hatter,  Le  jardinier.     Le  chapelier. 

BtU.     nifl  nephew.    The  stranger,  Mais.    Son  neveiL     Vetranger. 

Bavetlieyf    They  have.  Ont-Usf    lis  ont. 

Hare  they  not?    They  have  not.  N'ont-ila  pas ?    Us  n'ont  pas. 

Have  they  it  ?    They  have  it.  L'ont-ils  ?    lis  Pont. 

Have  they  it  not?    Thcv  have  it  not.  Ne  Pont  iU  pas?    lis  ne  Tont  pas. 


Noons  and  adjectivos  ending  In  al  cbango  this  termination  into  aux  for  the  plan],  and 
those  ending  in  au,  ew,  add  an  te;  as, 

The  horse,  the  horses.  Le  cheval,  Ics  cherawx. 

77ie  generaly  the  generals.  Lc  general^  lei  genermix. 

The  handsome  boat,  the  haudsomo  Le  beau  bateau,  les  beaux  bateaux. 


The  liat,  the  hats.  Le  chapeaUy  les  chapeaux. 

But  not,  Mais  pas,  mats  uon,  mais  non  pas, 

I  have  the  oxen,  but  not  the  horses.,  tTai  les  boeufs,  mais  non  pas  les  che- 


Les  nevenx  du  chapelier  ont  nos  cahiers.  Qaels  soaliers  ont- 
ilst  lis  ont  leurs  souliers.  N'ont-ils  pas  les  tabliers  de  cuir? 
Non,  monsieur,  ils  ont  les  souliers,  mais  non  pas  les  tabliers  de  cuir. 
Qu*ont  les  jardiniers?  lis  ont  les  rdteaux  de  fer.  Ontils  nos 
fruits  1  Non,  monsieur,  ils  ne  les  ont  pas.  Qu'ont  ces  cLarpen- 
tiers  ?  Ils  ont  les  beaux  canapes,  et  les  longs  bancs.  N*ont-ils  pas 
le  bois  de  ces  menuisiers?  Non,  monsieur,  ils  ne  Pont  pas. 
Voyez-vous  le  charbon  ?  Je  le  vois  but  le  foyer.  Le  fils  du  jardi- 
nier  a  les  tabliers,  mais  le  neveu  da  menuisier  a  les  souliers.  Qui 
a  nos  cahiers  t  Les  neveux  du  charpentier  ont  nos  cabiers  et  les 
fils  du  charpentier  ont  nos  crayons.  Voyez-vous  les  gen6rauxl 
Nous  voyons  les  gdneraux  et  leurs  soldats.  Les  charpentiers  voient 
le  charbon  sur  le  foyer. 

Who  has  my  copy-book  ?  The  son  of  the  carpenter  has  it.  Do 
you  see  the  coal  on  the  hearth  ?  I  see  it.  Who  has  Uie  leather 
shoes  1  The  nephews  of  the  joiner  have  them.  Have  they  the 
cloth  shoes  also  1  No,  madam,  they  have  the  shoes  of  leather,  but 
not  the  shoes  of  clotL  What  has  the  hatter  ?  He  has  many  {beau^ 
coup)  black  hats  and  many  white  hats.  Who  has  the  rakes  of  the 
gardener  ?  His  sons  have  them.  Have  they  the  hammers  of  the 
carpenter?  No,  madam,  they  have  his  nails,  but  they  have  not  his 
hammers.  Have  they  the  wood  of  the  joiner  ?  No,  sir.  Who  has 
the  hats  of  the  hatter  ?  The  sons  of  the  general  have  them.  What 
do  the  nephews  of  the  gardener  wish  for?  They  wish  for  the 
melons  of  their  uncle.  Do  you  see  the  wood  on  the  hearth  ?  No, 
miss,  I  see  the  coal,  but  I  do  not  see  the  wood.  Hast  thou  thy 
copy-book  ?  I  have  it.  What  has  the  general  ?  He  has  his  fine 
horses.  Have  you  the  leather  gloves  ?  No,  sir,  our  cousins  have 
them,  and  they  have  also  the  leather  shoes. 




Sound  of  ER  final,  continued. 

n 99198  99  ni        SI9  19B         90       1     19«       IS  178         SO    191       2019S        15        19S       99 19   t       t 

jC^niar,  prunier,  cirUier,  coiffnassier,  ro4der,poiri€r,  noyer,  pommUr^fiuU^  «i\fani^ 
grand-pirt,  petiUflU,  eonseiUer^  eloe/ur. 
XJfff-tree.    A  plum-tree,  Vnjiguier.    JJn  prunier. 

A  eheny4ree.    A  guinee-tree.  Un  cerisier,     Un  eoigruuner, 

A  raae-tree.  A  pear-tree.  Adviser.  Un  rosier.  Un  poirier.  CotueiUer. 
A  wtlnut'tree.  An  apple-tree.  Steeple.  Un  noyer.  Un  pommier.  Clocher. 
The  grandfather.    The  grandson.  Le  gj'and-pere.    Lc  petit-Jils, 

In  qaestiona,  wben  a  Donn  is  the  subject,  the  noun  Is  placed  first,  then  the  verb,  and  the 
pivDfMui  of  the  tiiird  person  is  used  after  the  yerb ;  thus, 

Does  the  man  see?    Do  the  men  see  ?  L*homme  Toit-il  ?  Les  hommes Toient- 


Does  the  soldier  take?    Do  the  sol-  Le  soldat  prend-il ?    Les  soldats  pren- 

diers  take  ?  nent-ils  ? 

Does  the  e?iild  want?    Do  the  chil-  Venf ant  veni-W^    Les enfants  Teulent- 

dren  want  ?  ils  ? 

Has  the  grandfather?  Have  the  grand-  Le  grand-pcre  a-t-il?    Les  petits-fils 

sons  ?  ont-ils  ? 

Has  the  gardener  a  fig-tree  ?  Le  jardinier  a-t-il  un  figoier  ? 

Do  your  brothers  see  the  plum-tree  ?  Voa  frferes  voient-ila  le  prunier? 

Does  not  yoar  father  take  the  good  Yotre  pdre  no  prend-il  pas  le  bon 

fruit?  fruit? 

Do  those  men  wish  for  the  cherry-  Ces  hommes  veulent-ils  les  c6risiers  ? 


Have  the  soldiers  their  gunsf  Les  soldats  ont-ils  leurs/tMi/<  / 

Does  your   grandfather   take   these  Yotre  grand-p<^re  prend-il  ces  coignas- 

quince-trees  ?  siers  ? 

The  child.    Theffim.  Venfant.    Le  fusil. 

Notie  jardinier  a-t-il  les  rosiers  1  H  a  les  rosiers  et  les  poiriers. 
Voire  ami  ne  voit-il  pas  les  noyers  ?  H  les  voit  Les  petits-fils  da 
Toisin  prennent-ils  nos  fruits  ?  lis  ne  les  prennent  pas.  Les  voi- 
sina  veulent-ils  les  petits  pommiers  1  Non,  monsieur,  ils  veulent  le 
fruit  du  jardinier.  Vois-tu  le  figuier  ou  le  prunier  1  Je  vols  le 
figuier.  Votre  oncle  prend-il  les  beaux  chevaux?  II  les  prend. 
Les  jardiniers  veulent-ils  ces  cerisiersi  lis  veulent  ces  cerisiers 
et  ces  coignassiers.  Qui  a  les  noyers  1  Les  paysans  ont  les  noyers, 
les  pommiers  et  les  poiriers.  Get  enfant  n'a-t-il  pas  votre  fusil? 
H  a  mon  fusil  et  mon  chapeau.  Quel  homme  le  petit-fils  de  notre 
▼oisin  voit-il?  II  voit  Thomme  que  nous  voyons.  Quels  arbres 
▼oyez-voust     Je  vois  les  pruniers,  les  coignassiers,  les  noyers  et 


les  pommiers.  Votre  grand-pere  a-t-il  beaucoup  de  chevaux  *?  D 
a  beaucoup  de  chevaux  et  beaucoup  de  boeufs.  Get  enfant  n'a-t-il 
pas  votre  canif  ?     II  Ta. 

Does  the  oountryman  wish  for  the  gardener's  trees?  He  wishes 
for  his  fig-trees  and  his  plum-trees.  Have  those  gardeners  many 
trees?  They  have  many  cherry-trees,  many  quince-trees,  and 
many  apple-trees.  Has  your  grandfather  a  large  garden  ?  He  has 
a  large  garden  and  a  large  vineyard.  Has  not  the  grandson  of  the 
soldier  his  gun?  He  has  his  gun  and  his  saber.  Do  you  see  those 
large  rose-trees  ?  Yes,  sir,  I  see  the  rose-trees,  the  pear-trees,  and 
the  walnut-trees.  Do  those  children  take  your  books?  They  do 
not  take  them.  What  do  you  wish  for  ?  I  wish  for  a  little  bread 
and  a  little  milk.  Have  those  children  sufficient  butter?  They 
have  sufficient  butter  and  sufficient  bread.  Do  you  wish  for  this 
fruit  ?  No,  miss,  I  thank  you.  Do  you  wish  for  the  milk  ?  Yes, 
madam,  if  you  please.  Do  the  sailors  see  those  handsome  boats  ? 
They  see  those  handsome  boats  and  those  large  ships.  Whom  do 
you  wish  for  ?    We  wish  for  the  men  whom  we  see. 


ER,  in  the  middle  of  words, 
Is  prononnced  liko  the  English  word  air^  when  r  is  distinctly  artleolated,  as  in  rose. 
T        « 
CuERCHER,  to  seel. 

Do  you  seel' F     We  seek.  Cherchez-vous  f    Kous  cherehon*. 

Do  you  not  seek  ?    We  do  not  seek.       Ne  cherchez-vous  pas  ?    Nous  ne  cher- 

chons  pas. 
Do  you  seek  it  ?    We  seek  it.  Le  cherchez-vous  ?  Nous  Ic  cbercbons. 

Do  you  not  seek  him  ?  Ne  Ic  cherchez-vous  pas  ? 

We  do  not  seek  him.  Nous  ne  le  cherchons  pas. 

Dost  thou  seek  f    I  seel;  Cherches-tuf    Je  citerche. 

Dost  thou  not  seek  ?    I  do  not  seek.       Ne  cherches-tu  pas  ?    Je  ne  chercbo 

Dost  thou  seek  them?    I  seek  them.       Les  cherches-tu ?    Je  les  chcrcho. 
Dost  thou  not  seek  them  ?  Ne  les  cherches-tu  pas  ? 

I  do  not  seek  them.  Je  ne  les  cherche  pas. 

Do  vie  seek  F     You  seek,  Cherchons-nous  f     Vous  chercfuz. 

Do  we  not  seek  ?    You  do  not  seek.       Ne  cherchons-nous  pas  ?     Vous    nc 

cherchez  pas. 
Do  we  seek  him  ?    You  seek  him.  Le  cherchons-nous?  Vous  le  cherchez. 

Do  we  not  seek  it?    You  do  not  seek     Ne  le  cherchons-nous  pas  ?    Vous  nc 
it.  Ic  cherchez  pas. 


Me,  Thee,  Vs.  Me,  Te,  Nous  (all  placed  immediately 

before  the  verb). 
The  one^  that     Tfue  oneSy  those.  Celui.     Ceux, 

Dost  thou  seek  me  ?    I  seek  thee.  Me  cherches-tu  ?    Je  te  cherche. 

You  seek  us.    We  seek  you.  Yous  nous  cherchez.  Nous  tous  cher- 

I  seek  the  one  of  my  father.  Je  cherche  celui  de  mon  p^re. 

You  seek  those  of  the  gardener.  Yous  cherchez  ccux  du  jardinier. 

Me  cherchez- voust  Je  vous  cherche.  Nous  cherchez-vous  ? 
Nods  vous  cherchons.  Je  te  cherche ;  me  cherches-tu  1  Je  ne  te 
cherche  pas.  Ne  me  cherchez-vous  pas  ?  Je  ne  vous  cherche  pas. 
Nous  cherches-tu  ?  Je  ne  vous  cherche  pas.  Qui  cherchez-vous  ? 
Nous  te  cherchons.  Ne  nous  cherchez-vous  pas  ?  Non,  monsieur, 
nous  cherchons  nos  fr^res.  Qui  cherches-tu?  Nous  cherchons 
notre  oncle.  Nous  vous  cherchons  ;  nous  cherchez-vous  ?  Nous  ne 
vous  cherchons  pas.  Que  cherches-tu?  Je  cherche  un  cheval. 
Quel  cheval  cherches-tu?  Je  cherche  celui  de  mon  p^re.  Ne 
cherches-tu  pas  celui  de  ton  oncle?  Si,  monsieur,  je  cherche 
celui  de  mon  oncle  et  celui  de  mon  pere.  Que  cherchez-vous? 
Nous  cherchons  les  gants.  Quels  gants  cherchez-vous?  Nous 
cherchons  ceux  du  maitic.  Ne  cherchez-vous  pas  ceux  de  votre 
cousin?  Nous  cherchons  cSux  du  maitre  et  ceux  de  notre  cousin. 
Votre  grand-ptjre  a-t-il  son  chapeau  ?     Oui,  monsieur,  il  Ta. 

Whom  dost  thou  seek  ?  I  seek  thee,  dost  thou  seek  me  ?  I  do 
not  seek  thee.  Do  you  seek  us?  We  do  not  seek  you.  Whom 
do  you  seek  ?  We  seek  our  friends.  Dost  thou  seek  us  ?  I  do 
not  seek  you.  Do  you  not  seek  me  ?  We  do  not  seek  thee,  we 
seek  thy  cousin.  What  dost  thou  seek  ?  I  seek  a  book.  What 
book  dost  thou  seek?  I  seek  the  one  of  the  master.  Dost  thou 
not  seek  the  one  of  thy  brother?  No,  sir,  I  seek  that  of  the 
master,  I  do  not  seek  that  of  my  brother.  What  papers  do  you 
seek  ?  We  seek  those  of  these  little  boys.  Do  you  not  seek  those 
of  your  cousins  ?  Yes,  sir,  we  seek  those  of  our  cousins  and  those 
of  the  master  also.  Does  that  cat  see  the  rats  ?  Yes,  sir,  he  sees 
them.  Do  the  rats  see  the  cat  ?  They  see  him  also.  Do  the 
soldiers  take  your  fruit  ?  They  do  not  take  it.  Does  your  grand- 
father wish  for  our  gun?  He  does  not  wish  for  it.  Have  those 
children  their  books  ?  Yes,  sir,  they  have  them.  Do  you  not  seek 
for  me?     No,  sir,  I  seek  my  little  cousin. 




T  « 

Chercheb,  to  seek. 

Doei  he  uek  f    He  Beek$. 

Does  he  not  seek  ?    He  does  not  seek. 

Does  he  seek  them  ?    He  seeks  them. 
Does  he  not  seek  them?     He  does 

not  seek  them. 
Do  they  seek  f    They  uek. 
Do  they  not  seek  ?    Thej  do  not  seek. 

Do  they  Seek  him  ?    They  seek  him. 
Do  they  not  seek  it  ?    They  do  not 

seek  it. 
The  one  vsho.    The  onee  (those)  who. 
The  one  whom.    The  onee  (those)  whom. 
Which  man  do  you  seek  ? 
I  seek  the  one  who  seeks  me. 
I  seek  thoee  who  seek  me. 
I  seek  the  one  whom  you  seek. 
I  seek  thoee  whom  you  seek. 
Does  your  uncle  seek  you  ? 
He  seeks  me. 

I  seek  them,  and  they  seek  me. 
A  dictionary.     An  atlae. 
Young.    Red. 

Cherclie-t-ilf    H  chercJte. 

Xe  cherche-t-il  pas?    II  ne  cherche 

Les  chcrche-t-il  ?    II  les  cherche. 
Ne  les  cherche-t-il  pas?    II  ne  les 

cherche  pas. 
Cliercheni-ih  /    lU  cherclunt. 
Ne  cherchent-ils  pas?    lis  ne  cher- 

chent  pas. 
Le  cherchenMls?    Hs  le  cherchent. 
Ne  le  cherchent-ils  pas?     lis  ne  le 

chercheot  pas. 
Celui  qui.     Ceux  qui. 
Celui  que.     Ceux  que. 
Quel  homme  cherchez-vous  ? 
Je  cherche  eelui  qui  me  cherche. 
Je  cherche  ceux  qui  me  cherchent. 
Je  cherche  celui  que  tous  cherchez. 
Je  cherche  ceux  que  tous  cherchez. 
Votrc  oncle  tous  chcrchc-t-il  ? 
II  me  cherche. 

Je  les  cherche,  et  ils  me  cherchent. 
Un  dictionnaire.     Un  atlaa. 
Jeune.     Rouge. 

Get  homme  cherche-t-il  son  cheval  ?  II  le  cherche.  Ne  cher- 
che-t-il  pas  ses  boeufs  ?  H  ne  les  cherche  pas.  Qui  le  jardinier 
cherche-t-il  ?  II  nous  cherche.  Me  cherche-t-il  ?  II  vous  cherche. 
Ces  petits  gardens  cherchent-ils  leurs  livres  t  Us  les  cherchent 
Quels  livres  cherchent-ils  ?  lis  cherchent  leurs  dictionnaires.  Xe 
cherchent-ils  pas  leurs  atlas?  Us  les  cherchent.  Ce  jeune  gar^on 
cherche-t-il  son  frdre  t  Non,  monsieur,  il  cherche  un  enfant  Quel 
enfant  cherche-t-il  ?  H  cherche  celui  qui  a  le  chapeau  de  ce  gar^on. 
Ne  cherche-t-il  pas  ceux  qui  ont  ses  papiers  ?  II  ne  les  cherche 
pas.  Quels  soldats  ces  hommes  cherchent-Us  ?  Us  cherchent  ceux 
que  nous  cherchons.  Cherchez-vous  celui  que  je  cherche  t  Je 
cherche  celui  qui  a  mon  mouchoir  rouge.  Vous  cherchez  ceux  que 
je  cherche,  et  ceux  qui  nous  cherchent 

Do  you  seek  your  dictionary  ?  I  seek  my  dictionary  and  my 
atlas.     Docs  that  young  boy  seek  his  handkerchief?     lie  seeks  it. 


Does  he  seek  his  red  handkerchief?  He  seeks  his  red  handkerchief 
and  his  red  coat.  Do  those  yoang  boys  seek  a  mason  ?  No,  sir, 
they  seek  a  gardener.  What  gardener  do  they  seek  f  They  seek 
the  one  who  has  much  fruit.  Do  they  seek  the  one  who  seeks 
them  ?  No,  sir,  they  seek  the  one  whom  we  seek.  Do  they  see 
the  one  whom  they  seek  ?  What  soldiers  do  you  seek  ?  We  seek 
those  who  seek  us,  and  you  seek  those  whom  we  seek.  Have  you 
my  atlas  ?  No,  sir,  that  young  boy  has  it  Whom  does  that  man 
seek  t  He  seeks  thee.  Does  he  not  seek  you  ?  He  does  not  seek 
me.  Who  seeks  us  ?  The  grandchildren  of  our  neighbor  seek  us. 
What  men  do  you  see  ?  I  see  those  whom  you  see.  What  book 
have  you  ?  I  have  the  one  of  my  cousin,  and  you  have  the  one  of 
the  master. 


15        « 

DoMNEB,  to  give. 

Dost  thou  ffive  f    I  give.  Donnes-tuf    Je  donne. 

Dost  thoQ  not  give  ?    I  do  not  give.  Ne  donnes-tu  pas  ?    Je  ne  donne  pas. 

Do6t  thou  not  give  it  ?    I  do  not  give  Ne  le  donnes-tu  pas  ?    Je  ne  le  donne 

it.  pas. 

Do  you  give?     We  give.  Donnez-vous /    Now  donnons. 

Do  you  give  them  ?    Wc  give  them.  Les  donnez-vous?    Nous  les  donnons. 

Tome.    7b  thee.     To  us.  Me.    Te.    Nous. 

To  you.     To  him.     To  Iftem,  Vous.    Lui.     Lew. 

To.    To  that  num.    To  that  child.  A.    A  cct  hommc.    A.  cct  enfant. 

To  whom  do  you  give  your  money  ?  X  qui  donnez-vous  voire  argent  ? 

I  give  it  to  my  father.  Je  le  donne  a  mon  p^re. 

To  the.  Au  (singular).    Aux  (plural). 

Dost  thou  give  me  the  fruit?  Me  donnes-tu  le  fruit  ? 

I  give  it  to  the  little  boy.  Je  le  donne  au  petit  garden. 

We  give  thee  the  books.  Nous  te  donnons  Ics  livres. 

I  give  you  the  papers.  Je  vous  donne  les  papiers. 

Do  you  give  us  your  pencils?  Nous  donnez-vous  vos  crayons ? 

I  give  him  my  pencils.  Je  lui  donne  mes  crayons. 

We  give  them  our  papers.  Nous  leur  donnons  nos  papiers. 

We  give  them  to  the  men.  Nous  les  donnons  aux  hommcs. 

Que  me  donnez-vous?  Je  te  donne  cet  anneau  d'or.  Que  nous 
donnes-tu?  Je  te  donne  ces  jolis  livres.  Que  donnons-nous  au 
petit  garden?  Nous  lui  donnons  ce  g&teau.  Donnez-vous  les 
melons  aux  soldats  ?  Non,  monsieur,  je  leur  donne  ces  fruits.  A 
qui  donnez-vous  cc  joli  canif  1     Je  le  donne  au  petit-fils  du  jardi- 


nier.  A  qui  donnez-vous  vos  beaux  crayons  1  Je  les  donne  a  mes 
amis.  Me  donnes-tu  le  bon  vin?  Non,  mon  ami,  je  te  donne  le 
cafe.  Nous  donnez-vous  le  lait  f  Nous  vous  donnons  le  lait  et  le 
th6.  Que  donnons-nous  a  mon  fr6re  ?  Nous  lui  donnons  nos  livres. 
Donnons-nous  ces  encriers  aux  petits  gargons?  Non,  madame, 
nous  leur  donnons  ces  petits  livres.  A  qui  donnez-vous  cet  atlas  ! 
Je  le  donne  t  Charles. 

Do  you  give  me  these  books  ?  I  give  you  these  books  and  these 
papers.  We  give  thee  these  pencils,  what  dost  thou  give  us  ?  I 
give  you  these  rings.  Do  you  give  your  ivory  inkstand  to  the 
master?  I  give  him  the  inkstand,  and  I  give  the  knives  to  the 
little  boys.  Do  you  give  them  these  gloves?  No,  sir,  we  give 
them  to  the  children.  To  whom  do  we  give  the  melons  ?  We 
give  them  to  the  soldier.  What  book  have  you  ?  I  have  that  (the 
one)  of  my  brother.  Have  you  not  his  papers  ?  No,  sir,  I  have 
those  of  the  master.  What  man  do  you  see  ?  I  see  the  one  who 
has  my  book.  What  soldiers  do  you  see  ?  I  see  those  who  have 
the  red  coats.  Whom  do  you  see  ?  I  see  the  gardener.  Do  you 
see  the  one  whom  you  wish  for  ?  Yes,  sir,  and  I  see  those  whom 
you  seek.  What  dost  thou  give  me  ?  I  give  thee  my  ivory  knife. 
We  give  you  our  books,  and  you  give  us  your  pencils.  Whom  do 
you  seek  ?  I  seek  the  man  whom  you  seek.  Do  you  give  him  his 
money?     I  give  him  his  money,  but  not  his  books. 


DoNNER,  to  give. 

Does  he  give  f    He  gives.  Bonne-til  F    H  donne. 

Does  he  not  give  1    He  does  not  give.  Ne  donnc-t-il  pas  ?    II  ne  donne  paa. 

Docs  he  not  give  it  ?    Ho  docs  not  Ke  le  donne-t-il  pas  ?    II  ne  le  donne 

give  it.  pas. 

DoUieygivei     TJiey  give.  Domient-ils  F    lis  donnent. 

Do  they  give  it  ?    They  give  it.  Le  donnent-ils?    Ds  le  donncnt 

li  to  me,     Tlum  to  me.  Me  le.     Me  les. 

It  to  you.    Them  to  you.  Vous  le.     Voiis  les. 

Docs  he  give  it  to  mc  ?  Me  le  donnc-t-il  ? 

lie  gives  it  to  yon.  II  vous  le  donne. 

Do  they  not  giro  them  to  you  ?  Ne  vous  les  donnent-ils  pas  ? 

They  do  not  give  them  to  me.  lis  ne  mc  les  donnent  pa^;. 


Of  fh^y  and  to  1h^  in  the  singalar,  ore  (f «  T  and  d  V  before  a  rowel  or  a  sUcnt  A  ;  in  the 
plural,  they  are  always  dt»  and  avx^ 

Of  the  man.     Of  the  men.  De  rhommc.    Dcs  bommes. 

Of  the  child.     Of  the  children.  De  Tcnfant.     Dcs  cnfants. 

To  the  man.    To  the  men.  A  fhomme.     Aux  bommes. 

To  the  child.     To  the  children.  A  Tcnfant.     Aux  cnfants. 

Of  the  mason.     Of  the  masons.  Du  ma^on.     Dcs  masons. 

To  the  mason.    To  the  masons.  Au  ma^on.     Aux  masons. 

Of  the  grocer.    To  the  grocer,  De  Vipider.     A  VSpieier. 

Ue  gives  the  money  to  the  grocer.  11  donnc  I'argent  k  T^picier. 

Me  donnez-vous  les  livre  des  petits  gargons  ?  Je  vous  les  donne. 
A  qui  le  maitre  donne-t-il  ce  cadeau  ?  H  me  le  doDne.  Ne  me  le 
donne-t-il  pas  ?  H  ne  vous  le  donne  pas.  A  qui  les  maitres  don- 
nent-ils  les  cabiers  des  enfants?  lis  vous  les  donuent.  Ne  vous  les 
donnent-ils  pas  ?  lis  ne  me  les  donnent  pas.  Le  jardinier  donne- 
t-il  son  fruit  a  Tepicier?  II  lui  donne  le  fruit  de  ces  arbres. 
L'epicier  donne-t-il  son  rateau  au  jardinier  1  II  lui  donne  son  ra- 
teau  et  ses  balais.  Qu'avez-vous  1  J'ai  le  beurre  de  l'epicier  et  les 
fruits  des  paysans.  Me  donnez-vous  cet  encrier  de  verre  ?  Je  vous 
le  donne.  Je  donne  ce  livre  d  I'ami  de  Jean.  Le  voisin  vous 
donne-t-il  ces  melons?  II  me  les  donne.  Qui  a  le  cabier  de 
I'enfantf  Je  I'ai.  Vous  le  donne-t-il  1  II  me  le  donne.  Lui 
don nez  vous  le  gateau  1    Je  lui  donne  le  g&teau  et  le  bon  fruit 

You  have  the  ivory  inkstand ;  do  you  give  it  to  me  ?  I  do  not 
give  it  to  you.  Do  you  give  it  to  tbe  cbild  of  our  neighbor  ?  I 
give  him  the  inkstand  and  tbe  copybook.  Have  you  tbe  wine  of 
the  grocer  1  We  have  bis  wine  and  bis  butter.  To  whom  does  tbe 
master  give  tbe  ivory  ?  Ho  gives  it  to  me.  Does  he  not  give  it 
to  me  1  He  does  not  give  it  to  you.  What  books  does  tbe  master 
seek  t  He  seeks  those  of  my  brother.  Does  be  seek  tbe  children 
whom  we  seek?  No,  sir,  he  seeks  those  who  have  bis  books. 
What  inkstand  do  you  seek  I  I  seek  tbe  one  of  tbe  grocer,  and 
my  brother  seeks  those  of  the  little  boys.  My  brother  gives  you 
the  pretty  ribbons.  Do  you  not  give  them  to  me  f  I  give  them  to 
you.  What  man  do  you  see'?  I  see  the  one  whom  you  seek. 
What  books  has  your  brother  ?  He  has  bis  dictionary  and  bis 
atlas.  Do  you  wish  for  tbe  coffee  ?  No,  sir,  I  thank  you.  What 
does  your  friend  take  t  He  takes  the  bread,  the  butter,  tbe  cheese, 
and  the  milk. 



8  4 

£tre,  to  he. 

Are  you f     Weave,  iHcH-vousf    Nova  tommes. 

Are  you  not?    We  are  not,  N'etes-vous  pas?    Nous  nc  som- 

mes  pas. 

Art  thou  f    lam  Ea-tu?     Je  suis. 

Art  tbou  not  ?    I  am  not.  N^cs-tu  pas  ?    Je  ne  suis  pas. 

Here,     Tliere,  IcL    Ld. 

In.     Under.  Dans.     Sous. 

The  store.    The  turf.  Le  magasin.    Le  gason. 

Thefoor.     A  relation  (kin).  'Leplancher.     \Jn  parent. 

Sick.     The  sick  man,  patient.  Malade.     Le  malade. 

Where.    Where  are  you  ?  Oil.     Oit  fetes-vous  ? 

It  to  thee.     Them  to  tlue.  Te  le.     Te  les. 

It  to  us.    Them  to  us.  Nous  le.    Nous  les. 

Dost  thou  give  it  to  me  ?  Me  le  donnes  tu  ? 

I  do  not  give  it  to  thee.  Je  ne  te  le  donne  pas. 

Do  they  not  give  them  to  us?  Ne  nous  les  donnent-ils  pas? 

They  give  them  to  us.  lis  nous  les  donnent. 

He  gives  them  to  thee.  II  te  les  donne. 

Tlicy  do  not  give  it  to  us.  Ds  no  nous  le  donnent  pas. 

Are  you  there  ?    We  are  here.  fites-vous  \k  ?    Nous  sommes  ici. 
Art  thou  under  the  tree  ?    I  am  on     Es-tu  fious  Tarbre  ?    Je  suis  sur  le 

the  turfl  gazon. 

Oil  es-tu  t  Je  suis  ici.  Es-ta  U  dans  le  jardint  Je  suis  ici 
dans  le  magasin.  £]tes-vous  sous  Tarbre  ?  Oui,  nous  sommes  sous 
Tarbre  sur  le  gazon.  £]tes-vous  malades?  Non,  monsieur,  nous 
ne  sommes  pas  malades.  N*es-tu  pas  parent  de  Charles!  Si, 
mademoiselle,  je  suis  son  frere.  Je  ne  suis  pas  le  fr^re  de  Jules, 
je  suis  son  cousin.  N'etes-vous  pas  dans  le  magasin  %  Je  suis  ici 
sur  le  plancher.  Je  suis  ton  parent.  Qu'a  votre  parent?  11  a  un 
bouton  d'or.  Ne  me  le  donne-t-il  pas  ?  11  ne  te  le  donne  pas. 
Vous  le  donne-t-il  ?  II  ne  nous  le  donne  pas.  Me  donne-t-il  ses 
livrest  II  ne  te  les  donne  pas.  Ne  vous  les  donne-t-il  pas?  11 
nous  les  donne.  Que  donnez-vous  k  cet  Lomme  ?  Je  lui  donne  un 
bon  marteau.  Que  donnez-vous  a  ses  enfants  ?  Je  leur  donne  ce 
pain  et  ce  fruit.     Me  donnes-tu  ce  melon  ?     Je  te  le  donne. 

Where  are  you  ?  I  am  here.  Are  you  in  the  store  or  in  the 
garden  t  I  am  in  the  store.  Are  you  on  the  bench  or  on  the 
floor  ?     We  are  on  the  bench.     Art  thou  not  sick  ?     I  am  not  sick. 


Art  tbou  there  under  the  tree  t  I  am  here  on  the  turf.  Art  thou 
not  on  the  floor  ?  I  am  here  on  the  bench.  Are  jon  not  omr  rela- 
tions ?  We  are  your  cousins.  What  has  onr  master  ?  He  has 
the  pretty  ivory  inkstand.  Does  he  give  it  to  us  ?  He  does  not 
give  it  to  us.  To  whom  does  he  give  the  gold  pencils?  He  gives 
them  to  thee.  Does  he  give  me  the  pretty  book  ?  He  gives  it  to 
thee.  Does  he  give  me  the  papers  ?  He  does  not  give  them  to 
thee,  he  gives  them  to  us.  To  whom  do  the  gardeners  give  their 
fruits  1  They  give  them  to  us.  What  books  do  those  little  boys 
seek  ?  They  seek  those  of  the  master.  Do  they  not  seek  those  of 
your  brother  ?  No,  sir,  they  do  not  seek  them.  What  dictionaiy 
do  you  seek  ?     I  seek  the  one  of  my  brother. 

30.— TRENTTfiME  LEgON. 

8  4 

£tbe,  to  he, 

Uhef    SeU  Eit-Uf    nest 

Is  he  not  ?    He  is  not.  N^est-il  pas  ?    II  nVst  pas. 

Are  they  f    They  are,  Sont-iUf    Ih  sont. 

Are  they  not  ?    They  are  not.  Ne  sont-ils  pas  ?    Us  ne  sont  pas. 

At  the  house  of.    At  my  house,  Chez  (preposition).     CJuz  tnoi. 

At  my  father's,  or  the  house  of  my  Chez  mon  p6rc. 


At  my  nncle^s,  or  the  house  of  my  Chez  mon  oncle. 


He  is  at  my  grandfather's.  II  est  chez  mon  grand-pdre. 

They  arc  at  my  brother's.  Hs  sont  chez  mon  fr^re. 

ft  to  him.    Them  to  him«  Le  luL    Les  IvL 

Do  yon  gire  it  to  him  ?  Le  lui  donnez-vous  ? 

I  do  not  give  it  to  him.  Je  ne  le  lui  donne  pas. 

We  give  them  to  him.  Nous  les  lui  donnons. 

Which  (relative  pronoun).  Q^i  (subject).     Q^e  (object). 

Yon  seek  the  book  which  is  here.  Yous  cherchez  le  livre  qui  est  icL 

You  seek  the  book  which  I  have.  Yous  cherchez  le  livre  que  j'aL 

We  here  see  that  qui  Is  the  subject  and  que  the  object  of  the  fbllowiog  verb. 

I  take  the  pencils  which  are  of  gold.  Je  prends  les  boutons  qui  sont  d'or. 

I  take  the  pencils  which'  you  give  me.  Je  prends  les  boutons  que  vous  me 


We  see  the  horses  which  are  in  the  Nous  voyons  lesohevaux  qui  sont  ^MOB 

field.  le  champ. 

We  see  those  which  you  have.  Nous  voyons  ceux  que  vous  avez 


Ou  est  votre  frere  ?  II  est  cliez  men  pere.  Votre  coasin  est-il 
chez  votre  ODclet  Nod,  monsieur,  il  est  chez  moi.  Ou  sont  vos 
livresl  Us  sont  U  sur  le  banc.  Vos  freres  sont-ils  chez  votre 
p6re  ?  Non,  madame,  ils  sont  chez  moi.  Quel  livre  avez-voas  f 
J'ai  celui  de  mon  frere.  Ne  le  lui  donnez-vous  pas  t  Je  le  lui 
donne.  Lui  donnez-vous  vos  papiers  ?  Je  ne  les  lui  donne  pas. 
Ne  donnes-tu  pas  tes  themes  aux  maitre  ?  Je  Ics  lui  donne.  Je 
veux  Fencrier  qui  est  sur  le  banc,  et  mon  fr^re  veut  le  livre  que 
vous  avez.  Ou  est  le  neveu  de  votre  voisin?  II  est  chez  moi,  et 
les  petits  gardens  sont  chez  mon  oncle.  Donnez-vous  le  marteau 
au  ma^on.  Je  le  lui  donne.  Donnez-vous  les  gateaux  au  petit 
garden  ?  Je  les  lui  donne.  Je  prends  les  livres  qui  sont  ici,  et 
vous  prenez  le  canif  du  maitre.  Me  donnes-tu  ce  joli  anneaut  Je 
ne  te  le  donne  pas,  je  le  donne  a  ton  fr6re. 

Where  is  your  friend  1  lie  is  at  my  house.  Is  your  brother 
at  the  neighbor's  !  No,  sir,  he  is  at  my  father's.  Where  are  your 
cousins  ?  They  are  at  my  uncle's,  and  the  children  of  the  neighbor 
are  at  my  grandfather's.  Have  you  not  the  knife  of  tlie  master 
I  have  it.  Do  you  give  it  to  him  ?  I  give  it  to  him.  Do  you 
give  the  rakes  to  the  gardener  ?  I  give  them  to  him.  Does  he 
give  his  fruits  to  your  father  1  He  gives  them  to  him.  Where  are 
the  children  of  the  neighbors  ?  They  are  at  my  house.  I  take  the 
book  which  is  there  on  the  bench,  and  you  take  the  ivory  inkstand 
of  the  master.  Do  you  seek  the  papers  which  are  here  t  No,  sir, 
I  seek  the  papers  which  you  have.  Whom  do  you  see  ?  I  see  the 
little  boy  who  has  my  book.  What  knife  do  you  take  I  I  take 
the  one  of  ivory.  Does  the  countryman  wish  for  our  horses  t  No, 
sir,  he  wishes  for  those  of  the  neighbors.  Do  those  men  seek  their 
pencils  which  are  here  *?  No,  sir,  they  seek  the  books  which  we 
have.  Do  they  give  them  to  the  master?  They  give  them  to 
him  and  he  gives  them  to  us. 


1         6 

Aller,  to  go. 

Do  you  go,  are  you  going  f  AlUz-vow  f 

We  gO)  we  are  going.  Nous  allons. 

DoBt  thou  go,  art  thou  going!  Vas-tu  f 


I  go,  I  am  going.  Je  vais. 

To  our  haute.     To  your  haute,  Chez  nout,     Chez  voub. 

To  kit  hottte.     To  their  houte.  Chez  luL     Chez  eux. 

To  ihyhouten    I  am  going  to  thy  house.     Chez  tot.    Je  vais  chez  toi. 

Art  thou  not  going  to  our  house  ?  Ne  vas-tn  pas  chez  nous  ? 

I  am  not  going  to  your  house.  Je  ne  Tais  pas  chez  tous. 

Are  you  not  going  to  his  house?  N^allez-Tous  pas  chez  lui? 

We  are  going  to  their  house.  Nous  aliens  chez  eux. 

r^        , .  ,      ^         , .  ,  S  Celui  qui.     Ceuz  qui  (subjects). 

Here  again  qtU  is  the  subject  and  que  the  object  of  the  following  verb. 

What  book  have  you  ?  Quel  livre  avcz-vous  ? 

I  hare  that  which  is  here.  JW  celui  qui  est  ici. 

I  have  that  which  you  seek.  J^ai  celui  que  yous  cherchez. 

What  papers  do  they  seek  ?  Quels  papiers  cherchent-ils  ? 

They  seek  thote  which  are  on  the  bench.  lis  cherchent  ceux  qui  sont  sur  Ic  banc. 

They  seek  thote  which  you  wish  for.  Us  cherchent  cetix  que  tous  voulez. 

Ou  vas-tut  Je  vais  chez  moi.  Ne  vas-tu  pas  chez  noust  Je 
ne  vais  pas  chez  vous,  je  vais  chez  mon  fr5re.  N'allez-vous  pas 
chez  lui?  Non,  monsiear,  noas  alloDS  chez  nous.  Allez-vous  chez 
le  voisin?  Non,  mademoiselle,  nous  n'allons  pas  chez  lui.  0(\ 
allez-vous  t  Nous  allons  chez  vous.  N'allons-nous  pas  chez 
nous?  Nous  allons  chez  ces  hommes.  Vas-tu  chez  eux?  Je 
ne  vais  pas  chez  eux ;  je  vais  chez  toL  Quel  livre  donnez-vous  d 
cet  en&nt?  Je  lui  donne  celui  qui  est  chez  moi.  Me  donnez-vous 
celui  que  je  veux  ?  Je  vous  donne  ceux  qui  sont  chez  vous.  Quels 
cahiers  avez-vous  ?  J'ai  ceux  que  le  maitre  me  donne.  Que  cherche 
cet  homme  ?  H  cherche  ses  gants.  Cherche-t-il  ceux  qui  sont  ici  ? 
Non,  monsieur,  il  cherche  ceux  de  cet  enfant.  Quel  encrier  voulez- 
vons  ?  Je  veux  celui  du  maitre.  Ne  voulez-vous  pas  celui  que  nous 
avons  ?  Je  ne  le  veux  pas.  Vas-tu  au  magasin  ?  Non,  madame, 
je  vais  chez  moi. 

Where  art  thou  going?  I  am  going  to  the  store.  Art  thou 
not  going  to  my  house  ?  I  am  not  going  to  thy  house.  Where  are 
you  going  ?  We  are  going  to  our  house.  Are  you  not  going  to 
oar  house  ?  We  are  not  going  to  your  house.  Is  my  brother  at 
your  house  ?  No,  sir,  he  is  at  his  house.  Where  are  your  cousins  ? 
They  are  at  their  house.  Do  you  wish  for  the  book  which  I  have  ? 
I  wish  for  the  one  which  is  at  your  house.  What  knife  do  you  seek? 
I  seek  that  of  your  little  brother.   Do  you  wish  for  those  books  which 



I  have  1  No,  sir,  I  wish  for  those  which  are  here  on  the  bench.  Do 
you  seek  the  children  who  are  in  the  garden?  No,  sir,  I  seek  those 
whom  you  seek.  To  whom  do  you  give  that  fruit  1  I  give  it  to 
the  little  boys.  Do  you  not  give  it  to  me  I  I  do  not  give  it  to 
thee.  Does  the  general  give  us  his  horse  f  He  does  not  give  it  to 
us.     Does  he  give  it  to  the  soldier  t    He  does  not  give  it  to  him. 

Alleb,  to  go. 

Doe$  he  go,  is  he  going  f 
He  goes,  he  is  going. 
Do  they  go,  are  they  going  f 
They  go,  they  are  going.. 
Something.    Nothing,  not  any  thing. 
Bomevohere.    Nowhere,  not  any  tcfiere. 
To-day.    Now,  at  present. 
This  morning.    This  evening. 
Where  is  your  father  going  to^lay? 
He  is  not  going  any  where. 
Are  your  brothers  going  any  where  ? 
They  are  going  nowhere. 
Where  is  your  cousin  going  this  morn- 
He  is  going  to  the  store. 
Are  you  going  any  where  this  evening  ? 
I  am  going  now  to  my  grandfather's. 
.Does  the  master  give  you  any  thing  ? 




Us  vont 

Quelque  chose.  Rien  {ne  bef.  the  verb). 

Quelque  part.    Nulle  part  (ne  bef.  v.). 

AujovnThuL    A  present. 

Ce  matin.    Ce  soir. 

Oh  va  votre  p6re  aujourd'hui? 

n  ne  va  nulle  part. 

Yos  fr^res  vont-ils  quelque  part? 

Us  ne  vont  nulle  part. 

Oil  va  votre  cousin  ce  matin  ? 

n  va  au  maga^n. 

Allez-vous  quelque  part  ce  soir? 

Je  vais  k  pr6sent  chez  mon  grand-p^re. 

Le   maitre  vous    donne-t-il   quelque 

chose  ? 
n  mo  donne  quelque  chose, 
n  ne  vous  donne  rien. 

n  ne  va  nulle  part     Scs  fils  ne 

lis  vont  au  palais  du  roi.    Votre 

n  va  chez  lui.    Yos 

Us  vont   k  pr6sent 

He  gives  me  something. 
He  gives  you  nothing. 

Ou  va  le  g^n^ral  ce  matin  ? 
vont-ils  nulle  part  aujourd'hui  ? 
frere  Charles  va-t-il  quelque  part  ce  soir? 
cousins  vont-ils  quelque  part  aujourd'hui? 
chez  mon  oncle.  Oi\  vont  ses  petits  garc^ons  ce  matin  ?  lis  vont 
au  jardin  du  marchand.  Vont-ils  quelque  part  ce  soir?  Non, 
monsieur,  ils  ne  vont  nulle  part.  Que  me  donnez-vous?  Je  ne 
vous  donne  rien.  Donnez-vous  quelque  chose  k  mon  frere  ?  Je  ne 
lui  donne  rien.     Le  maitre   donne-t-il  quelque  chose  aux  petits 


gar^ons  1  U  lenr  donne  ses  jolis  livres.  Lenr  donne-t-il  son  joli 
eilbrier  ?  II  le  lenr  doune.  Les  enfants  donnent-ils  leiirs  fruits  au 
maitret  Us  les  lai  donnent  Me  donnez>vous  ce  joli  annean? 
Je  ne  vous  le  donne  pas.  Le  donnez-yous  ik  mon  fr^ret  Je  le  lui 

Where  does  the  general  go  to-day  1  He  is  going  to  the  palace 
of  the  king.  Are  his  sons  going  any  where  now  ?  They  are  not 
going  any  where.  Is  your  bpother  going  to  the  general's  this  morn- 
ing? No,  sir,  he  is  going  to  our  grandfather's.  Where  are  the 
children  going  this  evening?  They  are  going  to  the  garden.  Do 
yon  give  any  thing  to  the  mason  ?  I  give  him  nothing.  Whom  do 
yon  see  ?  I  see  the  man  who  seeks  yoo.  Does  the  master  take  the 
book  which  is  on  the  bench  ?  He  takes  the  one  which  yon  wish  for. 
Does  he  give  it  to  your  brother?  He  does  not  give  it  to  him. 
Does  he  give  it  to  you  ?  He  gives  it  to  me.  What  papers  do  you 
seek  ?  I  seek  those  which  are  here,  and  my  brother  seeks  those 
which  you  have.  Where  are  your  brothers?  They  are  at  the 
neighbor's.  Where  are  you  going  now  ?  I  am  going  home  (to  my 
house).  Is  your  uncle  going  any  where  to-day  ?  He  is  going  no- 
where. Are  you  going  to  our  house  this  morning?  No,  sir,  we 
are  going  to  the  neighbor's.  Where  are  the  soldiers  going  this 
evening?  They  are  going  nowhere.  Do  you  give  them  any  thing  ? 
I  give  them  nothing. 


Ah !  how  do  you  do  ?    It  is  an  age  Ah !  comment  tous  portcz-voua  ?  II  y 

since  I  have  seen  joa.  a  un  si^cle  que  je  ne  tous  ai  vu. 

I  am  very  well,  thank  you ;  and  I  am  Je  me  porte  trte-hien,  merei ;  et  je 

delighted  to    see    you  in  good  suis  charm6  de  vous  voir  en  bonne 

health.  sant^. 

Where  have  you  been  during  all  the  Oil  avez-vons    M  pendant  tout   le 

time  since  I  have  seen  you  ?  temps  que  je  ne  vous  ai  pas  vu? 

I  have  been  to  New  Tork,  where  I  J^ai  ^t6  k  New  York,  oii  je  suis  rest6 

stayed  two  months.  deux  mois. 

I  am  very  glad  to  see  you ;  how  long  Je  suis  bien  aise  de  vous  voir ;  depuls 

have  you  been  back?  quand  ^tes-Tous  de  retour  ? 

Only  since  yesterday.    And  how  are  Depuis  hier  seulement.    Kt  comment 

they  all  at  your  house ?  va  tout  ic  monde  chcz  vous? 

Erery  body  is  well.  Tout  le  monde  se  porte  bien. 



How  do  your  mother  and  Bister  do  ? 

My  sister  is  perfectly  well,  but  my 
mother  is  indisposed. 

Ah,  what  is  the  matter  with  her  ? 

She  has  a  very  bad  headache. 

Is  she  subject  to  headaches  ? 

No,  she  often  has  the  teethachc,  and 
a  sore  throat,  but  not  the  head- 
ache ;  perhaps  she  has  taken  cold. 

L  am  yery  sorry,  and  I  hope  that  it 

will  be  nothing. 
Is  your  father  at  home  ? 
No,  sir,  he  has  gone  to  the  country 

for  a  week. 
And  is  your  brother  still  absent  ? 

He  is  absent  at  present,  but  he  will  bo 
back  to-morrow. 

Will  it  not  rain  to-morrow  ? 

I  belieye  not ;  it  is  very  fine  weather 
at  present. 

It  has  been  very  agreeable  weather, 
but  it  begins  to  be  too  dry. 

Do  you  not  like  warm  weather  ? 

I  like  warm  weather  in  winter,  but  in 
summer  I  prefer  cool  weather. 

Come  and  dine  with  me  to-day. 

I  cannot  to-day,  but  to-morrow  I  am 
at  your  command. 

Well,  good-by;  we  shall  see  you  to- 
morrow about  five,  it  is  agreed. 

I  shall  not  fail 

Comment  se  portent  madamc  votre 

m5re  et  mademoiselle  votre  soeur? 
Ma  soeur  se  porte  parfaitement  bien, 

mais  ma  mere  est  indispos6c. 
Ah,  qu'est-ce  qu'elle  a  done  ? 
Elle  a  tr^mal  a  la  t6te. 
Est-elle  sujette  aux  mauz  de  t^te  ? 
Non,  elle  a  souvent  mal  aux  dents,  et 

mal  k  la  gorge,  mais  non  pas  k  la 

t^te ;   elle  s'est  pcut-^*tre  enrhu- 

Ten  suis  bien  fftch6,  et  jVsp^re  quece 

ne  sera  rien. 
Monsieur  votre  p^re  cst-il  k  la  maison  ? 
Non,  monsieur,  il  est  al]6  k  la  campagne 

pour  t^ne  semaino. 
Et  monsieur  votre  fr5re  est-il  encoro 

absent  ? 
II  est  absent  a  present,  mais  demain  il 

sera  de  retour. 
Ne  pleuvra-t-il  pas  demain  ? 
Jc  crois  que  uon ;  il  fait  bien  beau 

temps  k  present. 
II  a  fait  un  temps  tr6s-agr6ablc,  mais 

il  commence  k  fairc  trop  sec. 
N'aimez-vous  pas  la  chaleur  ? 
En  hiver,  j'aimc  la  chaleur,  mais  en 

d*t^,  je  pr^f^re  un  temps  frais. 
Yenez  diner  avcc  nous  aujonrd^bui. 
Aujourd^hui  jc  ne  le  puis  pas,  mais 

demain  je  suis  k  vos  ordrcs. 
Eh  bien,  adieu  ;  on  vous  verra  demain 

vers  cinq  heurcs,  c'cst  convcnu. 
Je  n^y  manquerai  pas. 


1.— PREMIfeRE  LEgON. 

Have.                    You,  Avez.*  Votta. 

Z  Have.  Je,  At, 

Have  you?  I  have.  Avez-voua?         J'ai. 

1.  When  the  pronoun  follows  tbo  verb,  it  ia  joined  to  It  by  ft  hyphen. 

2.  Je  becomes/  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  A. 

77ie  (singular).  Ze  (masculine).         Za  (feminine). 

ITie  (plural).  Ze8  (maa.).  Lea  (fern.). 

a.  The  plaral  of  nonns  is  generally  formed  in  French  as  in  English,  by  adding  to  the 
lingular  an  «,  silent  in  pronunciation. 

4^  AH  nouns  in  French  are  either  masculine  or  feminine.  They  have  no  neuter  gender. 
\£a6ealine  nouns  will  be  placed  In  the  leflrhand  column,  and  feminine  in  the  right,  as  seen 

The  book. 
The  books. 
The  desk. 
The  desks. 
The  papers. 
The  fruU, 
The  fruits. 

The  pen. 
The  pens. 
The  table. 
The  tables 
The  Utter. 
The  letters. 
The  apple. 
The  apples. 


Le  livre. 
Les  livrea. 
Le  pupitre. 
Les  pupitres. 
Le  papier, 
Les  papiers. 
Le  fruit, 
Les  fruits. 

1a  plume. 
Les  plumes. 
La  table. 
Les  tables. 
La  lettre. 
Les  lettres. 
La  pomme. 
Les  pommes. 

5.  As  here  seen,  le  Is  used  with  the  moaculine  singular  of  nouns,  la  with  the  feminine 
ftin^Jar,  and  Ua  with  the  plural  of  both  numbers ;  L  e.  The  article  agrees  with  Its  noun  in 
gender  and  number. 

Sir,  mister.  Madam,  Monsieur.  Madame. 

ft.  Mofuiew  Is  contracted  to  M.  and  madame  to  Mme. ;  but  only  before  a  proper  name. 
Monaitur  is  proaoonced  with  both  the  n  and  the  r  silent 

Have  you  the  book  ?  Avez-vous  le  llvre  ?  ^ 

Ko,  sir,  I  have  the  pen.  Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  la  plume. 

*  Words  introduced  for  the  Arst  time  are  printed  in  Italics,  and  their  pronunciation  Is 
marked  at  the  bottom  of  the  pages  where  they  occur.  The  figures  mark  the  simple  vowol- 
soands  accordin;;  to  the  table,  pa^e  8.  The  silent  letters  are  In  Italics.  In  a  few  coses  the 
sounds  are  denoted  by  a  change  In  the  letter.  Monosyllables,  in  which  each  letter  has  its 
natural  sound,  ad  given  on  pages  8, 10, 1 1,  it  is  deemed  unnecessary  to  mark. 

1    •       IS       6     r       13  cs        32    IS        1  1    las       ssia     u  u     is  • 

a-reo,  voa«,  al,  Ie«,  livr«,  plume,  pu-pitr«,  tabid,  po-pier,  fruity  pomme,  moi^-sieur, 

II  11  4      13  5 

mo-dame,  non,  pre-mler. 


1.  Avez-vous  les  livrest  2.  Non,  madame,  j*ai  les  plames. 
3.  Avez-vous  le  pupitre  1  4.  Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  la  table.  5.  Avez- 
vous  les  papiers  ?  6.  Non,  madame,  j'ai  les  lettres.  7.  Avez-vous 
les  fruits?  •  8.  Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  les  pommes.  9.  J'ai  le  livre ; 
avez-vous  le  papier  ?     10.  Non,  madame,  j'ai  la  lettre. 

1.  Have  you  the  pen?  2.  I  have  the  pen.  3.  Have  you  the 
book?  4.  No,  sir,  I  have  the  paper.  5.  Have  you  the  desks? 
6.  No,  madam,  I  have  the  tables.  7.  Have  you  the  letter?  8.  I 
have  the  letter.  9.  Have  you  the  papers?  10.  No,  sir,  I  have  the 
fruit  11.  Have  you  the  apples?  12.  I  have  the  apples.  13.  I 
have  the  books ;  have  you  the  tables  ?  14.  No,  madam,  I  have  the 



i.  Names  of  males  are  mascnlinc,  as  le  roi^  the  king ;  U  liant  the  lion. 

2.  Names  of  females  are  feminine,  as  la  reifie^  the  queen ;  la  lionne^  the  lioness. 

8.  Names  of  things,  and  also  of  animals,  when  the  male  and  female  are  not  ea^ly  dis- 
tinguished, are  generally  feminine  if  they  end  in  e  mute,  and  masenline  if  not  ending  in  • 
mute,  as  la  plume^  the  pen;  la  tortue,  the  turtle;  U  ftr^  the  iron;  It  rotaigfuA^  the 
nightingale.  To  this  rule,  however,  there  are  many  exceptionSi  For  more  on  this  subject, 
see  Orammaiical  RuUa  and  PrindpUa^  psgo  428-9. 

Yes.  And,  Oui,  Si,  EL 

4  Fes,  in  answer  to  a  negative  question,  is  most  commonly  9L 



The  coffee. 

The /or*. 

Le  cafi. 


The  sugar. 




The  bread. 

The  meat. 

Le  pain. 


The  tea. 

The  beer. 

Le  thL 

La  biere. 

The  dish. 

The  candU, 


La  chandelU, 

6.  Le  and  la  become  P  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  h. 

The  inkstand.  The  ink.  Venerier,  Ventre. 

The  milk.  The  wUer.  Le  lait.  Veau. 

The  bread  and  the  meat.  Le  pain  et  U  viandc. 

Tea,  sir.  Tea,  madam.  Qui,  monsieur.  Oni,  madame. 

Mirny  it.  Her^  it.  Le.  La. 

Them  (mas.).  Them  (fern.).  Les.  Les. 

8.  These  pronouns  are  placed  immediately  beibro  the  verb,  and  2e,  2a,  are  elided  like  the 
article  above.  

♦  Fruit  Is  more  ly^quently  plural  in  French  than  in  English. 

s      IB       5        a        \  1%        14     ns  «    IS7         1        s      s       s      las     s 

et,  four-chett#,  bucr«,  ik-rine,  pain,  vi-ande,  tA6,  bl-cr«,  plat,  chan-dclle,  en-cricr,  oncrf, 

7        IT       7  9      M7 

laU,  eau,  le«,  dcu-zium^. 


HaTe  yon  the  coffee  ?  Ayez-vous  le  caf6  f 

Yes,  sir,  I  have  it  Qui,  monsieur,  je  l*ai. 

Hare  yoa  the  fork?  Avez-yous  la  fonrchettc? 

I  haye  it  Je  Tai. 

Haye  you  the  inkstands  ?  Ayez-youB  les  encriers  f 

Tes,  madam,  I  haye  them.  Qui,  madame,  je  les  ai. 

7.  Zs  standfl  for  a  noan  in  the  maaenllne  singnlar,  kt  for  one  in  tho  feminine  singaUr, 
and  les  for  the  plaral  of  both  genders;  L  e.  Pronouns  agree  with  their  anteoodenta  In  gen- 
der and  number. 

1.  tPai  le  sacre  ;  avez-vons  la  farine  ?  2.  Oui,  monsieur,  je  Tai. 
3.  Avez-voDB  le  th6?  4.  Oui,  madame,  j'ai  le  th6  et  le  beurre. 
5.  Avez-vous  le  platt  G.  Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  la  chandeUe.  7.  Avez- 
vous  I'encret  8.  Oui,  madame,  j'ai  I'encre  et  la  plume.  9.  Avez- 
vous  le  lait?  10.  Oui,  madame,  je  Pai.  11.  Avez-vous  I'eau  et 
le  caf6  ?  12.  Oui,  monsieur,  je  les  ai.  13.  J'ai  les  pupitres  et  les 
tables;  avez-vous  le  papier?  14.  Oui,  madame,  je  I'ai.  15.  J'ai 
la  fouTcliette  et  le  sucre ;  avez-vous  la  viande?  16.  J'ai  la  viande, 
la  farine  et  le  pain. 

1.  Have  you  the  beert  2.  Yes,  sir,  I  have  it  3.  Have  you 
the  dish  and  the  candle?  4.  Yes,  madam,  I  have  them.  5.  Have 
yoa  the  inkstand  ?  6.  I  have  it,  and  I  have  the  milk  and  the 
water.  7.  I  have  the  coffee ;  have  you  the  sugar  and  the  milk  ? 
8.  No,  sir,  I  have  the  bread,  the  flour,  and  the  meat.  9.  Have  you 
the  fork?  10.  Yes,  sir,  I  have  it  11.  Have  you  the  dish?  12. 
Yes,  madam,  I  have  the  dish,  the  fork,  and  the  candle.  13.  Have 
yoa  the  tea  and  the  butter?  14.  I  have  them,  and  I  have  the 
coffee,  the  milk,  and  the  water. 



1.  French  e^J^cti^^s  <^^®  varied  in  gender  and  number.  The  plural  of  ndjectives,  like 
that  of  nofuna,  is  generally  formed  by  adding  «  to  the  singular. 

2.  The  feminine  of  French  adjectives  always  ends  in  e  mute.  When,  therefore,  the 
masculine  enda  in  a  silent  e,  it  is  unchanged  in  the  feminine ;  but  when  it  does  not  end  in  a 
silent  e,  it  takes  one  for  tho  feminine. 

MASOiTLnnt.  nacnriKa. 

Young  (singnlar).  Jeune.  Jeune. 

Young  (plural).  Jeunes.  Jnmes, 

^  .  i  Le  deuxieme.*  La  deuxieme. 

^"^  ««^  ( Le  second.  La  seconde. 

*  DetKeime  is  the  second  of  a  scries. 

0  4     21  «     SI 

Jeune,  se-gon<f,  se-gonde. 



The  tfiird. 

Le  troisihne. 

La  troinone. 

Large  (singular), 

Grand  (gros). 

Orande  {grouey 

Large  (plural). 






My  (singular). 



Jfy  (plural). 



Tour  (singular). 



Your  (plural). 



My  wine. 

My  bottU. 

Mon  vin. 

Ma  houteilU. 

Your  gUm, 



Voire  verre. 

Votre  attiette. 

My  butter. 

My  cream. 

Mon  beurre. 

Ma  creme. 

Your  volume. 



Votre  volume. 


8.  Adjectires  as^eo  with  tholr  nouns  In  gond«r  and  nambor. 

The  second  volume.    The  second  leaf. 
The  bad  butter.    The  bad  cream. 
The  large  glasses.    The  large  plates. 

Bfy  inkstands.    My  bottles. 
Your  volumes.    Your  leaves. 

Or.  Also. 

The  first  or  the  second. 
The  glass  and  the  bottle  also. 

Lo  second  volume.  La  seconde  feuille. 
Le  mauvais  beurre.  La  mauvaise  cr^mc. 
Les  grands  verres.    Les  grandes  aa- 

Mes  encriers.    Mes  bouteillcs. 
Vos  volumes.    Vos  feuilles. 
Ou.  AusH. 

Le  premier  ou  le  second. 
Le  verre  et  la  bouteille  aussi. 

1.  J'ai  mon  vin  et  votre  bouteille.  2.  Avez-vous  le  deuxieme 
on  le  troisi^me  volume  ?  3.  J'ai  le  deuxieme  et  le  troisi^me  aussi. 
4.  Avez-vous  les  grands  encriers  ou  les  grandes  chandelles  ?  5.  J'ai 
les  grands  encriers  et  la  mauvaise  encre.  6.  Avez-vous  votre  vin  ? 
7.  J'ai  mon  vin  et  mes  verres.  8.  Avez-vous  vos  grandes  assiettes  ? 
9.  Je  les  ai.  10.  Avez-vous  le  beurre  ou  la  cremet  11.  J'ai  le 
beurre  et  la  cr6me  aussi.  12.  Avez-vous  le  mauvais  sucret  13. 
Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  le  mauvais  ih6  et  la  mauvaise  biere. 

1.  Have  you  the  first  volume  or  the  second?  2.  I  have  the 
second  and  the  third.  3.  Have  you  the  bad  flour  ?  4.  Yes,  sir,  I 
have  it.  5.  Have  you  the  bad  bread  1  6.  Yes,  madam,  I  have  it 
7.  Have  you  the  large  bottle  ?  8.  I  have  the  large  bottle  and  the 
large  glass.  9.  Have  you  your  plates?  10.  Yes,  sir,  I  have  my 
plates  and  my  wine.  11.  I  have  the  bad  butter;  have  you  the 
cream  ?  12.  Yes,  madam,  I  have  it.  13.  Have  you  the  first  leaf 
or  the  second?  14.  I  have  the  first  leaf  and  the  second  also. 
15.  I  have  the  large  leaves  and  the  large  volumes. 

*  8ee  lesson  4, 2. 

»  127  S  8  17  17  10       r  10  7  SI  7      U  17       U 

troi-zium«L  graiuf,  grander  gro«,  sroaM,  niaa*TaIi>,  inau-vaiz<>,  mon,  mo<,  Totr«f  voc,  vin, 

18       «  7  1     134  11  *  MM  »  IT       W 

boa>tcin«,  verr0,  a«-slctt«,  bearr«,  crdm«,  vo-lum«,  fouill^,  au«-si. 


4.— QUATRlfiME  LEgON. 


1.  We  hare  seen  (Leeson  8,  2)  that  the  femiolne  of  adjeetives  Is  genenllj  fonned  by 
adding  a  silent  e,  as  le  mauvaii  tli^,  la  mauvaite  bidre ;  and  that  when  the  mascaline  ends 
In  «  mate,  the  fbminino  is  the  same,  as  le  roi  eoupable^  the  guilty  king ;  la  reine  eaupabU^ 
the  guilt  J  qneen. 

3.  Adjectiyes  ending  in  el^  eil^  Un,  ot^  as^  ot^  et^  ot^  doable  the  final  consonant  and  add 
s  mate ;  as, 


Whaty  which  (adjective).  Quel.  QtteUe. 

Good.  Bon,  Bonne, 

Bigy  toarse  (also  large).  Gros,  Grosse, 

%opareU^  pareilU, equal ;  aneUn^ aneUnns^  ancient ;  ffrcUy  grants  fat;  tnuety  mtuUe^ 
mote;  ao<^  9oUe^  foolish. 

&  Ac^'ectlves  ending  in/change  it  to  «e,  and  those  In  m  to  m,  for  the  feminine,  as  vi/^ 
H9€,  llrely ;  heureutu,  htureiue^  happy. 

4.  Adjectives,  as  also  noans,  ending  in  e»r,  change  these  letters,  for  the  feminine,  some« 
tinoes  into  euM,  as  mtnteur,  nunimuey  lying;  Wee,  as  aeteur,  actric^^  one  who  acts; 
tfreaae,  as  peeheur^  pMure»8€^  slnAil.  Sometimes  by  the  general  mle,  as  mallleur^  mei' 
iZevrs,  better.    For  more  on  this  subject,  see  Grammatical  EtUea  and  PrinclpUs,  p.  485-6. 

Small,  little;  the  small  one,  tlu  little        Petit,  U  petit.     Petite,  la  petite. 

&  One  after  an  a^jcctlTe  is  not  to  be  translated  into  French.  The  good  (one),  le  hon, 
la  homne;  the  big  (one),  le  groe,  la  groete. 

What  heef  (or  ox).    What  cow.  Quel  heeuf.     Quelle  vache. 

The  good  hat.     The  good  slate,  Le  bon  chapeau.    La  bonne  ardoise. 

The  coarse  ehoe.    The  coarse  boot,  Le  gros  Soulier.     La  grosse  botte. 

The  large  glove.    The  large  chair.  Le  grand  gani.    La  grande  chaise. 

The  little  bag.    The  small  trunk,  Le  petit  sac.     La  petite  malic. 

Have  If     Ton  have,  Ai-jef     Votu  avez. 

What.  Que  (qu^  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  h). 
0.  What,  belonging  to  a  noon,  is  quel;  meaning  what  tfUng^  it  is  que. 

What  hat  have  you  ?  Quel  chapeau  avez-vous  ? 

What  have  you  ?  Qu'avez-vous  ? 

Have  I  the  good  beef?  Ai-je  le  bon  boeuf ? 

You  have  it.  Vous  Tavez. 

Have  I  the  coarse  boots  ?  Ai-je  les  grosses  bottes  ? 

Tou  have  them.  Vous  les  avez. 

1.  Ai-je  la  petite  vache  ?  2.  Vous  I'avez.  3.  Ai-je  votre  ardoise  ? 
4.  Non,  monsieur,  vous  avez  mon  petit  sac.  5.  Quels  souliers  avez- 
Tons?  6.  J'ai  les  bons  souliers  et  les  bonnes  bottes.  7.  Ai-je  vos 
gants?     8.  Oui,  monsieur,  vous  les  avez.     9.  Qu'avez-vous  1     10. 

»       n  15  9  JO  »         U  »         0  1        11        1         12  6         11  » 

kcL  bon,  bonn«,  boeuf  (pL  bosnA),  mcn-teur,  men-teozo,  ac-tenr,  ac-tric^,  pe-ciieur,  pec ii«- 
c  I  ll«l»lBia5       u         s  *  ♦!«       *w        *._'...  T 

reML  vache,  cha-pcao,  ar-dolw,  son-Uer,  bott«,  gan<,  chaixe.  po-t«,  pe-Ut^,  ko,  ka-tn-cm*', 

mei-Uenr,  mei-lleore. 



J'ai  les  grandes  chaises  et  les  petites  malles.  1 1.  Qaels  boeufs  avez- 
Yoas?  12.  J'ai  mes  boeufs  et  mes  vaches.  13.  Ai-je  votre  cha- 
peau  ?  14.  Vous  Tavez.  15.  Ai-je  votre  ardoise  *?  16.  Non,  ma- 
dame  ;  Tous  avez  voire  ardoise  et  votre  livre.  17.  Qu*avez-voiist 
18.  J'ai  mon  sac  et  mes  gants.  19.  Avez-voos  la  grosse  chaise  et 
la  petite  malle  1     20.  Je  les  ai. 

1.  What  have  you  1  2.  I  have  the  shoes  and  the  boots. 
3.  What  shoes  have  you  ?  4.  I  have  the  good  ones.  5.  Have  I 
your  gloves?  6.  No,  sir,  I  have  them.  7.  What  hat  have  you? 
8.  I  have  the  good  hat  and  the  good  boots.  9.  What  slate  have 
yout  10.  I  have  the  big  one.  11.  Have  you  the  small  gloves? 
12.  Yes,  madam,  I  have  them.  13.  What  cow  have  you?  14.  I 
have  the  good  cow.  15.  What  ox  have  you  ?  16. 1  have  the  large 
one.  17.  Have  you  the  large  chair?  18.  No,  sir,  I  have  the  small 
one.  19.  What  bag  have  you?  20.  I  have  the  little  one.  21. 
What  have  you  ?  22.  I  have  the  bag,  the  chair,  and  the  trunk. 
23.  What  trunk  have  you  ?  24.  I  have  the  big  one.  25.  Have  I 
your  trunks  ?     26.  No,  sir,  I  have  them. 



A^oi»  Ne-piUf  ne-point. 

1.  Jir«  ifl  placed  before  the  verb,  pas  and  point  after  it   Paint  la  atronger  than  pat,    iir« 

becomes  tC  before  a  vowel  or  a  ailent  h. 
Have  jou  not  the  fork  ? 
I  have  it  not. 

Havo  I  not  your  inkstandfl  ? 
You  have  them  not 
Tou  have  not.    I  have  not. 

N^ayez-vous  pas  hi  fourcbette  ? 

Je  ne  Tai  pas. 

N*ai-je  pas  tos  encriers? 

Vous  ne  les  areis  pas. 

Vous  n'avez  pas.    Je  n*ai  pas. 


A  J  <me. 



II  pencil. 

A  BoU-cellar, 

Un  crayon. 

Une  saliere. 

A  eoptf-book. 


Un  cahier. 


Uj  father. 

My  mother. 

Mon  pere. 

Ma  mere. 

A  brother. 

A  aieter. 

Un  frere. 

Une  eamr. 

Pretty^  the  pretty  one. 

Mi,  lejoli. 

Jolie,  In  jolle. 

The  knife. 

The  spoon. 

Le  eouieau. 

La  euiller. 

The  cotton. 

The  wool. 

Le  eoton. 

La  laine. 

1     1814     Si    aa 

AU21       113T          1 

115           1              7              7 

7             II       IS  U      U  IS 

pas,  polnf,  un,  un*,  cra-yon,  sa-lior«,  ca-Aier,  pag<»,  p(ir«,  mcT«,  fr6rd,  aoeur,  Jo-ll,  )o-ll«» 
»        If      u  4    A      i<  n        7        14      u  7 
cou-teau,  cu-iller,  co-ton,  laine,  cin-ki-cme. 


Of ^  from,  /)«,  (f  before  a  rowel  or  a  sOent  A. 

I  have  a  leaf  of  my  book.  J^ai  une  feuille  de  mon  Ilrre. 

What  have  I  ?  Qu'ai-je  ? 

Toa  hare  the  pencil  of  my  father,  or  Voua  avez  le  crajon  de  mon  pfire. 
my  father's  pencil. 

S.  The  English  poeseasiye  caoe  is  always  translated,  as  in  this  last  phrase,  with  ds  be- 
Ibre  the  possessor.    The  French  have  no  possessive  case. 

My  sister^s  glove  (the  glove  of  my  sis-    Lo  gant  de  ma  soeor. 


Edxard'i  book.    Henrjfs  pen.  Le  livre  ^Edouard.  La  plume  ^Henru 

Uy  fathcr^B  oxen.  Lea  bosufs  de  mon  pdre. 

My  mother*a  cows.  Lea  vaches  de  ma  mdre. 

Have    you   not   my  brothers*  copy-    K^avez-vous  pas  les  cahiem  de  mes 

books  ?  frdres  ? 

I  have  not  your  sisters^  spoons.  Je  n'ai  pas  les  cnillers  de  vos  sceurs. 

Have  I  not  your  salt-cellar?  N^ai-je  pas  votre  salidre? 

Yes,  sir,  you  have  it.  Si,  monsieur,  vous  Tavez. 

1.  N'arez-vous  pas  la  premiere  page  de  mon  livre  1    2.  J'ai  la 

premiere  page  et  la  seconde  aussi.     3.  Avez-vous  mon  joli  couteaut 

4.  Je  ne  Tai  pas.  5.  Avez-voua  le  coton  ou  la  laine  t  6.  J'ai  le 
colon,  je  n'ai  pas  la  laine.  7.  N'ai-je  pas  votre  crayon  f  8.  Vous 
ne  Tavez  pas.  9.  N'avez-vous  pas  la  saliere  de  ma  mere?  10.  Je 
ne  I'ai  pas.  11.  N'ai-je  pas  les  cahiers  de  vos  frdres?  12.  Non, 
monsieur,  vous  ne  les  avez  pas.  13.  N'avez-vous  pas  le  couteau  do 
mon  p6re?  14.  Si,  monsieur,  je  I'ai.  15.  N'avez-vous  pas  le  cou- 
teau et  la  cuiller  d'Edouard  ?  16.  Si,  madame,  je  les  ai.  17.  N'ai- 
je  pas  un  bon  crayon  ?  18.  Vous  avez  un  bon  crayon  et  undbonne 
plume.     19.  J'ai  le  coton  d'Edouard  et  la  laine  d'Henri. 

1.  What  have  you?    2.  I  have  a  salt-cellar  and  a  spoon. 
3.  What  salt-cellar  have  you  ?    4.  I  have  the  salt-cellar  of  Henry. 

5.  Have  you  not  my  copy-book  ?  6.  I  have  not  your  copy-book,  I 
have  your  pencil.  7.  What  leaf  have  you  ?  8.  I  have  the  first  leaf. 
9.  Have  you  not  the  third  page  ?  10.  I  have  not  the  third,  I  have 
the  first  and  the  second.  11.  Have  you  not  the  cotton  of  my  fa- 
ther? 12.  I  have  not  the  cotton,  I  have  the  wool.  13.  Have  I 
not  your  brother's  knife  ?  14.  Yes,  sir,  and  you  have  the  pretty 
spoons.  15.  Have  I  not  your  father's  hat?  16.  No,  sir,  you  have 
it  not-  17.  Have  you  not  the  gloves  of  your  mother?  18.  Yes, 
sir,  I  have  my  mother's  gloves,  my  brother's  pencil,  and  my  sister's 
pen.  19.  Have  you  not  the  wool?  20.  No,  sir,  I  have  it  not 
21.  I  have  my  sister's  pretty  book. 


6.— SIXIfiME  LEgON. 


Have  litf    Have  I  it  not  f  Vai-je  f    Ne  Vai-je  pott  f 

Have  yen  it  f    Have  you  it  not  f  Uavez-Toas  f    Ne  Payez-TOiis  ? 

Have  you  them?  Have  you  them  not?    Les  avez-vous?  Ne  Ics  avez-roos  pas? 


The  man.         The  wnnany  vnfe.  Vhomine.  lAfemme. 

A  ton.  A  yoiung  lady.  VnfiU.  Une  demoitelU, 

The  boy.  The  daughter ^  girl.  Lc  yarpon.        h&JUle. 

"L  Boy^  meaning  child,  \s  petit  garcon  In  French ;  &oy«,  moaning  yoangmen.  Is  Jeunet 
gen».  Oarcon  means  also  •ervant^feUow^  bachelor,  etc^  Girl,  also  meaning  child,  is  p«- 
UtefUe;  meaning  young  IbAj^Sb  jewM  JtUe.  FUU  alone,  not  meaning  daughter,  is  aar* 
vant  girl,  unmarried  lady,  etc. 

ThU,  thai,  Ce.  Ceite. 

Tkese^  those.  Ccs.  Ces. 

That  boy's  hat.  Le  chapeau  dc  ce  petit  gar^on. 

That  girVs  book.  Le  livre  de  cette  petite  fiUe. 

The  ttick.  Mis8.  Le  bdton.  Jfademoiselle. 

The  button.         The  lady.  Le  bouton.  La  dame. 

A  cousin.  Un  cousin.  Une  consine. 

A  friend.         ^  Un  ami.  Une  amic. 

The  carpet.  The  saw.  Le  tapis.  La  seie. 

2.  Ce  becomes  cet  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  K 

This  man.    That  friend.  Cet  homme.     Cet  ami,  cetie  amie. 

These  men.     Those  friends.  Ces  hommes.     Ces  amis,  ces  amies. 
0/ the,  from  the  (singnlar).  Ihu  De  la. 

Of  they  from  the  (plural).  J)es.  JDes. 

&  2>u  is  compounded  otde  le,  and  des  otde  les.  Both  du  and  de  la  become  de  F  bo* 
fbre  a  vowel  or  a  silent  h. 

The  stick  of  the  boy.  Le  b&ton  du  petit  gar9on. 

The  woman's  carpet.  Le  tapis  dc  la  femme. 

The  buttons  of  the  young  ladies.  Les  boutons  des  demoiselles. 

The  man's  saw.  La  scie  de  rhomnic. 

A  cousin  of  your  sister's  friend.  Un  cousin  de  I'amio  de  votre  sceur. 

1.  Quel  b&ton  avez-vous?  2.  J'ai  le  baton  du  fils  de  cette 
femme.  3.  Je  n'ai  pas  le  livre  de  cette  petite  fiUe ;  Tavez-voos  ? 
4.  Non,  mademoiselle,  je  ne  Tai  pas.  5.  Je  n'ai  pas  la  scie  de  cet 
homme ;  ne  Tavez-vous  pas  ?  6.  Si,  monsieur,  je  Tai.  7.  Qu'avez- 
vous  ?  8.  J'ai  les  gants  de  cette  demoiselle  et  le  chapeau  du  fils 
de  votre   ami.     9.  Je  n*ai  pas  les  joKs  boutons;  les   avez-vonst 

IS  1ST  16  1  IS         4       20      S  I        21        13  S  7         S      91  I    0        « 

Bl-zidm«,  Aomm«,  femni^,  fl/a,  de-moi-zell«,  frnr-con,  fllle,  octt^  ce«,  bA*ton,  made-mol- 

5  IS      21  I         .      IS      U         lA      12        1      II    1        IS       1     12        la        7 

Eell#,  bon-ton,  dune,  eou-zin,  coa-zin«,  a^ml,  a-mt<<,  ta*piM,  sd«,  des. 


10.  Non,  mademoiselle,  je  n*ai  pas  les  jolis  boutonSy  j'ai  le  tajns  de 
cette  dame.     11.  N'avez-voos  pas  les  plames  de  la  petite  fille? 

12.  Non,  mademoiselle,  je  ne  les  ai  pas.  13.  Qu'avez-voust  14. 
J*ai  lea  cahiers  des  demoiselles,  le  b&ton  da  petit  gar^on  et  le  cra- 
yon de  I'amie  de  votre  consina  15.  N'avez-vous  pas  le  tapis  de 
cette  damef  16.  Si,  mademoiselle,  et  j'ai  ces  jolis  bontons  aussi. 
17.  Yoas  avez  le  livre  da  fils  de  cette  femme,  et  j*ai  les  papiers  des 
amies  de  votre  coosinc. 

1.  I  Lave  not  the  stick  of  this  man ;  have  yoa  it  not  ?  2.  No, 
sir,  I  have  the  book  of  the  yoang  lady.  8.  Have  yoa  the  pencils 
of  this  woman's  sont  4.  No,  miss,  I  have  them  not.  5.  Have 
yoa  not  the  pencil  of  the  (little)  boyt  6.  No,  sir,  I  have  the  pretty 
batton  of  this  (little)  girl.  7.  Yoa  have  the  oxen  of  these  men; 
have  yoa  not  the  letters  of  these  ladies?  8.  I  have  them  not 
9.  What  saw  have  yoa?  10.  I  have  the  saw  of  the  friend  of  your 
coasin.  11.  Have  you  not  the  carpet  of  the  daughter  of  my 
cousin  ?     12.  Yes,  sir,  and  I  have  the  slates  of  the  (little)  boys. 

13.  What  leaf  have  you?  14.  I  have  the  leaf  of  that  large  vol- 
ume. 15.  I  have  not  my  cousin's  book ;  have  you  it?  16.  I  have 
it  not.  17.  Have  you  not  the  man's  glove  ?  18.  No,  miss,  I  have 
my  firait  and  my  butter. 

7.— SEPTIfiME  LEgON. 

Who.    Ha».  QhL    a. 

He,U.    8he,U.  IL    ElU, 

HoBhtf    He  has.  A-t-ilf    11  a. 

1.  When  tba  verb  emb  with  a  vowel,  and  the  Bubject-prononn  Ibllowlng  begins  with  a 
Towel,  -t-  is  ioaerted  for  better  sound. 

Has  she  not?    She  has  not.  ITa-t-elle  pas ?    Elle  n*a  pas. 

Hasf&eit?    She  has  it.  LVt-clIe?    Elle  Ta. 

Haa  be  it  not  f    He  has  it  not.  Ke  Ta-t-il  pas  ?    II  ne  Ta  pas. 

vAscvLXKi.  nuinmnB. 

The  leather.        The  porcelain^  china.     Le  euir.  ja,  porcelaine. 

The  coai.  The  dress^  gown.  Vhahit,  La  rcbe. 

This  dolA.  Thissi/Xr.  Cedrap.  Cette  foie. 

XhaXffoUL  TbaXwUch.  Get  or.  Cette  monfre. 

That  ttlver^  or )  ^^         ^^^^  ^^^  argtnt.       La  montre  d'or. 

•ej^-ti^m^,  W,  el/«,  calr,  poree-lain^  AabW,  rob«,  drap,  soK  or,  inontr^  argent. 


A  ring.  K  finger-    A  ring  (with  Un  aniKov.      Vn^hague. 

ring.  jewels). 

Thettetl.  A  cravat.  Vaeier.  line  eravate. 

The  iron.  A  pin.  Lefer.  Vne  ipingU. 

Who  has  ?  The  gentleman  has.    Qui  a?  Le  numneur 

8.  When  monsieur,  madame^mademoUelU,  denote  %  penon  preaent  and  rapposed  to 
hear  the  speaker,  tbej  omit  the  article  and  demonstrative  pronoons  ce,  eeUe,  in  French. 

Who  has  the  good  cloth  ?  Qui  a  le  bon  drap  ? 

The  gentleman  has  it.  Monsieur  Ta  (if  present) ;  (if  not  pres- 

ent), Le  monsieur  Ta. 
The  lady  has  it.  The  young  lady  has  it.     Madame  Ta.    Mademoiselle  Pa. 

&  Wo  bare  seen  that  yes,  In  answer  to  a  negatire  Interrogation,  is  •<,  and  not  ami. 
Bach  qoeatioas  are  often  in  the  form  of  affirmation  in  French,  with  the  interrogatiTe  aoeent 
You  have  not  my  watch  ?  Yous  n'avez  pas  ma  montre  ? 

Yes,  sir,  I  have  it.  Si,  monsieur,  je  Tai. 

I  have  not  your  crayats  t  Je  n^ai  pas  tos  cravatcs  ? 

Yes,  sir,  you  have  them.  8i,  monsieur,  vous  les  aTez. 

1.  Qai  a  le  bon  cuirt  2.  Monsieur  Ta.  3.  Qui  a  la  jolie 
porcelainet  4.  Voire  mere  I'a.  5.  A-t-elle  la  jolie  robe?  6.  Ella 
neTapas.  7.  QuiaThabit  de  drap?  8.  Mon  pere  Ta.  9.  Qui 
a  la  robe  de  soie?  10.  Cette  dame  Pa.  11.  A-t-elle  le  crayon? 
12.  Non,  mademoiselle,  elle  ne  Ta  pas.  13.  N'a-t-elle  pas  Tanneau 
d'or?  14.  Elle  a  Tanneau  d'or  et  une  jolie  bague.  15.  Qui  a  le 
couteau  d'acier?  16.  L'ami  d'Edouard  a  le  couteau  d*acier  et  le 
crayon  d'argent  17.  N'a-t-il  pas  les  jolies  cravates?  18.  Si, 
monsieur,  et  il  a  les  6pingles  d'or  aussi.  19.  Qui  a  les  souliers  de 
cuir?  20.  Ce  monsieur  les  a.  21.  Qu'avez-vous  ?  22.  J'ai  la 
jolie  porcelaine,  le  bon  habit  de  drap  et  cette  soie.  23.  Qui  a  mon 
argent?  24.  Mon  fr^e  a  votre  argent,  votre  jolie  bague  et  la 
grosse  6pingle  d'or. 

1.  Have  you  the  small  pins?  2.  No,  madam,  the  gentleman 
has  them.  3.  Has  he  the  shoes  of  leather  ?  4.  No,  sir,  he  has 
them  not  5.  Who  has  the  plates  of  porcelain  ?  6.  Tlie  lady  has 
them.  7.  Has  she  the  dress  of  sUk?  8.  She  has  the  dress  of 
silk,  the  watch  of  gold,  and  the  pretty  finger-ring.  9.  Who  has 
the  coat  of  cloth  ?  10.  The  son  of  the  gentleman  has  the  coat  and 
the  pantaloons.  11.  Has  he  not  the  watch  of  silver  ?  12.  He  has 
it  not  13.  Has  he  the  ring  of  gold?  14.  He  has  it  15.  Has 
he  the  pretty  cravats  ?     16.  Yes,  sir,  he  has  them.     17.  Has  he 

aji-noan,  bagiM,  a^lar,  cra-vat^  fer,  6-pingI«. 



not  the  boots  of  leather  t  18.  No,  madam,  he  has  them  not  19. 
Who  has  the  knife  of  steel?  20.  My  cousin  has  the  knife  of  steel, 
the  plate  of  porcelain,  and  the  coat  of  cloth.  21.  I  have  the  pretty 
CTavats,  the  bnttons,  and  the  good  pins.  22.  Who  has  the  good 
ulk  ?     23.  The  lady  has  it ;  the  gentleman  has  it  not 

8.— HUITIfiME  LEgON. 


1.  Ib  qnestioiia,  with  a  noun  for  rabjeet,  in  French,  the  subject  Is  mentioned  flrsti  and 
fbea  the  qnestion  is  asked  with  the  pronoan.  Thos,  instead  of  Biu  A«  manf  Ha»  1h€ 
^oomam  f  etc,  as  in  English,  the  French  say,  The  man  hoe  Jut  The  woman  ha*  thef  eto. 

Hfts  the  man  ?  Lliomme  a-t-il  ? 

Has  the  woman  ?  La  femme  a-t-elle  ? 

Has  my  brother  jour  money  ?  Hon  fr^re  a-t-il  votre  argent  f 

Has  that  lady  the  silk?  Cette  dame  a-t-elle  la  soic  ? 

Has  yonr  friend  the  gold  ?  Votre  ami  a-t-il  Tor  ? 

9l  If,  howeyer,  an  interrogatiye  word,  ss  que,  quel,  oit,  where,  guand,  when,  eommsfO^ 
bow,  eombten,  how  much,  etc,  be  used,  the  question  most  begin  with  the  InterrogatlTe  in 
French,  as  in  English. 

What  has  your  friend  ?  Qu^sl  votre  ami  ? 

What  has  that  great  man  ?  Qu'a  ce  grand  homme  ? 

What  ling  has  your  cousin  ? 

iQitel  anneau  a  yotre  cousin  ?  cr^ 
Quel  anneau  votre  cousin  a-t-ilf 

8.  But,  when  having  ssked  about  several  persons  or  things  snceesslvely,  we  obange  to 
r,  we  may  begin  the  question  with  the  subject ;  ss, 

What  has  your  brother  ? 

He  has  the  book. 

What  has  your  sister  ? 

She  has  the  paper. 

And  jfour  eoiwtn,  what  has  he  f 

The  Aors«.  The  goat. 

The  mutton,  sheep. 

Qu'a  votre  frdre  ? 

II  a  le  livre. 

Qu^A  votre  soeur? 

EUe  a  le  papier. 

£t  votre  eouein,  quVt-il  ? 

A  chicken. 
The  cabbage. 
A  eervant. 
The  captain. 
That  wood 

A  hen. 

A.  peach. 

A  mule, 

A  pear. 

This  cherry. 

That  vest,  jacket. 


Le  cheval, 
Le  mouton. 
Un  poidet. 
Le  chou, 
Un  domestique. 
Le  capitaine. 
Ce  manteau, 
Ce  bois. 

La  chevre. 
La  brebis. 
Unc  pouU. 
Une  piche. 
tine  mule. 
Une  poire, 
Cette  cerise. 
Cette  vests. 

4    IS       it     % 

hul-titeu^  ehe-val,  chdvre,  mou-ton,  bre-bi«,  pou-let  poule,  pdeheg  do-mea-tike,  mule, 
ca-pi-taln#,  poire,  num-teau,  cerize,  hole,  vesta. 


ffamd^omey  fine. 



His,  her,  its  (singular). 
His,  her,  its  (plural). 





4  /Sms  40,  am,  like  all  poascsBlTO  a^JectlTes,  agrco  \rith  the  thing  possesBed,  and 
with  the  poflsesaor. 


Her  son.    His  daughter.    His  or 



8a  fille.    Ses  plumes. 


1.  Le  capitaine  a-t-il  son  cheval?  2.  H  Ta.  3.  Le  domes- 
tique  n'a-t-il  pas  la  cb6yre  1  4.  II  a  la  ch^vre  et  la  brebis.  5.  Get 
homme  nVt-il  pas  son  moatont  6.  II  a  son  mouton,  ses  poulets 
et  ses  poules.  7.  Le  fils  de  cette  femme  n'a-t-il  pas  son  ebon  t  8. 
Si,  monsieur,  il  a  son  ebon  et  ses  pScbes.  9.  A-t-il  la  mule  da 
capitaine?  10.  II  a  sa  mule  et  son  cbeval.  11.  Le  domestiqae 
a-t-il  vos  fruits  1  12.  Oui,  mademoiselle,  il  a  mes  pt^cbes,  mes 
poires  et  mes  cerises.  13.  Quel  manteau  a  le  capitaine  T  14.  II 
alemanteau  de  drap.  15.  Qu'a  le  vieux  domestique?  16.  II  a 
le  beau  manteau  et  la  belle  veste.  17.  Quel  bois  a-t-il  1  18.  II  a 
mon  bois.  19.  Yotre  domestique  a-t-il  la  vieille  mule  f  20.  H  a 
la  vieille  mule  et  la  vieille  brebis.     21.  J'ai  le  poulet  et  la  ponle. 

1.  Has  not  tbe  captain  bis  horse  ?  2.  He  bas  bis  borse,  bis 
mule,  and  bis  goat.  3.  Has  tbe  old  servant  bis  sbeep  t  He  bas 
bis  sbeep,  bis  goat,  bis  bens,  and  his  cbickens.  5.  Who  bas  tbe 
big  cabbage?  6.  M7  brother  has  it.  7.  What  fruit  bas  be?  8. 
He  bas  tbe  peaches,  the  pears,  and  the  cherries.  9.  Has  he  the 
fine  cherries  ?  10.  Yes,  madam,  he  has  the  fine  cherries,  the  fine 
peaches,  and  the  fine  pears.  11.  Has  the  wife  of  the  captain  her 
bens?  12.  She  has  her  hens  and  her  cbickens.  13.  What  vest 
has  your  cousin?  14.  He  has  the  handsome  vest  and  the  hand- 
some cloak.  15.  Has  tbe  son  of  that  man  bis  wood  ?  16.  He  bas 
it  17.  What  have  you?  18.  I  have  tbe  handsome  vest,  the  old 
cloak,  and  my  good  hat.  19.  Has  the  brother  of  your  friend  Uie 
handsome  hat  ?     20.  He  has  the  handsome  hat  and  the  old  cloak. 

*  Beau  applies  rather  to  what  1a  noble  and  imposing:  /oU,  to  what  Is  delieatOi  small, 
and  regular. 

.  IT    . »..     It  •     II I        r 
bean,  boUs,  yieoo;  Ti-eiUd,  sea. 



9.— NEUVIfiME  LEgON. 


Have  wef     We  have. 

Have  we  not?    We  have  not. 

Hare  we  it  ?    We  have  it. 

Have  we  it  not  ?    We  hare  it  not. 

Avotu-nousf    Noutavona. 
N^avonB-nous  pas  ?    Nous  n^avona  pas. 
L'avons-nous?    Noas  Tavons. 
Ne  Tavons-nous  paa  ?    Nous  ne  TaTons 



The  linefu 

Le  patUalotL 


Xhe  aprdu 

The  plwn. 

Le  tablier. 

"La^  prune. 

The  coHdlestick. 

The  lamp. 

Lc  chandelier. 

La  lampe. 

The  waUteoat, 




The  eap. 

The  roM. 

Le  bonnet. 

La  rote. 

The  doff. 

Le  chien. 

La  chienne. 

The  eoo/ (fossil). 

The  tulip. 

Le  eharbon  (de  terrc). 

.  La  tidipe. 

The  charcoal. 

The  mutlifu 

Le  charbofi  (de  bois). 

La  mousteline. 


A  potato. 

Un  biteuit. 

Une  pamme  de 

Our  (singiilar). 



Our  (plaral). 



Have  we  our  capsf 

Avons-nous  nos  bonnets  1 

We  have  them 


Nous  les  avons. 

Have  we  the  coarse  pantaloons  f 

Avons-nous  le  gros  pantalon? 

We  have  them. 

Nous  Tavons. 

Have  we  not  the  apron  ? 

N^avons-nous  pas  le  tablier  ? 

We  have  it  not. 

Nous  ne  Tavons 


1.  The  name  of  the  material  of  which  any  thing  coDsists  mtkj  be  naed  as  an  a^lectivo  lo 
English,  aod  phwed  before  the  name  of  tho  thing;  as,  a  gold  tcaich^  a  leather  tkoe.  This 
esnnot  be  done  in  French,  bat  the  name  of  the  material  Is  placed  after  that  of  tho  thing; 
with  de  between  them ;  as,  a  utatch  of  gold^  a  ihoe  of  leather^  etc.    Thos, 

A  silver  candlestick.  Uh  chandelier  d*argent. 

A  gold  ring.  Un  anneau  d^or. 

His  leather  shoes.  Ses  souliers  de  cuir. 

Onr  porcelain  dishes.  Nos  plats  de  porcelaine. 

What  has  that  little  girl  ?  Qu*a  cettc  petite  fille  ? 

She  has  her  silic  apron.  '  Elle  a  sou  tablier  de  sole. 

1.  Quel  frcdts  avons-noas  t  2.  Notts  avons  les  poires,  les  cerises 
et  les  pnines.  3.  Avons-nous  le  bois  on  le  cbarbon?  4.  Nous 
avons  le  bois  et  le  eharbon.  5.  Quel  gilet  voire  frere  a-t-il  t  6.  11 
a  le  gilet  de  soie.     7.  Quelles  fleurs  votre  soeur  a-t-elle?    8.  EUo 

f     iST       1    ti        18        s     1  n     SO       ins        n  t      4  us     s         is  s 

nea-Tit^m^  a-TOtt«,  nons,  pan-ta-lon,  toil«,  ta-bli-er,  pnin«,  chan-de-licr,  lampe,  gi-let, 
n       IS      s      17        is>4      ns  i      si      r  sa  u  is      is       is  ssts     is 

fleoi;  bon-iieA  roz^  chien,  chienn<»,  char^bon,  terre,  tn-lipe,  monss-llne,  bis-ouit,  pomme, 

notre,  nos. 


a  les  roses  et  les  talipes.  0.  Le  gar9on  a-t-il  le  bonnet  de  cair  T 
10.  Non,  monsieur,  il  a  le  bonnet  de  drap.  11,  Qu'a  le  vieux 
chien?  12.  II  a  le  biscuit  du  domestique.  18.  Quelles  lampes  a 
le  capitainet     14.  II  a  les  lampes  et  les  chandeliers  d'argent. 

15.  Qu'a  cette  femme?  16.  EUe  a  notre  toile  et  notre  mousseline. 
17.  La  cbienne  n'a-t-elle  pas  le  biscuit  ?  18.  Si,  elle  a  le  biscuit 
et  la  pomme  de  terre.  19.  Quelle  lampe  le  domestique  a-t-il? 
20.  Ha  la  lampe  d'argent  21.  N'a-t-il  pas  son  charbont  2iL 
Non,  il  ne  Ta  pas. 

1.  What  pantaloons  have  we  t  2.  We  have  the  cloth  pantar 
loons.  8.  Have  we  not  our  linen?  4.  Yes,  sir,  we  have  our  linen 
and  our  silk.  5.  What  plums  has  the  little  boy?  6.  He  has  our 
plums.  7.  Have  we  the  silk  waistcoats  ?  8.  We  have  the  silk 
waistcoats  and  the  cloth  pantaloons.  9.  What  flowers  has  that 
girl  ?  10.  She  has  her  roses  and  our  tulips.  11.  Has  she  not  the 
lady's  flowers  ?  12.  No,  miss,  she  has  them  not.  1%.  Has  that 
young  girl  the  handsome  muslin?  14.  She  has  the  handsome 
muslin  and  the  handsome  linen.     15.  What  has  your  father's  dog  ? 

16.  He  has  the  little  boy's  biscuit  and  the  big  potato.  17.  What 
aprons  have  we  ?  18.  We  have  the  silk  apron  and  the  cloth  cap. 
19.  What  potato  has  the  little  boy  ?  20.  He  has  the  good  potato 
and  the  good  biscuit.  21.  Have  you  the  lady's  roses?  22.  Tes, 
miss,  I  have  her  roses  and  her  tulips.  23.  Have  we  not  the  silver 
candlesticks  ?  24.  We  have  not  the  silver  candlesticks,  we  have 
the  silver  plates. 

10.— DIXIilME  LEgON. 

They,  lU  (mas.).    MUt  (fcm.). 

Eavt  theyf    They  have.  Ont-ils  (or  «//e«)?    lis  (or  elles) 

Have  they  not?    They  have  not  N*ont-ils  pas  ?    lis  n'ont  pas. 

Hare  they  it  ?    They  have  it.  L*ont-clles  ?    Elles  Pont. 

Have  they  it  not  ?    They  have  it  not.     Ne  Font-ila  pas?    lis  ne  Tont  pas. 
Have  they  them  ?    They  have  them    Les  ont-elles  ?    Elles  ne  les  ont  pas. 

llABCTLnrE.  FKVnnNB. 

The  neighbor.  Le  voisin.  La  voUine. 

The  cook.  Le  cuiainier.  La  euisiniere, 

dl-rl6in«, »«,  ollc«,  on^  rol-aln,  vol-zlntf,  cul-zl-nler,  cal-ri-iilcr«w 



1.  Nouns  often  fonn  the  feminine  In  the  aame  nuuiner  as  t4|eetlTea»  and  in  both,  when 
the  maaeoline  ends  in  «r,  the  feminine  tal^es  e  graTO  accent  on  the  e. 

A  sehoiar  (school  child).  Uq  ieolier*  Une  6coliere. 

A  jnqnl  or  tekolar  (of  any  age).  Un  Sieve.  Une  tfeiw. 

A  tiranger,  foreigner,  Un  Hranger,  Une  Hrangere. 

Th»X  comKtryman,        That  emm/fy-  Ce/xiysan.  Cette /Ki^Mfifi«. 

The  thopkeeper^  merchant. 

Le  mareliand. 

La  marchande. 

Lc  fiegociani. 

La  demoiselle. 

An  egg,                       A  key. 


Une  eUf, 

The  tobacco.                The  sovp. 









Their  (sing.). 



7%«r  (plur.> 



The  bed.                     His  bed. 


Son  lit 

The  handsome  gold.    The  handsome 

Le  bel  or.    Le  bel  argent. 


The  old  bird.    The  old  feather. 
Thej  have  their  fruit  and  their  flowers. 
Ton  have  a  handsome  coat. 

Le  vieil  oiseau.    La  Tieille  plome. 
lis  ont  leurs  fruits  et  leurs  fleurs. 
Voos  avez  un  bel  habit. 

1.  Quel  tabac  les  voisins  ont-ils?  2.  lis  ont  leur  tabac.  3. 
Quels  oeofs  les  caisiniores  ont-elles  ?  4.  Elles  ont  lears  oeufs.  5. 
Les  ecoliers  n'ont-ils  pas  lears  plumes?  G.  Non,  monsieur,  ils 
ont  les  plumes  dcs  marcbands.  7.  Les  dcolieres  n'ont-elles  pas 
leurs  crayons  ?  8.  Elles  ne  les  ont  pas.  9.  Ces  ctrangers  ont-ils 
leur  argent?  10.  Non,  monsieur,  ils  ont  Targent  du  n^gociant 
11.  (3et  homme  a-t-il  le  livre  de  son  6leve?  12.  Non,  monsieur, 
il  a  les  (Buis  du  paysan.  13.  Qu'a  cette  paysanne?  14.  EUe  a  le 
beau  drap  de  la  marcbande.  15.  Ces  demoiselles  ont-elles  leurs 
clefs  ?  16.  Elles  les  ont.  17.  Quels  livres  ces  demoiselles  ont-elles  ? 
18.  Elles  ont  leurs  excellents  livres.     19.  Les  cnisiniers  ont-ils  leur 

•  We  often  nee  the  tenn  echdar,  or  ffood  eehotary  for  a  learned  man.  The  translation 
of  that  in  French  la  navant.  Savant^  applied  to  ladica,  generally  means  blne-atooklng. 
Student,  as  of  law  or  medicine,  is  itudianL 

t  Al90i,/m.  enaj,  m&u,  soft,  and  ncu^euiL  new,  before  a  vowel  or  a  ailent  A^  become 
fal,  mol,  nouvu^  and  from  this  form  ending  in  t,  these  five  adjectives  form  their  feminine ; 
aa,  htl  kalAU  fine  coat,  heUe  rc^t^^  fine  dress;  /rf  e*rpoir^  foolish  hopo,/o//« conduiie^  foolish 
condart;  mol  idredon^  soft  eider  down,  molU  aisttnce^  soft  case ;  noutel  arhre^  new  tree, 
nouteUe  table^  new  tabic. 

s  u  fs     s   IS  i-'T       ST        s     8      s     s     s      r        s  n   s       s  n  i  i       s 

^•eo-lier,  e-co-llcre,   C*-16vtf,  6>tran-ger,  d-tran-gOre,  pa-j-zan,  pa-y-sanne,  mar-ehand; 

niar«h«ad«,  n«-go-cianA  osuf  (pi.  abaft\  el«/  t»-hac,  sonpe,  elc-ce^len^  ek-ceMente,  der- 
K§      t     ni       II      II       «    i*»      a     17 
Bier,  der-nldre,  lenr,  leari,  lU;  Ti-eU,  oi-ieau. 


ezcellente  soape  ?  20.  lis  out  lenr  excellente  soape  et  lenr  excel- 
lent caf(§.  21.  L'eleve  de  votre  frere  a  la  demiere  feuille  de  son 
livre.     22.  Quel  lit  avez-voas  ?    23.  J'u  le  petit  lit 

1.  What  have  the  coontr jwomen  ?  2.  They  have  their  eggs 
and  their  soup.  8.  What  have  the  merchants  ?  4.  They  have  the 
keys  of  the  shopkeepers.     5.  Have  they  their  excellent  tobacco  ? 

6.  No,  sir,  they  have  the  keys  of  the  neighbor  and  the  cook's  soup. 

7.  What  have  the  pupils  of  the  captain  ?  8.  They  have  the  apples 
of  their  neighbor  and  the  cook's  tea.  9.  Has  that  scholar  the  sec- 
ond volume  or  the  last?  10.  He  has  the  last  volume.  11.  What 
has  that  foreigner  ?  12.  He  has  a  handsome  horse  and  a  pretty 
little  gold  watch.  13.  Who  has  the  handsome  bird?  14.  My  old 
friend  has  the  handsome  bird  and  the  handsome  silver.  15.  Have 
those  foreigners  the  countrymen's  fruit  ?  16.  They  have  the  coun- 
trymen's fruit  and  the  merchant's  flowers.  17.  What  has  that  lit- 
tle boy?  18.  He  has  the  old  coat  and  the  handsome  egg.  19. 
What  flowers  have  those  scholars  ?  20.  They  have  their  handsome 
roses  and  their  handsome  tulips.  21.  What  have  we?  22.  We 
have  the  handsome  flowers.  23.  Have  we  not  our  candlesticks  ? 
24.  We  have  our  candlesticks  and  our  handsome  inkstand.  25. 
Have  you  the  big  bed  or  the  little  one  ?    26.  I  have  the  big  bed. 

11.— ONZltME  LEgON. 


1.  We  have  seen  that  the  plaral  of  nonnB  and  adjectives  la  generall/  fonned  bj  adding 
a  to  the  singular.    To  this  rule  there  are  many  exceptions. 

2.  Thoae  ending  In  a,  e,  or  a,  are  unchanged  in  the  plurnL 

The  nuL    The  nuts.  La  fwix,    Les  noix. 

The  old  carpet.    The  old  carpets.  Le  vieux  tapis.    Les  vieux  tapis. 

The    coarse   stocking.     The    coarse     Le  gros  bas.     Les  gros  has. 

a  Those  ending  In  al  change  this  termination  into  au»  for  the  pIuraL 
The  general.    The  generals.  Le  general,    Les  ghieraux. 

The  corporal.    The  corporals.  Le  caparal.    Les  caporaux. 

The  animal.    The  animals.  V animal.    Les  animaux. 

4,  Those  in  aw,  and  nouns  In  cu,  take  x  in  the  plural* 

♦  For  oxceptions  to  these  rules,  see  Grammatical  JSulet. 

a    us  90  S     A     1         S     f       17         1    IS      I         1     IS       ir       1     IS     1       1    11       17 

on-zivm«,  noia%  ge*no-ral,  gc-ne*raua:t,  cap^o-ral,  cap-o-raua\  a«ni-ma],  a-ni>nuuuei. 



The  cloak.    The  cloaks. 

The  haadsome  hat.     The  handsome 

The  handsome  bird.    The  handsome 


Le  manteau.    Les  manieaux, 

Le  beau  chapeau.     Ijcs  beaux  cAo- 

Le  bel  oiteau.    Les  beaux  oUeaux. 




A  Iwuse, 

Un  magaain. 

Une  maieon. 

The  whip. 

The  maid  {servant). 


1a  tervante. 

TbaA  widower. 

Th&t  widow. 


Cctte  veuve. 










&  Pauvre  placed  before  the  aonn  means 

A  cake.    A  carriage. 
What  hare  the  corporals  ? 
They  have  the  horses  of  the  generals. 
Who  has  the  apples  and  the  cakes  t 
Those  bojs  (young  men)  have  them. 
Who  has  the  ngly  animitls  ? 
That  poor  widower  has  them. 

pitiable ;  after  it,  It  means  poor  in  property. 
Ft/at'n,  laid,    Yilaine,  laidc. 
Un  gdtean,    Une  voUure. 
Qu'ont  les  caporaux  ? 
Us  ont  les  chevaux  des  g^n^raox. 
Qui  a  les  pommes  et  les  g&teaux  ? 
Ces  jeunes  gens  les  ont. 
Qui  a  les  vilains  animaux? 
Co  pauvre  reuf  les  a. 

1.  Qa'a  ceite  riche  veuye  ?  2.  EUe  a  la  belle  voiture.  3.  Qa*a 
ce  petit  gar^on  ?  4.  II  a  le  fouet  et  les  noix.  5.  Qaels  animaux 
ces  paysans  ont-ils  ?  6.  lis  ont  les  beaux  chevaux.  7.  Cette  ser« 
vante  n'a-t-elle  pas  les  gros  gdteaux  ?  8.  Si,  elle  les  a.  9.  Get 
bomme  riche  nVt-il  pas  une  grande  maison  ?  10.  H  a  une  grande 
maison  et  an  grand  magasin.  11.  Qu'a  cette  servante  ?  12.  Elle 
a  le  fouet  da  general.  13.  Quels  chevaux  ces  caporaux  ont-ils? 
14.  lis  ont  leurs  vilains  chevaux.  15.  Cette  riche  veuve  a-t-elle 
son  argent  ?  16.  Oui,  mademoiselle,  et  elle  a  I'argent  de  ses  filles. 
17.  Qu'a  cet  honn^te  homme?  18.  II  a  son  grand  magasin. 
19.  Qui  a  la  belle  voiture  ?  20.  Ce  veuf  a  la  belle  voiture  et  les 
beaux  chevaux.    21.  Le  cuisinier  a  ses  g&teaux  et  ses  fruits. 

1.  What  has  the  maid-servant  ?  2.  She  has  the  cook's  cakes 
and  the  countrywoman's  chickens.  8.  Has  the  cook  your  cakes  ? 
4.  He  has  my  cakes  and  my  nuts.  5.  Have  the  maid-servants  the 
soup?  6.  They  have  the  soup  and  the  potatoes.  7.  Have  the 
corporals  the  keys  of  their  trunks  ?  8.  They  have  them.  9.  What 
animals  have  we  ?     10.  We  have  our  horses  and  our  sheep.     11. 

S      9)      17  1      1    U  7    «         IB   1        7       t  9  •  15         8         U  17 

bd,  oi-xean,  ma-gB-zIn,  mal-son,  foa-e<,  ser-Tvitd,  veaf,  T«ay«,  Aoii-«Mt«,  riche,  pftarr«> 
n  »i      i«   7         7       7        a      17      »  a 
Ti-lala,  Ti-Un^  laid,  laldi,  gA-teau,  Tol-tur«. 



Have  we  not  the  handsome  bird  ?  12.  We  have  it  not  13.  What 
have  we  ?  14.  We  have  the  generars  whip,  and  the  money  of  that 
young  widow.  15.  Has  that  honest  man  his  papers  ?  16.  He  has 
them  not.  17.  What  birds  has  the  poor  man  ?  18.  He  has  the 
handsome  birds.  19.  Who  has  the  rich  man's  horses  ?  20.  My 
brothers  have  them.  21.  Have  they  the  handsome  horses  or  the 
ugly  ones  ?  22.  They  have  the  ugly  ones.  23.  Have  those  serv- 
ants their  fruit  ?  24.  They  have  it.  25.  What  candlestick  have 
we?    26.  We  have  the  old  candlestick. 

12.— DOUZIfiME  LEgON. 


Heat  thou  t    Thouhtut 

Hast  thou  not?    Thou  hast  not 

Hast  thou  them?    Thou  hast  them. 

Hast  thou  it  not  ?    Thou  hast  it  not 

Thy  (singular). 

Tky  (plural). 

A$-tuf    ISicu. 

N^as-tu  pas  ?  '  Tu  n'as  pas. 

Les  as-tu  ?    Tu  lea  as. 

Ne  I'as-tu  pas?    Tu  ne  Tas  pes. 

ron(mas.).     Ta  (fem.). 

Tea  (mas.).    Tea  (fern.). 

1.  The  second  person  singalar  (tu^  ton,  ete.)  U  considerably  more  used  In  French  than 
in  English.  It  Is  nsed,  first  to  denote  great  intlmacf  end  endearment ;  secondly,  as  In  Eng- 
lish, In  the  solemn  and  snbllme  style ;  thirdly,  to  the  Supreme  Doing,  and  to  high  dignita- 
ries; and  sometimes,  in  speaking  to  inferiors,  and  to  show  contempt 

When  respect  or  civility  are  to  be  expressed,  the  second  person  plnrsl,  or  the  third  per- 
son, with  moniieWf  fnadam^  mademoUelUf  etc.,  most  be  nsed.    (See  Lesson  IS,  8.) 

Thou  hast  thy  pen ;  hast  thou  thy  pa-     Tu  as  ta  plame ;  as-tu  ton  papier  et 

per  and  thy  books  ?   I  have  them. 

The  tnuff.  The  napkin. 

The  9oap.  A  pair, 

A  (Bchool)  exercise.  A,  brush, 

A  relation,  relative. 

The  ham.  The  ttreet. 

A  gun.  A  plank,  board. 


The  beat. 

My  hrother-in-law.  My  iister-in-law. 

Here.  On. 

The  floor.    On  the  floor. 
My  relation's  carriage. 
These  guns.    These  plank. 

tes  livres  ? 


Le  tabac  d  priter, 
Lo  sai'otu 
Un  theme, 
Un  parent, 
Le  meilleur. 
Mon  beau-frere. 

Le  plancher. 

Je  les  ai. 

La  serviette. 
Unc  paire. 
Une  bro8M. 
Une  parenU^ 
La  rue. 
Une  planche, 
La  meilleure. 
Ma  belle-icntr, 
Sur  lo  plancher. 

La  Toiture  de  mon  parent. 
Ces  fusils.    Ces  planches. 

IS    lis  1       SI       T  n    «         7       m  1      SI  T  7  IS  IS  IS 

don-sieme,  a«,  ton,  tes,  pri-zer,  ser-yi-etttf,  sa-von,  pair^,  tAiime,  bross^,  pa-renf,  pa-rentA 

t  3IU991!««a  SI  i  II  S  11I.I9I  s 

Jam-bon,  me,  fu-zi^  planche,  me-chanC,  m^hante,  meill-enr,  meill-eure,  i-ci,  plan-chor. 


The  gentleman  has  my  knife.  Mondeitr  a  mon  coutean. 

Who  has  your  gun  ?  Qui  a  Totre  fuail  P 

This  gentleman  has  it  here.  Monsieur  Ta  icL 

Those  gentlemen  have  it  not.  Ces  messieurs  no  Font  pas. 

Has  the  lady  her  hook  ?  Madame  a-t-elle  son  U?re? 

The  young  lady  has  it.  Mademoiselle  Ta. 

We  hare  the  gentleman's  brush.  Nous  avons  la  broase  de  monaiear. 

1.  Votre  beau-fr^re  a-t-il  le  tabac  &  priser  ?  2.  II  I'a.  3.  Mon- 
sien^  a-t-il  une  serviette  ?  4.  Monsieur  a  une  serviette  et  une 
assiette.  5.  Qa'a  mademoiselle?  6.  Elle  a  le  savon,  la  brosse 
et  line  paire  de  souliers.  7.  Ces  messieurs  ont-ils  leurs  themes  P 
8.  lis  ne  les  ont  pas.  9.  Qu'a  votre  parent  ?  10.  H  a  le  jam- 
bon  et  les  pommes  de  terre.  11.  Ces  dames  ont-elles  leurs  fleurs  ? 
12.  EUes  les  ont  ici  sur  la  table.  13.  Qu'a  ce  m^chant  homme 
ici?  14.  n  a  une  petite  planche.  15.  As-tu  le  meilleur  fusil  P 
16.  Je  I'ai  ici  sur  le  plancher.  17.  Qu*a  votre  belle-soeur  ?  18.  Elle 
a  son  mouchoir  et  sa  brosse.  19.  Qui  a  le  tabac  a  priser  ?  20.  Vo- 
tre parent  Ta.  21.  Qu'a  cette  petite  fiUe  ?  22.  Elle  a  la  serviette, 
le  savon  et  une  paire  de  gants.  23.  Tu  as  ton  crayon ;  n'as-tu  pas 
tea  cahiers  aussi  ?    24.  Je  les  ai 

1.  Hast  thou  thy  exercises  ?  2.1  have  them.  3.  Who  has  the 
best  ham  ?  4.  The  shopkeeper  has  it.  5.  Has  that  wicked  man  the 
plank  ?  C.  He  has  it  here  on  the  floor.  7.  Hast  thou  not  the  best 
gun  ?  8.  No,  sir,  my  brother-in-law  has  it.  9.  Has  your  sister- 
in-law  the  brush  ?  10.  She  has  it.  11.  Who  has  the  best  soap? 
12.  My  relation  has  the  best  soap  and  the  best  ham.  13.  Has  your 
brother-in-law  the  best  exercise  ?  14.  No,  sir,  my  sister-in-law  has 
the  best.  15.  Has  the  gentleman  his  snuff?  16.  He  has  it  here 
in  this  paper.  17.  What  has  your  relation  ?  18.  She  has  the  nap- 
kin, the  brush,  and  the  handsome  gloves.  19.  Hast  thou  the  wick- 
ed animal  ?  20.  No,  madam,  my  relation  has  him.  21.  What  has 
that  boy  (servant)  ?  22.  He  has  a  pair  of  boots  and  a  little  plank. 
23.  Has  he  his  shoes  here  ?  24.  He  has  them  here  on  the  floor. 
25.  Have  these  gentlemen  their  gloves  ?  26.  These  young  ladies 
have  them.  27.  Has  the  young  lady  her  gloves  ?  28.  The  lady 
has  them.     Hast  thou  thy  pencil  ?    I  have  it. 


13.— TREIZIfiME  LEgON. 
£tr£,  to  be.  fibst  and  second  pebsonb. 

Areycuf    lam,  JSies-vousf    Je  wis. 

Are  you  not  ?    I  am  not.  N^^tes-Toos  pas?    Je  nc  suib  pas. 

We  are.    We  are  not.  Nous  sommes.    Nous  ne  sommes  pas. 

Wlieref    There.    In,  Ouf    Ld,    Dans, 

People^  persons^  men,  Oens, 

Gens  has  the  adjectives  before  it  generally  feminine,  those  after  it  mascnlina. 
Toang  people,  young  men.  Los  jeunes  gens. 

Honest  persons,  honest  men.  Les  honnStes  gen& 

1.  People,  meaning  a  people  or  nation,  iapeupU. 

2.  When  voue  refers  to  bat  one,  the  adUectlves,  nonna,  and  pronouns  belonging  to  It  are 
singalar ;  when  it  refexs  to  more  than  one,  they  are  plural. 

Are  you  poor  ?    I  am  poor.  £tes-YOus  pauvre  ?    Je  suis  pauvxe. 

Are  you  not  our  friends?  N^etes-yous  pas  nos  amis? 

We  are  your  friends.  Nous  sommes  tos  amis. 

A  handkerchief.      The  ffard,  TJn  mouehoir.  La  cow, 


8.  Nouns  compounded  of  a  sabstantlve  and  adjective,  change  both  for  the  plaroL 
Her  brother-in-law.    Her  sister-in-law.     Son  beau-fr^re.       Sa  belle-soeur. 
Her  brothers-in-law.  Her  sisters-in-law.     Ses  beaux-fr^res.    Ses  belles-soBurs. 

4.  The  three  following  are  compounded  of  a  posses^re  af^ectlre  and  a  noun. 
Sir,  gentleman.    Sirs,  gentlemen.  Monsieur*  (sing.).  Messieurs     (plu.). 

Madam.  Ladies.  Madame,  "      Mesdames,         ** 

Miss.  Misses.  Mademoiselle,  *'      Mesdcmoiselles,  <* 

6.  SUur,  dame,  and  detnoieelU,  are  not  used  without  the  prefix  in  addressing  penona. 
nor  in  titles. 

$.  Nouns  compounded  of  two  sabstantires  without  a  preposition,  take  the  form  of  the 
plural  with  both ;  as. 

The  cauliflower.    The  cauliflowers,  Le  chouflew,    Les  choux-fleurs, 

7.  Nouns  componnded  of  two  substantlTes  Joined  by  a  proposition,  take  the  form  of  the 
plaral  in  the  first  only ;  as, 

The  potato.    The  potatoes.  La  pomme  de  terre.    Les  pommes  de 


8.  Nonns  compounded  of  a  substantive  and  adverb,  take  the  form  of  the  plnnJ  In  the 
substantive  only;  as, 

The  fore-runner.    The  fore-runners.       Vavant-courettr,    Les  avant-coureurs. 

*  Monsieur  is  compounded  otinon  and  sieur;  madams  otma  and  dame  ;  modem  oi- 
sells  of  ma  and  demoiselle. 

T  it«       <       mi    u  as  a  is       «>       u     n     i    a      u      n 

trei-zitoie,  htes,  snU,  sommM,  dans,  jMupIs,  gens,  mon-choir,  chou-flour,  a- van^cott-reur. 


9.  Nouns  compounded  of  Tertai  pTepoiltiona»  or  adTorlWi  an  luiduuifed  in  tho  planL 
His  drink-money.  Son  pour-bolre.    Ses  pcwr-lmTe. 

10.  SometimM  the  meaning  of*  noon  and  a^Jectlye  Ibrmlng  a  oomponnd  i«  anch  as  not 
to  admit  a  change  for  the  pluaL 

The  tooth-piek.    The  taoih-pieks,  Le  eure-denU.    Lea  cttre-dentg. 

Are  you  there  in  the  house  f  ^tes-Tous  Ik  dans  la  maison  f 

I  am  here  in  the  store.  Je  suis  ici  dans  le  magasin. 

Ladies,  have  you  your  cloaks?  Mcsdames,  avez-vous  tob  manteaux  ? 

1.  £tes-voii8  riche  ?  2.  Je  ne  saifi  pas  riche.  3.  N'etes-Yoas 
pas  mon  ami  ?  4.  Je  suis  yotre  ami  5.  Ou  6tes-yous  ?  6.  Nous 
BQDunes  icL  7.  N'etes-voas  pas  dans  la  rue  ?  8.  Non,  monsieur, 
nous  sommes  ici  dans  la  conr,  nous  ne  sommes  pas  dans  la  rue. 
9.  £tes-voa8  Ik  ?  10.  Nous  sommes  ici  dans  la  maison.  11.  N'etes- 
Toos  pas  dans  le  magasin  ?  12.  Non,  monsieur,  je  suis  ici  sur  le 
plancher.  13.  N'cltes-Tous  pas  mon  parent?  14.  Je  suis  voire 
cousin.  15.  £!tes-vous  les  amis  de  monsieur  ?  16.  Oui,  mesdames, 
nous  sommes  ses  amis.  17.  Mesdemoiselles,  etes-vous  les  beUes- 
soeurs  du  general  ?  18.  Oui,  mesdames,  nous  sommes  ses  belles- 
sceurs.  19.  Qu'a  ce  m^chant  chien  ?  20.  II  a  les  g&teaux  et  le 
jambon  des  petits  gardens.  21.  Mesdames^  avez-vous  les  mouchoirs 
de  colon  ou  de  soie?  22.  Nous  avons  les  mouchoirs  de  soie. 
23.  Qui  a  la  meilleure  voiture  ?  24.  Cette  riche  veuve  a  la  meil- 
leure  voiture  et  les  meilleurs  chevaux.  25.  Quelle  planche  avez- 
vons  ?    2G.  J*ai  la  petite  planche  et  le  bon  bois. 

1.  Where  are  you  ?  2.  I  am  here.  3.  Are  you  in  the  yard  or 
in  the  street  ?  4.  We  are  in  the  street  5.  Are  you  not  the  friend 
of  the  young  widow  ?  6.  I  am  her  friend  and  her  relation.  7.  Are 
you  the  relations  of  that  wicked  man  ?  8.  We  are  not  his  relations. 
9.  What  has  that  young  man  f  10.  He  has  his  whips  and  his 
guns.  11.  What  animals  has  the  countryman  f  12.  He  has  the 
wicked  animals.  13.  Who  has  the  best  guns  ?  14.  Those  young 
men  have  the  best  guns  and  the  best  whips.  15.  Are  you  the 
brother-in-law  of  the  rich  widow  ?  16.  No,  ladies,  I  am  her  brother. 
17.  Are  you  the  relation  of  that  young  girl  ?  18.  Yes,  I  am  her 
cousin.  19.  What  has  that  maid-servant  ?  20.  She  has  the  large 
cakes,  the  excellent  hams,  and  the  good  fruit.  21.  Who  has  the 
handsome  houses?  22.  The  merchant  has  the  handsome  houses 
and  the  handsome  stores.     23.  Has  he  the  best  butter  ?    24.  He 

U       »         1       ,t 
poar-bolre,  careHtente. 



has  the  best  butter  and  the  best  flour.  25.  Who  has  your  hand- 
some bird  ?  26.  My  sister-in-law  has  my  handsome  bird  and  my 
handsome  flowers.  27.  Are  you  the  sons  of  the  capUin?  28.  No, 
miss,  we  are  his  brothers-in-law. 

14.«QUAT0RZli:ME  LEgON. 
£tbe,  to  bk  thied  person  bingulae  and  fibst  plttbal. 

Sommei-nouaf     Vbus  ites. 

Ne  Bommes-nous  pas  ?  Vooa  n^dtes  pas. 

Fgi-ilf    Jlett,    Est-ellet    EUe  est. 

N'est-a  pas  ?    II  n'est  pas. 

N'est-elle  pas?    EUe  n'est  pas. 
r  Without  a  Terb,  rUn  ;  with  a  rerb  of  which 
\       it  Is  the  object,  ne  before  the  rerb  and 
1        rim  alter  it;  with  a  yerb  of  which  it  Is 
(       the  subject,  rUn  im  before  the  rerb. 

Are  we  f     You  are. 

Are  we  not?    You  are  not. 

lahef    He  is.    Is  she?    She  is. 

Is  be  not?    He  is  not. 

Is  she  not  ?    She  is  not 


What  have  you  ?    Nothing. 

Qa^avez-voos  ?    Rien. 

I  have  nothing  here. 

Je  n^ai  rien  id 

Nothing  is  good  here. 

Bien  n'est  bon  id 

Under.     But. 

Sous.    MaU. 


Something,  any  thing.    A  thing. 

Quelque  clioss. 

Vne  chose. 

The  bench. 

Le  banc. 

AJUh.    A  codfish. 



An  onion,    A  sardine. 


Vne  sardine. 

The  parasol.    The  clock  (large). 

Le  parasol. 


The  pendulum.     The  dock. 

Le  pendule. 


1.  Horloge  is  a  large  clock  upon  some  large 
La  ptndule  is  a  clock  for  an  ordinary  room. 

The  clock  of  that  church  is  large. 

I  have  here  a  fine  clock. 

That  pendulum  is  long. 

A  broom.    A  strawberrg. 

That  so/a.    That  cellar. 

I  have  the  chest,  but  I  have  not  the 

A  newspaper.    A  den,  cavern. 
My  chest.    My  room. 
Have  you  any  thing,  is  any  thing  the 

matter  with  you? 

bnildlng  to  sound  the  hours  for  the  publla 

L^orloge  de  cette  iglise  est  grande. 

tTai  ici  une  beUe  pendule. 

Ge  pendule  est  long. 

Un  balai.    XJne /raise. 

Ge  eanapi.    Gette  cave. 

tTai  le  coffre,  mais  je  n*ai  pas  le  baUL 

Un  Journal.  Une  caveme, 
Mon  eoffre.  Ma  chamhre. 
Avez-Yous  quelque  chose  ? 

1     U    llT  «        ni4        II  T         S        4        ir  S  SB     tl  15    SB       IS     nSl        I 

ka-tor-zidm«,  est,  ri-en,  sons,  mais,  kel-ke  choze,  bane,  pols-son,  mo-rus,  of-gnlon,  aar> 

11  1      1    U       IS     II  8        a  ITT  I      I      r       I  IS         1         1       T  IS 

dins,  pa-ra-iol,  Aor-logs,  pen-duls,  ba-UI,fhds«i,  ai-na>p6,  oaT«,j<mMial,  ca^Terae,  eofta, 


I  hare  something,  something  is  the    tTai  qoelqne  chose. 

matter  with  me. 
What  is  the  matter  with  you  ?  Qu^avez-Tous  f 

Nothing  is  the  matter  with  me.  Je  n*ai  rien. 

2.  Quelque  eho$e  ia  not  lued  with  a  negative  except  In  a  qnostion. 
Hare  you  not  something?  N^avez-Tous  pas  quelque  chose? 

Have  yon  not  any  thing  (or  nothing)  ?     N'avez-voas  rien  ? 

8.  Quslque  ehoM^  rien,  and  qus  InterrogntlTe,  take  de  before  a  following  a^jeetlTe. 
Hare  you  any  thing  good  ?  Avez-Yous  quelque  chose  de  bon  ? 

I  hare  nothing  good.  Je  n^ai  rien  de  bon. 

What  have  you  pretty  ?  Qu'ayez-vons  de  joli  ? 

1.  Sommes-noos  les  amis  da  znAichand?  2.  Nous  sommes  ses 
amis.  3.  Ne  sommes-nous  pas  ses  cousins?  4.  Non,  monsiem', 
nous  ne  sommes  pas  ses  cousins.  5.  Od  est  voire  beaa-fr^re?  6.  II 
est  dans  sa  chamb^^.  7.  Mon  parasol  est-il  sur  le  banc  ?  8.  Non, 
mademoiselle,  eUef  est  sur  le  plancher.  9.  La  mome  est-elle  dans 
la  cave  ?  10.  La  morae  est  dans  la  cave,  et  les  sardines  sont  ici 
SOT  le  banc  11.  L'oignon  est-il  sur  le  banc  on  sous  le  banc? 
12.  II  est  sous  le  banc.  13.  Ou  est  le  canap6  ?  14.  H  est  dans 
Toire  cbambre.  15.  Le  journal  est-il  sur  le  canap6  ?  16.  H  est 
dans  votre  coffre.  17.  N'as-tu  pas  les  fraises  ?  18.  J'ai  les  fraises 
et  les  cerises.  19.  As-tu  les  poissons  ici  ?  20.  La  morue  est  ici 
et  les  sardines  sont  sur  la  table.  21.  Cette  horloge  est  grande,  et 
cette  pendole  est  jolie.  22.  J'ai  le  parasol  et  le  balai.  23.  Le 
journal  est  sur  la  table,  et  Toignon  est  sur  le  plancher.  24.  La 
petite  ch5vre  est  dans  cette  caveme.  25.  Qu'avez-vous  de  gros  ? 
26.  Je  n'ai  rien  de  gros. 

1.  What  has  that  man?  2.  He  has  his  gun.  3.  What  is  the 
matter  with  you  ?  4.  Nothing  is  the  matter  with  me.  5.  Are  we 
not  your  relations?  6.  You  are  our  cousins.  7.  Have  you  the 
fish  ?  8.  No,  madame,  the  fish  is  here  on  the  bencL  9.  Is  the 
codfish  in  the  cellar?  10.  The  codfish  is  in  the  cellar,  the  sardines 
are  on  the  table,  and  the  onions  are  under  the  table.  11.  Where 
is  the  newspaper?  12.  It  is  on  the  sofa.  13.  Has  the  servant 
any  thing  ?  14.  He  has  the  broom  and  the  parasol.  15.  Have 
you  a  chest  in  your  room?  16.  I  have  a  chest  in  my  room  and  a 
trunk  alsa  17.  Have  you  the  strawberries  ?  18.  No,  sir,  I  have 
the  cherries,  but  I  have  not  the  strawberries.  19.  I  have  the  onion 
and  the  sardine,  and  you  have  the  parasol,  the  so£bs  and  the  broom. 
20.  Are  we  in  your  store?     21.  No,  sir,  we  are  in  the  store  of  my 



father.  22.  Are  we  not  your  friends  t  23.  Ton  are  onr  friends 
and  our  relations.  24.  Where  is  the  clock  t  25.  It  is  in  my  room. 
26.  Have  you  a  good  clock  ?  27.  We  have  a  good  clock  and  a 
good  watch ;  the  watch  is  of  gold,  but  the  clock  is  of  wood.  28. 
Have  yon  any  thing  handsome  t  29.  I  have  nothing  handsome. 
30.  TVhat  have  you  good  ?    We  have  nothing  good. 

15.— QUINZIilME  LEgON. 

Art  thou  f    Hum  art. 

Art  thoa  not  ?    Thou  art  not 

Ar€  ihey  i    They  are. 

Are  tbey  not  ?    Tbey  are  not. 


E94uf    Ta  68. 

N'es-ttt  paa  ?    To  n'es  pas. 
iSont'iUf    IltMonL 
\  Sant-i^lUe  f    Elles  fiont. 

iNe  sont-ils  pas?    Us  ne  Bont  pas. 
No  BODt-clIcs  pas  ?    EIlcs  ne  sont  pas. 


Un  marteau, 
Cet  arbre. 
Mod  oncle. 
Son  neveu, 
Le  medecin. 
Beaucoup  dlvoire. 
Little  straw.    Few  cups.  Pcu  dc  paille.    Fen  de  tasscs. 

1.  Beaucaupt  peUf  and  adverlM  of  qaantity  generally,  take  de  before  the  following  noun. 

A  hamwtr. 
The  ivory. 
This  tree. 
My  uncle. 
His  nephew. 

A  cup, 
A  saucer. 
This  cordf  rope. 
My  aunt. 
Her  nieee. 

The  ^raw. 

The  wuherwoman. 

Which  one,  tnhai  one,  which. 

Which  onea^  fthai  onet,  which. 

The  garden. 

The  physician. 

All  (singular). 

All  (plural). 

Much,  many.  Little,  few. 

Much  ivory.    Many  hammers. 

Une  taue. 
Une  soucoupe* 
Cette  corde. 
Ma  tante, 
Sa  niece. 
Ia  paille. 
La  blanchitsnue, 
Peu  (adverb). 

Beaucoup  de 

Where  is  the  washerwoman's  cord  ? 
It  is  on  the  tree. 
Which  one  has  she? 
Which  ones  are  under  the  tree  ? 
I  have  the  large  cup ;  which  one  have 

0^  est  la  corde  de  la  blanchisseuae  ? 
Elle  est  sur  Tarbre. 
Laquelie  a-t-cUe  ? 
Lesquelles  sont  sous  Tarbre  ? 
tTai  la  grande  tasse;   laquelie  avez- 

1«     lis  S  1       17  1  19     SB  U       U  1  U  SI  1  4       Ml 

kin-zi6me,  o^  raar-tcaOf  tune,  i-Toire,  soa-coupA  arbr«t  cord«^  ondtf,  tant«,  neuron 

nC4»lft7»Tft  114       1  »i«ai4t  u 

n1-do«,  le-kel,  la-ke12«,  Ie«-kel«,  les-ktllee^  Jar-dtn,  pollltf,  rnddt-dn,  blan-ehit-aeose,  toof, 

toaU,  tou«,  toutM,  beau-coup,  pen. 


Which  one^  has  the  phyricum  ?  Laqnelle  le  m^decin  a-t-il? 

To,  or  at  t/ts  home  of.    At  my  unde^s     Chez  (preposition).    Chez  mon  oncle. 

At  the  man's  house.     At  my  aunt*s.         Chez  Thomme.     Chez  ma  tante. 

&  Wben  Jumu  b  nnderstood  after  the  poiiteasWe  eaao  In  EngUah,  eft<*  most  be  used  In 

At  your  nephew's.    At  your  brother's.    Chez  votre  nereu.     Chez  votre  frdre. 
Your  nieces  are  at  the  neighbor's.  Yos  nieces  sont  chez  la  voisine. 

They  are  not  at  my  father's.  Elles  ne  sont  pas  chez  mon  p^rc. 

a.  Suiet^  subject,  Is  often  applied  to  persons,  especially  to  boys,  in  reference  to  their 
mofttls;  as, 

The  neighbor's  son  is  a  had  boy.  Le  fils  da  voisin  est  un  mauvaU  nijet. 

Edward's  friend  is  a  good  boy.  L'ami  d'Edouard  est  un  bon  sujet. 

4  £on  ffarcon  means  nsnally  goodfiUow. 

Henry  is  a  yood fellow^  but  bis  cousin     Henri  est  nn  bon  garfon,  mais  son 

is  bad.  cousin  est  un  mauvaU  tujet. 

1.  Les  marteanx  sont-ils  dans  votre  chambre  1  2.  Non,  mon- 
sienr,  ils  sont  ici  snr  la  table.  3.  Oil  sont  les  soaconpes  1  4.  fiUes 
8ont  dans  le  magasin  du  marcband.  5.  Ou  sont  les  cordes  et  les 
cordeaDX?  6.  Elles  sont  sous  Tarbre.  7.  Vos  sceurs  sont-elles 
cbez  votre  oncle  t  8.  Elles  sont  cbez  ma  tante.  9.  Oil  sont  les 
mcdecinst  10.  Us  sont  cbez  votre  pere.  11.  Le  nevea  da  voisin 
a  tout  Tivoire,  et  sa  ni6ce  a  toute  la  sole,  tontes  les  tasses  et  tons 
les  papiers.  12.  Ou  est  la  blancbisseuse  ?  13.  La  blancbisseuse 
est  dans  le  jardin  de  mon  oncle,  et  le  m6decin  est  cbez  ma  tante. 
14.  Oil  est  la  corde  de  la  blancbisseuse?  15.  Elle  est  sur  le  grand 
arbre  dans  votre  jardin.  IG.  Ce  marcband  abeaucoup  de  soaconpes 
et  pea  de  tasses.  17.  Ge  paysan  a  beaucoup  de  paille ;  sa  corde  est 
ici  snr  cette  chaise.  18.  Edouard  est  an  bon  gar^on,  mais  son  petit 
fr^re  est  an  manvais  sujet.  19.  N'es-tu  pas  mon  parent?  20.  Je 
snis  ton  cousin.     21.  Tu  es  l'ami  d'Henri. 

1.  Wbere  are  the  shopkeeper's  cords?  2.  They  are  on  the 
plank  under  the  tree.  3.  Where  are  his  iron  hammers  ?  4.  His 
iron  hammers  are  on  the  floor,  and  his  ivory  knives  are  on  the  desk. 
5.  Has  he  many  cups  ?  6.  No,  sir,  he  has  few  cups  and  few  sau- 
cers. 7.  Where  are  the  lines  of  the  washerwoman  ?  8.  They  are 
on  the  tree  in  the  garden.  9.  Where  is  the  rope  ?  10.  It  is  under 
the  tree  in  the  garden.  11.  Has  the  countryman  the  straw? 
12.  He  has  all  the  straw  and  all  the  fruit.  13.  Has  the  servant 
the  knives?  14.  He  has  all  the  knives  and  all  the  forks.  15. 
'What  has  tbe  physician's  niece  ?    16.  She  has  the  parasol.  17.  Which 



one  has  she?  18.  She  has  the  little  one.  19.  Which  ones  has  the 
nephew?  20.  He  has  the  silk  parasols.  21.  Are  thy  brothers  at 
thy  uncle's  ?  22.  No,  sir,  they  are  at  my  aunt's.  23.  The  nephew 
of  the  shopkeeper  has  his  cups ;  which  ones  has  he  ?  24.  He  has 
the  cups  of  porcelain.  25.  Which  one  has  his  niece  ?  2Q.  She  has 
the  pretty  ona  27.  The  washerwoman  is  at  my  aunt's ;  she  has 
her  line  and  her  soap.  28.  Thou  art  the  nephew  of  the  generaL 
29.  What  have  you  bad?  30.  We  have  nothing  bad.  31.  Hare 
you  something  good  ?  32. 1  have  the  good  coffee  and  the  good  firuit. 

16.— SEIZIi:ME  LEgON. 


Doyouffof  areycugwigf 
We  go,  we  are  going. 
Do  you  not  go?  are  you  not  going? 
We  do  not  go,  ve  are  not  going. 
Dost  thou  go  f  art  thou  going  f 
I  go.    I  am  going. 

Dost  thou  not  go  ?  art  thou  not  going  ? 
I  do  not  go,  1  am  not  going. 
To,  at.    To  or  at  my  house. 
To  our  house.    At  your  house. 
To  his  house.    At  her  house. 
To  or  at  their  house. 

The  child. 
That  tailor. 
The  pepper. 
The  roast  beef. 
The  roast  meat. 

To  tJie  (singular). 

To  the  (plural). 

The  country. 
That  river. 
The  city. 
The  kitchen. 
The  mountain. 


2^ous  allons. 

N^allcz-Yous  pas  ? 

Nous  n'allons  pa& 


Je  vais. 

Ne  yas-tu  pas  ? 

Je  ne  vais  pas. 


Chez  nous. 

Chez  lui. 

Chez  eux. 


Ce  tailleur. 
he  poivre. 
Le  bceuf-Toti. 
Le  rotL 

Chez  VOU8, 
Chez  elie. 
Chez  elles. 

La  campagne. 
Cette  riviere. 
La  ville. 
La  cuisine. 
La  montagne* 

1.  AU  and  d  les  are  not  to  be  used  in  French ;  bat  the  farmer  is  contracted  into  au 
before  a  consonant,  and  the  latter  always  into  av^  A  le  and  d  la  become  d  T  before  a 
vowel  or  a  silent  h. 

Are  you  going  to  the  garden  ? 
AVe  are  going  to  the  stores. 
Art  thou  not  going  to  the  kitchen  ? 
I  am  going  to  the  tree. 

Allez-Tous  au  jardin  ? 
Nous  allons  aux  magasins. 
Ne  vas-tu  pas  k  la  cuisine? 
Je  vais  a  Tarbrc. 

7     ISS  I      6        1      «  1  r  e       SS13    10       8       8  1  1  1        n        11  IS  T 

sei-zli^me,  aU-ee,  aZ-lon«,  vm,  Tai«,  chej,  lui,  eoa%  cn-fiin/;  cam-pagnf,  taill-eur,  ri-vi-^«L 
«  la       ir  la « n  n         a      i         it     17 

poiTr«,  Till«,  T6t!,  cui-zinaf  mon-tagna,  an,  aoA). 


%,  Ala  moUtm  Is  Torv  often  lued  tor  iota  at  ths  Ko«$6  of  Che  penoo  Tcftmd  Uk 

Is  he  at  home  ?  Est-il  k  la  maison,  or  chez  lui  ? 

Art  thou  going  home  ?  Vas-tu  &  la  maison,  or  chcz  toii 

/  Madame  est^Ile  chez  elle  ? 

,    ,    ,   ,        ,         „  1  Madame  est-elle  i  la  maison  ? 

b  the  kd/  at  home  ?  ^  ,(,^^  ^^^^  ^  j^, 

V  Madame  p  est-elle  f  See  les.  89. 

&  MeneUur,  madame^  and  fnademaUeUettn  oftan  joined  to  terms  of  reUtlonshlp  and 
to  titlee,  from  poUteneaa. 

Where  is  your  father  ?  Oil  est  monsienr  Totre  p^re  ? 

Is  your  mother  here  ?  Madame  votre  mdre  est-elle  ici? 

Is  your  sister  at  home  ?  Mademoiselle  yotre  soeur  est-elle  chez 

Where  is  the  general  f  0^  est  monsieur  le  g^ndral? 

1.  Allez-vons  au  jardin  da  tailleor  ?  2.  Non,  madame,  nous 
allons  k  la  riviere.  3.  Ou  vas-tu  ?  4.  Je  vais  d  la  maison.  5.  Ne 
vas-ta  pas  chez  noas  ?  6.  Non,  monsieur,  je  vais  chez  moi.  7.  Al- 
lez-vons chez  les  taUleurs  ?  8.  Oui,  madame,  nous  allons  chez  eux. 
9.  Le  medecin  est-il  chez  Ini  ?  10.  Non,  monsieur,  il  est  chez  moi. 
11.  Yas-tu  chez  toi  ?  12.  Non,  monsienr,  je  vais  k  la  campagne. 
13.  Oil  Bont  tes  consins?  14.  lis  sont  chez  eox.  15.  Es-tu  Tami 
des  taillenrs  ?  16.  Je  suis  leur  ami.  17.  Yas-tn  chez  eux?  18. 
Je  vais  chez  moL  19.  AUez-vous  k  la  ville  ?  20.  Non,  madame, 
je  vais  k  la  riviere  et  k  la  montagne.  21.  L'enfant  dn  voisin  est-il 
chez  vons  ?  22.  II  n*est  pas  chez  moi,  il  est  chez  son  p^re.  23.  Cet 
enfant  a  le  hoenf-rdti  et  les  pommcs  de  terre.  24.  Qui  a  le  rdti  ? 
25.  L'enfant  Ta.  26.  Est-il  k  la  cuisine  ?  27.  II  est  chez  vous. 
28.  Tu  n'es  pas  le  parent  de  Charles  ?    29.  Si,  je  suis  son  fr&re. 

1.  Where  are  you  going  ?  2.  We  are  going  to  the  city.  3. 
Are  yon  not  going  to  the  mountain  ?  4.  We  are  going  to  the 
monntain  and  to  the  river.  5.  Art  thou  going  to  the  house  of  thy 
uncle  ?  6.  I  am  not  going  to  his  house,  I  am  going  to  thy  house. 
7.  Is  the  little  child  at  the  house  of  his  cousins  ?  8.  He  is  not  at 
their  house,  he  is  at  the  kitchen.  9.  Art  thou  going  to  the  coun- 
try ?  10.  I  am  not  going  to  the  country,  I  am  going  to  the  city. 
11.  Are  you  going  to  the  tailor's  ?  12.  We  are  not  going  to  his 
house,  we  are  going  to  thy  house.  13.  Where  are  the  nieces  of  the 
physician  ?  14.  They  are  at  their  house.  15.  You  are  going  to 
the  city,  we  are  going  to  the  country.     16.  Art  thou  going  to  the 

u   u 



river  or  to  the  mountain  ?  17.  I  am  going  to  my  ancle's.  18.  I 
have  the  roast  beef  and  the  pepper ;  thou  hast  the  roast  meat  and 
the  bread.  19.  I  am  going  to  the  garden ;  are  you  going  to  the 
stores  ?  20.  We  are  going  to  the  stores ;  art  thou  not  going  to  the 
river?  21.  No,  sir,  I  am  going  to  the  tree  in  the  garden.  22. 
Hast  thou  the  pepper  or  the  roast  beef?  23.  I  have  the  pepper 
and  the  roast  meat.  24.  Have  you  anything  small  ?  25.  I  have 
nothing  small.  26.  What  have  you  large?  I  have  the  large 



Doci  he  gof  u  he  going  i 

He  goes,  he  is  going. 

Does  she  not  go  ?  is  she  not  going  ? 

She  does  not  go,  she  is  not  going. 

Do  they  go  f  are  they  going  f 

They  go,  they  are  going. 

Do  they  not  go  ?  are  they  not  going  ? 

They  do  not  go,  they  are  not  going. 

The  prendetU.  The  door. 

The  doctor.  The  voindow. 

The  market.  The  stable. 

The  mUl.  The  half. 

1.  Mon,  ton,  rotre^  etc.,  are  a^eetlres,  ai 
noons,  and  used  without  nouns.  Le  iMrtf  le 
always  have  a  circumflex  accent 

Mine  (singular). 
Mine  (plural). 
Thine  (singular). 
Thine  (plural). 
Hitf  hers,  ite  (singular). 
His,  hers,  its  (plural). 
,  Ours  (singular). 
Ours  (plural). 
Your$  (singular). 
Yours  (plural). 
Tlieirs  (singular). 
Theirs  (plural). 


11  va. 

Ne  va-t-elle 


EUe  ne  va  pas. 



lis  Tont. 


Ne  vont-eUcs  pas  f 

EUcs  ne  vont  pas. 


Le  president. 


Le  docteur. 

JjAfenitre,  crtMie. 

Le  tnarche. 


Le  moidin. 

La  moitiS. 

d  belong  to  nouns. 

The  following  ore  pro- 

»Mre,  and  their  f^minines  and  plurals,  most 

Le  mien. 

la  mienne. 

Les  miens. 

les  roiennes. 

Le  tien. 

la  tienne. 

Les  tiens, 

les  tiennes. 

Le  tien^ 

la  sienne. 

Les  siens. 

les  siennesL 

Le  ndtre^ 

la  ndtre. 

Les  notres. 

les  ndtres. 

Le  vdtre, 

la  y6tre. 

Les  vdtres, 

les  v6tre8. 

Le  leitrj 

la  leur. 

Les  leura. 

les  Icurs. 

dls-sep-tidmf,  von<,  pr6-zi-deni,  port**,  doc-tour,  fen^tre,  croi-z6<%  mar-ch^L  6-ca>riA. 
IS    M       M  i;»   w  u     fe  i        »  14*^  u  »        IS  14   la  t      ^17        ly        u  ^ 

mon-lin,  mol-ti«,  mi-en,  mi-ena«,  tl-en,  ti-enn«,  si-en,  si-enn«,  notrd,  Tdtrs,  leur. 


2.  The  aboye  prononoa  cannot  be  iu«d  wlthont  the  article.  Like  all  prononna,  they 
agne  with  their  noiina  la  gender  and  number. 

What  hats  have  jou  ?  Qnels  chapeaax  avez-TOos  ? 

We  hare  ours.     I  have  mine,  thou  Nous  avons  les  notres.    J*ai  le  mieu, 

hast  thine,  he  has  his,  you  have  tn  as  le  tien,  il  a  le  sien,  toos  ayez 

yours,  and  they  have  theirs.  les  Tdtres,  et  ils  ont  les  leurs. 

1.  Oi^  ya  le  doctenr?  2.  II  va  chez  le  president.  3.  L'enfant 
ne  vart^il  pas  ^  la  porte  t  4.  n  va  ^  recarie.  5.  Ou  vont  ces 
hommes  ?  6.  lis  vont  aa  moolin.  7.  Ne  vont-ils  pas  anx  magasins  ? 
8.  lis  vont  anx  magasins  et  anx  moulins  aussi.  9.  Cet  enfant  va- 
t-il  &  la  porte  on  ^  la  fenStre  (croifl6e)  1  10.  H  va  4  la  crois^e 
(fenetTe).  11.  Le  gar^on  va-t-il  au  marcb^  ?  12.  II  va  &  recarie, 
et  le  domestiqne  va  au  marcbe.  13.  Quel  poivre  as-ta  ?  14.  J'ai 
le  mien.  15.  Qn'a  cet  enfiftnt  ?  16.  H  a  la  moitid  d'one  pomme 
et  la  moitie  d'une  poire.  17.  Ai-jele  fruit  du  doctenr  t  18.  Non, 
Charles,  tu  as  le  tien  et  il  a  le  sien.  19.  Quelles  pommes  avons- 
noost  20.  J'ai  la  mienne,  tu  a  la  tienne,  et  le  doctenr  a  la  sienne, 
vous  avez  les  v6tres,  et  ces  messieurs  ont  les  leurs.  21.  N'ai-je  pas 
tea  livres?  22.  Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  les  miens,  tn  as  les  tiens,  et 
mon  fr^re  a  les  siens.  23.  Avons-nous  nos  papiers?  24  Vons 
avez  les  vdtres,  nous  avons  les  ndtres,  et  le  doctenr  a  les  siens. 

1.  Are  the  physicians  going  to  the  president's?  2.  They  are 
not  going  to  the  president's,  they  are  going  to  the  doctor's.  3. 
Where  is  that  child  going  ?  4.  He  is  going  to  the  door.  5.  Is  he 
not  going  to  the  window  t  6.  No,  sir,  he  is  going  to  the  door  and 
to  the  stable.  7.  Art  thou  the  son  of  the  president?  8.  No, 
madam,  I  am  his  nephew.  9.  Are  you  going  to  the  market  or 
to  the  mill?  10.  I  am  going  to  the  market,  and  the  servant  is 
going  to  the  mill.  11.  Is  the  lady  at  home?  12.  Yes,  sir,  she  is 
at  home.  13.  Where  is  that  little  child  going?  14.  He  is  going 
to  the  stable.  15.  Where  is  his  stick  ?  16.  It  is  on  the  window. 
17.  What  has  he?  18.  He  has  the  half  of  a  pear  and  the  half  of 
a  potato.  19.  Has  the  cook  onr  meat  ?  20.  He  has  not  ours,  be 
has  his.  21.  What  cloth  have  the  little  boys?  22.  They  have 
theirs.  23.  Have  they  their  buttons  ?  24.  No,  sir,  they  have  not 
theirs.  25.  Is  not  the  doctor  going  to  our  house?  26.  No, 
madam,  he  is  not  going  to  your  house ;  he  is  going  home.  27. 
That  child  has  an  inkstand ;  which  one  has  he  ?  28.  He  has  thine ; 
he  has  not  mine. 




TowlL    TobetnUing,  Vauloir.     Vouhir  hien. 

1.  The  rerb  vauMr  has  Tsrlovs  signifloatloDB  in  Engliah,  and  Its  rigbt  nse  forms  on*  of 
the  dUBcoltlM  of  the  French  Ungnage.  In  general  it  means  to  wiUf  and,  modified  hj  6€e», 
to  he  fciUino.  Followed  hj  a  noon  or  prononn  as  object,  it  maj  be  rendered  to  vUkJbr; 
and  In  this  sense  It  will  now  be  used.  Its  other  meanings  will  be  given  in  their  places 

Do  you  toishfor  f  will  you  havef  Voulez-vous  f  or,  DUirex-vous  f 

We  tmh/oTj  toe  tot//  have.  ITous  wmLoM^  or,  Now  denroms. 

Do  yon  not  wish  for?  will  you  not  Ne  Tonlez-voua  pas?  or,  Ne  d^rez- 

have?  Touspas? 

We  do  not  wish  for,  we  will  not  have.  Nous  ne  voulons  pas,  or^  Nona  ne  d6- 

siroDS  pas. 

JDoet  thou  with  for  f  wilt  thou  have  f  Veux-tu  f  or,  Disiret^u  t 

I  wish  for f    J  will  have.  Je  veuxj  or,  Je  d&eire. 

Dost  thou  not  wish  for  ?  wilt  thou  not  Ne  veux-tu  pas?  or^  Ne   d^sirea-to 

have  ?  pas  ? 

I  do  not  wish  for,    I  will  not  hare.  Je  ne  Teux  pas,  or,  Je  ne  desire  pu. 

Do  you  wish  for  the  milk  ?  YouIcz-tous  le  lait  ? 

Yes,  sir,  if  you  pleaee.  Oui,  monsieur,  e^il  voue  plait.^ 

No,  sir,  /  thank  you,  Non,  monsieur,  Je  voua  remereie, 

UABOuimm.  VEMonxm, 

The  blacksmith,    A  history.  Le  forgeron.      Une  Autotrv. 

The  ^OTtfr.  America.  Jj  epieier.  VAmirique. 

2.  The  names  of  coontries  generally  take  the  article  in  French. 

A  nail.  England.  Vn  clou.  VAngleterre, 

The  copper.     France.  Le  cuivre.         La  l^Vance, 

7%e  one  of  that  of.  Celui  de.  Celle  de. 

The  ones  of  those  of  Ceux  de.  Celles  de. 

The  one  of  iron,  that  of  iron,  the  iron  Celui  de  fer.     Celle  de  fer. 

The  ones  of  iron,  those  of  iron,  the  Ceux  de  fer.     Celles  de  fer. 

iron  ones. 
8.  Celui  and  oeum  are  pronoons,  and  of  conrse  sgree  with  their  anteoedenti  In  gender 
and  nnmber. 

What  nail  dost  thou  wish  for  ?  Quel  clou  veux-tu? 

I  wish  for  the  one  of  copper.  Je  veux  celui  de  cuivre. 

Do  you  not  wish  for  the  silver  ones?       Ne  voulez-vous  pas  ceux  d^argent  ? 

*  S*il  wmsplaU  means  literally,  if  it  you  pleases  ;  L  e.  (^  «  pleases  you. 

nnii  ns  ii    »      n  i4      n     •       » ii    •        »•   ti        «  "  «  »         »  " 

dia-hoi-Udms,  vou-lolr,  bl-en,  voa-lca»  dd-d-rea,  vou-lon*,  d6-zi-ron«,  veoa^  dc-zln^ 

T       4      T       1»      !•      4  «l       n      to        t   n   JSft      1        »  li  »         4     T  »w         ^  1 

plait  re-mer-ds,  for-ge-ron,  Ai»-tolr«,  6-pi-oier,  A-m6-rik«^  An-gle-terr^,  cnlvra,  Fraaeik 
4  ait    •         loi 
oe-lal,  oells,  oeuA 


We  do  not  wish  for  them.  Nona  ne  lea  touIods  paa 

What  cups  do  joa  wish  for?  Quelles  tasses  Tonlez-vous  f 

I  wish  for  the  glass  ones.  Je  veux  celles  de  verre. 

Ton  wish  for  those  of  porcelain.  Vous  voulez  celles  de  porcelaine. 

4  The  prononn  belonging  to  the  poasessiTe  case  Is  often  omitted  in  English.  We  can 
•aj  either,  Tks  man**^  or  ttal  </  Ikt  man  ;  My  /ather%  or  tho$6  qf  my  father.  In  each 
eaaea,  eeliti  ds,  edU  d^  etc,  most  not  be  omitted  in  French. 

The  blacksmith's,  or^  that  of  the  black-    Celoi  du  forgeron,  or^  celle  da  forge- 
smith,  ron. 
The  grocer's,  or,  those  of  the  grocer.      Ceoz  de  T^picier,  or,  celles  de  F^pi- 


1.  Vonlez-vous  le  benrre  de  P6piciert  2.  Oui,  monsienr,  s'il 
vous  plait.  8.  Yenx-tu  son  caf6?  4.  Non,  monsieur,  je  vous 
remercie.  5.  Quelle  histoire  voulez- vous  t  6.  Nous  voulons  This- 
toire  de  France.  7.  Ne  voulez-vous  pas  celle  d' Angleterre  1  8* 
Non,  madame,  nous  voulons  celles  d'Am^rique  et  de  France.  9. 
Veux-tu  le  cafe  ?  10.  Oui,  monsieur,  s'il  vous  plait  11.  Veux-tu 
le  th6  aossi  ?  12.  Non,  monsieur,  je  vous  remercie.  13.  Desirez- 
vous  le  marteau  du  forgeron  ?  14.  Je  ne  desire  pas  celui  du  forge- 
ron, je  desire  le  mien.  15.  Quels  clous  voulez-vous  ?  IG.  Nous 
voulons  les  clous  de  cuivre.  17.  J'ai  Thistoire  d'Angleterre  et 
celle  d'Am^rique;  laquelle  voulez-vous?  18.  Je  veux  celle 
d'Amerique  et  celle  d'Angleterre  aussi.  19.  Voulez-vous  tons  ces 
livrest  20.  Je  ne  les  veux  pas  tous.  21.  LAuels  voulez-vous  f 
22.  Je  veux  Thistoire  d' Angleterre  et  celle  d' Am6rique.  23.  Voulez- 
vous  les  dous  de  I'^picier  ?  24.  Non,  monsieur,  je  vous  remercie. 
25.  Veux-tu  tous  ces  livres  ?     26.  Oui,  monsieur,  s'il  vous  plait. 

1.  What  do  you  wish  for  I  2.  I  desire  a  good  history.  3.  We 
wish  for  the  history  of  America ;  which  one  dost  thou  wish  for?  4. 
We  wish  for  that  of  England  and  that  of  France.  5.  Dost  thou 
wish  for  mine  ?  6.  I  do  not  wish  for  thine,  I  wish  for  that  of  my 
brother.  7.  Do  you  wish  for  the  nails?  8.  Yes,  sir,  if  you  please. 
9.  Do  you  wish  for  the  nails  of  copper,  or  those  of  iron  ?  10.  I 
wish  for  those  of  copper.  11.  Dost  thou  wish  for  the  nails  of  the 
blacksmith?  12.  No,  sir,  I  thank  you.  13.  Which  ones  dost  thou 
wish  for?  14.  I  wish  for  the  iron  nails  and  those  of  copper.  15. 
What  sugar  do  you  wish  for?  16.  We  wish  for  that  of  the  grocer. 
17.  Have  yon  all  the  hammers  ?  18.  No,  sir,  I  have  them  not  all. 
19.  Which  have  you  ?  20.  I  have  the  iron  hammers  and  those  of 
copper.     21.  Where  are  you  going  ?     22.  I  am  going  to  the  city, 



and  the  cook  is  going  to  the  market.  23.  Where  Ib  yoor  consin  t 
24.  He  is  at  the  store.  25.  Has  the  servant  your  candlestick  t 
26.  He  has  not  mine,  he  has  the  doctor's.  27.  Have  you  my  pent 
28.  I  have  not  yoors,  I  have  the  grocer's.  29.  Have  you  not  my 
papers?  30.  No,  sir,  I  have  those  of  the  master.  31.  Have  yon 
not  my  candles  ?  32.  I  have  not  yoors,  I  have  my  brother's  (or 
those  of  my  brother). 



Doe%  he  wish  for  f  will  lie  havef 

He  wishes  for,  he  will  have. 

Does  she  not  wish  ?  will  she  not  have  ? 

She  does  not  wish,  she  will  not  have. 
Do  they  with  for  f  will  they  have  f 
They  wish  for,  they  will  have. 
Do  they  not  wish  for?  will  they  not 

They  do  not  wish  for,  they  will  not 


Veut-ilf  or,  Denre-t-iU 

n  vent,  oTy  II  ddsire. 

Ne  veut-elle  pas?  or,  Ne  d^are-t-elle 

Elle  ne  vent  pas,  or^  EDe  ne  d^re  pas. 
Vtulent-iUf  or,  Denrent-iU/ 
lis  veulent,  or.  Us  ddsirent. 
Ne  veulent-elles  pas  ?  oTj  Ne  d^sirent- 

elles  pas  ? 
Elles  nc  veulent  pas,  or,  Elles  ne  d6si- 

rent  pas. 


The  baker. 


Le  boulanyer. 

Vne  piece. 

The  Jieherman. 

A  bark. 

Lc  picheur. 

Une  barque. 

A  dollar. 

Un  charpentier. 

Une  piastre. 

A  dollar. 

Un  dollar. 

Une  gourde. 

The  same. 

he  mane. 


The  other. 






The  tick  man. 

The  sick  woman. 

he  malade. 

La  malade. 

The  tolditr. 

The  9tone. 


hsL  pierre. 

A  sat/or. 

X  brick. 

Un  maUlot. 

Une  brique. 


Qui  (subject). 

C««  (object). 

The  stone  which 

is  here. 

La  pierre  qui  ett  ici. 

The  stone  which 

we  have. 

La  pierre  que  nous  avons. 

The  bricks  which 

are  there. 

Les  briques  qui  sont  Xk, 

The  bricks  which 

you  wish  for. 

Les  briques  que  vous  voulez. 

1.  We  here  see  i 

that  qui  b  the  sabjeet  and  que  the  ol^eet  of  the  foUowing  verh. 

The  baker  wishes  for  the  piece  of  cloth 

Le  boulanger  veut  la  pi6ce  de  drap  qui 

which  is  on  1 

^he  table. 

est  sur  la  table. 

»      •    nf  •       c  19        •  •   It  18     s      I     » •        •      a        1  1 

dlz-nea-vldinef  vent,  de-zir«,  veulmil,  de-zir«ni;  bon-lan-ger,  ni-bee.  i>6-ehenr,  barke,  char- 

t       ia«       Ul  IS     1  18  8  17  11  1«       I      iJ7  1         17       n  It     4 

pen-tier,  pl-astr«^  dollar,  gourde,  nidm«,  autr«,  ma-Iade,  sol-da/;  pierre,  mate-lot,  br{k«,  ki,  ke. 


We  wish  for  the  cloth  which  you  have.  Nous  voulons  le  drap  que  tous  arez. 

I  desire  the  hammer  which  is  of  iron.  Jc  desire  le  marteau  gut  est  de  fer. 

The  hammer  which  the  carpenter  has.  Le  marteau  que  le  charpcntier  a. 

He  desires  to  be  tall.  II  ddsire  6tre  grand. 

We  desire  to  be  your  friends.  Nous  ddsirons  etrc  tob  amis. 

The  fishermen  wish  for  the  bark  which  Les  pecheurs  veulcnt  la  barque  qui  est 
is  on  the  river.  sur  la  rivldrc. 

Ton  desire  to  be  their  friend^  and  they  Vous  ddsirez  etre  leur  ami,  et  lis  de- 
desire  to  be  yours.  sirent  6tre  les  vdtres. 

Do  you  wish  for  the  half  of  this  apple  ?  Voulez-vous  la  moiti6  de  cette  pomme  ? 

No,  I  thank  you.  Je  vous  remercie. 

8.  J6  rous  remercie  in  sach  replies  alwsjrs  tlgnlflea  declintog. 

1.  Que  vent  ce  matelot  ?  2.  11  veut  la  petite  barqae.  8.  La- 
qnelle  vent-il  ?  4.  II  veat  celle  du  prehear.  5.  Que  veulent  les 
soldats  ?  G.  Ds  yenlent  le  bon  pain.  7.  Celai  de  qui  veulent-ils  ? 
8.  Us  venlent  celoi  du  boulanger.  9.  Que  desires-tu  ?  10.  Je  d6- 
gire  one  cbandelle  et  nn  cbandelier.     11.  Que  veut  le  boulanger? 

12.  II  veut  ces  pi^es  de  drap.  13.  Lesquelles  veut-il  ?  14.  H  veut 
celles  que  les  cbarpentiers  ont  et  celles  qui  sont  ici  sur  la  table. 
15.  Que  venlent  ces  matelots  ?  16.  Ha  veulent  les  barques  des 
pecheurs.  17.  Ces  enfants  veulent-ils  les  dollars  d'or  ou  ceux  d'ar- 
gent?  18.  lis  veulent  les  dollars  d'or  et  ceux  d'argent  aussi.  19. 
Ce  petit  en&nt  veut  ce  livre ;  son  fr5re  veut-il  le  meme  ?  20.  II 
ne  veut  pas  le  m6me,  il  veut  le  sien.  21.  Le  soldat  est-il  ma- 
lade?  22.  Iln*estpasmalade.  23.  Que  veut  le  malade  ?  24.11 
veut  le  pain  du  boulanger,  et  les  soldats  veulent  le  memo.  25. 
Le  matelot  et  les  cbarpentiers  veulent-ils  le  meme  pain  ou  Tautre  ? 
lis  venlent  I'autre.  26.  La  maison  du  pecheur  est-elle  de  brique 
ou  de  pierre  ?    27.  Elle  est  de  bois. 

1.  Do  you  wish  for  the  half  of  this  fish?  2.  Yes,  sir,  if  you 
X>lease.  3.  Do  you  wish  for  the  milk  ?  4.  No,  sir,  I  thank  you. 
o.  What  has  that  child  ?  6.  He  has  the  silver  dollars.  7.  Has  he 
all  the  dollars  ?  8.  He  has  them  all.  9.  What  does  the  baker 
wish  for  ?  10.  He  wishes  for  the  wood  and  the  flour.  11.  What 
has  the  servant  ?     12.  He  has  a  piece  of  cloth  and  a  piece  of  linen. 

13.  What  does  the  sailor  wish  for  ?  14.  He  wishes  for  the  bark  of 
the  fisherman.  15.  Where  is  his  bark?  16.  It  is  on  the  river. 
17.  Is  the  carpenter's  house  of  stone  or  of  brick  ?  18.  It  is  of 
brick.  19.  I  wish  for  this  coffee;  does  the  sick  man  wish  for  the 
same  or  for  the  other?     20.  He  wishes  for  the  other.     21.  The 


soldier  desires  the  bread  of  the  sick  man ;  we  desire  the  wine  which 
is  on  the  table.  22.  What  has  the  little  child?  23.  He  has  the 
dollars.  24.  Which  (ones)  has  he  ?  25.  He  has  the  gold  dollars 
and  the  silver  ones.  26.  What  has  the  soldier  ?  27.  He  has  all 
the  meat  and  all  the  batter.  28.  Do  you  desire  to  be  rich  ?  29. 
My  brother  desires  to  be  rich,  and  I  desire  to  be  good.  30.  The 
neighbors  desire  to  be  our  friends,  and  we  desire  to  be  theirs. 

20.— VINGTIfiME  LEgON. 


1.  The  PU8XKT  PAKTiciPLE,  In  French,  is  formed  by  changing  oks,  of  the  first  penoa 
plnral,  indlcatlye  present,  into  akt;  *  as, 

nmxrrxTK.  pabticiplx.  mpiniTiv*.  Ibt  psb&  plv.  paxticipls. 

Togo.  Ooing.                    Aller^            allonx,  Allant. 

To  will.  Willing,                  Vatdoir,        roulonx,  Voulant. 

To  desire.  Desiring.               jDesirer^        d6siron«,  Desirant, 

2.  The  present  participles  ot  avoir  and  itre  arc  exceptions  to  the  above  rale.t 

7b  have.  Having,  Avoir.  Ayant, 

To  he.  Being,  Mire,  ktant. 

The  PB»SKT  nrniCATms  of  the  following  fire  yerbe  has  now  been  given. 


J^Oii^  tu  as,  il  a, 

I  have,  thou  hast,        ho  has, 

To  BE,  BEING. 

Je  «Hit,         iuea^  ilest, 

I  am,  thoa  art,  he  is. 

To  GO,  GOING. 

Jevaia^         tuvae,  Uva^ 

I  go,  thou  goest,       he  goes, 


JeveuoBt        tuveur^  ilveut,         nouevoulone,        vmtevouleBt       Uevmitmi^ 

I  will,  thou  wiliest,    he  wills,        we  will,  you  will,  theywlU. 


Jeditire,       tudiHree,       UdiHre,       noue  diHrone^       vouedMrea,       iUdiHrent, 
I  desire,         thou  deslrest,  he  desires,     we  desire,  you  desire,         they  desire. 



V0U8  ares,         He  owt, 

we  have, 

you  have,           they  havew 



notu  eommes. 

roue  Km,           ilt  eont^ 

we  are, 

you  are,             they  an. 



vowi  aUe»t          iU  vont^ 

we  go, 

yon  go,               theyga 

•  Most  French  grammarians  form  the  first  person  pi  ami  from  the  participle,  and  thU  is 
well  Ibr  the  French ;  but  as  it  is  a  matter  of  mere  convenience,  and  as  the  English  learner 
becomes  acquainted  with  the  present  indicative  first,  1  have  thought  it  best  to  give  the 
above  rule. 

t  There  are  three  other  exceptions  in  all,— i&Aoir,  to  fall  to,  makes  hAwttt^  falling  to; 
Bavoir^  to  know,  makes  mchanl,  knowing;  and  Seolr^  to  sit,  makes  «eant,  sitting. 

14     i?a        1     •     I     s        IB    t       s   »  6       8  n  s      1     »   sias      a       •    a 
vinflT-tiomi',  a^lor,  a/-lanA  vou-lan<,  d^-zi-rer,  de-zi-ran/,  a-volr,  a-yanC,  ttr*",  6-tane. 



&  We  hsre  Men  (Leaaon  19)  that  qui  it  the  sabjoot  and  gu^  the  object  of  the  foUowlag 
rerb.  It  is  the  same  when  qui  and  qu^  are  joined  to  the  domonstmtlye  pronouns  celuit 

7%«  one  vhich,  that  which  (subject). 
The  one  whicK,  thai  which  (object). 
The  onee  whieh^  those  which  (subject). 
ne  ones  wJtieh,  those  which  (object). 
I  have  the  one  which  I3  here. 
I  hare  the  one  which  you  desire. 
We  have  those  which  are  there. 
We  hare  thoee  which  you  wish  for. 

Celui  qui,  Celle  qui. 

Celui  que,  Celle  que, 

Ceux  qui.  Celles  qui, 

Ceux  que,  Celles  que, 

J^ai  celui  qui  est  id 
tTai  celui  que  vous  d6sirez. 
Nous  avons  celles  qui  sont  U. 
Nous  ayons  celles  que  tous  Toulez. 

4.  What,  eqnlTolent  to  that  wMch^  or  the  thing  wMch^  !s  ee  qui  or  ce  que, 
I  desire  what  (that  which)  lajust,  Je  desire  ce  qui  est  juste. 

We  desire  what  {that  which)  you  have.    Nous  ddsirons  ce  que  vous  avez. 

5L  Some  adjectives  are  generally  placed  before  the  nonn,  and  some  are  generally  placed 
after  it;  others  again  are  sometimes  placed  before  and  sometimes  after  it  The  adjectives 
thus  fiur  Introduced  ore  placed  before  the  noun.  The  learner  may  understand  generally,  nntil 
ftarther  roles  be  given,  that  all  other  adiectives  are  placed  after  their  nouns. 

Fresh^  cod. 







Sweety  gentle. 

The  white  glove.    The  black  stocking. 
The  umbreUa.    A  needle. 

$.  Ma^  to,  sa^  become  mon,  ton^  son,  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  h, 
ICy  pen,  thy  table,  his  spoon.  Ma  plume,  ta  table,  sa  cuiller. 

Hy  plate,  thy  needle,  his  ink.  Mon  assiette,  ton  aiguille,  son  cncre* 

7.  A  verb  following  another  verb,  and  expressing  its  object,  is  put  in  the  infinitive. 
He  desires  to  have  a  horse.  H  d6sire  avoir  un  cbevaL 

They  desire  to  be  rich.  lis  d^sirent  Hre  riches. 

I  will  go  home.  Je  veux  alter  chez  moi,  or  d  la  maison. 

1.  Desires-tu  etre  riche  ?  2.  Non,  monsieur,  je  desire  etre  juste 
et  bon,  mais  je  ne  desire  pas  etre  riche.  3.  Ce  monsieur  desire 
aroir  beanconp  d'argent,  et  ses  fils  dcsirent  avoir  beaucoup  d*amis. 
4.  Desirez-vous  aller  chez  vous  ?  5.  Non,  monsieur,  nous  ddsirona 
aller  k  la  campagne.     6.  Quel  parapluie  voulez-vous  I     7.  Je  veux 

»  77  S  S  9r>S09»77  17  18 

Jost^  f^i^  fkal-eh«,  blanc,  blan-chs,  nolr,  no1r«,  bleu,  bleue,  verf,  Tcrt«t  jaun«,  roog^ 

IS  7  11        «11    7       »  19 

doac«,  aigre,  pa^ra^pluie,  ai-gn-llle. 





















Le  gant  blanc. 

Le  has  noir. 

Le  parapluie. 

Une  aiguille. 



celui  qui  est  sur  le  banc.  8.  Mon  friire  desire  celui  que  vous  avez, 
9.  Youlez-vous  Ics  parapluies  qui  sont  dans  le  magasin  ?  10.  Je 
desire  les  parapluies  qui  sont  sur  votre  tabic,  et  mon  p^re  d6sire 
ceux  du  marcband.  11.  Quelles  plumes  voulez-vous  ?  12.  Je  venx 
les  plumes  qui  sont  sur  le  pupitre,  et  celle  que  le  marcband  a  cbez 
lui.  13.  Quelles  aiguilles  veulent  les  tailleurs?  14.  lis  veulent 
les  aiguilles  qui  sont  ici  et  celles  que  le  marcband  a  dans  son  ma- 
gasin. 15.  Desires-tu  ce  que  j'ai  ?  16.  Non,  monsieur,  je  desire 
ce  que  nous  avons  ici.  17.  Le  domestique  a-t-il  Tean  fraicbe  ? 
18.  II  a  I'eau  fraicbe  et  le  vin  frais,  19.  Avez-vous  le  cbapeau 
blanc  ou  le  noir  1  20.  J'ai  le  blanc  et  le  noir  aussi.  21.  J'ai  le 
papier  bleu,  le  vert  et  le  jaune,  et  cet  enfant  a  I'encre  rouge,  le  Tin 
doux  et  le  lait  f rais. 

1.  My  cousin  desires  to  be  ricb,  but  we  desire  to  be  just  and 
good.  2.  Wbat  book  do  you  wisb  for  ?  3.  I  wisb  fur  tbat  whicb 
is  on  my  desk,  and  tbe  one  wbicb  tbat  cbild  desires,  and  my  broth- 
ers wisb  for  tbose  wbicb  are  at  tbe  store,  and  tbose  wbicb  we  have. 
4.  I  wisb  for  tbe  needle  wbicb  tbe  tailor  bas  in  bis  cbest^  and  for 
those  whicb  are  on  this  table.  5.  Wbat  apples  do  tbose  children 
desire  t  C.  They  wish  for  tbe  ones  which  are  here,  and  those  which 
tbe  countryman  bas  on  his  table.  7.  Do  you  wisb  for  wbat  is  in 
tbat  chair  ?  8.  Yes,  sir,  I  wish  for  wbat  is  on  that  chair,  and  for 
that  whicb  the  soldiers  have  here.  9.  Have  you  the  black  um- 
brella or  tbe  blue?  10.  I  have  the  blue  one.  11.  Has  your  friend 
the  green  paper  or  the  yellow  ?  12.  He  has  tbe  green  and  tbe 
yellow  also.  13.  Do  tbe  scholars  wish  for  tbe  red  ink  or  tbe  black  1 
14.  They  wish  for  tbe  red.  15.  Is  that  wine  sweet  or  sour  ?  16. 
That  wine  is  sweet,  but  the  milk  is  sour.  17.  This  needle  is  small ; 
do  you  wish  for  it?  18.  Yes,  madam,  I  wish  for  the  small  needle 
and  the  blue  umbrella.  19.  The  little  cbild  baa  my  pen  and  my 
slate ;  be  has  also  thy  paper  and  thy  ink. 

21.— VINGT   ET  UNlfeME  LEgON 


To  seeky  or  look  for.   Seeking^  looking  for,  Ckercher,  Chcrcnant. 

Je  chtrchs,     tu  eherchet,     il  chercJie^    noua  chtrcltowt^     90u»  ehtrchez^    iU  cherchenl, 
I  seek,  thoa  scckcst,    ho  seeks,       wc  seek,  }*oa  seek,  Ihoy  seek. 

14         S  29X21  7  6  7  1  T  7 

y\ngi  et  uni^izi«,  cher-cher,  clier-cliftnff  cfacr-ch^,  chcr*clic«. 



1.  The  learner  has  seen,  that,  a  Terb  agrees  with  Its  subject  in  mxmborand  person;  1.  e. 
the  llrst  person  singular  is  always  used  with  je^  the  second  with  tu^  and  the  third  with  all 
other  subjects  singular ;  the  first  person  plural  is  always  used  with  lunu,  the  second  with 
coKS,  and  the  third  with  all  other  subjects  plural. 

8.  Let  the  learner  bear  in  mind  also  that  the  English  have  three  forms  of  the  present, 
as  l9eeh,  do  aett,  am  aetking;  thou  seetttU^  dost  seek,  art  setting;  K6  ssel'S,  do€9  tedb^ 
is  ateking  ;  and  that  these  three  are  rendered  by  one  form  in  French,  as  aboye. 

I  Ktk  what  thou  art  sething.  Jc  cherche  ce  que  tu  elierehes. 

He  M  seeking  what  we  ieeh.  II  cherche  ce  que  nous  chercftons. 

You  seek  what  they  are  seeking.  Vou3  clicrchez  ce  qu^ila  cherchent. 

8.  The  syllable  ci  is  annexed  by  a  hyphen  to  a  noun  with  a  demonstrative  a4jectlTe,  or 
tn  a  demonstrattvo  pronoun,  to  denote  an  object  near,  and  id  to  denote  one  more  remote ; 
also  when  objects  are  contrasted. 

This  apron. 
These  aprons. 
Thj  dietumary. 
That  dictionary 

This  needle. 
These  needles. 
Thy  grammar. 
That  grammar. 

Those  dictionaries.    Those  grammars. 


Cette  aiguille-ci. 
Ces  aiguilles-ci. 
Ta  grammaire. 
Cette   grammaire- 

Ces  grammaircs-ld. 


Ce  tablier-ci. 
Ces  tabliers-ci. 
Ton  diciionnaire. 
Ce    dictionnaire- 

Ces  dictlonnaires- 






Ne  (bcf.  Terb),  ni  (after  it). 
Je  nVi  ni  la  briquc  ni  la  pierre. 
II  n'a  ni  le  gant  ni  le  has. 


77/M,  this  one,  the  latter. 

ITiese,  these  here,  the  latter. 

That,  that  ene^  the  former. 

Those,  those  Uiere,  the  former. 

Neither.  Nor.  Ne  (bcf.  Terb),  ni  (after  it).     Ni. 

I  hare  neither  the  brick  nor  the  stone. 

Uc  has  neither  the  gloTc  nor  the  stock- 

4.  When  ne  is  used  with  ni,  rien,  or  any  negative  word,  pas  is  omitted. 

I  am  looking  for  nothing.  Jc  ne  cherche  ricn. 

Ue  is  looking  for  neither  this  one  nor    II  ne  cherche  ni  celui-ci  ni  celul-IA. 
that  one. 

&  Ce,  cette,  ees,  are  adjectives,  and  always  belong  to  nouns ;  etiui,  ceUe,  cette,  oelles,  are 
pronotlbs,  and  stand  without  nouns. 

Does  he  wish  for  these  needles  or  those  ?    Yeut-il  ces  aiguillcs-ci  ou  cclleS'l^  ? 
He  wishes  for  neither  these  nor  those.    II  ne  veut  ni  celles-ci  ni  celles-ld. 
He  has  these  umbrellas  and  those.  II  a  ces  parapluies-ci  et  ccux-U. 

6u  "When  two  or  more  nouns  singular  are  the  subject  of  the  verb,  unless  they  are  con- 
nected by  a«,  the  Terb  must  bo  plural,  and  the  acycctivcs  agreeing  with  thorn  must  be  plural 


The  soldier  and  the  sailor  arc  here. 
The  apple  and  the  peach  are  good. 
The  doctor  or  his  brother  is  sick. 

Le  soldat  et  lo  matelot  sont  ici. 
La  porame  et  la  p4che  sont  bonnes. 
Le  doctcur  ou  son  frere  est  malade. 

7.  Quelqtu  chose,  rien,  and  que  interrogative,  as  wo  have  seen,  require  de  before  the 
following  adjective  and  adverb. 

7      «t  7       e         r  la  i2i»      7  1  7 

chcr-chons,  cher-ches,  cher-chsn/,  dic-tlon-naire,  gram-maire. 


What  have  you  white  ?  Ow'arez-vous  de  blanc  ? 

I  have  nothing  white.  Je  n*ai  rien  de  blanc. 

Wo  have  something  sweet  Nous  avous  quelqw  chose  de  doox. 

1.  Qu'avez-vous  de  frais  t  2.  Je  n'ai  rien  de  frais.  3.  Avez- 
vous  quelque  chose  denoir?  4.  J'ai  Vencre  noire.  5.  Que  cher- 
ches-tu  de  vert?  6.  Je  cherche  le  drap  vert.  7.  Les  tailleors 
cherchent-ils  quelque  chose  de  jaune  ?  8.  Us  chercheut  le  drap 
jaune  et  I'encre  rouge.  9.  Cherchez-vous  quelque  chose  t  10.  Nous 
ne  cherchons  rien.  11.  Quel  dictionnaire  cherchez-vous!  12.  Je 
cherche  celui  que  vous  avez.  13.  Cherchez-vous  celui-ci  ou  celui- 
la  ?  14.  Nous  ne  cherchons  ni  celui-ci  ni  celui-1^  nous  cherchons 
celui  qui  est  ici.  15.  Youlez-vous  cette  grammaire-ci  ou  celle-la  t 
16.  Je  ne  veux  ni  celle-ci  ni  celle-1^.  17.  Votre  p6re  veut-fl  ces 
chevanxt  18.  II  ne  veut  pas  ces  chevaux-1^  il  veut  ceux-ci.  19. 
Ces  enfants  veulent-ils  ces  pommes-ci  ou  celles-li?  20.  Us  ne  veu- 
lent  ni  celles-ci  ni  celles-1^  ils  veulent  celles  du  domestique.  21. 
Desirez-vous  ce  que  j'ai  ?  22.  Non,  madame,  je  desire  ce  qui  est 
ici.     23.  Je  desire  le  bon  pain  et  le  vin  frais. 

1.  What  art  thou  looking  for  ?  2.  I  am  looking  for  my  gram- 
mar and  my  dictionary.  3.  Do  you  wish  for  this  dictionary  or  for 
that  ?  4.  I  wish  for  neither  this  nor  that,  I  wish  for  mine.  5.  Are 
you  looking  for  your  grammar!  6.  I  am  looking  for  it.  7.  Are 
you  looking  for  this  one  or  for  that  one !  8.  I  am  looking  for  nei- 
ther this  one  nor  that  one.  9.  Have  you  any  thing  sweet  ?  10.  I 
have  something  sweet.  11.  What  have  you  sweet  ?  12.  I  have 
the  sweet  wine.  13.  Have  you  the  red  ink  or  the  black  ?  14.  I 
have  neither  the  red  nor  the  black.  15.  Do  you  wish  for  your  book 
or  that  of  your  brother  ?  16.  I  wish  for  neither  mine  nor  that  of  my 
brother.  17.  What  have  you  blue  1  18.  I  have  the  blue  umbrella 
and  the  blue  handkerchief.  19.  Have  you  any  thing  green  ?  20. 
I  have  nothing  green.  21.  Do  you  wish  for  these  peaches  or  those! 
22.  I  wish  for  neither  these  nor  those,  I  wish  for  the  ones  of  the 
countrywoman.  23.  Have  you  the  cloth  shoes  or  those  of  leather  ! 
24.  I  have  the  cloth  ones  and  the  leather  ones  also.  25.  What 
inkstand  are  you  looking  for  ?     26.  I  look  for  the  ivory  one. 


[N.  B.— The  csercises  headed  Optional,  tbronghoul  tho  book,  may  bo  omitted  whonoTer 
clrcamstancGS  require  It.] 

1.  Have  you  your  book  ?     2.  No,  sir,  I  have  it  not ;  do  you  wish 


for  itt  3.  I  wish  for  yours  or  your  brother's.  4.  My  brothei^a 
book  is  on  the  table.  5.  Where  is  yours  ?  6.  I  have  it  not  here ; 
it  is  at  home.  7.  Do  you  wish  for  this  one  ?  8.  K  you  please. 
9.  Is  your  mother  at  home  ?  10.  No,  sir,  she  is  at  my  cousin's. 
11.  Where  is  your  father  ?  12.  He  is  in  his  room  ;  do  you  wish  to 
see  him?  13.  If  you  please.  14.  I  am  going  to  look  for  him. 
15.  Father,  Mr.  A.  asks  for  (demands)  you.  16.  Is  he  here  ?  17. 
YeSy  sir,  he  is  in  the  garden. 


To  love^  loving,  Aimer^  aimant. 

J*aim^  iuaitnes,  UaimSt  now  aimons^         touaainuM^       iUaimmU^ 

I  lore,  thonloTest,-     ho  loves,  wo  lore,  70a  lore,  they  lore. 

Me,  Thee,  Me,  Te. 

Us.  You,  Nous,  V0U8. 

L  Thefio  foar  pronouns,  like  /«,  to,  Z«<,  are  placed  Immediately  before  a  transitive  Torh. 
Wo  lore  thee  and  thou  lovcat  us.  Nous  t^aimons  ct  tu  nous  aimes. 

They  love  mc  and  I  lore  them.  lis  m*aimcnt  et  je  les  aime. 

Tou  lore  him  and  he  loves  jou.  Yous  I'aimez  ct  il  tous  aime. 

2.  Jf«,  ity  become  fn\  f ,  before  a  rowel  or  a  silent  K 

Whomf  Who^  Quif  que.  Qui. 

8.  Whom  Interrogative  la  always  qui.  With  this  exception,  qui  is  the  snbject  and  91M 
the  object  of  the  following  rerb ;  tho  same  of  penons  as  wo  hare  seen  of  things  (Lessons  10 
and  20). 

Whom  do  you  lore  ?  Qui  aimcz-rous? 

I  lore  the  friend  whom  you  lore.  J^aimo  l*am!  que  rous  aimez. 

He  loves  the  brother  who  loves  htm.       H  aime  le  fr^re  qui  Taime. 

Wc  love  him  (the  one)  who  loves  us.       Nous  aimons  celui  qui  nous  aime. 

They  love  her  (tho  one)  whom  thou    lis  aiment  celle  que  tu  aimes. 

I  seek  those  (the  ones:)  who  seek  mo.       Je  cherche  ceux  qui  me  chercbent. 
We  seek  those  (the  ones)  whom  you    Kous  cherchous  cellcs  que  vous  cher- 
seek.  chez. 

A.  Pronouns  which  are  the  object  of  the  rerb  in  the  manner  of  the  abore  .{me^  te^  centt, 
et&X  that  is,  without  a  preposition  expressed  or  understood  before  thorn,  aro  called  dzxiot 


UAScuLxsfx.  rsviNiins. 

A  rat.  A  mouse.  Un  rat,         Une  souris. 

A  cat.  A  hat.  Un  chat.       Une  chauve-souris. 

A  clerk',  A  pound.  Un  commis.  Une  livre. 

U  10    13  7  y        •       7        »         7  7  7        21        7       •       7  *  ^     "    !?       w'# 

ringt-deu-xi^me,  ai-mer,  al-man<,  aime,  aimes,  ai-mons,  ai-mes,  aimeiu,  rai,  sou-ris,  chat, 

17  M     M     IS  n     n 

chaar«-80U-ria,  com-mi«,  livre 



Superbe,        Superbe. 

MaU  p<Uf  mats  non. 
Mais  non  pas. 
Mais  point. 
.  Mais  non  point.* 

6.  When  d«  comes  before  a  possoasivo  pronoun  (U  mien^  U  iien^  etc),  de  U  and  ds  Us 
are  of  course  contracted  to  du,  des  (according  to  Lesson  6,  8). 



But  not. 



Masculine.         Fcnildno. 


Masculine.         Feminine. 

Of  mine,  from  mine  Du  mien, 

Of  thine,  from  thine.  Du  tien, 

Of  his,  here,  its,  etc.  Du  sien. 

Of  ours,  from  ours.  Du  notrc. 

Of  yours,  from  yours.         Du  votre. 
Of  theirs,  from  theirs.        Du  leur, 
Art  thou  the  clerk  of  his  father  or  of 

I  am  the  clerk  of  thine. 
I  have  the  pen,  but  not  the  paper. 
Has  he  the  money  of  your  friends  and 

of  ours  ? 
He  has  that  of  yours,  but  not  of  ours. 

dc  la  micnnc,    dcs  miens,     des  miennes. 
de  la  ticnoe,      des  ticns,      dcs  tiennes. 
do  la  Bicnnc,      des  siens,      dcs  siennes. 
de  la  nutre,        des  ndtres,    des  notres. 
de  la  votre,        des  Totrcs,    des  vdtresL 
de  la  leur,  des  leurs,     des  Icurs. 

Es-tu  le  commis  dc  son  p^re  oa  da 

Je  suis  le  commis  du  tien. 

J'ai  la  plume,  mais  pas  le  papier. 

A-t-il  Targent  dc  vosamis  ct  dcs  ndtres? 

n  a  cclul  dcs  vdtres,  mais  non  pas  des 

1.  Tes  amis  t'aiment-ils  ?  2.  lis  m'aiment,  ct  je  les  aime. 
3.  Le  g6n6ral  vous  aime-t-il?  4.  II  nous  aime.  5.  Qui  aimez- 
▼ous  ?  6.  Nous  aimons  tous  nos  amis.  7.  Qui  aime  le  commis  ? 
8.  n  aime  celui  qui  Taime.  9.  Cherchez-vous  la  dame  que  nous 
cherchons  ?  10.  Nous  ne  cberchons  pas  celle  que  vous  cherchez, 
nous  cberchons  cclle  qui  est  chez  ma  tante.  1 1.  Cherchez-vous  les 
hommes  que  je  cherche  t  12.  Non,  monsieur,  je  cherche  ceux  qui 
me  cherchent.  13.  Qui  ces  dames  aiment-elles  ?  14.  EUes  aiment 
les  petites  filles  qui  les  aiment.  15.  Le  n^gociant  cherche-t-il  les 
commis  que  nous  cherchons?  16.  Non,  monsieur,  il  cherche  ceux 
qui  nous  cherchent.  17.  Que  cherche  le  chat  ?  18.  H  cherche  les 
rats  et  les  sour  is.  19.  Ne  cherche-t-il  pas  les  chauves-souris  aussi? 
20.  Non,  madame,  il  cherche  les  souris  mais  non  pas  les  chauves- 
souris.  21.  Le  chat  a-t-il  le  rat  1  22.  Non,  monsieur,  il  a  la  souris, 
mais  pas  le  rat.  23.  La  maison  du  g6n6ral  est  superbe,  ct  ses 
chevaux  sont  superbes  aussi     24.  Le  gargon  veut  une  livre  de 

*  These  negatives  stand  In  the  order  of  their  Btreni^th— poini  being  stronger  than  pas^ 
and  non  point  the  strongest ;  maU  non  is  the  most  elegant. 

ou-i>erbf,  msXs, 


Tiande  et  one  livre  de  chandelles.     25.  Yent-il  le  pain  de  mon 
bonlanger  ou  du  sien  ?     26.  II  veut  celui  du  sien  et  du  vdtre. 

1.  Whom  dost  thou  love  1  2.  I  love  my  good  friends.  3.  Does 
the  neighbor  love  me  ?  4.  He  loves  thee.  5.  Do  the  children  love 
yont  6.  They  love  us  and  we  love  them.  7.  Whom  does  the 
doctor  love  t  8.  He  loves  thee  and  he  loves  us  also.  9.  Does  he 
not  love  you?  10.  No,  he  loves  you,  hut  he  does  not  love  me.  11. 
Whom  is  the  clerk  looking  for  1  12.  He  is  looking  for  the  mer- 
chant whom  we  are  looking  for.  13.  Is  he  not  looking  for  the  one 
who  is  looking  for  him  ?  14.  No,  sir,  he  is  looking  for  the  one  who 
is  in  that  store.  15.  What  children  do  you  seek  ?  16.  I  seek 
those  whom  you  seek,  and  those  who  are  in  the  garden.  17.  Are 
you  looking  for  the  little  girls  whom  I  am  looking  for  1  18.  No, 
sir,  I  am  looking  for  those  who  are  at  the  neighbor's.  19.  What 
has  the  cat  ?  20.  He  has  the  rat  and  the  bat.  21.  Has  he  not 
the  mouse  ?  22.  No,  sir,  he  has  the  bat,  but  not  the  mouse.  23. 
What  do  you  wish  for  ?  24.  I  wish  for  a  pound  of  tea  and  a  pound 
of  sugar.  25.  Do  those  men  wish  for  the  coffee  of  their  merchant 
or  of  ours  ?  26.  They  wish  for  that  of  theirs ;  we  wish  for  that  of 
yours.  27.  I  wish  for  the  superb  coat.  28.  Do  you  wish  for  this 
one  or  that  one  1  29.  I  wish  for  neither  this  one  nor  that  one,  I 
wish  for  the  superb  coat  of  the  tailor. 


1.  What  are  you  looking  for  ?  2.  I  am  looking  for  my  pen  and 
my  pencil.  3.  Your  pen  is  in  my  copy-book,  and  your  pencil  is 
under  that  slate.  4.  I  am  not  looking  for  my  steel  pen.  5.  Which 
one  do  you  wish  for  ?  6.  I  am  looking  for  my  gold  pen.  7.  Is  it 
not  on  the  table  I  8.  No,  sir.  9.  Sister  (ma  aai/r),  what  do  you 
wish  for  f  10.  I  wish  for  your  ink  and  your  copy-book,  if  you 
please.  11.  My  ink  is  there  on  the  chair.  12.  Where  is  your 
copy-book  ?  13.  It  is  not  here,  my  cousin  has  it  in  the  house. 
14.  Have  you  a  pin  ?  15.  Do  you  wish  for  a  large  pin  or  a  small 
one?  16.  A  large  one,  if  you  please.  17.  Is  this  good?  18. 
Yes,  thank  you  {merci). 



1.  There  are  In  French  fonr  conjugations,  that  i»,  four  different  woys  of  conjugating 
▼crbs,  diAtin^ished  by  the  termination  of  the  Infinitive. 



Th«  Flnt  Coqjngation  hastho  inflnitlTe  ending  in  ER. 

The  Sooond       "  "  in  IR. 

The  Third         **  "  in  OIE. 

The  Fourth      **  "  in  EE. 

2.  A  very  largo  majority  of  oil  tho  verbs  in  the  langnago  arc  of  the  fibst  coxauoATiox 

(in  £B) ;  and  all  of  them,  except  aller^  to  go,  have  tho  terminations  of  the  indicative  pr«s- 

ent,  like  diHrer^  dureher^  and  aimer.  In  E,  ES,  E,  on,  EZ,  mr. 

a  The  past  participle  of  this  conjugation  is  formed  bj  dropping  r  final  of  the  inflalU  Vf>, 
and  accenting  tho  final  e.    Thus, 

Dvsirer,  to  desire,  makes  the  past  participle  <UHrf,  desired. 

Chcrchcr,  to  seek, 
Aller,  to  go,  ** 

Aimer,  to  love,  " 

To  listen  to^  listening  to,  listened  to. 
J^eeoute,  tu  icoutee,       il  ecotUe, 

I  listen  to,    thon  listenest  to,  he  listens  to, 

Sow  much,  how  mam/. 
One.     7\eo.     Three.     Four, 
Bow  much  gold.    How  many  dollars. 


chercM^  eought 
aUi,  gone, 
aimf,  loved. 



The  master. 
The  king. 
A  prince. 
A  bishop. 
The  sJioemaker. 
The  mcMon. 
Whose  beef. 

The  mistress. 
The  queen. 
A  princess. 
A  church. 
The  seamstress. 
The  poultry. 
Whose  poultry. 

none  fcoutons,    vou4  ianttez^    He  iecuieni^ 
we  listen  to,        yon  listen  to,  they  listen  to. 

Combien  (de  before  the  noun). 
L\  une.    Deux,    TVois.    Quatre, 
Combien  de  piastres. 


Whose,  the  one  of  whom  (sing.). 
Wliose,  the  ones  of  whom  (plur.). 

Combien  d'or. 


Le  maitre. 
he  roi. 
Un  prince. 
Un  eveque. 
Le  cordonnier. 
Le  mafon, 
Le  boeuf  de  qui. 
Celui  de  qui. 
Ceux  de  quL 

La  maitreste. 

La  reine. 

V  uc  princessr. 

Une  iglise. 

La  couturiere. 

La  volaille. 

La  volaille  tie  qui. 

Cclle  de  qui. 

Cclles  de  qui. 

4.  Wltose^  accompanied  by  a  noun,  is  de  qui  in  French,  with  tho  nonn  preceding;  with- 
oat  a  noun,  it  is  de  qui  with  celui^  celUy  cew\  or  ceUee,  preceding. 

Whose  horse  do  you  wish  for  ? 
Whose  has  the  master  ? 
Whose  history  art  thou  looking  for  ? 
Whose  has  the  mistress  ? 
Whose  children  do  you  listen  to  ? 
Whose  docs  the  prince  listen  to  ? 
Whose  slates  have  you  ? 
Whose  has  the  mason  ? 

Le  cheval  de  qui  voulez-vous  ? 
Celui  de  qui  le  maitre  a-t-il  ? 
L^histoire  de  qui  cherchcs-tu  ? 
Cclle  de  qui  la  maitrcssc  a-t-ellc  ? 
Les  enfants  de  qui  ecoutez-vons  ? 
Ceux  de  qui  le  prince  6coute-t-il  ? 
Les  ardoises  de  qui  avez-vous  ? 
Cclles  de  qui  le  ma^on  a-t-il  ? 

5.  Tho  article  is  prefixed  to  titles  and  epithets  belonging  to  proper  names. 

General  Jackson.    President  Adams. 

King  George. 
Doctor  Peter. 

Queen  Victoria. 
Big  William. 

Le   g6n6ral  Jackson.      Le  president 

Le  roi  Georges.     La  reine  Victoria. 
Le  docteur  Pierre.   Le  gros  GulUaumc. 

S13«         7  SIAT         «fi1il«SlS8         SI8       65       19         ft       IS  6)t 

de-si-re,  cher-ch6,  a/-le,  ni-mc,  c-cou-ter,  6-con-tinf,  6-cou-t6,  d-oout*,  6  cout«t,  £-coa« 

n         a      18       •      ft      18  21        I'ji4    3!  10  a>        I  ft  ft         ft  7  '4 

tons,  6-cou-te«,  6-cou-t^n/,  oom-bien,  une,  deuor,  tntiA,  katr^,  mai-tre,  mai-trcsM,  reine,  prince, 

14        ft  ft      8  8      19         1«        Ift       198         18       7J  1-^7  1     91  Ift    I 

prin-cesstf,  c-v6k«,  6g-lize,  cor-do»-nier,  cou-tn-ri6re,  ma-(on,  vo-laillc. 


ft.  When  d€  precedes  sach  epithets,  it  of  oonne  fomu  du  with  the  artiole  (Leaaon  6). 
Corporal  John's  gnn.  Le  fusil  du  caporal  Jean. 

Captain  Smithes  house.  La  maison  du  capitaine  Smith. 

The  books  of  the  good  David.  Los  llires  du  bon  David. 

1.  M'6coutes-tu  ?  2.  Je  t'ecoute.  3.  Qui  le  roi  6coute-t-ilt 
4.  U  6coate  r^r(3que  Jean.  5.  Nous  6coutez-yoa8  ?  6.  Nous  vous 
ecoutons.  7.  Lea  soldats  ^coutent-ils  la  reine  ?  8.  II  ne  Tdcoutent 
pas.  9.  Goxnbien  d*enfants  le  roi  a-t-il  ?  10.  II  a  deux  fils  et  trois 
filles.  11.  Combien  de  freres  la  reine  a-t-ellet  12.  Elle  aquatre 
fr^res  et  deux  soeurs.  13.  !6coutez-vous  la  princesse?  14. 
J*ecout6  la  princesse  et  le  prince.  15.  Combien  d'enfants  le  maltre 
a-t-il  t  16.  n  a  quatre  fils  et  trois  filles.  17.  AUez-vous  a  P^glise 
de  l'evC*que  Pierre?  18.  Non,  monsieur,  je  vais chez  le  cordonnier. 
19.  Le  cordonnier  ^coute-t-il  la  couturiere  I  20.  Non,  monsieur, 
la  couturi^e  dcoute  le  cordonnier  et  le  magon.  21.  Les  aiguilles 
de  qui  avez-vous  ?  22.  J'ai  celles  de  la  couturiere.  23.  La  yolaille 
de  qui  Youlez-vous?  24.  Je  veux  celle  du  paysan.  25.  Allez- 
vous  a  Teglise  ?  26.  Non,  monsieur,  je  ne  vais  pas  b.  I'^glise,  je 
vais  chez  le  voiBia. 

1.  To  whom  dost  thou  listen  ?  2.  I  listen  to  thee.  3.  Does 
the  scholar  listen  to  me  ?  4.  No,  sir,  he  listens  to  the  master.  5. 
To  whom  do  the  little  girls  listen  ?  6.  They  listen  to  the  mistress. 
7.  Do  you  listen  to  us  t  8.  We  do  not  listen  to  you.  9.  How 
many  horses  has  your  father  ?  10.  He  has  two  horses,  three  cows, 
and  four  oxen.  11.  How  many  children  has  the  king?  12.  He 
has  two  sons  and  three  daughters.  13.  Does  the  mistress  wish  for 
this  book  or  that?  14.  She  wishes  for  neither  this  one  nor  that, 
she  wishes  for  the  one  of  the  master.  15.  Is  the  king  going  to 
this  church  or  to  that  ?  16.  He  is  going  neither  to  this  nor  to  that, 
he  is  going  to  that  of  the  bishop.  17.  How  many  sons  has  the 
queen?  18.  She  has  four  sons  and  one  daughter.  19.  Does  the 
queen  listen  to  toe  prince  or  to  the  princess  ?  20.  She  listens 
neither  to  the  prince  nor  to  the  princess,  she  listens  to  the  bishop. 
21.  Do  yon  desire  the  shoes  of  my  shoemaker  or  of  yours?  22.  I 
desire  those  of  mine.  23.  Have  you  the  needles  of  your  seamstress 
or  of  ours  ?  24.  I  have  those  of  yours.  25.  Whose  hammers  has 
the  mason?  26.  He  has  his.  27.  Whose  poultry  have  you ?  28. 
I  have  mine.  29.  Whose  has  the  mason  t  30.  He  has  the  poul- 
try of  the  countrywoman. 




1.  Where  is  the  little  boy  who  has  the  mason's  hammer t  2. 
He  is  in  the  yard  of  my  uncle's  house.  3.  He  is  not  there.  4.  Is 
he  not  in  the  garden  I  5.  He  is  neither  in  the  yard  nor  in  the 
garden.  6.  He  is  in  the  yard  or  in  the  house.  7.  Have  you  not 
the  mistress's  book  1  she  wishes  for  it.  8.  No,  sir,  I  have  it  not. 
9.  Who  has  it  ?  10.  Your  cousin  has  it.  11.  Where  is  she  t  12. 
She  is  at  your  house,  in  the  garden.  13.  Does  that  scholar  wish 
for  his  dictionary  and  his  grammar?  14.  He  wishes  for  his  dic- 
tionary, but  not  his  grammar.  15.  What  knife  have  you?  16. 
The  big  one.  17.  Where  is  it?  18.  It  is  in  the  yard  on  the 
bench.     19.  Thank  you. 


1.  In  the  phrases,  to  be  trarm,  to  be  cold^  to  be  hungry^  to  be  thirtty^  to  beUeepy,  1o  be 
qfraidy  to  be  ashamed^  to  be  rights  to  be  vfrong,  instead  of  the  Terb  to  be  with  en  adjective, 
«s  in  English,  the  French  use  tho  verb  to  have  and  a  uoan,  literally  meaning  to  have  heat^ 
to  have  edd^  to  hate  hunger^  etc 

To  he  \carm.     To  be  cold. 
To  be  hungry.     To  he  thirsty. 
To  he  sleepy.     To  be  afraid 
To  be  right.     To  be  wrong, 
2h  be  ashamed,     Well^  very. 

Are  you  cold  ?    I  am  not  cold. 

He  is  very  cold. 

Art  thou  not  warm  ? 

I  am  very  warm. 

Are  you  not  hungry  ? 

We  are  very  hungry. 

Is  the  mistress  thirsty  ? 

She  is  very  thirsty. 

Are  the  children  sleepy  ? 

They  are  very  sleepy. 

What  is  the  matter  with  you  / 

I  am  very  hungry. 

Who  is  afraid? 

That  seamstress  is  afraid. 

Is  big  William  right  ? 

No,  air,  he  is  wrong. 

Is  not  king  George  wrong  ? 

No,  sir,  he  is  right. 

Are  you  ashamed  ?    I  am  ashamed. 

Avoir  chattd.     Avoir  froid. 
Avoir  f aim.     Avoir  soif. 
A  voir  sommeiL    A  voir  peur. 
Avoir  raison.    Avoir  tort. 
Avoir  honte,    Bien, 

Avez-vous  froid  ?    Je  n*ai  pas  froid. 

II  a  bien  froid. 

N*as-tu  pas  chaud  ? 

J^ai  bien  chaud. 

N^avez-vous  pas  faim  ? 

Nous  avons  bien  faim. 

I^  maitresse  a-t-elle  soif  ? 

Elle  a  bien  soif. 

Les  enfants  ont-ils  sommeil? 

Us  ont  bien  sommeil. 

Qu^avez-vous  f 

J'ai  bien  faim. 

Qui  a  peur  ? 

Cctte  couturidre  a  peur. 

Lc  gros  Guillaumc  a-t-il  raison  ? 

Non,  monsieur,  il  a  tort. 

Le  roi  George  n'a  t-il  pas  tort  ? 

Kon,  monsieur,  11  a  raison. 

Avez-vous  honte  ?    J'ai  honte. 

t7  »>       14  90       U  r  II  7     n        1«  91  1914 

cfaaa</,  frok/,  faim,  soif,  som-roell,  pear,  niI*zon,  tiirf,  hont«,  bien. 

The  cold. 




The  brook. 


A  vetaeL 


A  ship. 



luaciruHs.  naasmM. 

Le  froid.  La  faim. 

Le  sommeil.       La  soif. 
Le  misseau.       La  peur. 
Un  vaiaseau.      La  raison. 
Un  navire.         La  honte. 
3.  Inaddrefisiog  relations  and  intimate  Meoda,  MontUwr^  Madame  MademoUeO^  are 
not  to  be  naed ;  and  pirt^  mert^frert^  Mur,  eta,  are  not  to  be  need  without  mon  or  ma  ;  aa, 
Son,  art  thou  cold?    Ko,  sir,  I  am     Hon  fils,  as-tu  froid ?  Non, mon  pdre,* 

warm.  j'ai  chaud. 

Daughter,  art  thou  warm  ?  Ma  fille,  as-tu  chaud  ? 

Yes,  ma^am,  I  am  very  warm.  Oui,  ma  ni&re,  j*al  bien  chaud. 

Brother,  where  are  you  going  ?  Mon  frdre,  o^  vas-tu  ? 

Sister,  are  you  thirsty  ?  Ma  soeur,  as-tu  soif? 

1.  Avez-von9  chaud  t  2.  Je  n'ai  pas  chaud,  j'ai  froid.  3.  Avez- 
Tous  bien  froid?  4.  Nod,  monsieur.  5.  Qui  a  faim?  6.  Le  petit 
gar^on  a^bien  faim.  7.  Les  petites  fiUes  ont-elles  soif?  8.  EUes 
n'ont  pas  soif.  9.  Qu'avez-vous  ?  10.  J'ai  sommeil.  11.  Arez- 
vous  bien  sommeil?  12.  Non,madame.  13.  Qui  a  peur?  14.  Ges 
jeunes  filles  ont  peur.  15.  Qui  a  raison  et  qui  a  tort  ?  16.  Le 
maitre  a  raison,  et  ce  jeune  gar^on  a  tort.  17.  Avez-vous  honte  ? 
IS.  Je  n'ai  pas  honte.  19.  Mon  fils  vas-tu  au  ruisseau?  20.  Non, 
mon  pere,  je  vais  chez  le  voisin.  21.  Le  matelot  va-t-il  k  ce  Tais* 
seau-ci  ou  h  celui-la  ?  22.  U  ne  va  ni  k  celui-ci  ni  k  celui-la,  il  va 
a  ce  navire.  23.  Mon  frere,  ou  vas-tu?  24.  Je  vais  au  ruisseau. 
25.  Le  g^n^ral  veut-il  ce  vaisseau-ci  ou  ce  vaisseau-U  ?  26.  II  ne 
vent  ni  celui-ci  ni  celui-1^  il  veut  ce  gros  navire.  27.  Le  navire  de 
qui  vent^il?  28.  II  veut  celui  du  n^gociant  29.  Celui  de  qui 
voulez-vous?  30.  Je  veux  le  v6tre.  31.  Avez-vous  le  cheval  de 
mon  fr^re  ou  du  votre?     32.  J*ai  celui  du  mien. 

1.  Are  you  warm  or  cold?  2.  I  am  neither  warm  nor  cold. 
3.  Art  thou  hungry  or  thirsty  ?  4.  I  am  hungry  and  thirsty  also. 
5.  Are  you  not  sleepy  ?  6.  Yes,  sir,  we  are  very  sleepy.  7.  Who 
is  afraid  ?  8.  This  little  boy  is  afraid.  9.  Are  the  masons  right 
or  wrong?  10.  They  are  right,  they  are  not  wrong.  11.  Are  you 
afraid  or  ashamed  ?  12.  We  are  neither  afraid  nor  ashamed.  13. 
What  is  the  matter  with  you  ?     14.  We  are  very  sleepy.     15.  Son, 

•  Out,  m&HsUur,  addrewed  to  a  fkthrr  or  brother,  would  be  not  very  unlike  yM,  mit- 
Icr,  In  English. 

m-i       >'7        r  IT       1     M 

ruUr-eeau,  r«l«-Beaa,  na-vir«. 

110  THE  TWBNTY-FIFTH  L£8S0y. 

IB  thy  sister  here?  16.  No,  sir,  she  is  at  her  aunt's.  17.  Daugh- 
ter, hast  thou  my  pen?  18.  No,  ma'am,  it  is  on  the  table.  19.  My 
son,  hast  thou  my  knife  ?  20.  No,  sir,  Charles  has  it.  21.  Daugh- 
ter, hast  thou  thy  book  ?  22.  Yes,  ma'am,  I  have  it  here.  23.  Are 
you  going  to  the  vessel  or  to  the  brook  ?  24.  I  am  going  to  the 
brook.  25.  Does  the  prince  wish  for  this  ship  or  that  one?  26.  He 
wishes  for  neither  this  one  nor  that  one.  27.  Does  he  not  wish  for 
the  ship  and  the  vessel  ?  28.  He  wishes  for  the  vessel,  but  not  the 
ship.  29.  Whose  apples  has  the  little  boy  ?  30.  He  has  his.  31. 
Whose  has  his  sister?  32.  She  has  the  gardener's.  33.  Has  she 
those  of  our  gardener  or  of  theirs  ?  34.  She  has  those  of  theirs. 
35.  Are  you  looking  for  the  men  whom  I  am  looking  for?  36.  I 
am  looking  for  those  who  are  looking  for  me. 


1.  I  am  very  thirsty ;  I  wish  for  a  glass  of  cool  water.  2.  The 
glass  is  on  the  table.  3.  Do  you  wish  for  a  glass  of  beer  or  a  glass 
of  wine  ?  4.  I  thank  you,  a  glass  of  cool  water ;  I  do  not  like  (la) 
beer.  5.  You  are  right ;  Hike  (le)  wine,  but  not  (la)  beer.  6.  Who 
has  my  dictionary  ?  I  wish  for  it.  7.  Have  you  my  dictionary,  my 
friend  ?  8.  Yes ;  do  you  wish  for  it  ?  9.  I  am  looking  for  it.  10. 
It  is  there  on  my  table.  11.  This  is  not  mine.  12.  Is  your  dic- 
tionary big  or  little  ?  13.  It  is  big.  14.  It  is  in  my  room ;  I  am 
going  to  look  for  it  15.  If  you  please.  16.  Is  this  one  yours  ? 
17.  Yes,  my  friend,  I  thank  you  (mille  remerciments). 



1.  We  have  seen  that  the  yerb  wmloir^  fbllowod  bj  a  noun  or  pionoaDf  may  be  tnuoa- 
lated  wUK  for,  will  have.  Before  a  verb  also,  when  nsed  interrogatively  or  negatively,  it 
may  be  translated  to  with,  or  to  be  wUUng, 

Do  you  wiflh  to  (will  you)  go  home  ?  Voulez-vou3  aller  chez  vous? 

He  is  not  williog  to  (will  not)  be  my  II  nc  veut  pas  ^tre  mon  ami. 


Are  you  willing  to  (will  you)  be  good  ?  Voulez-vous  6tre  bon  ? 

We  do  not  wish  to  (will  not)  be  lazy.  Nous  ne  voulons-pas  6tre  paresseux. 

2.  The  ordinary  meanlngof  rotfZofr,  however,  especially  when  affirmative,  is  equivalent 
to  vciU,  in  English,  a  little  emphasised. 

I  will  have  my  money  t<hday.  Je  reux  avoir  mon  argent  aujour^kuL 

She  will  have  all  that  she  desires.  EUe  veut  avoir  tout  ce  qu*elle  ddsire. 

We  will  (are  determined  to)  have  it.  Nous  voulons  Tavoir. 

They  will  (are  determined  to)  be  rich.  lis  veulcnt  ^tre  riches. 

1    i      •      17     u       mt 
pa-re«-6eu«i,  an-Jonr-d'hui. 



&  V(nd4dr  &i«»,  med  interrogatiTely,  la  a  polite  mode  of  Mklng  or  nqnestlJig;  naed 
•fflnnatiTely,  It  denotes  consent. 

Wni  you  please  to  go  to  oar  house  ?        Youlez-yous  bien  oiler  chez  nous  ? 
I  am  quite  willing.  Je  le  veux  bien. 

Will  you  please  to  look  for  my  pencil?    Youlez-yous  bien  chercher  mon  cra- 
I  am  quite  willing  to  look  for  it.  Je  veux  bien  le  chercher. 

Toapeaky      Mpeaking^      spoken,  Parler^       parlanty       parli. 

JtparlSt         tuparUn^  ilparU^        noue  parlonSt        vottiparU»,        iUparUnt^ 

I  speak,  thoa  speakest,   he  speaks,      we  speak,  yon  speak,  tbey  speak. 

4.  Let  the  learner  bear  in  mind  that  all  rerbs  of  the  first  coxOogatlon  (In  £B)  are  Ttried 
aa  ehcreker,  atmer,  ioouUr,  and  par^r,  already  given. 

To  me.  To  us. 

To  thee.  To  you. 

To  him,  to  her,  to  it.     To  them. 

To  whom  dost  thou  speak  ? 

I  speak  to  thee. 

Do  you  not  speak  to  me  ? 

We  do  not  speak  to  you. 

The  shoemakers  speak  to  us. 

Vy  brother  speaks  to  them,  and  they 
speak  to  him. 

I  speak  to  her,  and  she  speaks  to  mc. 

Me.  Nous, 

Te.  Vous. 

Lui,  Lew, 

A  qui  parles-tu  ? 
Jo  te  parle. 

Ne  mc  parlez-Tous  pas  ? 
Nous  ne  tous  parlous  pas. 
Les  cordonniers  nous  parlent. 
Mon  fr&re  leur  parle,  et  Us  lui  parlent. 

Je  lui  parle,  ct  elle  me  parle. 

fi.  Pronouns  which  are  the  object  of  the  verb  In  the  manner  of  the  above  six,— that  fs, 
with  the  preposition  to  employed  before  them  in  Knglish,— are  called  iKDiaBor  objects  or 
miMMCt  o&iscnrs  pbohounb.    They  are  placed  Immediately  before  a  transitive  verb. 

To  taste,        tasting,        tasted, 

7%e  one  and  the  other,  both  (sing.). 
The  ones  and  the  others,  both  (plur.). 

Neither  the  one  nor  the  other,  neither 

Neither  the  ones  nor  the  others,  nei- 
ther (plur.). 



L^un  et  Vautre, 
Lcs  uns  et  Ics  au- 
NiVunni  F autre. 

ffoutant,        gouts, 


L^une  et  Vautre. 
Les  unes  et  lcs  au- 

Ni  rune  ni  Vautre. 

Ki  les  uns  ni  lcs 

NI  lcs  unes  ni  les 

0.  The  above  negatives  reqolre  ne  before  the  verb. 

Dost  thou  taste  the  sweet  fruit  or  the 

sour  fruit  ? 
I  taste  neither. 

Do  you  taste  this  meat  or  that  ? 
We  taste  neither. 

Does  he  taste  the  biscuits  or  the  cakes  ? 
He  tastes  neither. 
To-dag.    To-morrow. 

Goiites-tu  le  fruit  doux  ou  le  fruit  ai- 

Je  nc  go{ite  ni  Tun  ni  Tautre. 
Godtez-Tous  cette  viande-ci  ou  celle-U? 
Nous  ne  goAtons  ni  Tune  ni  Fautre. 
Goilte-t-il  les  biscuits  ou  les  gftteaux  ? 
n  ne  goftte  ni  les  uns  ni  les  autres. 
Paresseux,  Paresseuse, 

Aujourd'huL  Demain. 

If        IS        1      •      1  1     SI         16       1  .     i«    •         "■.!!.?* 

par-Ier,  par-lan<,  par-W,  par-l«,  par-Ions,  par-les,  par-letU,  god-tor,  gott-tant.  goA-t*,  pa- 


1.  D^sirez-yons  votre  argent  t  2.  Oai,  monsieur,  je  le  desire, 
et  je  veux  Tavoir  aujourd'hui.  3.  Get  homme  aime  Targent,  et  il 
veut  etre  riche.  4,  Voulez-vous  bien '  ecouter  cet  homme  t  5.  Je 
veux  bien  Tecouter.  6.  Voulez-vous  bien  chercher  mon  livre  ?  7.  Je 
veux  bien  le  chercher.  8.  Que  gotten t  les  soldats  ?  9.  Us  goutent 
notre  bon  vin.  10.  Goiltent-ils  ces  pommes-ci  ou  celles-l4  ?  11.  lis 
ne  gotHtent  ni  les  unes  ni  les  autres.  12.  Me  parles-tu  ?  13.  Je  tc 
parle.  14.  Nous  parlez-vous?  15.  Nous  vous  parlons.  16.  Le 
maitre  parle-t-il  a  cet  ecolier  ?  17.  II  lui  parle.  18.  Les  ecolieres 
parlent-elles  d  la  maitresse  ?  19.  EUes  lui  parlent.  20.  Lo  gene- 
ral parle-t-il  aux  soldats  f  21.  II  leur  parle.  22.  Oofttes-tu  le  the 
ou  le  cafe  1  23.  Je  goiite  Tun  et  Tautre.  24.  Goutez-vous  la  pcche 
et  la  poire  t  25.  Nous  ne  goiitons  ni  Tune  ni  I'autre.  26.  Cet 
enfant  n'a  ni  faim  ni  soif  ?  27.  Je  ne  goute  ni  Peau  ni  la  biere, 
mon  fr^re  goAte  Tune  et  I'autre. 

1.  Will  you  go  to  the  store  ?  2.  No,  sir,  I  will  go  home.  3.  That 
man  will  have  all  that  he  desires.  4.  Will  you  please  to  look  for 
my  pen  ?  5.  I  am  quite  willing  to  look  for  it.  6.  Do  you  taste  the 
sweet  apples  or  the  sour  ?  7.  We  taste  both.  8.  Does  the  general 
taste  these  biscuits  or  those  1  9.  He  tastes  both.  10.  Dost  thou 
taste  the  wine  or  the  milk  I  11.  I  taSte  neither.  12.  What  gloves 
have  you  t  13.  I  have  mine.  14.  Have  you  the  white  gloves  or 
the  black  ones  ?  15.  I  have  neither.  16.  Have  you  the  gloves  or 
the  stockings!  17.  We  have  both.  18.  Has  the  merchant  botht 
19.  No,  sir,  he  has  neither.  20.  Has  the  doctor  the  white  cravats 
or  the  blue?  21.  He  has  neither.  22.  Hast  thou  botht  23.  I 
have  neither.  24.  Where  are  you  going?  25.  We  are  going  to  the 
brook.     26.  Queen  Victoria  has  many  soldiers  and  many  vessels. 

1.  I  speak  to  thee ;  dost  thou  speak  to  me  t  2.1  speak  to  thee. 
3.  Do  you  speak  to  us  t  4.  We  do  not  speak  to  you.  o.  We  speak 
to  you ;  do  you  not  speak  to  us  1  6.  We  speak  to  you.  7.  Those 
men  speak  to  me,  and  I  speak  to  them.  8.  Does  the  master  speak 
to  the  scholars !  9.  He  speaks  to  them,  and  they  speak  to  him. 
10.  Do  you  taste  the  bread  or  the  butter?  11.  We  taste  neither, 
but  the  children  taste  both.  12.  Do  you  wish  for  the  pen  or  the  ink? 
13.  I  wish  for  neither,  but  my  friend  is  looking  for  both.  14.  Is  the 
boy  looking  for  his  books  or  his  papers?  15.  He  is  looking  for 



1-  Charles,  where  are  you  going  ?  2.  I  am  going  to  the  store 
of  my  father.  3.  Are  you  going  for  {allez-vous  chercher)  any  thing  ? 
4.  I  am  going  for  (chercher)  a  coat.  5.  Are  you  not  cold  t  6.  No, 
sir.  7.  Are  you  warm  ?  8.  I  am  not  warm,  but  I  am  not  very  cold. 
9.  Who  is  at  the  store  1  10.  The  clerks  are  there.  11.  Where  are 
your  father  and  your  uncle  %  12.  They  are  at  the  house  ;  do  you 
wish  to  see  them  ?  13.  I  wish  to  see  your  father.  14.  He  is  at 
home.  16.  Is  that  pretty  little  girl  your  sister  t  16.  No,  sir,  she 
b  my  cousin.  17.  Good  morning  {bonjour)^  my  little  friend.  18. 
Grood  morning,  sir. 



To  give^      ffivhig,      given,  Donner^     uonnant,     donne^  e. 

To  carry,    carrying,  carried.  Porter,      portant,     porte,   e. 

1.  The  feminine  of  participles,  like  that  of  abject! res,  Is  formed  by  adding  «.    The  pla- 
ral  also  is  formed  as  in  adjectives. 

Where  do  you  carry  the  fish  ?  Oii  portez-vous  les  poissons  ? 

I  carry  them  to  the  cook's.  Je  les  portc  chez  le  cuisinicr. 

Do  you  giye  them  to  your  friends  or  to    Les  doimez-vous  k  tos  amis  ou  aux 

ours  ?  n6tres  ? 

I  gire  them  to  mine.  Je  les  donnc  aux  miens. 

Do  the  soldiers  wear  the  blue  coats,     Les  soldats  portent-ils  les  habits  bleus, 

or  the  bloc  pantaloons  ?  on  les  pantalons  bleus  ? 

They  wear  both.  lis  portent  les  uns  et  les  autres. 

To  lend,      lending,      lent,  Pi*eter,       pretant,       prete,  e. 

To  tend,      tending,      aent,  Envoyer,    envoyant,     envoye,  e. 

8.  Verbs  in  yer  change  y  Into  i  when  it  comes  before  «  mate. 
tTentoie,       iu  envoien,        U  envois^        nou9  envoyona,      toits  envoj^es.     Us  envoieni, 
I  send,  thou  scndest,     he  sends,         vro  5cud,  you  send,  they  send. 

Do  you  lend  this  book  or  that?  Prctez-vous  ce  livrc-ci  ou  celui-12k  ? 

We  lend  both.  Nous  protons  Tun  et  Tautrc. 

8.  The  personal  pronouns,  direct  objects  of  the  verb,  hare  been  spoken  of  in  Lesson  22 
and  the  indirect  in  Lesson  2&    The  following  have  been  given. 


Me,  us.  Me,  nous.  To  mc,  to  us.  Me,  nous. 

Thee,  you.  Tc,  vous.  To  thee,  to  you.  Te,  tous. 

Him,  it,  them.      Le,  les.  To  him,  to  it,  to  them.        Lui,  leur. 

Her,  it,  there.      La,  les.  To  her,  to  it,  to  them.        Lui,  leur. 

4.  When  two  pronouns,  a  direct  and  an  indirect  object,  belong  to  the  same  verb,  they 
are  placed  according  to  tbc  following  rules :  first,  when  the  prononns  are  of  different  per- 

UeU8  US16SI8816CI6  *'.i?'        ***** 

d4»n-ner,  don-nanf,  don-ne,  por-ter,  por-tan^  pur-to,  prO-tor,  pre-tant,  prc-t6,  en-vo-yer, 

S        «>1S3        8       90U«    S        y>       8       W12S1        8        20 

en-vo-yan/,  cn-vo-y6,  en-vole,  cn-vo-yon«,  en-vol«i/. 


Bona,  the  first  and  the  second  persons  precede  the  third ;  second,  when  they  sre  both  of  tlM 
third  person,  the  direct  object  is  always  placed  first    Thus, 

It  or  him  to  me,  it  or  her  to  me,  them  Me  le,  me  la,  me  les. 

to  me. 

It  or  him  to  thee,  it  or  her  to  thee,  them  Te  le,  te  la,  tc  les. 

to  thee. 

It  or  him  to  us,  it  or  her  to  us,  them  to  Nous  le,  nous  la;  nous  les. 


It  or  him  to  you,  it  or  her  to  you,  them  Vous  Ic,  tous  la,  tous  les. 

to  you. 

It  or  him  to  him,  it  or  her  to  him,  them  Le  lui,  la  lui,  les  lui. 

to  him. 

It  or  him  to  her,  it  or  her  to  her,  them  Le  lui,  la  lui,  les  lui. 

to  her. 

It  or  him  to  them,  it  or  her  to  them,  Le  Icur,  la  leur,  les  leur. 

them  to  them. 

Does  the  gentleman  give  you  the  par-  Monsieur  tous  donne-t-il  le  parasol  ? 


He  does  not  give  it  to  me.  II  ne  me  le  donue  pas. 

I  give  it  to  him.  Je  le  lui  donnc. 

Do  you  not  gi^e  it  to  us ?  Ne  nous  le  donnez-vous  pas? 

We  do  not  give  it  to  you.  Nous  ne  vous  le  donnons  pas. 

Dost  thou  lend  me  thy  pen  ?  Me  pr6tes-tu  ta  plume  ? 

I  do  not  lend  it  to  thee.  Je  ne  te  la  pr^te  pas. 

Do  you  not  lend  it  to  us  ?  Ne  nous  la  pretcz-vous  pas  ? 

We  do  not  lend  it  to  you.  Nous  ne  tous  la  pr6tons  pas. 

6.  When  two  nouns,  a  direct  and  Indirect  object,  belong  to  the  same  verb,  the  direct 
object  is  generally  placed  first* 

I  give  the  man  this  money.  Je  donne  cet  argent  2k  Phomme. 

He  sends  his  brother  the  letters.  II  envoie  les  lettres  k  son  fr6re. 

6.  Bat  if  the  direct  object  be  limited  by  something  following,  it  is  to  be  placed  after  the 
indirect  object 

He  sends  to  his  brother  the  letters  of    II  euToie  a  son  fr^re  les  lettres  de  son 
his  son  and  daughter.  fils  et  de  sa  fille. 

1.  Pr^tes-tu  ton  crayon  ou  ton  couteau?  2.  Je  ne  prete  ni  Tan 
ni  I'autre.  3.  Portes-tu  les  joumaux  a  mon  pere  ?  4.  Je  ne  les 
lui  porte  pas.  5.  Les  portez-vous  aux  voisias  ?  6.  Nous  les  leur 
portons.  7.  Envoyez-vous  cette  lettre  au  capitaine  ?  8.  Je  la  lui 
envoie.  9.  Me  donnes-tu  le  fruit?  10.  Je  te  le  donne.  11,  Le 
petit  gar^on  vous  donne-t-il  sa  fleurt  12.  II  ne  me  la  donne  pas. 
13.  Les  n^gociants  vous  donne-t-ihleurs  pommes  ?  14.  lis  ne  me 
les  donnent  pas.  15.  lis  te  les  donnent,  ne  nous  les  donnes-tu  pas? 
16.  Je  ne  vous  les  donne  pas.     17.  L'ccolier  donne-t-il  cette  rose 

*  The  direct  and  indirect  objects  in  noons  are  distingia^hed  in  the  same  way  as  in  pro- 


aa  maitre?  18.  II  ne  la  lui  donne  pas.  19.  Ne  la  donne-t-fl  pas 
a  la  maitressef  20.  II  la  lui  donne.  21.  Les  soldats  pr^tent-ils 
leura  fusils  a  ces  hommes  1  22.  Us  les  leur  pretent.  23.  Prfitez- 
vous  votre  livre  d  cette  dame  1  24.  Je  le  lui  prete.  25.  Le  pretez- 
vous  aux  ecoliers?  26.  Je  le  leur  prete.  27.  Envoyez-vous  les 
joumaux  a  vos  freresl  28.  Nous  les  leur  envojons.  29.  Envoies- 
tu  ce  livre  k  ta  soeur?     30.  Je  le  lui  envoie. 

1.  To  whom  dost  thou  give  the  handsome  sofa?  2.  I  give  it  to 
thee.  3.  To  whom  does  the  master  give  the  pretty  book  1  4.  He 
gives  it  to  me.  5.  Dost  thou  not  give  it  to  us  ?  6.  I  do  not  give 
it  to  you.  7.  To  whom  do  the  gardeners  give  their  flowers  ?  8. 
They  give  them  to  me.  9.  Do  they  not  give  them  to  us  t  10.  They 
do  not  give  them  to  you.  11.  Do  they  give  them  to  thee  f  12.  Ye% 
sir,  they  give  them  to  me.  13.  To  whom  do  the  fishermen  carry 
their  fish  ?  14.  They  carry  them  to  you.  15.  Do  they  not  carry 
them  to  the  shoemaker?  16.  They  do  not  carry  them  to  him. 
17-  Do  you  carry  your  letters  to  your  friends!  18.  We  carry  them 
to  them.  19.  To  whom  does  the  clerk  send  the  gloves  1  20.  He 
sends  them  to  the  stranger.  21.  Does  he  send  them  to  theef 
22.  He  does  not  send  them  to  me.  23.  Does  he  send  them  to  us  ? 
24.  He  does  not  send  them  to  you. 

25.  Does  the  clerk  carry  the  cloth  to  the  doctor!  26.  He  does 
not  carry  it  to  him.  27.  Does  he  carry  (to)  him  the  silk  t  28.  He 
carries  it  to  him.  29.  Dost  thou  carry  that  book  to  thy  mother  ? 
30.  I  carry  it  to  her.  31.  Dost  thou  carry  her  the  newspaper  also! 
32.  I  do  not  carry  it  to  her.  33.  Do  you  give  the  flowers  to  that 
young  lady !  34.  We  give  them  to  her.  35.  Do  you  lend  your 
money  to  the  merchants?  36.  We  lend  it  to  them.  37.  Do  you 
send  the  meat  to  the  soldiers  ?  38.  We  send  it  to  them.  39.  Do 
you  wear  the  white  cravat  or  the  black  one  ?  40.  I  wear  neither. 
41.  Do  yon  lend  me  these  books  or  those  ?    42.  I  lend  you  both. 


1.  Good  morning,  sir ;  do  you  wish  to  buy  (acketer)  something? 
2.  Yes,  sir,  I  wish  to  buy  a  book.  3.  What  book  do  you  wish  to 
buy  ?  4.  Have  you  the  history  of  France  ?  5.  Yes,  sir,  we  have 
it ;  do  you  wish  for  it  in  French  {en  franqaia)  or  in  English  {en 
anglais)  ?  6.  In  French,  if  you  please.  7.  This  one  is  a  good 
history.  8.  Thanks  {merci).  9.  To  whom  do  you  speak  ?  10.  I 
speak  to  the  president.     11.  Do-those  gentlemen  speak  to  doctor 


Peter?  12.  They  speak  to  him.  13.  Does  captain  John  speak  to 
the  soldiers?  14.  He  speaks  to  them.  15.  Do  they  speak  to  the 
sailors  t  16.  They  do  not  speak  to  them.  17.  Do  they  speak  to 
thee?  18.  They  do  not  speak  to  me.  19.  Are  you  warm  or  cold? 
20.  I  am  neither  warm  nor  cold.  21.  Is  that  sick  man  thirsty? 
22.  He  is  very  thirsty.  23.  Is  he  not  sleepy  ?  24.  No,  sir,  he  is 
thirsty,  hut  not  sleepy. 



1.  With  moBt  French  verbs  a  qaestion  is  asked  ia  the  flrat  person  singular,  as  in  the 
other  jMrsons,  by  pbicing  the  subject  after  the  verb ;  as, 

Do  I  go  to  the  bank  ?  YaU-je  4  la  banquc  ? 

Am  I  at  ipur  house  or  your  father's  ?  Suis-jc  cbez  vous  ou  chez  TOtre  p6re  ? 

Hare  I  a  good  pen  f  Ai-jc  une  bonne  plume  ? 

Do  I  speak  properly  f  Parl^je  eonvenabUment  f 

Do  I  listen  well  ?  £cout6-je  bien? 

2.  When ^0  follows  the  verb,  •  ilnal  of  the  first  person  singular  indicatlro  present  takes 
an  acute  accent,  as  in  the  last  two  phrasos. 

8w  £M-M  que,  however,  is  used  to  inbt>duoe  the  indicative  present  first  penMO,  to  avoid 
a  harsh  sound. 

Do  I  sleep  f  £st-ce  que  je  dors  (not  dors-je)^ 

Do  I  run  ?  £st-ce  que  je  cours  (not  amrs-je)  ? 

Do  I  seek  ?  £st-cc  que  je  chcrcbe  ? 

4.  The  French  also  use  e«f-c«  que  with  all  persors  and  tenses,  to  express  some  emotion 
blended  with  the  interrogation. 

Do  I  go  to  school,  father  ?  Est-ce  que  je  vnis  &  Tecole,  mon  p<ire  ? 

Are  you  wounded,  my  friend ?  £st-cc  que  vous  6tes  bletsi,  mon  ami? 

Are  we   the   friends  of  that  wicked    £st-ce  que  nous  sommcs  Ics  amis  de  ce 
person?  mdchant? 

Do  I  ever  speak  evil  of  you  ?  Est-ce  que  je  parle  jamais  mal  do  voua  ? 

Have  we  your  money?  Est-ce  que  nous  avons  votre  argent? 
To  study,     studying,     studied.  ^tudier,     ctudiant,     ItudU, 

To  buy,       buying,        bought.  Acheter,     aclietant,     achcil 

R.  In  verbs  of  the  first  ooqjngation  having  e  mnto  in  the  last  syllable  but  one,  that  e 
takes  the  grave  accent  when  the  next  consonant  is  followed  by  e  mute. 

J'acMU,       tuacMte»,       Uachete,       nous  oehetAns,       wusaeheteB,       Us  achiteni, 
I  buy,  thoabuyest,    he  buys,        we  buy,  you  buy,  they  buy. 

That  scholar  studies  well.  Cet  dcolier  ^tudie  bien. 

1      T  tl  14       S         S    a    1^6      «    a    l**!        S    S3    l-«    1  «       1  II  6 

par-1oJ«,  conve-nable-nieni!,  e-tu-dlor,  6-tn-dian<,  6-tu-di^,  a-ch«-ter,  a-che-tani^  a-cb«-tu, 
a-chtt«,  a-€he-ton«,  a-che-tec,  a-chet«n^ 








Une  tomate. 

Ce  climat 

La  moutarde. 

Le  temps. 

Ma  bibliotheqve. 

Le  fratifais. 

1a  franfoise. 









The  air.  A  fever. 

This  eauniry.  A  tomato. 

This  climate.  The  mustard. 

The  <im«,  toeather.  My  library. 

The  J^reRcAiRcin.     The  i^encA-fooman. 

-..«..       ( The  iSpanwA- 
The  Barnard,      j      ^^„ 

_.      _  j  The  G^^nnan- 

The  German.        1      ,_-_^„ 

The  ^«^/«Aman.j      ^,„^,, 

The  Italian.  The  i/o/tan-fooman. 

6L  National  deslgnatiooa  like  the  abore,  when  need  as  nouns  and  applle<l  to  nations, 
begin  with  a  capital  letter;  when  used  as  a^jeetircs  or  applied  to  indlvldnals,  thoy  begin 
with  a  small  ]ett4^T. 

The  French  are  polite.  Les  Fran^ais  eont  polls. 

He  is  a  Frenchman  (French).  11  est  fran^ais. 

I  have  an  English  watch.  «rai  une  montre  anglaiso. 

7.  The  masculine  of  the  aboTe  Aire  also  denotes  the  language. 

I  study  French  and  Englisli,  you  study     JT^tudie  lefran^ais  ct  Vanglais^  tous 

German  and  Spanish,  she  studies  ^tudiez  Vallemand  et  Yespagnolj 

Italian.  cUe  6tudie  Vitalien. 

1.  Quels  livres  avez-voas  ?  2.  J'ai  un  dictionnaire  anglais  et 
ime  grammaire  italienne.  8.  ^Itudiez-vous  le  frangais  ?  4.  J'6ta- 
die  le  fran^ais  et  mes  consins  etudient  Tespagnol.  5.  Le  fran^ais 
ach^te-t-il  les  cravates  blanches  on  les  crayates  noires?  6.  II 
n*ach^te  ni  les  nnes  ni  les  antres.  7.  Que  dcsirez-vous  dtudier? 
8.  Je  desire  6tadier  Tespagnol,  mais  ma  soeur  veut  etudier  I'alle- 
mand.  9.  Est-ce  qne  voire  soear  est  malade?  10.  Ellc  est  un 
peu  malade.  11.  L'air  de  cette  chambre  est-il  frais  ?  12.  II  est 
bien  frais.  13.  Aimez-vous  ce  pays-ci  ?  14.  J*aime  ce  pays-ci  et  ce 
cliinat-ci  ?  15.  Voire  mere  va-t-elle  chez  la  petite  frangaise?  16. 
Non,  madame,  elle  n'a  pas  le  temps.  17.  Voire  ami  est-il  malade  ? 
18.  Oui,  monsieur,  il  a  la  fievre.     19.  Qu'a  ce  domestique?     20. 

II  a  lea  tomates  et  la  moutarde.     21.  La  bibliothdque  du  docteur 
est  grande. 

1.  I  desire  to  study  French,  but  my  brother  will  study  Spanish. 
2.  What  is  the  matter  with  that  sick  man  t     3.  He  has  the  fever. 

7       19  7  119       U       1  13      I  IS       1  S  ia    I9IS       S  t        t  t      ' 

air,  H-^TTf.  pay#,  to-mat/«  cli-ma^  moa-tard^  tom^M,  bi-bll-o-t*Hk«,  fyaD-cal««  fran- 
(aiiA  vs-pa-gnol,  es-pa-gnol^  alU-nand,  aU«-mande,  an  glaic,  an*glaiz«,  1-to-lien,  i.ta-iicnn«. 


4.  What  art  thou  buying?  5.  I  am  buying  a  library.  6.  What 
.do  the  cooks  wish  to  buy  ?  7.  They  wish  to  buy  the  tomatoes  and 
the  mustard.  8.  Is  the  Spanish  woman  going  to  the  house  of  the 
German  woman  ?  9.  No,  sir,  she  is  going  to  the  Italian  woman*s. 
10.  Are  you  going  to  the  English  woman's?  11.  No,  sir,  I  hare 
not  the  time.  12.  Do  you  wish  to  study  Italian  ?  13.  I  wish  to 
study  Italian,  but  my  sister  will  study  French.  14.  Do  you  study 
Spanish  or  German?  15.  We  study  neither.  16.  Do  the  mer- 
chants buy  the  shoes  or  the  gloves?  17.  They  buy  neither.  18. 
Do  you  buy  the  forks  or  the  spoons  ?     19.  We  buy  neither. 

20.  What  do  those  children  study?  21.  They  study  English. 
22.  Do  the  countrymen  send  you  their  fruit  ?  23.  They  send  it 
to  me.  24.  Do  they  send  you  their  peaches  ?  25.  They  do  not 
send  them  to  me.  26.  To  whom  do  you  give  jour  books?  27. 
We  give  them  to  thee.  28.  Do  you  send  this  meat  to  the  neigh- 
bor ?  29.  We  do  not  send  it  to  him,  we  send  it  to  thee.  30.  To 
whom  do  you  lend  your  books  ?  31.  We  lend  them  to  you.  32. 
To  whom  does  the  master  lend  his  ?  33.  He  lends  them  to  thee. 
34.  To  whom  dost  thou  lend  thy  money  ?  35.  I  lend  it  to  you. 
86.  Does  the  merchant  send  you  your  money  ?  37.  He  sends  it 
to  us. 


1.  What  are  you  carrying  in  that  bag?  2.  We  are  carrying 
these  nails  to  the  carpenter  who  is  at  our  house.  3.  Yon  have 
many  nails ;  does  the  carpenter  wish  for  them  all  ?  4.  Tes,  he 
wishes  for  them  all.  5.  Where  do  you  go  for  (chercher)  these 
nails?  6.  My  father  sends  me  for  them  (lea  ckercher)  to  the  store. 
7.  Do  you  go  to  the  store  of  Mr.  A.  or  to  Mr.  B.'s?  8.  I  go  to 
neither  the  one  nor  the  other ;  I  go  to  my  cousin's.  9.  Is  your 
cousin  at  his  store?  10.  No,  sir,  he  is  sick.  11.  He  is  sick! 
what  is  the  matter  with  him  ?  12.  He  has  the  fever.  13.  Wfio 
is  his  physician?  14.  His  physician  is  doctor  H.  15.  Is  your 
cousin  very  sick  ?  16.  Not  {non  pas)  very  sick.  17.  I  wish  to  go 
to  his  house.     18.  You  are  right ;  he  loves  you  much. 




t.  Verbs  of  tho  Second  Conjugation  (in£  in  IB),  have  the  terminations  of  the  present 
indlcftUye,  as  follows : 

13,  IS,  IT,  I8S0KS,  ISSEZ,  ISSSMT. 

2.  The  pastptftleiple  of  this  coi^JagaUon  is  fonned  by  dropping  IE  of  the  inflnltire; 
except  tiiat  those  in  enir  change  the  <  to  v.* 

To  Choose,        Chosen,  Choisir  (inf.).        Choisi  (post  part.). 

j€c7u>i9U,  tuehoUU,        UchoUit^     nous  cAoMssons,    «oiM  cAoisisses,    U»  dioUUtent^ 
I  choose,     thou  ohoosest,  he  chooses,  we  choose,  you  choose,  they  choose. 

To  comty    coming,    come.  Fentr,     venant^    venu. 

To  hold,     holding,    held.  Tenir,      tenant^    ienii, 

8.  Venir^  Uniry  and  their  oomponnds,  are  irregular,  and  terminate  thns : 
JiBvUnSy    tuTisnty  UvUnt,       noutvenotUf       eott«««n««,       UtvUnnerU, 

I  come,     thoacomest,    becomes,     we  come,  you  come,         they  come. 

The  chocolate. 
A  billet,  noU. 
A  bank-biU, 
lAve^  living. 
From  his  house. 

A  violet. 
A  jonquil. 

From  your  house. 
From  her  house. 
Do  joa  choose  the  chocokte  or  the 

I  choose  neither  the  chocolate  nor  the 

Do  you  choose  the  leather  purse  ? 
I  choose  the  silk  purse. 
Whence  do  you  come  ? 
We  come  from  home. 
Dost  thou  come  from  the  store  ? 
No,  I  come  from  the  brook. 
What  are  those  little  boys  holding  f 
They  are  holding  their  books,  and  I 

am  holding  mine. 

Le  chocolat. 

Un  billet. 

Un  billet  de  banque. 




De  chez  lui. 

tJne  bourse. 

Une  violette. 

Une  Jonquille. 



De  chcz  vous. 

De  chez  elle. 

Choisissez-Toua  le  chocolat  ou  le  th6? 

Je  ne  choisis  ni  le  chocolat  ni  le  th& 

Choisissez-vous  la  bourse  de  cuir? 
Je  choisis  la  bourse  de  soie. 
Nous  Tenons  de  chez  nous. 
Yiens-tu  du  magasin  ? 
Non,  je  yiens  du  ruisseau. 
Que  tiennent  ces  petits  gar^ons? 
Ds  tiennent  leurs  livres,  et  je  tiens  les 

4.  The  articles  and  adjective  prononns  are  to  be  repeated  before  each  noon  in  the  same 
constraction,  and  before  each  adjective  belonging  to  a  separate  noon. 
He  has  the  book,  pencil,  and  paper.        H  a  le  livre,  le  crayon  et  le  papier. 
We  wish  for  the  bread  and  cheese.         Nous  youlons  le  pain  et  le  fromage. 
He  has  his  sugar  and  milk.  II  a  son  sucre  et  son  lait 

•  Other  exceptions  to  this  role  will  be  given  as  the  rerbs  are  introduced. 

9  19     9>   U  »  19     90  19     90  )9  91       SO  n  6      90  19       4  19 

choi-dr,   choi-zi,   chol-zi«.    ehoi-zi^    ehoi-zie-soa«,    choi-ds-see,  choi-tisseiUL  ve-nir, 

«S  404    19      49  in     1914       1914  4     91  4      «       191  1*    l8    1         II 

re-nanl^  re-no,  te-nir,  te-nan<,  te-nn,  Tiens,  vien^,  ve-nons,  Te-ne«,  Tienn«Rl^  eho-eo-lai;  bourse, 

19     i        UiS    S  9  ai        11  19     9  19     9  IC  14 

bi-llet,  ri-o-lette,  banks,  Jon^kUls,  Ti-yan^,  vl-vants,  morl,  morte. 


&  CoufUry^  moaning  a  particular  region,  is  pays;  country,  dlstingalahcd  fh>ro  tho 
city,  is  campagfu, 

I  like  my  country,  you  like  yours.  J^aime  men  pays^  tous  aimez  le  Tdtre. 

We  like  the  country,  be  likes  the  city.     Nous  aimons  la  campagne,  il  aime  la 


1.  D'ou  vienuent  vos  frferes?  2.  lis  viennent  de  chez  eux. 
3.  Les  cbevaux  de  qui  tenez-vous?  4.  Nous  tenons  les  n6tres. 
5.  Que  tient  ce  petit  gar^ont  6.  II  tient  les  fleurs  de  cette  dame. 
7.  Je  tiens  mes  livres,  et  les  enfants  tiennent  les  roses,  les  violettes 
et  les  jonquilles.  8.  Portez-vous  ce  billet  k  votre  pere  ?  9.  Je  le 
lui  porte.  10.  Donnez-vous  les  billets  de  banque  aux  marcbandst 
11.  Nous  les  leur  donnons.  12.  Quel  poisson  ce  cuisinier  cboisit-il! 
13.  II  cboisit  celui-ci.  14.  Ces  poissons-ci  sont  vivants  et  ceux-lk 
sont  morts.  15.  Ces  arbres  du  jardinier  sont  morts.  16.  La  m^re  de 
ce  petit  gar9on  est-elle  morte  1  17.  EUe  est  vivante.  18.  Ces  dames 
cboisissent-elles  les  violettes  oa  les  jonquilles  t  19.  EUes  cboisis- 
sent  les  unes  et  les  autres.  20.  D'ou  cet  bomme  vient-il?  21.  II 
vient  de  France.     22.  Que  tiens-tu  ?     23.  Je  tiens  mon  livre. 

1.  Do  tbe  cooks  cboose  tbe  live  fisb  of  tbis.  boy,  or  tbe  dead 
ones  of  tbe  fisbermanf  2.^Tbey  cboose  tbe  live  ones.  3.  Dost 
tbou  cboose  tbe  glass  candlestick  or  tbe  copper  one?  4.  I  cboose 
neitber.  5.  Do  you  come  Trom  tbe  (du)  brook  ?  6.  No,  sir,  I  come 
from  tbe  store.  7.  Does  tbe  mason  come  from  your  bouse  t  8.  No, 
sir,  be  comes  from  tbe  sbip.  9.  Are  tbe  countrymen  coming  bere  ? 
10.  No,  sir,  tbey  are  going  to  tbe  country.  11.  Wbence  do  you 
come?  12.  We  come  from  tbe  city.  13.  Dost  tbou  come  from  tbe 
country  t  14.  No,  sir,  I  come  from  bome  (de  chez  moi).  15.  Wbat 
books  are  you  bolding  t  16.  We  are  holding  ours-  17.  Are  the 
scholars  holding  tbeirs  ?  18.  Tbey  are  bolding  them.  19.  Whose 
horse  is  tbe  countryman  bolding?  20.  He  is  holding  bis.  21. 
Whose  books  dost  thou  bold  ?  22.  I  bold  my  friends'.  23.  Do 
they  not  hold  theirs  ?     24.  No,  sir,  I  hold  them. 

1.  Does  tbe  master  lend  you  his  pen  ?  2.  He  lends  it  to  us. 
3.  Do  the  merchants  lend  you  their  money  ?  4.  Tbey  do  not  lend 
it  to  us,  they  lend  it  to  you.  5.  Dost  thou  send  the  flower  to  that 
lady  ?  6.  I  send  it  to  her.  7.  Does  tbe  neighbor  send  you  your 
notes  ?  8.  He  sends  them  to  us.  9.  Do  you  send  his  newspapers 
to  him?     10.  I  send  them  to  him.     11.  Do  you  carry  tbe  fruit  to 

ris     1       1 
pays,  cam-pagn0 


yoar  mother  T  12.  I  carry  it  to  her.  13.  Do  you  carry  her  the 
violets  and  the  jonquils?  14.  I  carry  them  to  her.  15.  Dost  thou 
send  that  sonp  to  the  sick  men?  16.  I  send  it  to  them.  17.  Dost 
thoa  send  them  the  coffee  also  ?  18.  I  send  it  to  thenL  19.  Where 
is  the  bank  bill?  20.  It  is  here  in  my  purse.  21.  My  motheri 
sister,  and  cousin  are  here. 


I.  Do  you  study  French  ?  2.  No,  madam,  but  I  am  going  to 
study  it.  3.  Do  you  like  the  French  ?  4. 1  like  much  the  French 
and  the  Spanish,  but  I  do  not  like  the  German.  5.  Do  you  not 
wish  for  a  dictionary  ?  6.  I  have  a  French  and  English  dictionary 
at  home.  7.  If  you  wish,  I  am  going  to  send  you  a  history.  8. 
You  are  very  good,  sir.  9.  Adieu  (adieu)^  sir.  10.  Till  we  see 
each  other  again  {au  revotr). 

II.  What  have  you  in  that  bag?  12.  1  have  the  books  which 
I  study.  13.  Do  you  study  all  those  books?  14.  Yes,  sir,  I  stady 
them  all.  15.  Is  the  air  of  this  chapiber  fresh  ?  16.  It  is  very 
fresh.  17.  What  do  you  buy  of  (d)  that  countryman?  18.  I  buy 
his  tomatoes  and  his  mustard.  19.  Have  you  a  history  of  France 
in  your  library  ?  20.  Yes,  sir,  this  book  is  the  history  of  France, 
and  that  one  the  history  of  Spain.  21.  Do  you  buy  the  German 
grammar  ?    22.  No,  sir,  we  buy  the  Italian  grammar. 

29.— VlNGT-NEUVltME  LEfON. 

1.  Some  Teibt  of  the  Second  Co^jogstion,  the  stems  *  of  vhlch  end  in  two  distinct  eon- 
ats,  tennlnitte  In 

B,  8,  T,  ONS,  EZ,  KKT. 

and  drop  the  last  consonant  of  the  stem  before  a  silent  tennlnatlng  consonant 

To  go  outf      going  out^      gone  out.  Sortir,      wrtant^      §orH. 

Jamra,       iu9or»,  Utort,  nouttorknu,     vouttorteB^      UawrUni, 

I  go  oat,     thon  goest  oat,     he  goes  oat,    we  go  oat,  yoagooot,        they  go  out 

1  Without  a  yerb.  Jamais;  with  a  verb,  n^ 
before  the  verb  and  jamais  after  it,  ur 
jamais  ns  before  the  yerb. 
£ver.                  Often,                             Jamais.  Souvent. 

5*0/ (adrerb).   Again.                           FneorSy  or  toujours.    Encore. 
Sometimes.         Already. QudqMfoJB.     D^d. 

•  The  stem  is  that  part  of  the  rerb  which  is  anchanged,  to  which  the  terminations  src 
added  in  conjagatlng  it.  ' 

M     n       MS  IS    IS      M         IS        IS       tl  16      C        16  l        7         II        S  S      'f 

sor-tlr,  8or-tan<;  sor-U,  sort,  sorl,  sor-tons,  sor-tce,  sort«n«,  Ja-mais,  soa-yent,  en-core, 

IS       It  «         4    '.«         8     1 

iea-Jonre,  k«l-ka-fot«.  d^^- 



(  Without  a  TerY),  pas  tnoors;  with  %  rerh, 
Not  yet.  \       *M  beforo  the  rerb  and  pa»  encore  af- 

(        terit 

MASOiTLxm.        mmmra. 
The  mcrninff.   The  night.  Le  ma<tn.         La  wtit. 

The  Jire.  The  we.  Le/eu.  lAfflaee. 

The  evening.     The  atAoo/.  Le  roir.  L'^eo^. 

ZTardL  Dtir.  i>ur«. 

Soft.  Mou.  Molle. 

2.  Jfott  bccbmes  md  belbre  a  rowel  or  a  silent  h. 
Warm,  hot,  Chaud.  ChawU. 

Cold.  Froid.  Froide. 

Do  jou  often  go  out  ?  Sortez-vous  souvent  ? 

We  go  out  sometimes,  but  not  often.      Nous   sortons  quelquefois,  mais  pas 


8.  Adverbs  are  generally  placed  immediately  after  their  yerbs.   Those  of  time  and  place, 
howeyer,  can  stand  at  the  beginning  of  the  phrase. 

Do  you  neyer  go  to    the    market  ?    ITallez-yous  Jamus  au  march6  ?    Ja- 

Keyer.  mais. 

He  neycr  goes  to  church.  H  ne  ya  jamais  k  T^glise. 

I  often  go  to  the  store,  but  I  neyer  go    Je  yais  souyent  au  magasin,  mais  ja- 

to  the  market.  mais  je  ne  yais  au  marchd. 

4.  The  clrcomstanee  of  time  Is  often  expressed  in  French  without  a  preposition. 

In  the  morning.     In  the  eyening. 
In  the  night,  at  night. 
Dost  thou  eyer  go  out  at  night  ? 
No,  sir.    I  sometimes  go  out  in  the 

morning  and  in  the  eyening,  but 

I  neyer  go  out  at  night. 
Is  that  child  already  hungry  ? 
He  is  not  yet  hungry. 
He  is  still  sleepy. 

Le  matin.    Le  soir. 

La  nuit. 

Sors-tu  jamais  la  nuit  ? 

Noo,  monsieur.  Je  sors  quelquefois  le 

matin  ct  le  soir,  mais  je  ne  eors 

jamais  la  nuit 
Cet  enfant  a-t-il  d6j4  faim  ? 
II  n*a  pas  encore  faim. 
n  a  encore  sommeiL 

6.  The  article  is  used  as  In  English  with  nouns  in  a  definite  sense ;  also  with  nouns  in  a 
general  sense  (which  omit  it  in  English);  as, 

Iron  is  hard.    Coal  is  black.  Le  fer  e^ur.    Le  charbon  est  notr. 

Fire  is  hot.    Ice  is  cold.  Le  feu  est  chaud.  La  glace  est  froide. 

I  like  tea,  I  do  not  like  coffee.  J'aime  le  th6,  je  n'aime  pas  le  cafS. 

1.  Ce  petit  gar^on  a-t-fl  d^]k  soif  ?  2.  Pas  encore.  8.  J'ai 
encore  froid ;  n'avez-vous  pas  froid  ?  4.  Non,  monsieur,  j'ai  chaad. 
5.  Votre  fr^re  sort-il  la  nuit?  6.  Jamais.  7.  Qu'a  ce  malade? 
8.  n  a  la  fi^vre  jaune.  9.  Ces  enfants  sortent-ils  quelquefois  ? 
10.  lis  sortent  souvent.  11.  Sortent-ils  la  nuit?  12.  Non,  mon- 
sieur,  ils  sortent  le  matin,  et  le  soir,  mais  ils  ne  sortent  jamais 

1  14     9in     1      s   IS       a        11  17         IB 

ma-Un,  nai^  glnee,  6-eols,  dnre,  mol^  ohande,  ttoids. 


la  unit  13.  L'acier  n'est  il  pas  blea?  14.  Si,  I'acier  est  blen, 
Targent  est  blanc,  et  le  charbon  est  noir.  15.  Choisissez-vous  le 
biscnit  mou  ou  le  dur?  16.  Nous  voulons  Tun  et  I'autre.  17. 
Aimez-vons  un  climat  cbaad  ou  un  climat  &oid  ?  18.  Je  n*aime  ni 
Vnn  ni  Taatre.  19.  N'aimez-vous  pas  ce  pays-ci  ?  20.  Je  raime 
beaaconp.  21.  D^sirez-Yous  6tadier  Tallemand?  22.  Je  desire 
I'etudier,  mais  mon  p^re  Qe  le  veut  pas.  23.  Voulez-votis  bien  venir 
ici  ce  soil  ?  24.  Oiii,  je  le  yens  bien.  25.  Ou  allez-vous  ?  26. 
Je  Tais  k  I'ecole. 

1.  Dost  thou  buy  the  countryman's  chickens  ?  2.  I  buy  his 
chickens,  his  tomatoes,  and  his  mustard.  3.  Where  is  your  Spanish 
grammar  ?  4.  It  is  in  my  library.  5.  Is  your  brother  still  sick  ? 
6.  Yes,  madam,  he  has  the  fever  still.  7.  Do  you  choose  the  choc- 
olate or  the  tea  ?  8.  We  choose  the  chocolate.  9.  What  has  the 
Italian  woman  ?  10.  She  has  the  silk  purse  and  the  bank  bill.  11. 
Does  the  neighbor  send  you  his  fruit  ?  12.  He  sends  it  to  me. 
13.  Do  you  send  him  his  notes  ?  14.  I  send  them  to  him.  15.  Does 
that  child  go  out  often  ?  16.  He  goes  out  sometimes,  but  not  often. 
17.  Is  he  already  hungry  ?  18.  He  is  not  yet  hungry.  19.  Is  the 
mason  still  thirsty  ?     20.  He  is  still  thirsty. 

21.  Is  that  child  already  sleepy  ?  22.  He  is  not  yet  sleepy. 
23.  Dost  thou  ever  go  out  in  the  morning  ?  24.  No,  I  often  go 
out  in  the  evening,  but  I  never  go  out  in  the  morning.  25.  Does 
your  sister  choose  the  roses  or  the  tulips  ?  26.  She  chooses  nei- 
ther, she  chooses  the  violets  and  the  jonquils.  27.  Does  she  give 
them  to  you  ?  28.  She  gives  them  to  me.  29.  Does  the  master 
give  you  his  pen  ?  30.  He  gives  it  to  me.  31.  To  whom  dost 
then  give  that  note  ?  32.  I  give  it  to  thee.  33.  Dost  thuu  give 
me  the  letter  ?  34.  I  give  it  to  thee.  35.  Dost  thou  give  me  the 
newspapers  ?  36.  I  give  them  to  thee.  37.  Do  you  give  me  that 
purse  ?  38.  We  give  it  to  you.  39.  Are  you  going  to  school  ? 
40.  I  am  not  going  to  school,  I  am  going  to  churcL 


1.  Do  you  ever  speak  Spanish  ?  2.  Sometimes,  but  not  often. 
3.  Do  you  study  it  still  ?  4.  No,  sir,  I  have  not  the  time,  I  study 
French.  5.  Do  you  speak  it  ?  6.  Not  yet.  7.  Your  brother  speaks 
it,  however  (cependant).  8.  Yes,  sir,  my  brother  and  sister  speak 
it.  9.  Where  is  your  brother  ?  10.  He  is  clerk  in  the  store  of  my 
uncle.     11.  Does  he  still  study  French  ?     12.  Yes,  sir,  he  studies  it 



Still ;  he  wishes  to  speak  it  well  {le  hien  parler).  13.  He  is  right. 
14.  Where  does  your  sister  go  to  school  ?  15.  She  goes  to  the 
school  of  Madam  G.  16.  It  is  a  very  good  school.  17.  Madam  G. 
speaks  French,  and  her  daughters  also.  18.  She  has  many  schol- 
ars, and  they  all  study  {ellea  etudient  touies)  French.  19.  Do  your 
cousins  go  to  Madam  G.'s  school  ?  20.  No,  sir,  they  do  not  go  to 
school  at  present  (d  present). 

30.— TRENTlilME  LEgON. 


1.  We  have  seen  that  (except  quit  whom?  int«rrogatlTe)  qui  la  the  anl^eet  and  ffne 

the  object  of  the  following  verb.  Tho  same  is  the  case  also  when  these  relatlTea  IbUow  qui 
•sf-ee  or  qu^ttlt-eey  interrogative. 

Who  f  Qui  est-ce  qui  ? 

Whcmf  Qui  cst-ce  que? 

What  f  (subject).  Qu'cst-ce  qui  ? 

What  f  (object).  Qu*est-ce  que  ? 

Who  goes  to  the  bank  ? 
Whom  is  that  man  looking  for  ! 
What  have  jon  ? 

fQui  est-ce  qui  va  4  la  banqne  f 

ya  4  la  banque  ? 
( Qui  est-ce  q%te  cet  homme  cherche  ? 
(  Qui  cet  homme  cherche-t-il  ? 

iQu'c8t-ce  que  vous  arez  ? 
Qti'avez-Tous  ? 

8.  The  choice  between  the  two  forms  of  translating  who^  whom^  and  trAof,  here  glTen, 
is  determined  by  euphony ;  but  uhat  f  as  subject,  can  only  be  gu'esf^ce  quit 

( Qu*e8t-ce  qui  est  sur  la  table  ? 
( (And  not  Que  est  sur,  etc.) 

JtemaueTf    ramoBaant,    ramaste. 

What  is  on  the  table  ? 

To  pickups    picking  upt    picked  up. 
Tojindy         finding^         found. 

The  gardener. 

A  cupboard.     A  clothu-preM, 
A  closet.- 
A  stable. 

A  cask. 

A  barrel. 


Empty.  Always. 

Do  you  pick  up  what  you  find  ? 
We  pick  up  what  we  find. 
I  pick  up  what  I  find. 
The  cow  is  in  the  stable. 

TVouver,        trouvant, 
Le  jardinier. 
Un  buffet. 
Un  tonneau. 
Un  baril. 


Ia  jardiniere. 
Une  garde-robe. 
XJne  armoire. 
Une  Stable. 

Ramassea-Tous  ce  que  vous  trourez  f 
Nous  ramassons  cc  que  nous  troavons. 
Je  ramasse  ce  que  je  troure. 
La  vache  est  dans  r6table. 

8.  Jteurle  is  a  stable  for  horses  and  moles ;  UahUi  for  oxen,  cows,  and  sheep. 

i     138  1       1       «        1        1       t  1       1       «         II       «  II       t  18       «       1     It  19S 

tren-tidms,  ra-mas  ser,  ra-ma«-Ban(,  ra-ma«-ee,  troa-Tor,  trou-vani,  tron-ve,  Jar^di-nier, 
1    »  ur       a    <      1         u       If      17      1      so         1  IS    s    1  i4         7        11        is 

Jar-di-nidra,  bq/-felv  garde-robe,  to»-nean,  ar-moiie,  ba-riA  Stable,  plein,  pleine,  vide,  ton- 



C  Xfie,  A^  it,  they,  are  translated  b  j  m  Instead  of  H^  eUs^  iU,  tOett  beflm  the  rerb  Un, 
when  the  predicate  is  a  noan,  a  pronoan,  or  any  phrase  characterizing  the  snbject,  except  an 
a^ective,  a  past  participle,  or  a  noon  used  as  an  adjective. 

Who  13  that  man  ?  Qui  est  cet  homme  f 

He  is  our  neighbor.  C'est  tiotre  Toisin. 

That  woman  is  beautiful.  Cettc  femme  est  belle. 

She  is  the  wife  of  our  neighbor.  (Test  la  femme  de  notre  voisin. 

^Vho  are  those  little  boys  ?  Qui  sent  ces  petits  gargons  ? 

Thej  are  mj  cousins.  *         Cc  sont  mes  cousins. 

Do  yon  sec  those  youn<;  Indies  ?  Vo jcz-vous  ces  jeunes  demoiselles  ? 

Ther  are  the  scholars  of  Madam  G.  Ce  sont  les  4colidres  do  madame  G. 

They  are  Tcry  good.  EUes  sont  bien  bonnes. 

JSZIm  Is  nsed  in  this  last  phrase,  because  the  predicate  Is  the  verb  and  adjectlre  merely ; 
cs  Is  used  In  the  preceding,  because  the  predicate  contains  a  noun. 

&.  Usage  aathorizes  the  employment  of  il,  eUe^  etc.,  in  snch  cases,  proTlded  the  subject 
has  been  distinctly  specified. 

Who  is  the  gentleman  ?  Qui  est  ce  monsieur  ? 

He  is  my  brother.  C^cst  mon  fr5re,  or^  II  est  mon  fr^re. 

Who  is  in  the  house  ?  Qui  est  dans  la  maison  ? 

It  is  my  brother.  CTest  mon  fr^re  {and  not  II  est,  etc.). 

What  have  you  there  ?  Qu'avez-vous  \k  ? 

They  are  my  books.  Ce  sont  mes  livres. 

Yon  lore  John.    He  is  my  friend.  Yous  aimez  Jean.   CTest  (or  il  est)  mon 


1.  Qni  est  chez  vons  ?  2.  Ce  sont  mes  amis.  3.  Qui  est  cet 
homme?  4.  C'est  notre  mcdecin.  5.  II  est  anglais.*  6.  Qui  est- 
ce  que  vous  cherchez  ?  7.  Je  cherche  celui  que  vous  clierchez.  8. 
Qui  est-ce  qui  veut  ces  papiers?  9.  Le  maitre  les  veut.  10.  Qu'est- 
ce  que  vous  ramassez?  11.  Je  ramasse  ces  pommes.  12.  Qu'est-ce 
qui  est  sur  la  table?  13.  Ce  sont  les  papiers  du  maitre.  14.  Trou- 
Tcz-vous  ce  que  vous  cherchez?  15.  Je  le  trouve.  16.  Cet  homme 
est-il  votre  cuisinier?  17.  Non,  monsieur,  c'est  notre  jardinier. 
18.  Ou  est  la  clef  du  buflfet  ?  19.  La  clef  du  buffet  est  dans  cette 
armoire,  et  celle  de  la  garde-robe  est  sur  la  table.  20.  Qu'est-ce 
qui  est  sous  cet  arbre?  21.  Ce  sont  les  tonneaux  et  les  barils  du 
marchand.  22.  Sont-ils  pleins  ou  vides  ?  23.  Les  tonneaux  sont 
vides,  et  les  barils  sont  pleins  de  biere.  24.  Qu'est-ce  qui  est  dans 
I'etable?  25.  Ce  sont  nos  vaches.  26.  Qui  est  {or  qui  est-ce 
qui  est)  dans  le  jardin  ?     27.  C'est  le  jardinier. 

1.  Does  the  gardener  send  us  the  flowers  ?  2.  He  sends  them 
to  us.     3.  Who  picks  up  those  apples?     4.  The  gardener  picks 

•  /f  Is  used  here,  and  not  c«,  because  anglaU  is  u*cd  as  an  a^jectire 


ihem  np.  5.  Do  you  find  the  man  whom  you  seek  ?  6.  I  find  him. 
7.  Do  you  pick  up  what  you  find  ?  8.  I  pick  it  up.  9.  What  is  in 
the  cuphoard  ?  10.  It  is  our  glass  hottles  and  our  porcelain  plates. 
11.  Are  the  bottles  full  or  empty?  12.  They  are  empty.  13. 
Where  is  the  key  of  the  wardrobe  ?  14.  It  is  in  that  closet  15. 
Where  is  your  cloak  ?  16.  It  is  in  my  wardrobe.  17.  Your  cup- 
board is  small,  but  your  closet  is  large.,  18.  Are  those  casks  empty  f 
19.  No,  sir,  those  casks  are  full  of  wine,  and  these  barrels  are  full 
of  wine  also.  20.  What  is  in  the  stable?  21.  It  is  the  oxen  of 
my  father.  22.  Who  is  that  man?  23.  It  is  Captain  John.  24. 
He  is  very  tall.  25.  That  lady  is  beautiful ;  she  is  the  friend  of 
my  sister.  26.  Who  are  those  little  boys  ?  27.  They  are  the  chil- 
dren of  our  neighbor.  28.  What  is  on  the  table  ?  29.  They  are 
my  books  and  my  papers.  30.  Where  is  the  cow?  31.  She  is  in 
the  stable. 

32.  Does  that  young  girl  lend  you  her  pen  ?  33.  She  lends  it 
to  me.  34.  Do  you  give  those  apples  to  your  sister  ?  35.  I  give 
them  to  her.  36.  I  find  the  air  of  this  room  very  fresh.  37.  What 
is  the  matter  with  your  sick  friend?  38.  He  has  the  fever.  39. 
Do  you  send  the  bank-bill  to  your  mother  ?  40.  I  do  not  send  it  to 
her.  41.  Do  you  send  it  to  your  brothers  ?  42.  I  send  it  to  them. 
43.  What  is  in  the  stable?  44.  It  is  the  horse  of  our  neighbor. 
45.  To  whom  does  the  gardener  give  those  apples  ?  46.  He  gives 
them  to  us.  47.  Do  you  not  give  them  to  me  ?  48.  We  give  them 
to  you. 


1.  Do  you  fmd  the  candlesticks  which  you  seek  ?  2.  I  do  not 
find  them.  3.  Do  you  look  for  the  hat  which  is  on  the  floor  ?  4.  I 
do  not  look  for  it.  5.  Does  the  countryman  find  what  he  looks  for? 
6.  He  does  not  find  it.  7.  Does  the  merchant  wish  for  the  casks 
which  are  empty  ?  8.  No,  sir,  he  wishes  for  those  which  are  full  of 
wine.  9.  Does  the  gardener  wish  for  the  barrels  of  the  merchant  ? 
10.  No,  sir,  he  wishes  for  those  which  are  in  the  yard.  11.  What 
is  in  the  cupboard?  12.  It  is  the  porcelain  cups.  13.  What  cow 
do  you  buy?  14.  I  buy  the  one  which  is  in  the  stable.  15.  Do 
you  ever  go  out  in  the  morning  ?  16.  I  often  go  out  in  the  morn- 
ing and  in  the  evening.  17.  Who  is  that  man?  18.  He  is  the 
friend  of  my  father.  19.  What  is  on  the  table?  20.  They  are  the 
letters  of  my  friend. 




L  When  tlM  word  9ome  or  any  is  expressed  or  understood  with  a  nonn,  it  is  said  to  bo 
used  In  a  partitiTe  sense.  Noons  so  nsed  take  dt  and  the  article  in  French,  which,  according 
to  the  gender  and  number,  take  the  following  fonns. 


Svme^  any  (singular). 



j  De  la  (before  a  con- 
(           sonant). 


De  1*  (before  a  vowel 
or  silent  A). 



Da  pain. 

De  la  viande. 

De  Tor. 

De  reau. 

Pes  tonneaux. 

Des  ardoiacs. 

Some,  any  (plural). 

Some  bread.     Some  meat. 

Some  gold.       Some  water. 

Some  casks.     Some  slates. 
He  wishes  for  some  bread  and  some     U.veut  du  pain  et  de  la  viande. 

We  wish  for  some  pens  and  some  ink.      Nous  voulons  des  plumes  et  de  Tencre. 

9l  The  learner  can  easily  determine,  on  reflection,  whether  the  noun  is  nsed  in  a  parti- 
tive or  In  a  general  sense.  In  the  first  three  of  the  following  sentences  the  noan  is  general, 
and  tberei<)re  takes  the  article,  bat  not  d6  ;  in  the  lost  three  it  is  partitive,  and  takes  dtf  with 

He  loves  money.    Ho  loves  coffee.  H  aime  Targent.    H  aime  lo  caf6. 

He  loves  chocolate.    He  has  money.       H  aime  le  cbocolat.     II  a  de  rnrgeut. 
He  has  coffee.    He  has  chocolate.  H  a  du  caf6.    II  a  du  chocoLit. 

%.  To  the  abore  mle  of  partltlye  nouns  taking  (fe  and  the  article,  there  are  two  excep- 
tions; first  exception,  a  partitive  noon  being  the  object  of  a  verb  with  a  negative,  takes  tf« 
withont  the  article. 

He  has  no  money.  H  n^a  pas  d'argent. 

Have  you  no  biscuit  ?  N'avez-vous  pas  de  biscuit  ? 

I  have  some  biscuit.  tTai  du  biscuit. 

4.  Sometimes,  especially  in  qnestlons,  the  form  of  the  phrase  is  negative,  thoogh  the 
meaning  is  not,  or  does  not  express  total  negation ;  in  such  cases  the  article  most  be  used. 

Have  you  not  moucy  ?  (meaning  a^    N^avez-vous  pas  do  Targent  ? 

I  have  no  money  to  spend  foolishly.         Je  n^ai  pas  de  Vargcnt  *  pour  le  de- 

peneer  follemenL 

h,  Second  exeeption,  partitives  immediately  preceded  by  an  a4Jective  take  de  without 

I  have  some  pretty  buttons.  iTai  de  jolis  bouton5. 

He  has  excellent  wioe.  II  a  d^excellent  viu. 

The  above  rule  (1)  and  its  two  exceptions  are  illustrated  in  the  four  following  phrases. 
Has  he  any  ivory  ?  A-t-il  de  Ti voire  ? 

He  has  no  ivory.  II  nV  pas  d*ivotre. 

♦  The  meaning  is,  I  have  money,  but  not  to  spend  foolishly. 

trents  et  unldme,  do-pen-ser. 



He  has  some  good  sheep.  II  a  de  bons  moutons. 

He  has  some  white  sheep.  II  a  des  moutons  blancs. 

6.  The  article  and  preposition  are  to  be  repeated  before  each  portitiTe  Bonn  in  the 

I  wish  for  some  paper,  pens,  and  ink.      Je  veux  du  papier,  det  plomea  et  de 


To  break.          To  ihow. 



Fooluhly,         Blind 





Blind,               That  blind  man. 


Get  aveugle. 


A  portfolio^  pocket-book. 

The  lettuce. 

Un  porte-feuiUe. 


A  mattren.    The  bean. 

Un  tnatelaa. 

La /eve,  le  haricot. 







Well-cookedy  weU-done. 

Bien  cvit. 
Pen  cuit. 

Bien  cuite. 
Pea  cuite. 

1.  Qu*est-ce  que  les  espagnols  cassentt  2.  lis  cassent  lears 
verres.  3.  Nous  montrez-yous  les  billets  de  banque?  4.  Noos 
vous  les  montrons.  5.  Ghoisissez-vous  le  portefeuille  rouge  ou  le 
bleu  ?  6.  Je  choisis  le  rouge.  7.  Le  fran9ais  choisit-il  le  matelas 
dur  ou  le  mon  t  8.  II  choisit  le  doux.  9.  Ghoisissez-vous  le  boeof 
cm  ou  le  cuit?  10.  Je  choisis  le  cuit.  11.  Nous  aimons  la  viande 
peu  cuite  et  Tanglais  Taime  bien  cuite.  12.  Que  desire  I'aveuglet 
13.  II  veut  de  Targent  14.  Get  homme  est-il  aveugle  t  15.  Non, 
monsieur,  il  est  borgne,  mais  non  pas  aveugle.  16.  Que  vous 
xnontre  la  paysanne?  17.  Elle  me  montre  de  la  laitue  et  des  hari- 
cots. 18.  Ge  borgne  casse  son  verre  et  son  assiette.  19.  Que 
cassez-voust  20.  Je  ne  casse  rien.  21.  Avez-vous  du  fer?  22. 
Je  n'ai  pas  de  fer ;  j'ai  de  Targent  et  de  bel  ivoire. 

1.  Do  you  like  chocolate  ?  2.  I  like  chocolate  and  tea.  3. 
Do  you  like  meat  rare  or  well  done?  4.  I  like  meat  rare  and 
eggs  well  done.  5.  Does  the  Italian  like  ham  raw  or  cooked  ?  6. 
He  likes  it  raw.  7.  What  does  the  servant  break  ?  8.  He  breaks 
(cracks)  the  nuts.  9.  What  do  you  break?  10.  We  often  break 
our  glasses  and  our  plates.  11.  What  do  you  show  to  the  master? 
12.  We  show  him  our  copy-books  and  our  slates.  13.  Dost  thou 
show  him  thy  papers?  14.  I  show  them  to  him.  15.  Do  you 
show  your  brothers  that  letter?     16.  I  show  it  to  them.     17.  Do 

i«        nei5        s        10         i»  It*  rrs        isr 

cM-ser,  mon-trer,  fol/e-men^  borgnd^  a*Tea-gI«,  porte-fettIV«,  Ul-tna^  mate^lM,  II^t«v 

erne,  cult,  enite. 


yoa  wish  for  some  warm  biscuit  t     18.  No,  sir,  I  wish  for  some  warm 
meat  and  some  cold  bread. 

19.  Do  you  wish  for  some  cool  water  ?  20.  I  wish  for  some 
cool  water  and  some  good  wine.  21.  What  has  the  countryman? 
22.  He  has  some  fresh  meat  and  some  good  apples.  23.  What 
have  you  in  your  portfolio  ?  24.  I  have  some  letters  and  some 
papers  in  my  portfolio.  25.  Has  the  shopkeeper  some  mattresses! 
26.  He  has  mattresses  and  beds  {Uta).  27.  What  does  the  servant 
buy?  28.  He  buys  lettuce,  beans,  and  potatoes.  29.  Has  the 
gardener  lettuce  and  beans  ?  SO.  He  has  good  lettuce,  but  he  has 
no  beans ;  he  has  fruit  and  beautiful  flowers.  81.  That  man  is 
blind  of  one  eye ;  he  is  our  neighbor.  82.  Father,  where  is  your 
portfolio?  83.  The  gentleman  has  it.  84.  What  is  on  the  floor? 
35.  It  is  some  beautifal  flowers. 


1.  Have  you  a  garden?  2.  I  have  a  garden,  but  I  have  no 
gardener.  8.  What  have  you  in  your  garden  ?  4.  I  have  violets 
and  jonquils  in  my  garden,  and  some  roses  in  my  yard.  5.  At  my 
house  I  have  neither  roses  nor  violets,  but  I  have  fruits.  6.  What 
fruits  have  you  ?  7.  I  have  apples  and  pears,  and  my  uncle  has 
0ome  superb  peaches  and  some  beautifal  plums  in  his  garden.  8. 
Do  you  not  like  apples?  9.  I  like  all  fruits  {les ^fruits),  10.  A 
fine  peach  is  an  excellent  fruit.  11.  Have  you  many  apples  at 
your  house  ?  12.  We  have  not  many  apples,  but  we  have  many 
pears.  13.  What  horse  do  you  wish  to  buy?  14.  I  wish  to  buy 
the  one  which  is  in  the  stable.  15.  What  nuts  do  you  pick  up? 
16.  We  pick  up  those  which  we  find  under  the  tree,  and  the  chil- 
dren pick  up  those  which  are  on  the  floor. 



1.  Terb«  whoM  InfinltlTe  eods   in  OIR  are  of  nn  tbibd  cowirOAnoir.    They 
form  tlie  past  parttdpla  bj  adding  U  to  tha  stem ;  as, 


Betpalar  Terba  ofthia  oonjugatlon  *  have  tbe  following  termlnatloiia  in  tba  Indleatlva 
preaent :  oxa,  oia,  orr,  btokb,  btzz,  oxvsht. 

•  There  are  only  aeren  regnlar  rerbs  of  thlsooi^agaUon:  S^apsreevoir^  eonMooir, 
JMesveir^  Devoir^  Pgrewoir,  Reeeroir^  Btdevoir. 

«    4     so     4   ai 

re-oe«Tolr,  ro'po. 



I  receive,      thoa  recelvest,  be  receiveat  we  receive,  you  receive,        thej  r«eelve. 

Do  you  receive  our  notes  ?  Rccevez-vous  nos  billets  ? 

We  receive  them  all.  Nous  les  recerons  tous. 

I  receive  many  letters.  Je  re^ois  beaacoup  de  lettres. 

Why,        Because.  Pourqtiai.        Paree  que. 

Badly.      Sad.  Mai  TrUie. 

As  a4)ectives  ending  In  e  are  common  gender,  they  will  be  placed  hereafter  In  either 
oolamn  of  genders,  as  may  be  convenient 

A  liltle.         Very.  Un  pen.         TVe*,  forty  bien. 

2.  7W«  is  always  Joined  by  a  hjrphen  to  the  following  word.    2W«  and  Jbrt  have  aboat 
the  same  force,  bien  is  more  used  in  exclamations. 

Very  bard.  Trfes-dur,  fort  dur,  bien  dur. 

8.  As  an  exclamation.  Hen  denotes  approbation ;  eh  lien  Is  merely  introdactory  to 
something  further  to  bo  said. 

How  do  yuu  like  this  book? 
Well ;  it  is  a  very  good  tpork. 
This  little  boy  does  not  study  at  all. 
Well,   I  am  going  to  speak  to  his 

Seme.  Some  difficulty. 

A  fewy  tome.      A  few  apples. 

Comment  trouvcz-vous  ce  livre? 
Bien ;  c^est  un  bon  mivraye. 
Cc  petit  gar^on  n^^tudle  pas  du  tout. 
Eh  bien,  je  vais  parler  &  son  pbre. 

Qnelqtie.      Quelque  diffindtL 
Quelquea.    Quelques  pommes. 


The  vinegar.        A  radish.  Le  vinaigre.         Une  rave. 

Of  vhich  one.  Vuqiiel.  De  laqueUe. 

Of  which  ones.  Deaqtteh.  Dexquellea. 

4.  Objective  pronouns  with  a  preposition  expressed,  always  follow  the  verb.    Their 
form,  then,  (as  seen  Lesson  16),  is  as  follows: 

Of  me,  to  me,  of  us,  to  us. 
Of  thee,  to  thee,  of  you,  to  you. 
Of  him,  to  him,  of  them,  to  them. 
Of  her,  to  her,  of  them,  to  them. 
Ofwhatf  to  what. 

jVo  oncy  nobody. 

Whom  do  you  seek  ?    No  one. 

I  seek  nobody. 

No  one  is  looking  for  me. 

Tofll  with.     To  load  with. 

De  moi,  i^  nioi,  de  nous,  h  nous. 

De  toi,  k  toi,  de  vous,  k  vous. 

De  lui,  &  lui,  d^eux,  4  eux. 

D'ellc,  h  ellc,  d'elles,  k  cllcs. 
De  ^uoi,  k  quoi. 
/^  Without  a  verb,  persoune;  with  a  verb  ot 
S      which  it  is  the  object,  ne  bfforo  £he  verb 
i      and  pertonne  after  it ;  with  a  verb  of 
'       which  It  is  the  subjuct,  p^rtionne  ne. 

Qui  cherchez-vous  ?    Fersonne, 

Je  ne  chcrche  personne. 

Fersonne  ne  me  cherche. 

Remplir  de.     Charger  de. 

6.  Terbs  which  require  with  after  them  in  English,  require  de  in  French. 
He  fills  the  cask  with  wine.  II  rcmplit  le  tonncau  de  vin. 

49D49i>44St  44«4r>  19  V*  1  4        1"  TM 

re-coi«,  re-coW,  re-ce-von«,  ro-cc-vo«,  rc-coivan/,  pour-qunl,  parc«-ke,  trlst^  trt**,  fart^ 

IS  »  M  I  »       4      :S  13    8J      «      14       7  1  X     «  7ft  7        U  S 

oom-menf,  ou-vrage,  kel-ke,  d^-fl-cul-to,  vin*aigr«,  rave,  du-kel,  dos-kels,  per-soone,  rem- 
plir, char-ger. 


I  fill  the  chest  with  wood.  Je  remplis  de  bois  *  le  coffre. 

Thej  load  the  ship  with  cotton.  Us  chargent  le  navire  de  coton. 

1.  Be^ois-tu  les  letties  que  je  t'envoie  t  2.  Je  les  re^ois.  8. 
Voire  pere  re^oit-il  ce  qae  vous  lui  envoyezf  4.  Hon  pere  le 
reqoity  mais  mes  fr^res  ne  regoivent  pas  ce  qae  je  leur  envoie.  5. 
Ponrquoi  I'homme  riche  est-il  triste  ?  6.  II  est  triste  parce  qa*il 
est  malade.  7.  Get  homme  parle-t-il  bien  frangais?  8.  Nod, 
monsieur,  il  le  parle  tr^-maL  9.  Ce  petit  gar^on  ^tudie  on  pen, 
et  son  cousin  6tadie  fort  bien.  10.  Comment  troavez-yoos  ce  dis- 
conrs?  11.  Bien;  il  est  excellent  12.  Votre  frdre  n'etndie  pas 
du  tout.  13.  Eh  bien ;  je  vais  parler  au  maitre.  14.  De  quo! 
remplissez-vous  ce  baril  1  15.  Jeje^remplis de  vinaigre.  16.  Qu'a 
le  domestiquet  17.  II  a  quelquo  faitue  et  quelques  raves.  18. 
Qui  cherchez-Tous  f  19.  Je  ne  cberche  personne.  20.  Qui  est 
dans  cette  chambre?  21.  Personne.  22,  Parlez-vous  de  moit 
23.  Nous  parlous  de  vous.  24.  Ces  pay  sans  parlent-ils  de  toil 
25.  Us  parlent  de  moi.  26.  De  quoi  parlez-vous  ?  27.  Je  parle 
de  mes  lemons.  28.  Desquelles  parlez-vous ?  29.  Je  parle  domes 
lemons  de  fran^ais. 

1.  Do  you  speak  of  us  ?  2.  We  do  not  speak  of  you.  3.  Does 
the  little  boy  speak  of  the  master  ?  4.  He  speaks  of  him.  5. 
Does  he  speak  of  the  scholars  ?  6.  He  speaks  of  them.  7.  Do 
you  speak  of  those  young  girls  1  8.  We  speak  of  them.  9.  Do 
you  speak  of  your  sister  ?  10.  I  do  not  speak  of  her.  11.  No  one 
is  coming  here  to-day.  12.  With  what  do  you  load  that  boat? 
13.  I  load  it  with  butter  and  flour.  14.  Does  the  cook  wish  for 
the  radishes  ?  15.  He  wishes  for  the  radishes  and  the  vinegar. 
16.  Has  he  not  some  radishes  T  17.  He  has  a  few  radishes  and  a 
little  lettuce.  18.  Does  the  Oerman  speak  English  well?  19.  He 
speaks  it  badly.  20.  Why  are  you  afraid?  21.  I  am  afraid 
because  I  have  no  gun. 

22.  Do  you  receive  the  books  which  I  send  you?  23.  I  receive 
thcra.  24.  How  do  you  like  them  ?  25.  Well,  they  are  excellent 
works.  26.  Why  is  the  gardener  sad?  27.  He  is  sad  because 
he  has  no  fruit  28.  Why  do  you  look  for  the  captain?  29. 
Because  I  desire  to  speak  to  him.  30.  What  notes  dost  thou  re- 
ceive?    81.  I  receive  those  which  my  friend  sends  me.     82.  Does 

*  This  eonstinctlon  is  lued  to  aroid  ambigultj,  m  cojfire  ds  boia  mwoB  tlao  eheti  qf 


the  Frenchman  speak  English  welll  83.  No,  sir,  he  speaks  it 
very  badly.  34.  What  is  in  the  stable  ?  35.  It  is  the  horses  of 
my  friend.  36.  Of  whom  do  you  speak  ?  37.  I  speak  of  the 
mason.  38.  Of  which  one  do  you  speak  ?  39.  I  speak  of  the  old 
mason.  40.  Of  what  does  the  little  girl  speak?  41.  She  speaks 
of  her  pen.  42.  Of  which  one  does  she  speak?  43.  She  speaks 
of  the  gold  pen.  44.  The  cook  has  no  radishes.  45.  Well,  I  am 
going  to  bay  some  radishes  and  some  lettuce.  46.  With  what  do 
you  fill  that  bottle?  47.  I  fill  it  with  wine.  48.  This  bottle  is 
full  of  vinegar. 


1.  With  what  does  the  merchant  fill  his  cask  ?  2.  He  fills  it 
with  vinegar.  8.  Has  that  man  many  books?  4.  He  has  few 
books ;  he  has  a  few  friends,  and  a  little  money.  5.  What  have  you 
good  {de  hon)  ?  6.  I  have  a  little  good  wine.  7.  Do  you  receive 
the  letters  which  we  send  you?  8.  I  receive  them  all.  9.  Do 
your  brothers  receive  their  letters?  10.  They  receive  them.  11. 
Of  whom  does  the  master  speak  ?  12.  He  speaks  of  thee  and  of 
me.  13.  Does  he  speak  of  the  beautiful  ladies  ?  14.  He  speaks 
of  them.  15.  Of  which  ones  does  he  speak?  16.  He  speaks  of 
those  who  are  going  to  church.  17.  Do  you  speak  of  the  same,  or 
of  the  others?  18.  I  speak  of  neither.  19.  Is  not  that  man  one- 
eyed  (bargne)  ?  20.  No,  madam,  he  is  blind.  21.  Have  yon  bank- 
bills  in  your  pocket-book?  22.  No,  sir.  23.  Whom  are  you  look- 
ing for?     24.  I  am  looking  for  no  one. 



Todoubtf            to  doubt  of.  Douter,            donter  de. 

To  thanks           to  thank  for,  Remereier,       rttnereier  de. 

To  have  need  of^  to  need,  tp  loant.  Avoir  beeoin  de. 

To  know,  knoicinff^  known.  Savoir,  eaehant,  eu. 

Je  §ai8f       iu  taie,             ilaait,  ttoue  Mvone^      wnte  eaven^       iU  aawni^ 

I  know,       thou  knowest,   he  knows,  we  know,            yoa  know,        they  know. 

MABCULnrs.  moviNK. 

Pleasedy  eonienUd  (with).  Content  (de).         ContenU  (do). 

The /oo<.                    The  hand.  Le  pied.                La  main. 

A  eerviee.                  The  movth.  Un  seruice.            La  bouche. 

A  penknife.               Clean.  Un  eanif.              Propre. 

It      •         4        7     ia<        4     1814        19018  fCIU  181  £1 

doa-tisr,  re-mer-der,  be-zoln^  ea-rolr,  u-ebanl^  ni«^  aaAL  n-voni;  aa-rea,  savMiiH  con- 
teni,  oon-tenU,  piecf,  main,  8er-vle«,  bonehtf,  ca-oif;  proprA 


KiBorhtrcowraffe,     Dirty,  Bon  courage.         Sale, 

The  linen.  The  head.  Le  linge.  La  teU. 

Ktw  (newly  miide,  bought  new).  Keuf,  Neuve, 

Kewy  novel  (new  in  kind).  N<mveau.  Kouvelle. 

I  fill  the  chest  with  linen.  Je  remplis  le  coffre  de  lingo. 

1.  TaUt  U  Unen  doth ;  Unge  is  linen  made  into  articles  of  nse. 

&  In  speaking  of  the  parts  of  the  bodj,  the  articles  /«»  to,  etc.,  are  to  be  preforrod  to 
mktnL,  torn,  son.,  ete^  when  the  pom^isor  is  otherwise  snffldentlj  denoted.  Observe  also  the 
French  nse  of  awir  in  phrases  like  the  following.  In  snch  phrases  the  a^jeetlTe  always  fol- 
lows the  noon. 

That  man's  foot  ts  large.  Cet  homme  a  le  pied  grand. 

HtM  hand  ts  large  also.  TLala  main  grande  aussi. 

That  lady's  month  is  small  Cette  dame  a  la  bouche  petite. 

Her  head  t«  too  large.  EUe  a  la  t^te  trop  grosse. 

To  take  care  (of),  to  have  care  (of).  Avoir  eoin  (de). 

He  takes  care  of  my  garden.  II  a  soin  de  mon  jardin. 

Of  U,  of  thenk,  from  it,  from  them,)  „    ,  .       . ,   ,      ,, 

o/L,  ofiir,  ^ejom  there.  \  ^^  <?"«*"»  «'*'""*  *«  '«*)• 

S.  f  n  is  a  prononn,  haring,  as  indicated  by  the  abore  definitions,  the  force  of  de  with 
Ivi,  eUe^  eux,  tUea,  or  eOa  ;  also  often  an  adverb  for  id,  or  Id,  As  a  pronoun.  It  nsaally 
refexB  to  things  or  animals.  When  therefore  a  noan  of  the  third  person,  and  object  of  de  is 
replaced  by  a  pronoan,  that  prononn  is  to  be  en^  VNuess  pxbsoks  au  bxfsbxxd  to. 

Hare  you  need  of  our  serrice  ?  Avez-Yous  besoin  de  notre  service  f 

I  have  need  of  it.  J^en  ai  besoin. 

Does  the  boy  take  care  of  the  horses?  Le  gar^on  a-t-il  soin  des  chevauz  ? 

He  takes  care  of  thein.  II  en  a  soin. 

My  little  dog  is  sick,  and  my  sister  has  Mon  petit  chien  est  malade,  et  ma  soeur 

care  of  him.  en  a  soin. 

My  little  brother  is  sick,  and  my  sister  Mon  petit  frSre  est  malade,  et  ma  sosur 

has  care  of  him.  a  soin  de  lui. 

Do  yon  come  from  the  brook?  Yenez-vous  da  misseau ? 

I  come  from  there,  JVn  yiens. 

Do  yon  fill  the  chests 'with  linen  ?  Remplissez-voas  les  coiTres  de  linge  ? 

I  fin  them  with  it,  Je  les  en  remplls. 

Does  he  thank  you  for  your  sendee  ?  Tons  remercie-t-il  de  votre  serrice  ? 

He  thanks  me  far  it.  H  mVn  remercie. 

Are  yon  pleased  with  your  boy  ?  £tes-Tous  content  de  votre  garyon  ? 

I  am  pleased  with  him.  J^en  suis  content. 

Wo  see  in  these  sentences  that  en  supplies  the  place  of  de  and  its  object  So  partitive 
Qonsa,  being  preceded  by  de,  are  replaced  by  sfK 

Hare  yon  some  linen?  Avez-Tous  da  linge  ? 

I  have  tome,  •Ten  ai. 

Has  the  Italian  courage  ?  L'italien  a-t-il  du  courage  ? 

He  has  none.  II  n^en  a  point 

It    1        «      '4         I         f        »  «      IT       ?e     »        so      • 

coa-rag0,  eals,  linge,  tAte,  neuf,  nenve^  nou-vean,  nou-veiie,  tons,  en. 


JB'fi  is  to  be  used  in  Frenoh  when  qfU  or  qfihsm  may  be  andemtood  In  En^Uah. 
I  have  wiue,  have  you  some  ?  tPai  du  tId,  en  avez-vous  ? 

I  have  some  good.  S^en  ai  de  bon. 

Haye  you  butter  ?    I  have.  Avez-voua  du  beurre  ?    J'cn  ai. 

1.  Doutez-vous  de  mon  courage  t  2.  Je  n'en  doute  pas.  3. 
Doutez-vous  du  courage  de  ce  soldatt  4.  Nous  en  doutons.  5. 
Remerciez-vous  cet  homme  de  son  service  ?  6.  Je  Ten  remercie.  7. 
Ayez-rous  besoin  de  ces  papiers  f  8.  J'en  ai  besoin.  9.  Qui  a 
Boin  de  votre  chambre?  10.  Le  domestique  en  a  soin.  11.  £tes- 
vous  contents  de  vos  livres  ?  12.  Nous  en  sommes  contents.  13. 
Ce  mouchoir  neuf  est-il  sale?  14.  Non,  monsieur,  il  est  tr^s- 
propre.  15.  Avez-vous  de  bons  canifs  ?  16.  Je  n'en  ai  pas.  17. 
Cet  enfant  a-t-il  peur  des  fusils?  18.  II  en  a  peur.  19.  Parlez- 
vous  de  ces  billets  de  banquet  20.  Nous  en  parlous.  21.  Savez- 
rous  ou  est  votre  fr^re  ?  22.  II  est  d  la  maison.  23.  Savez-vous 
la  grammaire  ?  24.  Je  la  sais  bien.  25.  Cet  ecolier  sait-il  bien  la 
grammaire  ?     26.  II  sait  bien  la  grammaire  et  I'histoire. 

1.  Has  the  gardener  lettuce  and  beans?  2.  He  has  some. 
3.  Do  you  receive  some  newspapers  this  morning  ?  4.  I  receive 
some.  5.  Does  not  the  Frenchman  speak  English  badly?  6. 
Yes,  very  badly.  7.  Why  is  that  boy  sad?  8.  He  is  sad  be- 
cause his  father  is  sick.  9.  I  have  a  little  wine  ;  do  you  wish  for 
some  {en  voulez-^ou8)1  10.  No,  thank  you.  11.  Do  you  thank 
your  friends  for  their  service?  12.  We  thank  them  for  it.  13. 
Do  they  thank  you  for  your  flowers  ?  14.  They  thank  me  for 
them.  15.  Are  those  ladies  pleased  with  their  flowers?  10.  They 
are  pleased  with  them.  17.  That  servant's  feet  are  large,  and  his 
hands  are  large  also.  18.  Has  the  shopkeeper  some  good  pen- 
knives? 19.  He  has  some  {de)  good.  20.  What  have  you  white? 
21.  I  have  some  white  paper.  22.  Have  you  any  thing  black  1 
23.  I  have  nothing  black. 

1.  Do  those  scholars  know  history  well  ?  2.  They  do  not  know 
it  well.  3.  Dost  thou  know  grammar?  4.  I  know  it  well.  5. 
Are  those  new  handkerchiefs  clean  or  dirty  ?  6.  These  handker- 
chiefs are  clean  and  those  are  dirty.  7.  What  have  you  new  ?  8. 
I  have  some  new  boots  and  some  new  shoes.  9.  That  lady's  hand 
is  small  and  her  foot  is  small  also.  10.  Her  head  is  large  and  her 
mouth  is  large  also.  11.  Has  the  shopkeeper  penknives?  12.  He 
has  some.     13.  Do  you  fill  the  chest  with  linen  ?     14. 1  fill  it  with 


it  15.  Does  the  captain  doubt  of  onr  courage  t  16.  He  does  not 
doubt  of  it  17.  That  man's  head  is  small  and  his  mouth  large. 
18.  Have  you  need  of  money  ?  19.  I  have  need  of  some.  20.  Is 
that  lady  afraid  of  the  dog?  21.  She  is  afraid  of  him.  22.  Do 
you  know  your  lessons  well  ?     23.  We  know  them  well. 


1.  What  have  you  in  these  barrels  ?     2.  This  one  is  a  barrel  of 
wine,  and  that  one  is  full  of  vinegar.     3.  Is  your  vinegar  good! 

4.  It  is  vinegar  of  white  wine,  and  it  is  excellent ;  will  you  taste  it  t 

5.  No,  thank  you  {merci) ;  I  will  buy  a  little.  6.  How  much  do^ 
you  wish  1  7.  Not  much ;  have  you  some  demijohns  {dames-jeannesy 
fern.)  t  8.  Tes,  sir,  I  have  some  large  and  some  small  ones.  9. 
Well,  a  large  demijohn  full  is  all  that  I  wish.^  10.  I  am  going  to 
fin  you  one.  11.  Do  you  not  wish  for  a  box  Cune  caisse)  of  red  wine? 
12.  Have  you  some  good?  13.  Will  you  please  taste  of  this?  14. 
How  do  you  like  (irouvez)  it  ?  15.  It  is  not  bad  ;  how  many  boxes 
of  it  have  you  ?  16.  I  have  half  a  dozen  {une  demi-douzaine),  17. 
Well,  I  wish  for  them  all.  18.  Do  you  not  wish,  also,  for  a  few » 
bottles  of  white  wine!  I  have  some  very  good.  19.  Thank  you,  I 
have  some  (du)  white  still  in  (d)  the  house.  20.  If  you  wish,  I  am 
going  to  send  the  wine  and  the  vinegar  to  your  house.  21.  Tes, 
sir,  if  you  please. 



jFIw,    flfjjp,    Seven,    Eight.  Cinq,     Six,    Sept,    ffuit. 

1.  Eity  though  commooly  iipoken  of  things  or  animals,  when  nsed  in  a  partitive  sense 
maj  refer  to  persons  as  well  as  things. 

Hatc  you  brothers  ?  Avez-vous  des  frSres  ? 

I  have  some.  tTen  at 

now  many  have  you  ?  Combien  en  avez-vous  ? 

I  have  six ;  my  friend  has  seven.  J^en  ai  six ;  mon  ami  en  a  sept. 

2.  In  other  cases,  though  en  may  refer  to  persons,  the  objective  prononn  with  de  Is  pre- 

My  friend  is  sick,  and  I  take  care  of  Hon  ami  est  malade,  etfai  soin  de  lui 
him.  (rather  th&n  fen  ai  9oin). 

Your  horse  is  here,  and  the  boy  takes  Yotre  cheval  est  ici,  et  le  gar9on  en  a 
care  of  him.  soin. 

8.  An  a^ective  belonging  to  a  partitive  noun  undemtood,  takes  or  omits  the  article  the 
same  as  if  the  noon  were  expressed. 

14         14         13     IS         «         riM 

cink,  dn^t*  sis,  slasi,*  sept,  Auit, 

t  eoMommi  of  einqnA  tir  are  net  lonnded  before  a  »2"°,^*??°i?5»T."Il*-f ?"!".ItS*«f  7nh4i^' 




Have  joa  ink  f  Arez-Tous  dc  Fencre  ? 

I  have  some  good.  I  have  some  black.    JTen  ai  de  bonne.  J'en  tddela  noire.* 
4.  £it  used  with  any  other  objective  proDonn  most  be  placed  after  It 

Some  to  me.    Soma  to  lu. 

Some  to  thee.     Some  to  you, 

Sotne  to  himy  or  Jier.    Some  to  them. 

You  have  fruit ;  do  you  give  me  some  ? 

I  give  thee  some.    I  ^ve  them  some. 

I  give  him  some.    I  give  you  some. 

They  give  us  some. 

M'en,  Nou9  en, 

T^en,  Vous  en, 

Lui  en,  Leur  en. 

y ous  avez  du  fruit ;  nCen  donnez-TOUs  f 
Je  fen  donnc.    Je  leur  en  donne. 
Jc  lui  en  donnc.    Jc  vom  en  donne. 
lis  nouM  en  donnent. 


6.  Verbs  whose  Inflnitire  ends  in  HE  are  of  the  FOUBTH  CONJUGATION.  Those 
which  arc  regular  form  the  past  participle  by  adding  u  to  the  steuL  They  have  the  termi- 
nations of  the  indicative  present  as  follows: 

8,  S,  T,  ONS,  EZ,  ENT. 

To  RETURN  (give  back),  returning^  returned,        Res-dre,   ren-dant^    ren-du, 
Je  rends,       turende,       ilrend,       nouerendoM,       wma  render,       iUrendmU, 
The  proper  termination  of  the  third  person  singular  is  hero  blended  with  d  of  the  stem. 

6u  Tliose  in  UIRE  form  the  past  participle  by  adding  t  to  the  stem.  In  the  indicative 
present  they  take  «  after  the  stem  before  a  vowel,  and  terminate  thns : 

To  CONDUCT,    conducting^     conducted        Condui-re,    condui-sani^    conduit 

Je  eonduUe^  tu  conduit     U  oondui-t,  nous  eonduintone,  voue  eondui-wa^  He  eondui^tent^ 
Icondnct,  thoa  oondnctest,  he  conducts,  we  conduct,  you  conduct,       they  conduct 

The  care.  A  case^  box. 

The  uritf  spirit,  mind    A  demijohn. 

His  or  her  judgment,     A  bridle. 

The  village.  A  saddle. 

That  workman.    That  working-woman, 


The  turf.    The  verdure. 


Not  at  all. 

At  the  eame  time. 

Where  dost  thou  conduct  the  blind 

I  conduct  him  to  the  village. 

What  do  you  give  back  to  the  work- 

I  give  back  to  him  his  green  cloth. 

Le  soin. 
Bon  jugement, 
Le  village. 
Get  ouvrier. 

Le  gazon. 
Pa$  du  tout 

En  mime  temps,  au  mhns  temps, 
Od  conduis-tu  Tavcugle  ? 

Je  le  conduis  au  vilkige. 
Que  rendez-vous  k  Touvrier  ? 

Jc  lui  rends  son  drap  vert 


Une  caisse. 

Une  dame-je^nne. 

Une  bride. 

Une  selle. 

Cette  ottvrierv. 


La  verdure, 


*  Bon  comes  before  the  noun  and  omits  the  article,  n^r  comes  after  the  noun  and  takes 
it    With  the  noun  expressed,  it  would  be,  Jai  on  bonne  enore,  J'ai  db  Venere  noire. 

S  SS  SISS  S  821  S6S  ?ir>S«l       SSIS 

rendr«,  roA-danC,  ren-du,  rencfs,  rentf,  ron-dons,  ren-des,  rendenf,  con-duir«,  eon-dnl- 
s  SI  tan  SI  ni9  «  uia  a  kmh  n  aius  st  iin  is  «  7  s  n 
sanl^  oon-dnllt  oon-dui«,  con-dull  con-dul-sons,  cfm-dui-sesi  con-dnisenf,  soln,  caise^,  e»-pi14 

1  1         SI        s       is      IS    I        s       M    us      r       r         i   n      r     a        is     is 

dame^jsanns,  Jnge>men<,  bridd,  village,  seU«,  oa-Trier,  verC,  rerte,  ga-zon,  ▼er-dttre,grl<,gttt«> 


1.  Qne  Yoos  rend  cet  hommet  2.  H  me  rend  mon  cani£  3. 
Ok  les  ouvriers  condnisent-ils  cet  aveugle  ?  4.  Us  le  conduisent 
chez  loL  5.  Qu*ont  les  onvri^res  ?  6.  Elles  n'ont  rien.  7.  Sont- 
elles  chez  elles  aujoord'hoi  t  8.  Elles  sent  tonjonrs  chez  elles.  9. 
Me  donnes-tn  des  fleorsf  10.  Je  t'en  donne.  11.  En  donnes-ta  4 
roQTriert  12.  Je  lai  en  donne.  13.  Nous  en  donne-t-il?  14.  II 
Tons  en  donne.  15.  Donnez-yous  des  billets  de  banque  k  ces  hommest 
16.  Nous  lear  en  donnons.  17.  J'ai  cinq  pommes ;  combien  en 
avez-vons?  18.  J'en  ai  halt.  19.  Boutez-voos  de  mon  jogementt 
20.  Je  n'en  donte  pas.  21.  De  qnoi  doatez-vons  ?  22.  Je  doute  da 
jngement  et  de  Tesprit  de  cet  onvrier.  23.  Qu'a  le  marchand  ?  24. 
n  a  da  diap  vert  et  da  gris.  25.  0 a  conduisez-vous  I'etrangerf 
26.  Noas  le  condaisons  an  village.  27.  Noos  rendons  la  caisse  et 
la  dame-jeanne  de  vin  aa  marchand.  28.  J'ai  une  selle  et  une 
bride,  mais  je  n*ai  pas  de  foaet  29.  Votre  fougt  est  sar  le  gazon 
dans  le  jardin.     30.  Ce  petit  gar^on  n'etadie  pas  da  toot. 

1.  Do  yoa  give  back  to  the  neighbor  his  saddle  and  bridle  ?  2. 
I  give  them  back  to  him.  3.  Does  the  blind  man  give  back  to  yoa 
voor  money  ?  4.  He  gives  it  back  to  me.  5.  Do  the  scholars  give 
back  to  as  oar  books  ?  6.  They  give  them  back  to  as.  7.  Does 
the  workman  conduct  the  blind  man  to  the  store  t  8.  No,  sir,  he 
conducts  him  to  the  village.  9.  Do  you  conduct  the  stranger  to 
the  village  t  10.  No,  sir,  we  conduct  him  to  the  river.  11.  Who 
is  at  your  house  ?  12.  It  is  a  friend  of  my  father.  13.  Who  is  in 
that  room  ?  14.  No  one.  15.  To  whom  do  you  give  that  box  of 
vine  !  16.  I  give  it  to  no  one.  17.  What  dost  thou  give  back  to 
the  merchant?  18.  I  give  back  to  him  the  green  ribbons  and  the 
gray  cloth.  19.  What  do  you  give  to  that  blind  man?  20.  I  give 
him  a  demijohn  of  wine. 

21.  Are  you  going  to  the  village  to-day?  22.  No,  sir,  I  am 
going  to  the  country  to-day.  23.  Do  you  doubt  of  the  stranger's  wit? 
24.  I  doubt  of  it.  25.  Do  you  doubt  of  his  judgment?  26.  I  do 
not  doubt  of  it.  27.  Does  your  uncle  doubt  of  his  wit  or  of  his 
judgment  ?  28.  He  doubts  of  both.  29.  Do  you  give  back  to  the 
merchant  the  green  cloth  or  the  gray  ?  30.  We  give  back  to  him 
neither.  31.  How  many  pears  have  you?  32.  I  have  eight;  I 
have  also  six  peaches  and  seven  apples.  33.  How  many  sisters 
have  you?    34.  I  have  five.    85.  Do  yoa  give  my  brother  some 


fruit  f  86. 1  give  him  some,  and  I  give  thee  some  also.  87.  Where 
are  your  flowers  t  38.  They  are  on  the  turf  in  the  garden.  39.  Do 
yon  give  some  to  my  brothers  ?  40.  I  give  some  to  them,  at  the 
same  time  that  (que)  I  give  some  to  you. 


1.  Do  you  sometimes  receive  letters  from  your  friend  Peter?  2. 
I  receive  some  often ;  if  you  wish  I  am  going  to  show  you  his  last. 
3.  You  are  very  good ;  I  never  receive  letters  from  him  (de  ses  let- 
tres),  4.  He  speaks  to  me  of  you  in  all  those  which  I  receive  from 
him.  5.  Does  he  like  the  climate  of  the  country  where  he  is  t  6. 
He  does  not  like  it  much.  7.  I  wish  to  go  to  Mr.  A.'s,  and  I  want 
your  horse  this  morning.  8.  Well,  if  you  come  to  my  house,  I  will 
let  you  have  him  (je  vais  vous  le  donner).  9.  I  thank  you  much. 
10.  Do  you  wish  for  the  saddle  and  bridle?  11.  If  you  please  ;  I 
have  a  saddle  which  is  not  very  good,  but  I  have  no  bridle.  12. 
Well,  I  am  going  to  lend  you  mine,  if  you  come  to  my  house.  13, 
Thank  you,  lam  going  for  them  (je  vais  les  chercher) ;  you  are  very 
good.  14.  That  {cela)  is  a  very  little  thing  (bien  peu  de  chose), 
15.  Which  horse  do  you  wish  for?  16.  Either;  are  you  pleased 
with  your  big  horse  ?  17.  Yes,  I  am  well  pleased  with  him ;  but 
the  little  one  is  not  bad.  18.  Have  you  need  of  two  horses  ?  19. 



1.  Verbs  In  Ann>SB«  szndbs,  and  onmss,  form  the  past  pnrticlple  by  adding  t  to  thestem 
and  dropping;  the  preceding  <2.  They  drop  the  d  generally  before  a  silent  consonant,  and 
change  nd  into  ffn  before  a  TOweL 

To  PITT,    pitying^    pitied,  Plaikdre,    plaignant^    plaini, 

Je  plains^     tu  plains,       ilplaint^     now  plaiaixons,     wmsplaiaveu.     Us  plaiaventy 
1  pity,  thou  pitleet,    he  piiles,      we  pity,  yon  pity,  they  pity. 

8.  Those  in  aItbe  and  ofTBS  have  a  t  after  the  stem  only  before  r.  They  take  ss  before 
a  vowel,  and  form  the  past  participle  by  adding  u  to  the  stem,  and  dropping  the  preceding 


Knowing^     known.  Connai-ssant,    conn-u, 

Js  wnnais^  tu  connai*^     U  eonnaUt  ^mus  wnnait^ona^  votts  eonnatsaea^  Us  eonnaisaaU, 
I  know,        thonknowest,  he  knows,  we  know,  yon  know,  they  know. 

&  Connaiirs  is  to  know  objects  of  the  senses;  sovoir,  to  know  what  is  learned  and  ns 

I  know  him,  and  I  know  where  he  lires.    Je  le  eonfiaiSf  et  jc  sais  oii  il  demenre. 

U  T  a  14  14  U  7         SI  7  «  7  IS  8 

plalndrs,  plai-gnan^  plaint,  plains,  plaint,  phd-Rnon'^  p1a(-gne^  plaigneni,  con^naitre^ 
con-nals-sant,  con-nu,  con-nai<,  con-nalt,  con-naI«'Son«,  co»-nni«-s('S,  con-nais«<>n^ 


MAsciTLara.  nicnnin. 

PUaaure,  k  fountain,  Le  plaisir,  Vne  fontaine. 

The  name.  A  pitcher,  jug.  Le  rwtju  Unc  crueJu. 

The  lily.  The  pansy.  Le  lis.  La  peruke. 

To  dwell,  to  live,  to  remain.    To  forget,  Ikmturer,  rester.     Oublier. 

Nine,  Ten,  Eleven,  Twelve,  Neuf  Dix,*  Onu,  Dome. 

Am  far  as,  to.     With  pleasure.  Jttsqu^d.  Avee  plaisir. 

Some  one,  somebody,  any  one.  Quelgu^un.  Quelqu'une. 

Some  ones,  some,  a  few.  Quelques-Mns.  Quelgtiea-unes.     ■ 

Hu  any  one  mj  bine  cap?  Qnelqu^un  a-t-il  mon  bonnet  bleu  ? 

No  one  has  it.  Personne  ue  Ta. 

8.  Quelqve  is  an  aiQectlTe,  and  belongB  to  a  noon ;  ^[uet^*un  ia  a  pronoun,  and  lued 
without  a  noon. 

Hare  joa  not  some  pain  ?  N^ayez-vous  paa  quclque  peine  f 

I  hare  a  few  friends.  J^ai  quelques  amis. 

I  hare  a  few.  tPen  ai  quelques-uns. 

4.  <i%eiqu*tiin,  in  a  general  aenae,  is  alwaya  maacaline  aingnlar. 

Do  70a  know  any  one  here  ?  Connaissez-vous  qiielqu*an  ici  ? 

I  know  some  of  these  hidies.  Je  connais  quelques-unes  de  ces  dames. 

Some  of  those  flowers  are  very  beau-  Quelques-unes  de  ces  fleurs  sont  tr^s- 

tifu).  belles. 

We  live  in  Boston.  Nous  demeurons  k  Boston. 

I  sometimes  forget  your  name.  JPoublie  quelquefois  votre  nom. 

I  go  as  far  as  the  fountain.  Je  vais  jusqu^d  hi  fontaine. 

Do  yon  not  pity  those  poor  people  f  Ke  plaignez-vous  pas  ces  pauvres  gens? 

We  pity  them.  Nous  les  plaignons. 

We  know  that  man,  and  we  know  from  Nous  connaissons  cet  hommc,  et  nous 
whence  he  comes.  savons  d*oii  il  vlent. 

6.  Partitlre  nonna,  with ni,,ni,  take  neither  de  nor  the  article. 

I  hare  neither  bread  nor  wine.  Je  n*ai  fit  pain  ni  Tin. 

He  buys  neither  sugar  nor  tea.  II  n^achdte  ni  sucre  ni  th^. 

6.  Ife  before  the  yerb  and  q^e  atUr  it  mean  but  or  only. 

Hare  you  only  twelve  apples  ?  N^avez-yous  que  douze  pommes  ? 

I  have  only  nine  or  ten.  Je  n*en  ai  que  neuf  ou  dix. 

Yoa  haye  but  eleven.  Yous  n^en  avez  que  onze.f 

1.  Cet  bomme  connait-il  quelqu'un  ici  1    2.  II  ne  connait  per- 
sonne.    3.  Connais-ta  quelqa'an  de'mes  parents  t     4.  J'en  connais 

•  Sept,  kuU,  neuf,  dim,  hare  the  ilnal  eonaonant  soonded  at  the  end  of  a  phrase,  or 
before  a  vowel,  bat  not  before  a  consoDant 

t  ^ia  never  elided  before  onse  and  otvtiime. 

r     11    «       7         ti  n        19      t      «       4      •     •      0     a      la     t?A        •  n 

plaiozir,  fon-tsUntf,  nozn,  cruchtf,  Ha,  pen-a^a,  de-meu-rer,  res-tor,  ou-bller,  neuf,*  dlz,* 

n      '^     IS  11         1      <         »        M        •         W  5       4      )I4  «       4    w 

oox«,  donzc,  jusk\  a-vec,  kel-k'un,  kel-k'nntf,  liel-kez-una,  kel-kez-nnea: 

•  Befotv  •  iMOB  becfoniBR  witti  a  Towel,  tbe  flMl  letter  of  mu/ls  proneanoed  liVe  «,  before  one  hefrlnning 
t  it  k  kllent ;  oiberwlw  it  ia  Muoded  m/.  Before  %  vowel,  the  flnel  coDtonRot  of  rfj*  i*  pro- 
«  •  eooaonaat  It  U  Rlleiit,  at  the  end  of  a  cUuae  And  in  dur-M|><,  dtr-AiHi,  dU-muf,  it  1im  tlie 


qnelqnes-nns.  5.  Ces  etrangers  connaissent-Os  qnelqu'an  dans  ce 
village?  6.  lis  connaissent  qaelques-uns  de  nos  amis.  7.  Con- 
naissez-Yons  qnelqu'une  de  ces  dames?  8.  Noas  en  connaissons 
quelques-ones.  9.  Qui  est-ce  qne  voos  plaignez?  10.  Je  plains  cet 
aveugle.  11.  Connaissez-voas  le  bon  Jean  ?  12.  Je  le  connais  et 
je  sals  ou  il  demeure.  13.  Pourquoi  plaignez-voas  ce  monsieur? 
14.  Je  le  plains  parce  qu'il  n'a  pas  d*amis.  15.  L*allemand  plaint- 
il  sou  cheval  ?  16.  II  ne  le  plaint  pas.  17.  Les  enfants  plaignent- 
ils  ce  pauvre  animal  ?  18.  lis  le  plaignent.  19.  Plaignez-vous  ces 
pauvres  animaux?  20.  Je  les  plains.  21.  Qu'a  votre  garden  ?  22. 
H  a  une  cruche  pleine  d'eau.  23.  Voulez-vous  bien  me  donner  des 
lis  et  des  pansees?  24.  Avec  plaisir.  25.  Avez-vous  beaucoup 
d*aTgent  ?     26.  Je  n*ai  que  dix  dollars. 

1.  Have  you  some  fresh  water  ?  2.  Yes,  sir,  I  have  a  pitcher 
full.  3.  What  flowers  has  the  gardener  ?  4.  He  has  lilies  and 
pansies.  5.  Where  does  your  friend  dwell  ?  6.  He  dwells  in  (d) 
New  York.  7.  Do  you  dwell  in  this  village  ?  8.  No,  sir,  I  dwell 
in  Boston.  9.  Do  you  sometimes  forget  the  merchant's  name  ?  10. 
We  forget  it  often.  11,  Does  he  ever  forget  your  name  ?  12.  He 
never  forgets  it  13.  How  many  oxen  has  the  countryman  ?  14. 
He  has  ten  oxen,  nine  cows,  and  eleven  sheep.  15.  Has  the  fish- 
erman many  fish  ?  16.  He  has  only  twelve.  17.  Have  you  some 
of  my  books  ?  18. 1  have  a  few.  19.  Do  you  know  any  one  of  those 
gentlemen  ?  20.  I  know  some  of  them.  21.  Are  you  going  as  far 
as  the  fountain  ?     22.  I  am  going  as  far  as  the  village. 

23.  Is  that  pitcher  empty  ?  24.  No,  sir,  it  is  full  of  water.  25. 
Have  you  much  water  ?  26.  No,  sir,  I  have  only  that  pitcher  fuU. 
27.  Do  you  know  where  the  servant  is  going?  28.  He  is  going  as 
far  as  the  fountain.  29.  What  does  the  gardener  give  you?  30. 
He  gives  me  flowers.  31.  Docs  he  give  you  lilies  or  pansies?  32. 
He  gives  me  neither  lilies  nor  pansies.  33.  Why  do  you  pity  that 
child?  34.  I  pity  him  because  he  has  neither  bread  nor  meat. 
35.  What  has  the  countrywoman  ?  36.  She  has  some  apples,  some 
peaches,  and  a  few  flowers.  37.  Do  you  know  any  of  those  ladies  ? 
38.  I  know  some  of  them.  39.  I  have  need  of  your  dictionary ; 
have  you  it  here?  40.  Yes;  which  do  you  wish  for?  41.  I  wish 
for  that  one.  42.  Does  the  countryman  give  you  some  fruit  ?  43. 
He  gives  me  some.    44.  Does  he  give  us  some  ?    45.  He  gives  you 


some.     46.  Does  he  carry  some  to  the  sick  mant    47.  He  carries 
some  to  him. 


1.  George,  are  jon  coming  with  me  ?  2.  Where  are  jou  going? 
3.  I  am  going  as  far  as  the  fountain.  4.  Why  are  yoa  going  to  the 
fountain  t  5.1  am  going  for  (ckercher)  a  pitcher  of  fresh  water  for 
{pour)  my  aunt.  6.  Where  is  Charles  f  7.  He  is  studying  his  les- 
son mider  the  large  tree  in  the  garden.  8.  Have  you  many  How- 
er8  in  your  garden  ?  9.  Not  many  {pa8  beaucoup\  we  have  some 
roses,  some  lilies,  and  some  beautiful  tulips.  10.  At  our  house,  we 
have  no  lilies,  but  we  have  many  violets  and  pansies.  11.  I  like 
pansies  very  much,  but  I  like  violets  still  better  {mieux).  12.  I  am 
going  to  give  you  a  few  violets  to  (pour)  carry  to  your  aunt  {ma' 
dame  voire  tante) ;  she  likes  them  much. 



J9adL  Eu  (past  part,  of  avoir). 

Been.  Eli  (past  part,  of  iire), 

1.  Tub  PA8T-nn>sninTs  Txm  la  fonned  by  Joining  the  past  participle  to  the  present 
tenae  of  the  aozillary  Terb  avoir.    Thus : 

P<ui'indefinit€  of  avoir,  to  have, 
J^ai  €»,       iuateu,  ila  «v,        nous  atons  eu^      vou§  avf9  eu^       U*  ont  eu, 

I  bare  haid,  thou  hast  had,  he  has  had,  we  have  had,  jon  have  had,     they  have  had. 

Pcui'ifidefiniie  of  Eras,  to  he, 
J*aiHl,        tuaeHi,  ilaiU,         noue avona Hi,  wue ave» M^       lUontiU, 

I  bare  been,  thoa  hast,  etc,  he  has,  etc.,    we  have,  eta,     yoa  have,  etc.,     they  have,  etc. 

Past-indejinite  of  fabler,  to  speak  (Ist  Conj.). 
J'ai  parU,      iu  ae parli,     U  a  parte,  nous  avons  parli,  vous  at»  parli,  its  ont  parU^ 
I  have  sp<^^en,  tboa  hast,  etc.,  ho  has,  etc,  we  have,  etc,         yoa  have,  etc,   they  have,  eta 

Past-indefinite  of  finir,  to  finish  (2d  Conj.). 

fPaiJtnl,  tu  asjtni,        U  ajtni,      nous  avons  Jlni,  vous  avesjtni.  Us  ontjlni, 

I  have  finished,  thoa  hast,  eta,  he  haa,  ota,  we  have,  eta,      yon  have,  eta,  they  have,  ota 

Past-indefinite  of  recetoir,  to  receive  (3d  Conj.). 

J*ai  recu,  tu  as  recu,        il  a  recu,     nous  avons  recu,  vous  aves  recu,  its  ont  re^u* 

I  bare  reeeived,  thoa  hast,  eta,  he  has,  ota,  we  have,  eta,       yoa  have,  eta,  tlicy  have,  eta 

Past-indefinite  ofRESiDVLEy  to  give  hack  (4th  Conj.). 

J'ai  rtmdm,  tu  qm  rtndu,  it  a  rtndu,  nout  amtiu  rtndu,    mm*  avtx  rtndu,    IU  ent  rendu, 

I  kftire  glwD  l»ek,   Uieo  but,  ate,     lie  haa,  cto.,       we  bare,  etc.,  joa  bave,  etc.,      tbcj  have,  etc 

1  This  tense  is  caileA past-indfjlnite  because  it  is  used  in  speaking  of  indefinite  pMt 
nine,  as,  I  have  tpoten  to  your  brother,  J^ai  parti  A  voire  frire  (time  not  defined).    It  is 

S     C    It   JS 

«.t6,  fl-nL 

142  THE  thikTY-BULTU  LESSON. 

used  also  of  definite  peat  ttme,  wbleh  Inelades  the  pveeent  day,  aa,  /  9pdk^  to  jf<mr  hrttfktr 
thit  morning,  thU  tnonthy  etc,  J^ai  parli  d  vctrtfr^re  es  maUn,  cs  mot«,  etoi 

8.  The  nogativee  and  pronoans  which  axe  placed  before  the  verb  In  the  simple  teaaeaare 
placed  before  the  aoziliarj  in  the  compound  tenses,  and  the  last  negatire  wotd  ia  plaeed 
between  the  aozillary  and  the  past  participle. 

Have  you  DOt  had  my  book  ?  ITaTez-TOus  pas  eu  mon  Uyre  ? 

I  have  not  had  it  Je  ne  Pai  pas  eu. 

To  believe^  believing^  believed,  Croire^  croyant^  cru  (fern,  cnu), 

JecroUf     tuerois,  UcroU^  nottt  eroyonB,      vouteroffta,       4lteroUnt^ 

IbelieTC,    thou  belieyest,  he  believes,    webeliere,  yon  believe,       theybeliereu 

Tou  believe  that  he  is  rich.  Yons  croyez  qu^l  est  riche. 

I  believe  that  he  is  not  rich.  Je  crois  qu^il  n*c8t  pas  riche. 


Mj  grandfather.    VLy  ffrandmotker.  Idon  grand-pere.      M&  grand*mere. 

Bib  grandson.         "Ela  granddaughter.  Son  petit-JiU.           Ba  petite-JUie, 

A  father-in-law.     A  mother-in-lauf.  )  --    ,          ,               ^      .  „      , 

Xaep-fathtr.        A  step-mother.  ^  ^n  6eau-;)er«.          Vne  b^^er*. 

i  Your  daughter-in-  j 

Your  itep-8on.     <       law,    or   step-  I  Votrc  beau-fU,        Votre  beUe-fiUe. 

(       daughter.  ) 

Youp  tonAn-law.  Votre  gendre^  or  votre  beau-Jih, 

Did  you  give  the  fruit  to  your  grand-  Avez-vous  donn^    le    fniit  k   votre 

father  ?  grand-p^re  ? 

I  did  not  give  it  to  him.  Je  ne  le  lui  ai  pas  donn6. 

Hast  thou  not  found  thy  pencil  ?  K'as-tu  pas  trouv6  ton  crayon  ? 

I  have  not  found  it.  Je  ne  Pai  pas  trouv6. 

Somebody' 9^  that  of  wmebody  (sing.).  Celuidegiielgu^un^  celle de  quelgu\n, 

Somebody^s,    those    of  somebody  Ceuxdcquclqu^un,  cellcsdequelqu^im. 


Nobody^'e^  that  of  nobody  (sing.).  Celui  de  personne^  celle  de  pertonne, 

Nobody^s,  those  of  nobody  (plur.).  Ceux  de  personne,  cellcs  do  personne. 

1.  Avez-vous  ea  mon  livre  t  2.  Nous  ne  Tavons  pas  eu.  3. 
Voire  grand'm^re  a-t-elle  ^te  chez  vous  ?  4.  Non,  monsieur,  die 
a  ^te  k  Tdglise.  5.  As-tu  trouv^  ton  canif  ?  G.  Je  Tai  tronv^. 
7.  Ces  ouvriers  ont-ils  fini  leur  ouvrage  (work)  ?  8.  Rs  I'ont  fini. 
9.  Votre  beau-pdre  a-t-il  re^n  le  billet  de  son  petit-fils?  10.  II  ne 
Ta  pas  re^u.  11.  La  petite-fiUe  de  votre  voisin  vous  a-t-elle  renda 
votre  livre?  12.  EUe  me  I'a  rendu.  13.  Ces  Pollers  croient  que 
vous  avez  eu  leurs  plumes.  14.  Avez-vous  6t6  au  march6 1  15. 
Non,  madame,  nous  avons  et6  cbez  votre  belle-m^re.  16.  N*avez- 
vous  pas  eule  cheval  de  votre  beau-frere?  17.  Nous  ne  Tavons 
pas  eu.     18.  Ou  ces  petites  fiUes  ont-elles  ^tet     19.  Elles  ont  6te 

so        vtm  ro       »       »iit         ie>is€       »         % 

croir«,  cro-yanf,  crois,  croW,  cro-yon«,  cro-yea,  cnXent^  g(>ndr«. 


chez  votre  belle-soeur.     20.  Notre  voisin  a-t-il  tronv^  son  gendret 

21.  n  Ta  trouv6.  22.  Avez-vous  trouv6  le  moachoirde  quelqu'im? 
23.  (Pai  tronv6  celui  de  quelqu'un.  24.  Avez-vous  ea  les  plumes 
de  quelqu'un  f  25.  Nous  n'avons  eu  celles  de  personne.  26. 
Avez-YOUB  les  livres  de  quelqu'un  t  27.  Non,  mademoiselle,  je 
n'ai  ceux  de  personne.  28.  Nous  croyons  que  votre  pere  est  riche; 
noire  voisin  croit  qu'il  est  pauvre. 

1.  Has  the  neighbor's  grandson  your  horse  t  2.  He  has  him 
not.  3.  Has  he  not  somebody's  ?  4.  He  has  nobody's.  5.  Has 
yonr  grandfather  your  gold  pen  ?  6.  He  has  it  not.  7.  Has  he 
not  somebody's'?  8.  He  has  nobody's.  9.  Where  has  your  grand- 
mother been?  10.  She  has  been  to  her  son-in-law's.  11.  Has 
your  brother-in-law  had  the  money  of  your  sister-in-law  t  12.  He 
has  not  had  it.  .  13.  Has  your  father  had  the  letters  of  his  grand- 
daughter ?  14.  No,  sir,  he  has  had  her  copy-book,  but  not  her 
letters.  15.  Has  he  not  had  somebody's?  16.  No,  sir,  he  has 
bad  nobody's.  17.  Whose  horse  have  you  bought  ?  18.  I  have 
bought  nobody's.  19.  Has  your  father-in-law  bought  somebody's  ? 
20.  He  has  bought  nobody's.     21.  Have  you  finished  your  exercise  ? 

22.  I  have  not  finished  it. 

23.  Where  has  your  mother-in-law  been?  24.  She  has  been 
to  her  grand-daughter's.  25.  Are  you  the  general's  step-son? 
26.  No,  sir,  I  am  his  brother-in-law.  27.  Have  you  not  found  the 
general's  grandson  ?  28.  We  have  not  found  him.  29.  Did  not 
the  gardeners  give  the  fruit  to  your  mother-in-law  ?  30.  No,  miss, 
they  gave  it  to  my  sister-in-law.  31.  Did  you  not  give  the  copy- 
book to  the  master  ?  32.  I  did  not  give  it  to  him.  33.  Has  the 
workman  finished  his  work  ?  34.  Yes,  sir,  he  finished  it  this  morn- 
ing. 35.  Have  you  my  pen  ?  36.  I  have  it  not  37.  Have  you 
had  somebody's  ?  38.  I  have  had  nobody's.  39.  Where  has  the 
neighbor's  grandson  been  ?  40.  He  has  been  to  my  grandfather's. 
41.  Are  you  acquainted  with  the  general's  grand-daughter?  42.  I 
am  acquainted  with  her,  and  I  know  where  she  lives.  43.  I  be- 
lieve that  she  lives  in  this  village.  44.  You  believe  that  she  is 
rich ;  we  believe  that  she  is  poor.  45.  The  scholars  believe  that  it 
will  rain. 


1.  How  many  brothers  have  you  ?     2.  I  have  three,  but  I  have 


only  one  sister.  8.  Tonr  fatber  has  five  children  ?  4.  Yes,  and 
my  uncle  has  nine.  5.  I  know  a  gentleman  who  has  thirteen 
(treize),  6.  He  has  many  indeed  (vraimeni).  7.  Yes,  it  is  a  large 
family  (famille),  8.  Who  is  that  little  child  that  yoor  sister  is 
conducting  to  school  ?  9.  He  is  one  of  our  neighbor's  children. 
10.  Is  he  going  to  the  school  of  Mr.  B.  f  11.  Yes,  sir.  12.  He 
is  very  young.  13.  Who  is  that  workman  ?  do  you  know  him  ? 
14.  I  know  him,  and  I  know  that  he  is  a  good  workman ;  he  comes 
often  to  our  house.  15.  Is  he  not  blind  of  one  eye  ?  16.  No,  but 
he  has  a  brother  who  is  blind.  17.  I  pity  him  ;  who  takes  care  of 
him  ?  18.  His  brother  takes  care  of  him,  and  his  nephews  conduct 
him  when  {quan<l)  he  goes  out.  19.  Does  any  one  give  him  money  ? 
20.  No,  no  one  gives  him  any.  21.  Is  he  not  very  young  ?  22. 
No,  he  is  not  a  child,  he  is  a  man.  23.  I  know  a  young  man  who 
is  blind,  and  you  know  him  also;  it  is  Peter  B.  24.  I  know  him 
very  well 


1.  The  past  partletple  forming  part  of  an  aetiTO  verb  agrees  with  the  direct  ol^eet  of 
that  Terb  when  the  object  precedes  it,  bat  when  the  object  follows  it  remains  unchanged. 
Past  participles,  as  we  have  seen  (Lesson  26),  form  the  feminine  and  plnral  as  a4JecttveiL 

Have  you  found  your  pen?  Atcz-tous  trouvS  votre  plume ? 

I  have  found  it.  Je  Tai  trouvee. 

In  the  former  of  these  phrases,  trou9i  does  not  agree,  beeanse  its  ol^eet,  piume^  com^s 
after  it ;  in  the  latter  it  agrees,  becaose  its  object,  to,  precedes  it    So  in  the  following. 

Didst  thou  buy  the  horses?  As-tu  ae/ute  Ics  chevaux?  (object  fol- 


I  bought  them.  Je  les  ai  acheth  (object  precedes). 

Have  you  had  my  pens?  Avez-vous  eu  mes  plumes?   (object 


I  have  not  had  them.  Je  nc  /e<  ai  pas  eue«  (obj.  precedes). 

Did  your  brother  receive  your  letter  ?    Votre  fr^re  a-t-il  repw  votre  lottre  ? 

(object  follows). 

He  received  it.  II  Ta  refue  (object  precedes). 

To  finish^  finuhing^  finUhed,  Finir^  finivtant^  fini^  e  (fem. ). 

Have  they  finished  their  exercises ?        Ont-ils ^ni  Icurs  themes?  (object  fol- 

They  have  finished  them.  lis  les  oni  Jinis  (object  precedes). 

Have  you  returned  our  letters?  Avez-vous  rendu  nos  lettres?  (object 


We  have  returned  them.  Nous  let  avons  rmdues  *  (object  pre- 


^  From  the  above  examples  it  may  be  seen  that  the  past  participle  coming  after  Its  ob- 
ject has  more  the  nature  of  an  a4)ective  than  when  it  precedes  the  object    When  I  say. 

It  19    U  II      s 

fl-nir,  fl-ai-Bsanl 


KASOxrum.  rBmrars. 

kjowmty*  The  newt.  Un  voyage.  La  nouvelle  (euig.). 

That  work.  The  n^ios.  Cet  outrage.         Les  nouvelles  (plur.). 

The  ^e.  Wite,  cUsereet.  Le  /oc.  y^a^e. 

2.  Sage,  applied  to  ehlldrcn,  means  good. 
An  M  man.        AequaitUanee.  Un  vieiUard.        Connaittanee. 

Proud.  JFier.  Fiht. 

The  Jlnger.  Which  toay.  Le  doigt.  Par  ou. 

Thitway.  That  way.  Par  id.  Par  Id. 

Which  way  are  joa  goiog  ?  Par  oii  allcz-Yotis  ? 

He  comes  this  way.    He  goes  that    II  vient  par  ici.    H  ya  par  Ik 

B.  Cbangea  In  eondition  and  feeling  expreaeed  by  make  in  English,  are  expivssed  by 
r»u2r»  la  French. 

This  bad  weather  makes  me  sad.  Ce  maavaia  temps  me  rend  triste. 

Misfortune  makes  ns  wise.  Le  malhear  nous  rend  sages. 

To  follow, /oUotpingy  followed,  Suivre,  suivant,  suivi,  e  (fem.). 

Jetitis,       tuauis,  ileuit,  nous  suivotis,        voussuiven,        UasuiverU, 

I  follow,      thou  followcst,  be  follows,  we  follow,  yoa  follow,  tbej  follow. 

To  livCy  living,  lived.  Vivre,  vivant,  vecu^  e  (fem.). 

Je  vis,       tu  vis,  il  vii,  nous  vivons,       vous  vivem.       Us  vivent, 

I  live,        thou  liTest,      he  lives,      we  lire,  you  live,  they  live. 

To  live  on.      Wlieretoilh  to  live.  Vtvre  de.    De  qttoi  vivre. 

He  lires  on  dry  bread.  II  vit  de  pain  sec. 

They  hare  lired  on  bread  and  water.  Ilsont  T6ca  de  pain  et  d'eau. 

Do  yoa  foUow  me  ?  He  suirez-TOus  ? 

I  follow  yon.  Je  vous  suis. 

Have  you  followed  your  brothers  f  Avez-Tous  suivi  tos  frdrcs  ? 

We  hare  followed  them.  Nous  Ics  arons  suiris. 

4  Dsmter,  as  a  numeral,  precedes  its  noun ;  when  not  a  numeral,  it  follows  It 

I  haye  the  first,  he  has  the  last  volume.  J^ai  le  premier,  il  a  le  dernier  volume. 

I  spoke  to  him  last  week.  Je  lui  ai  parl6  la  semaine  demiere. 

1.  Ou  allez-YonsI  2.  Je  vais  au  marcli6.  3.  Ces  messieurs 
viennent  par  ici,  nous  allons  par  lA.  4.  Votre  beau-p^re  a-t-il  cher- 
cli6  ses  petits-fils?  5.  II  les  a  cherches.  6.  A-t-il  trouv6  ses 
petites-filles  ?  7.  II  les  a  trouvees.  8.  Avez-vous  re9u  la  nourelle  t 
9.  Je  I'ai  re^ue  ce  matin.  10.  Mon  frere  a  fini  son  long  voyage. 
11.  Avez-vous  fini  votre  ouvrage?     12.  Je  I'ai  fini.     13.  Ces  pom- 

J^aiJM  mss  fhimes,  I  havejtnishsd  my  eaoerdses^  have  tokdjtnished  are  taken  toftether  aa 
In  Endisb,  and  express  the  idea  of  an  action  merely.  But  when  I  say,  Je  U»  aijlnis,  I 
hate  fhemjtniakea,  it  is  evident  that  Jlnishsd  has  more  the  nature  of  an  adjective.  Hence 
In  the  latter  case  it  agrees  like  an  adjective. 

Will         IS     •       18      I       1      1      nr     13  7         ^       1)  13   a        c   ti   n     v» 

To-ya£«,  noa-vel/e,  on-vrage,  lac,  sage,  fier,  fl-^re,  ^oxgt,  vl-vre,  vi-vani,  v^-co,  vie,  vi«, 
n  n       li  <      n  ut      1         \i       7     a 

vi'Von«,  vi-res,  vlvenl,  vioiZ-lard,  oon-naie-sance. 



xnes  aigres  m'ont  rendu  malade«  14.  Ge  vieillard  est  sage  et  son 
gendre  est  fier.  15.  Avez-vous  6t6  sur  le  lac  t  16.  Non,  mon- 
sieur, j'ai  6t6  sur  la  riviere,  mais  non  pas  sur  le  lac.  17.  Qui  est  ce 
Tieillardf  18.  C*est  mon  grand-p^re,  il  a  beaucoup  de  connaissanc^s 
dans  cette  ville.  19.  Ce  forgeron  a  le  bras  {arm)  etles  doigts  gros. 
20.  Votre  beau-p6re  a^t-il  re^u  les  nouvelles  ?  21.  H  les  a  revues. 
22.  Ce  vieillard  n'a  pas  de  quoi  vivre.  23.  Me  suivez-vous  ?  24. 
Je  ne  vous  suis  pas.  25.  Cet  homme  vous  suit-il !  26.  II  me  suit. 
27.  Ces  oiseaux  vivent  longtemps  (long).  28.  Avez-vous  suivi  ces 
hommes  1    29.  Nous  les  avons  suivis. 

1.  Did  you  lend  your  money  to  that  old  mani  2.  I  lent  it  to 
him.  3.  Did  the  scholars  give  you  their  pens?  4.  They  gave 
them  to  me.  5.  Have  you  received  the  letters  of  your  brother?  6. 
I  have  received  them.  7.  Has  the  old  man  lent  you  his  books  t 
8.  He  has  lent  them  to  me.  9.  Did  the  children  have  my  slate  ? 
10.  No,  sir,  your  mother-in-law  had  it.  11.  Has  your  grandfather 
received  the  news?  12.  He  has  received  it.  13.  Has  that  work- 
man finished  his  work  t  14.  He  has  finished  it.  15.  Has  your 
brother  finished  his  journey?  16.  He  has  not  finished  it.  17. 
Have  you  been  on  the  lake?  18.  No,  sir,  I  have  been  on  the 
river.  19.  Are  the  neighbor's  children  good?  20.  They  are  very 
good.  21.  Have  you  many  acquaintances  here  ?  22.  No,  sir,  I 
know  no  one  in  this  village.  23.  Is  not  that  lady  proud  ?  24.  She 
is  very  proud. 

25.  That  lady's  hands  are  white  and  her  fingers  small.  26. 
The  servant's  fingers  are  big.  27.  On  what  does  that  poor  man 
live  ?  28.  He  lives  on  bread  and  cheese.  29.  On  what  does  the 
mason  live  ?  30.  He  lives  on  bread  and  meat  31.  Do  those  men 
live  on  dry  bread  ?  32.  They  live  on  bread  and  butter.  33.  This 
water  is  bad ;  it  makes  me  sick.  34.  Have  you  had  the  last  vol- 
ume of  this  work  ?  35.  I  have  had  it ;  and  I  returned  it  to  your 
father  this  morning.  36.  Father,  am  I  going  to  the  store  to-day  ? 
37.  No,  son,  you  are  going  to  school.  38.  Will  you  please  to  give 
me  these  apples  ?  39.  With  pleasure ;  do  you  not  wish  for  some 
pears  also?  40.  Thank  you;  you  are  very  good.  41.  Does  your 
brother  know  any  one  here?  42.  Yes,  sir,  he  has  many  acquaint- 
ances in  this  city.  43.  He  believes  that  they  are  all  very  good. 
44.  You  believe  that  that  man  is  rich  ;  I  believe  that  he  is  poor. 




1.  Has  not  the  grocer  wine  and  beer  ?  2.  He  has  neither  wine 
nor  beer.  3.  Have  you  bought  coffee  or  tea  ?  4.  I  have  bought 
neither  coffee  nor  tea.  5.  I  have  a  few  acquaintances  in  this  vil- 
lage. 6.  Where  did  jou  conduct  (conduit)  the  stranger  last  even- 
ing (hier  au  soir)  1  7.  I  conducted  him  to  the  theatre.  8.  Where 
did  you  conduct  your  little  sister  this  morning  ?  9.1  conducted 
her  to  the  school  of  madam  B.  10.  Have  you  some  ink  I  11.  I 
have  some  black  ink  and  some  red.  12.  How  many  uncles  have 
yon  ?  13.  I  have  only  two ;  my  friend  has  five.  14.  What  has  the 
gardener t  15.  He  has  much  fruit.  16.  Does  he  give  you  some? 
17.  He  gives  us  some.  18.  Does  he  give  me  some  ?  19.  He  gives 
thee  some.  20.  Has  he  given  some  to  the  neighbors^  21.  He 
has  given  them  some.  22.  Has  that  proud  man  much  wit  ?  23. 
He  has  neither  courage  nor  wit.  24.  With  what  do  you  fill  that 
cask  ?  25.  I  fill  it  with  water.  26.  Does  that  scholar  study  much  ? 
27.  No,  sir,  he  desires  to  learn,  but  he  will  not  study.  28.  How 
many  chickens  has  the  countryman  ?     29.  He  has  twelve. 



To  nake,  making^  made, 

JefiiU,       tu/bU,  il/aii, 

I  make,       thoa  xnakest,    he  makes, 

To  wash^  wxahinff,  washed. 
Less.     Once,    Twice, 
Ukree  times.    Four  tUneSj  etc. 

Faire^  faiearUj  fait,  e  (fcm.). 
noue/aieons,      wnu  faiUe^     iUJbWt^ 
we  make,  you  make,        they  make. 

Laver,  lavant,  lave,  e  (fem.). 
Moins.     Uhe/ois,    Deuxfois. 
Trois  fois.     Quatre  fois. 











Premier  (m  ),  PremUre  (t). 




Second  {m.\  Heoonde  (t). 




















































7           T 

t             T          7          T 

21              T             71            1       6          1 

S           16     11            1     ti 

taite,  tai-tant,  &«,  fUa,  fal-«on«,  fait4^  tout,  la-ver,  la-vanf,  la-v^,  lav«,  lav*'^,  la-von«. 

I    •      I             UJ4       so     n 
la-vM.  lurenl,  moint,  foU,  nom- 

•brM,  cir-dl-naiWB,  ir-dUniiua!,  trcUe.  ka-torz^  klnio,  seli^ 

db-sept,  diVhall 





19,  I>{x^MuK  19tb,        IHxrneufiUme^ 

20,  VinQt,  20th,  VinQtUmt, 

21,  Vinfftetun^  2lBt,  Vingt  et  unUtne, 

22,  Vingt-deux^  22<1,  Vin^Udleuaelime^ 
28,  F«n^'<roi«,  28d,  VingUroUUiM^ 

80,  7V>en^  80th,  7>«n/i^i»«, 

81,  7>efU«  «f  tf !»,  81st,  TVen^  e<  «fti^^, 

82,  TVMt^-cfaiMB^  82d,  7>efU0-4i«tM^me, 
40,  QuararUe^  40th,  Quarantiim^ 
60,  ^A^wanfa,  50th,  <  Vn^tMinlj^fiM^ 
60,  SoiaanU^  60th,  SoixantUme^ 

70,  Soixant&^ia,  70th,  SoixanU^istUmt, 

71,  iS[>i(Banto  ^  ofica,  71st,  SoiasanU-wuieme^ 
80,  ^ua^re-c<n^te,  80th,  Quatre-vlngtUme. 
Rl,  dua/r«-r<n^-«»,  81  st,  &tMZ<r«-Wn^-«RifffM', 
90^  Quatre-ffinifl'dir^  90th,  Ouatrt-^ingt-diaeiime, 
91,  Ottatre-vingt-cnBe,  9l8t,  Qttaire-vinQUonaUme^ 

100,  CVfiA  100th,  CeiUUnu^ 

101,  ^(T^ivn,  101st,  CentunUmey 
200,  DeuxcenU^  200th,  i)«tMB  e«nfi^i«, 
210,  DewB  cent  dim.  210th,  J>fuao  cent  diarieme, 

1.000,  JA2^  1,000th,        MUlUme, 

1.001,  MilUun,  1,001st,  MHUuni^mc, 

2,500^        Deux  miiU  einq  eenU,  2,500th,        Deux  milU  cinq  etiUUms, 

1,000,000,         UnmiUion,  1,000,000th,         MiUionieme. 

1.  In  rtn{7<,  <  is  sounded  before  a  Towel,  and  rarely  at  the  end  of  a  phrase ;  It  must  be  dis- 
tinctly heard  in  9in^<  e<  «»>  vfn^<-<f«tiav etc,;  bnt  in  quatrt^infft'un,  quairt-Hngt-dswxit 
etc,  the  <  is  never  sonjidcd. 

2.  F^n^  and  cent  take  •  vhen  mnltiplied  by  another  number,  as  cinq  eeaU^  except 
when  followed  by  a  number,  as  quatre-vinfft-einq^  iroie  cent  dix  ;  and  whcif  used  aa  ordl- 
sal  numbera,  as,  Page  quatre  ceiUs  ^an  mil  eept  cent  quaire-^ingt. 

8.  MiUe  becomes  mil  only  in  the  computation  of  years  of  the  Christian  era ;  L^an  mil 
huit  cent  eaixante,  The  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  sixty. 

What  are  yoa  doing  ? 
I  am  doing  nothing. 
We  do  what  you  do. 
What  is  the  washerwoman  doing? 
She  is  washing  poeket-havidkerehiefi. 
How  many  do  four  times  five  make  ? 
Four  times  five  make  twenty. 
Twenty-five  less  nine  make  sixteen. 
A  pocket.    A  pocket-handkerchief. 

1.  Combien  font  deux  fois  quatro  ? 

Que  faites-vous  ? 

Je  no  fais  rien. 

Nous  faisons  ce  que  rous  faitcs. 

Que  fait  la  blanchisseusc  ? 

EUe  lave  des  mofuchoirs  de  poehe. 

Combien  font  quatre  fois  cinq  ? 

Quatre  fois  cinq  font  vingt 

Yingt-cinq  moins  neuf  font  seize. 

Une  poche.    Un  mouchoir  de  poehe. 

.  Deux  fois  quatre  font 
3.  Quatre  fois  cinq  font 
Cinq  fois  six  font 

huit.     3.  Combien  font  quatre  fois  cinq? 

vingt.      5.    Combien  font  cinq  fois  six? 

trente.     7.  Combien  font  six  fois  sept  ?     8.  Six  fois  sept  font  qua- 

rante-deux.     9.  Combien  font  sept  fois  huit?     10.  Sept  fois  buit 

font  cinquante-six.     11.  Combien  font  huit  fois  neuf?     12.  Huit 

fois  neuf  font  soixante-douze.     13.  Combien  font  neuf  fois  dix? 

14.  Neuf  fois  dix  font  quatre-yingt-dix.     15.  Dix  fois  onze  font 

IS       •  14  14        S    74         14  •  S  IS  14       1  !0    S  S  i"* 

dit-neuf;  Tind't,  vint^-et-an,  vin^t-deuir,  trenti*,  ka-rante,  cin-kante,  soi-sant^,  ccn^mil/f, 

19  11  SI         1     S      ISA  14       S     1-6  •.«     a      \<ih  a     is  IS     ti  li    1314  lis 

Di!-Ill-on,  ka-ran«tidm«,  cin-kan-tldm^  sol-san-tidmc,  cen-ti6me,  xni-Ili«Qi<>,  mi>lU-o-ni4^«, 


cent  dix.  16.  Hnit  et  six  font  qnatorze.  17.  Qmarante-cinq 
moins  quinze  font  trente.  18.  Dix-sept  moins  neuf  font  huit.  19. 
Que  £Eds-tat  20.  Je  ne  fais  rien.  21.  Qae  lavez-vons  ?  22.  Je 
lave  mon  ardoise.  23.  Avez-yous  lave  vos  encriere  1  24.  Je  lea 
ai  lav6s.  25.  Avqz-voos  fait  un  voyage  1  26.  J*ai  fait  on  long 
voyage.     27.  Avez-vous  votre  livret     28.  Je  I'ai  dans  ma  poche. 

1.  What  art  thou  doing  f  2.  I  am  washing  my  slate.  8.  What 
are  you  doing  ?  4.  We  are  washing  our  inkstands.  5.  Have  you 
washed  your  pens!  6.  We  have  not  washed  them.  7.  What  are 
those  washerwomen  washing  ?  8.  They  are  washing  my  pocket* 
handkerchiefs.  9.  What  saddle  have  you  had  1  10.  I  have  had 
mine.  11.  Have  you  somebody's  bridle?  12.  I  have  nobody's. 
13.  Has  that  child  had  some  one's  hammer  ?  14.  He  has  had  some 
one's.  15.  Will  you  please  give  me  some  lilies  and  some  pansies  ? 
16-  Yes,  sir,  with  pleasure.  17.  What  has  the  servant!  18.  He 
has  a  pitcher  of  water.  19.  Have  you  forgotten  our  names?  20. 
I  have  forgotten  them.  21.  Where  have  you  been?  22.  I  have 
been  as  far  as  the  fountain. 

23.  What  flowers  have  you  ?  24.  I  have  roses,  lilies,  and  pan* 
sies.  25.  Have  you  had  my  pen  ?  26.  I  have  not  had  it.  27. 
What  have  you  in  that  pitcher  ?  28.  It  is  fresh  water.  29.  Have 
yoa  had  my  papers?  80.  I  have  not  had  them.  31.  Has  not  that 
child  somebody's  book?  32.  He  has  somebody's.  33.  Whose 
cravats  has  he  ?  84.  He  has  nobody's.  35.  How  many  do  five 
times  five  make  ?  36.  Five  times  five  make  twenty-five,  and  six 
times  six  make  thirty-six.  37.  How  many  do  seven  times  seven 
make  ?  38.  Seven  times  seven  make  forty-nine,  eight  times  eight 
make  sixty-four,  and  nine  times  nine  make  eighty-one.  39.  Ninety- 
four  less  twenty-eight  are  sixty-six.  40.  Has  the  tailor  made  your 
coat  and  pantaloons?  41.  He  has  made  them.  42.  What  has 
that  man  ?    43.  He  has  his  pockets  full  of  money. 


1.  Do  you  desire  your  money  ?  2.  I  desire  it  and  I  will  have 
it  to-day.  3.  Will  you  please  come  to  my  house  to-day  ?  4.  I  am 
quite  willing.  5.  Who  takes  care  of  your  horse  ?  6.  The  boy  takes 
care  of  him.  7.  Have  you  received  your  letters  ?  8.  Yes,  sir,  I 
have  received  them.  9.  That  boy  has  not  done  his  work.  10. 
Well,  I  am  going  to  speak  to  his  master.  11.  Have  you  some 
fruit  ?     12.  I  have  some  good  fruit.     13.  Have  you  some  apples  ? 


14.  I  haye  no  apples ;  but  I  have  a  few  pears  and  some  excelleiit 
peaches.  15.  What  is  on  your  table  ?  16.  They  are  the  books  of 
my  sister.  17.  What  makes  that  noise  (bruii)  ?  18.  It  is  the 
children  who  are  in  the  street. 

19.  Do  you  ever  go  out  in  the  morning  ?  20.  I  often  go  oat 
in  the  morning  and  in  the  evening.  21.  Has  the  workman  idready 
finished  his  work  ?  22.  He  has  not  yet  finished  it  23.  Has  the 
carpenter  already  finished  his  benches  ?  24.  He  has  finished  them. 
25.  Has  the  shoemaker  made  your  shoes  ?  26.  He  has  not  yet 
made  them.  27.  Has  the  washerwoman  washed  my  cravats  ?  28. 
She  has  washed  them. 


To  putf  put  on^  putting,  put.  Ifetlre,  mettatU,  mut,  e. 

Jsmettt  tumelH,  ilmet^  now  mettofUf       rouametteM,        fltmeiUnt^ 

I  pat,  thoa  pnttesti       be  pats,        we  pot,  yoa  pat,  they  pat 

Where  do  you  put  your  book?  Oii  mettez-voua  votre  livrc? 

I  put  it  on  the  desk.  Je  le  mcts  sur  le  pupitre. 

To  dry,  drying,  dried.  Becker,  aiehant,  %kchk,  e. 

1.  Yorba  baying  an  acate  accent  on  i  in  the  penalt  of  the  inflnltlre^  aa  ticker,  change 
the  aeato  to  the  graye  accent  when  followed  by  a  consonant  baring  e  mute  after  it ;  thoa, 
J6ei6ke,        tu  ticket^         ilaeche,        noueaeckone,        wMMtieheB,        ilseeekeni, 
1  dry,  thoa  driest,       he  dries,        we  dry,  yoo  dry,  they  dry. 


The  wind,         A  spade.  he  vent.  Une  becke. 

The  sun,  A  pepperbox,  Le  soleU.  Une  poivriere. 

The  east.  A  smell,  odor.  Vest  {st  sounded).       Une  odeur. 

The  v>est.  The  part,  skare.  Vouest  (st  sounded).    La  partie,  parL 

The  north.       A  family.  Le  fiord  Une  familie. 

The  soutk.  ljesud(d  sounded). 

Wet,  MouillS.  MouUlee. 

Before.  Devant,  avant. 

2.  Devant  refers  to  place,  and  avant  to  time. 

Before  the  fire.    Before  morning.  Devant  le  feu.    Arant  le  matin. 

The  wet  linen.    In  the  wind.  Le  linge  mouill4.    Au  rent. 

In  the  BUD.     In  the  fire.  Au  soleil.    Au  feu. 

We  dry  the  linen  in  the  sun.  Kous  s^chons  le  linge  au  solciL 

Do  you  dry  yours  in  the  wind  ?  S6chez-vou8  Ic  v6tre  au  vent  ? 

I  dry  it  before  the  fire.  Je  le  sdchc  derant  le  feu. 

I  SSIS6SSS1  ses  SOfSSS 

meMr«,  mcManf,  mU,  mct«,  met,  meMon«,  me^tea,  matient,  86-ober,  s^-chanl^  a^-eb^. 

T  S       SI  «        e         r  3  8  Ift      ft  »>        1S7         <  1        IS        I  1«  1 

Bt^hs,  86-chon«,  ad-choe,  sC-chen^  vent,  b^che,  soldi,  poi-vrl-dre,  est,  par-tie,  par<,  noitf,  &- 


mille,  sod,  mottil-16,  du-vanf,  a-ranf. 


Which  way  (where)  is  the  wind  ?  Oh  eat  (or,  D'oii  vient)  le  vent  f 

It  IS  in  the  east.  II  est  d  Test,  or,  U  vient  de  Test. 

To  ii^at  U,  in  it,  to  theniy  at  them,  *»[«-/./.        .  .  v 

them,  there,  thither,  lure,  hither,    \  J"  (before  the  verb). 
Are  jou  going  to  the  village  ?  Allez-vous  au  village  ? 

I  am  going  there.  J*y  vais. 

What  do  yon  put  in  that  barrel?  Que  mettez-voos  dans  ce  baril  ? 

We  pnt  vinegar  in  ir.  Nous  y  mettons  da  vinaigro. 

What  does  the  workman  put  in  his    Qu^est-ce  que  Touvrier  met  dans  son 

chest  ?  cofire  ? 

He  pnts  linen  in  it.  H  y  met  du  lingc. 

&  T^ere  and  here  referring  to  a  place  not  mentioned  before  are  Id  (or  y\  and  id. 
Dost  thou  always  put  thy  books  there  ?    Mets-tu  toujours  tes  livres  U  ? 
I  always  pat  them  there.  Je  les  y  mets  toujours. 

Do  yoa  put  your  umbrellas  here  ?  Mettez-vous  vos  parapluics  ici  ? 

We  pat  them  there.  Nous  les  y  mettons. 

We  put  our  hats  there  also.  Nous  y  mettons  nos  chapeaux  aussi. 

He  puts  on  his  cloak.  D  met  son  manteau. 

1.  Oi\  le  domestiqne  lave-t-il  son  liDge  ?  2.  II  le  lave  an  rais- 
seao.  3.  Le  seche-t-il  an  Boleil  ?  4.  II  le  seche  devant  le  feu.  5. 
Le  vent  n'est  pas  au  nord ;  ne  vient-il  pas  de  Touest  ?  6.  Non, 
mansienr,  il  vient  du  sud.  7.  Qu'est-ce  que  vous  mettez  dans  votre 
porte-feuille  ?  8.  J'y  mets  des  billets  de  banque.  9.  Qu'est-ce  que 
les  marchands  mettent  dans  ces  tonneaux  ?  10.  lis  y  mettent  du 
vin.  11.  Mon  frere  est-il  chez  vous  ?  12.  Oui,  madame,  il  y  vient 
toajours  avant  le  soir.  13.  La  beche  est-eUe  dans  le  jardin  ?  14- 
Ella  y  est  15.  La  poivri6re  n'est-elle  pas  sur  la  table  ?  16.  Ello 
n*y  est  pas.  17.  J'aime  beaucoup  les  violettes ;  elles  ont  une  odeur 
tr^-douce.  18.  Les  blanchisseuses  scchent^lles  leur  linge  au  so- 
leil  ?  19.  Elles  Ty  sechent.  20.  Avez-vous  eu  votre  part  de  ce 
fruit  ?  21.  Je  ne  Tai  pas  cue.  22.  Get  homme  a  huit  fils  et  six  filles ; 
c'est  une  grande  famille.  23.  J'ai  ici  un  bon  gateau  ;  en  voulez- 
vous  une  partie?    24.  Oui,  monsieur,  s'il  vous  plait. 

1.  Where  does  the  maid-servant  wash  the  linen  ?  2.  She  washes 
it  at  the  brook.  3.  Does  she  dry  it  in  the  wind  ?  4,  No,  madam, 
she  dries  it  before  the  fire.  5.  What  art  thou  drying  ?  6.  I  am 
drying  my  wet  handkerchief.  7.  Is  the  wind  in  the  east  or  in  the 
west  ?  8.  It  is  neither  in  the  east  nor  in  the  west ;  it  is  in  the  *^ 
south.  9.  Is  it  not  in  the  north  ?  10.  It  is  not  in  the  north ;  it  is 
in  the  south.  11.  How  many  do  five  times  seven  make  ?  12.  Five 
times  seven  make  thirty-five,  and  eight  times  twelve  make  ninety- 


six.  13.  Are  you  going  to  the  village  ?  14.  I  am  going  there. 
15.  Of  what  has  that  workman  need  ?  16.  He  has  need  of  a  spade. 
17.  What  is  on  the  table  ?  18.  It  is  a  pepper-box  and  a  pocket- 
handkerchief  19.  What  does  the  workman  put  on  the  bench? 
20.  He  puts  his  spade  there. 

21.  Are  you  going  to  the  city  before  evening  ?  22. 1  am  going 
there  now.  23.  Didst  thou  dry  thy  wet  gloves  in  the  sun  ?  24.  I 
dried  them  before  the  fire.  25.  Our  neighbor  has  much  fruit ;  does 
he  give  you  a  part  ?  26.  He  gives  me  some.  27.  Do  you  give 
money  to  that  poor  man  ?  28.  I  give  him  some.  29.  Do  you  give 
some  to  his  children  ?  30.  I  give  some  to  them.  31.  Whose  books 
have  you  ?  32.  I  have  nobody's.  33.  Has  not  that  scholar  some- 
body's ?  34.  She  has  nobody's.  35.  Whose  pens  has  she  ?  36. 
She  has  nobody's.  37.  Hast  thou  washed  thy  slate  ?  38.  I  have 
washed  it.  39.  Have  you  washed  your  inkstands  ?  40.  We  have 
not  washed  them.  41.  What  has  the  gardener?  42.  He  has  a 
spade  and  some  flowers.  43.  Do  you  like  the  odor  of  those  flow- 
ers ?  44.  I  like  it  mucL  45.  Is  the  family  of  your  friend  going 
to  the  country?  46.  They  (eUe)  are  going  there.  47.  Do  you 
wish  for  the  pepper-box  ?     48.  Yes,  sir,  if  you  please. 


1.  Where  is  the  pepper-box  ?  2.  Is  it  not  on  the  table  ?  3.  No, 
it  is  not  there.  4.  I  want  a  little  soup.  5.  Will  you  have  also  a 
piece  of  boiled  meat  (houilli)  ?  6.  No,  sir,  thank  you.  7.  Do  you 
not  like  boiled  meat  ?  8.  "i  es,  sir,  I  like  it,  but  I  do  not  wish  for 
any  to-day. 

9.  You  have  nothing  on  your  plate ;  do  you  wish  for  a  piece  of 
roast  meat  ?  it  is  very  tender  (tendre).  10.  A  little  piece,  if  you 
please.  11.  Do  you  like  it  well  done  ?  12.  I  like  it  rare.  13.  Do 
you  wish  for  some  bread  ?  14.  Thank  you,  I  have  some  still.  15. 
You  are  not  hungry.  16.  Yes,  I  am  very  hungry ;  this  roast  meat 
is  excellent.  17.  Is  not  your  cofliee  cold?  18.  No,  sir,  it  is  still 
very  warm.  19.  Do  you  wish  for  a  cup  of  tea  ?  20.  I  thank  you 
much ;  I  like  coffee  and  not  tea.  21.  Why  do  you  put  on  your 
cloak  ?     22.  I  put  it  on  because  1  am  cold. 

40.— QUARANTlfiME  LEgON. 

To  think  (of),  thinking,  thought.  Penser  (A),  pentant,  pemi,  €  (fem.). 

7b  labor  (on),  laboring,  labored.  7Srava%Uer{K)^  travaillanty  travaiUl, 

•        «tS  S61I«  lis  11« 

p«n-ser,  pen-flan/,  pen-«c,  travall-ler,  tra-vaiMan<;  tra-ralM^. 



1.  Fia  genenllj  a  prononn,  hsTing  the  force  of  d,  or  some  other  preposition  of  pUwe 
except  (f«,  with  lui,  elle,  euoR,  «ZZet,  or  cela,  alao  often  an  adverb  for  lc<  or  ^  As  a  pronoun 
it  allies  almost  always  to  things 

Do  70U  pat  your  name  to  these  papers  ? 

I  nut  it  to  tbem. 

Does  he  labor  on  that  work  ? 

He  labors  on  it 

Do  yon  ever  think  of  your  books  f 

I  think  of  them  often. 

Are  the  musicians  coming  here  ? 

They  are  coming  here. 

Are  they  in  the  country  ? 

They  are  there. 

Mettez-Tous  rotrc  nom  k  ces  papiers  ? 

Je  Vj  mets. 

TraTaille-t-il  i  cct  ourrage  ? 

II  y  traraille. 

Pensez-Yous  jamais  H  tos  Uvres  ? 

iTy  pense  sourent 

Les  musiciens  Tienuent-ils  id  ? 

lis  y  viennent. 

Sont-ils  k  la  campagne? 

lis  y  sont. 

2.  The  place  of  the  other  objective  pronouns  wo  have  seen  (Lesson  26),  and  that  en  is 
placed  last  of  all  (Leraon  84%    FIs  placed  after  the  other  objective  pronouns  and  before  &tk 

Me  there.  Us  there. 

Thee  there.  You  there, 

Him^  it  J  or  her  there.    Them  there. 

Same  there.    I  put  some  there. 

We  conduct  you  there. 

He  conducts  me  there. 

I  conduct  thee  there. 

They  carry  it  there. 

We  take  some  there  to  you. 

To  lead,  take,  leading,  led. 

To  mend,  mending,  mended, 

Thie^  this  thing.     That,  that  thing. 

M^i/.  Nous  y. 

Ty.  Voue  y. 

JOy.  Les  y. 

Y  en.    J'y  en  mets. 

Nous  Tous  y  conduissons. 

II  m^y  conduit. 

Je  t^y  conduis. 

Us  Ty  portent. 

Nous  TOUS  y  en  portons. 
Mener,  menant,  men6,e((em.), 
Raecommoder,  raecommodant^  raccommodi. 
Ceci.     Cela. 

8.  Ctei  and  cela  are  used  in  reference  to  propositions,  or  to  things  not  named. 
This  is  good,  that  is  bad.  Ceci  est  bon,  cela  est  mauvais. 


The  traveler.  The  color.  Le  voyageur.  La  couleur. 

ThejUeue.  The  place,  equare.      Vendroit,  lieu,         1^2^  place. 

4.  EndroU  and  lieu  denote  mere  locality ;  place  belonging  to  a  i)er8on  or  thing,  isplaee. 

The  hatter.  The  border. 

The  arrangement.    The  disposal. 
The  mueieian. 

The  lieutenant.  Somewhere,  any  where. 
The  world,  people.     Every  where. 
Every  body.    All  the  world. 
Easily.     Kowhere. 

No  onSf  none. 

Le  ehapelier.  La  bordure, 

Varrangement,        La  disposition. 

Le  musicien.  La  musieienne 

Le  lietUenant.     Quelqw  part, 

Le  monde.    Partout. 

Tout  le  monde.    Le  monde  entier. 

Faeilement.    Ntdle  part. 

Without  a  verb,  aucun ;  with  a  verb,  and 
standing  as  subject,  aucun  ne  before  the 
verb;  standing  as  objoet,  ne  before  the 
verb  and  aucun  after  It  The  feminine 

mm  mm  vvi  Bm        im       m  l  JSja*  k  la       t/a       v       -m     tm        j      m        mt  tm  i. 

me-ner,  me-nani,  me-n6,  rae-oo-mo-der,  rac-co-mo-danf,  ra<j-eo-mo-d6,  ce-cl,  cc-la,  vo-ya- 
11        IS     11     8       -.0     u  f      1  1     4 13  ft      i«     a      1     a  ^       }?    **  >^ '?  '^      ** 

UBor,  eoa*]enr,  en-droU,  Hen,  plac«,  cha-po'lier.  bor-dure,  ar-rangs-meni,  dis-po-si-aion,  mu- 
lt nU      »  rt  n»  it»       t        u    *^  J      IS      a    !*•      11?      •    .     M„ 
si'Cien,  mu-si-cienne,  lleute-nan^  mond«,  par-tou<,  en-tier,  ih-cll<-men«,  nul«. 


To  wkich  one.  Attquel,  A  laquelU, 

To  which  ones,  Aitxquels.  AuxqueUes. 

•To  what  store  dost  thou  take  tbe  cloth  ?  A  quel  magasin  portes-tu  le  drap  ? 

To  which  one  do  you  take  tbe  traveler?  Auqael  mencz-vous  le  vojrageur  ? 

I  take  him  to  none.  Jc  ne  le  m^ne  a  aucun.     (Les.  27,  5.) 

To  which  ones  do  your  friends  go  ?  Auxqaels  ros  amis  vont-ils? 

Does  DO  child  go  to  school?  Aucun  enfant  ne  va-t-il  4  P^colc  ? 

None,    No  one  goes  there.  Aucun.     Aucun  n'y  va. 

Do  you  doubt  of  that  ?  Doutez-vous  de  cela  ? 

I  do  not  doubt  of  it.  Je  n^cn  doute  pas. 

1.  Le  voyageur  vous  conduit-il  a  la  riviere  ?  2.  H  nous  y  con- 
duit 3.  Condui^ez-vous  les  enfants  k  Pecole  I  4.  Je  les  y  con- 
duis.  5.  Nous  y  conduisez-vous  ?  6.  Je  ne  vous  y  conduis  pas. 
7.  Pensez-vous  jamais  s!L  yos  amis  ?  8.  Je  pense  souvent  d  eux.  9. 
Travaillez-vous  k  cet  ouvrage?  10.  J'y  travaille  beaucoup.  11. 
Portez-vous  du  sucre  au  magasin  ?  12.  J'y  en  porte  vingt  livres. 
13.  Ceci  n'est-il  pas  jaune  t     14.  Si,  ecci  est  jaune  et  cela  est  vert. 

16.  Avez-vous  mene  les  voyageurs  au  village  ?    16.  Je  les  y  ai  menes. 

17.  Kaccommodez-vous  quelque  chose  t  18.  Je  ne  raccommode  rien. 
19.  Le  tailleur  a-t-il  raccommode  vos  pantalons  ?  20.  II  les  a  rac- 
commodes.  21.  Avez-vous  connu  le  lieutenant  et  le  musicien?  22. 
Je  les  ai  connus.  23.  Je  mets  mes  livres  dans  cet  endroit-ci.  24. 
Nous  mettons  toujours  nos  papiers  a  leur  place.  25.  AUez-vous 
quelque  part  ?  26.  Je  ne  vais  nulle  part.  27.  Avez-vous  chercho 
votre  livre  ?  28.  Je  Tai  cherch6.  29.  Tout  le  monde  connait  le 
lieutenant.  30.  Savez-vous  ou  il  demeuret  31.  OuL  Est-ce  un 
bel  endroit  1  C'est  le  plus  beau  lieu  du  monde.  32.  Cette  fleur 
est  d'une  belle  couleur.  33.  Pensez-vous  a  votre  le9on  1  34.  J'y 
pense.     35.  Ce  monsieur  parle  bien  facilement. 

1.  Where  are  you  going  t  2.  I  am  going  to  school.  3.  To 
which  one  are  you  going  t  4.  I  am  going  to  Mr.  A.'s.  5.  To  which 
ones  do  your  sisters  go  ?  6.  They  go  to  none.  7.  Do  you  often 
think  of  your  friends  I  8,  We  think  of  them  very  often.  9.  Of  (A) 
what  do  those  scholars  think  t  10.  They  think  of  what  they  study. 
11.  Does  the  servant  take  the  horse  to  the  stable*?  12.  He  takes 
him  there.  13.  What  are  those  tailors  mending  t  14.  They  are 
mending  coats  and  pantaloons.  15.  Where  have  you  put  your 
books?  16.  I  have  put  them  in  that  place.  17.  Do  you  always  put 
them  in  (d)  their  place  ?  18.  I  often  put  them  there.  19.  Is  this 
iron?     20.  This  is  iron  and  that  is  copper.     21.  Have  you  labored 


on  that  work  ?  22.  I  labored  on  it  23.  Did  yoa  ^ish  it  easily  t 
24.  I  finished  it  very  easily.  25.  I  like  the  arrangement  of  that 
garden.     26.  The  color  of  that  cloth  is  bine. 

27.  How  many  sisters  have  yout  28.  I  have  none.  29.  The 
smell  of  these  flowers  is  very  sweet.  30.  The  wind  is  neither  in  the 
north  nor  in  the  south,  it  is  in  the  west.  31.  Where  does  the  wash- 
erwoman dry  the  wet  cravats  1  32.  She  dries  them  in  the  sun  and 
in  the  wind.  33.  How  many  brothers  has  the  lieutenant  ?  34.  The 
lieutenant  has  none,  the  musician  has  four.  85.  Are  you  going  any 
where  to-day  ?  36.  I  am  going  nowhere.  87.  Where  is  the  trav- 
eler going?  38.  He  is  going  every  where.  39.  Is  the  musician 
going  any  where  ?  40.  She  is  going  nowhere.  41.  Does  the  hat- 
ter {chapelier)  think  of  what  he  has  done  ?  42.  He  thinks  of  it. 
43.  Will  you  please  conduct  me  to  the  hatter's?  44.  With  pleas- 
ure ;  I  am  going  there  now. 


1.  Have  you  need  of  your  spade ?  2.  No ;  do  you  wish  for  it? 
3.  Certaiuly  (certainemeni).  4.  It  is  in  the  garden,  under  the  win- 
dow of  the  kitchen.  5.  Wny  do  you  need  a  spade?  6.  I  wish  to 
make  a  hole  (un  trou)  before  the  house,  in  order  to  (pour)  put  there 
a  yellow  rose-tree  (rosier).  7.  Have  you  yellow  roses  ?  8.  I  have 
some  yellow,  some  white,  and  some  red ;  have  you  not  some  ?  9. 
Not  (pas)  yellow  ones,  that  color  is  rare  (rare).  10.  K  you  come 
with  (avec)  me,  I  am  going  to  give  you  a  stock  {unpied)  of  it.  11. 
Ton  are  too  good.  12.  All  that  I  have  is  at  your  disposal  13.  Do 
you  see  (vot/ez-vous)  what  large  leaves  this  rose-tree  has  ?  14.  Yes, 
truly  {vraiment),  they  are  very  large.  15.  What  rose  is  it  (esi^e)  ? 
16.  It  is  the  cloth  of  gold  (drop  d*or)  rose ;  if  you  wish  for  it,  it  is 
at  your  service.  '17.  Thank  you,  I  am  going  to  take  good  {bien) 
care  of  it  18.  Do  you  wish  for  a  stock  of  the  white  ?  19.  I  thank 
youy  I  have  some  of  that  color,  and  I  have  not  much  space  {place) 
in  my  border. 



I  like  to  listen  to  the  traveler.  tTaime  h  Pouter  le  voyageur. 

1.  The  verb  aimer  gonerallj  requires  d  before  a  depondont  Infinltiyef  as  seen  in  the 
•boTe  phrase.  Many  other  verbs  and  phrases  do  the  same.  Avoir^  chercher^  dannsr^  mH- 
fiY,  montrer^  porter^  and  trouver^  already  given,  take  d  before  a  dependent inflnttlve.  Sooh 
verbs  wHI  be  marked,  as  they  are  given  hereafter,  with  the  abbrevlaUon  {d  bet  ln£).  Some 
verba  and  phrase*  also  take  <7«  before  the  inilnitive.    These  will  be  noted  hereafter. 



I  have  something  to  do.  J^ai  qaelqne  chose  k  falre. 

He  seeks  to  do  that.  n  cherche  4  faire  cela. 

We  show  you  how  to  do  that.  Nous  tous  montrons  &  £ure  cela. 

2.  Other  verbs,  aa  wo  hare  seen,  goTcm  the  infinitiyo  witboat  a  preposition. 
I  am  going  to  look  for  my  book. 

Je  rais  chercher  mon  lirre. 
xAsciTLnn.  raMimwa. 

The  thnad.    The  apothecaty't  thcp. 



Alone,  only  (adj.). 

An  <fficer.  Exactly  so. 

A  secret  TTiat  is  U. 

Only  (adT.).    To  stay,  remain, 

lb-morrow.     To  intrust,  confide. 

With,     To  count,  reckon,  also  intend. 

To  admire.     To  leave,  let. 

To  take  away,  to  take  off. 

To  depart,  set  out,  departing,  departed, 

&  Pariir  is  ooi\]Dgated  like  sortir  (Lesson  29). 
Have  you  only  the  fine  thread  ?  Avez-Tous  seulement  le  fil  fin  ?    (or 

stronger)  N^avez-Tous  que  le  fil  fin  ? 
Of  whom,  from  wJiofn,  of  which,  from ) 
which,  whose,  ) 

4.  De  qui  \a  used  only  of  persons  and  personified  objects.  It  most  always  be  naed  when 
qf  whom  or  tohoee  is  interrogative.  Dont  applies  to  both  persons  and  things,  and  is  general- 
ly preferred  to  de  qui  when  followed  by  a  pronoun. 

Of  whom  do  you  speak  ?  De  qui  parlez-vous  ? 

I  speak  of  the  man  of  whom  you  speak.     Je  parle  de  Thomme  dont  rous  pariez. 










Vn  secret 










Fartir,  partant,  parti. 


Do  you  buy  the  thread  of  which  I  speak  ? 

Ihat  {the  one)  of  which  or  of  whotn. 

Those  {the  ones)  of  which  or  of  whom. 

That  {the  thing)  of  which. 

I  admire  him  of  whom  you  speak. 

He  admires  her  of  whom  you  speak. 

He  takes  away  that  of  which  I  am  afraid. 

We  leave  our  books  here. 

My  brothers  remain  at  home. 

I  trust  to  you  my  money. 

I  intend  to  depart  to-morrow. 

Achetez-vous  le  fil  dont  je  parle  f 
Celui  dont  (m.).     Celle  dont  (f.). 
Ceux  dont  (m.).     Celles  dont  (f.). 
Ce  dont 

J^admire  celui  dont  vous  parlez. 
U  admire  celle  dont  vous  parlez. 
II  6te  ce  dont  j^ai  peur. 
Nous  laissons  nos  livres  ici. 
Mes  frercs  restent  chcz  cux. 
Je  vous  confie  mon  argent 
Je  compte  partir  demain. 

6i  Mime,  the  same,  an  adjective,  and  mime,  srI/ Joined  to  a  pronoun,  are  variable ;  but 
mime,  even,  an  adverb,  is  Invariable. 

We  have  the  same  friends.  Nous  avons  les  mimes  amis. 

We  are  ourselves  his  friends.  Nous  sommes  noua-memes  scs  amis. 

He  does  not  love  even  his  children.         II  n^aime  pas  mi}ne  ses  enfants. 

IS  1         1   IS       4        B        4       fi       14       13  •  •         15    19  190       9S  •  S  •       < 

fll,  phar-ma-cie.  se-cre/,  80-crdt«,  iin,  fine,  seuU  seoltf,  of-fl-cier. Juste,  soule-men<,  rf  s-(er, 

4       14        «l      na      1     »       21  6       1         us  7       0       17   6         1       If      1       «  1      M     »1 

de-main,  con-fler,  a-vec,  oomp-ter,  ad-ml-rer,  laie-ser,  d-ter,  par-tir,  par-tani,  par-ti,  doot 


1.  Cet  6colier  trouve  beanconp  a  Windier.  2.  II  aime  a  parler 
fraD^ais.  3.  Avez-vons  senlement  ces  poissons-cit  4.  Je  D*ai 
que  cehii-ci,  et  mon  ami  n'a  que  celui-1^  5.  Pourquoi  6tez-vous 
Totre  chapeaut  6.  Je  Tdte  a  cet  homme.  7.  Laissez-vous  votre 
argent  dans  ce  coffre  ?  8.  Je  Vj  laisse.  9.  Bestez-vous  seuls  ici  I 
10.  Nous  7  restons  seuls.  11.  Gonfiez-vous  votre  argent  k  nos  soins  t 
12.  Nous  Vj  confions.  13.  £st-ce  que  vous  admirez  I'officier  dont 
nous  parlous  1  14.  Nous  ne  Tadmirons  pas.  15.  Ne  compte-t-il  pas 
les  soldats?  16.  II  les  compte.  17.  Gompte-t-il  partir  demaint  18. 
Non,  monsieur,  il  part  aujourd'hui.  19.  Partez-Tous  demaint  20. 
Nous  partons  ce  matin.  21.  Ou  va  ce  chapelier  ?  22.  II  ra  k  la 
pharmacie.  23.  Je  confie  tout  k  mon  ami,  il  est  fort  discret.  24. 
Vous  conlie-t-il  son  secret  ?     25.  H  me  le  confie. 

1.  Where  does  the  hatter  take  that  officer  t  2.  He  takes  him 
to  the  grain  market-house  {la  halle  aux  bles).  3.  Has  the  carpen- 
ter mended  your  door  ?  4.  He  has  mended  it.  5.  To  whom  does 
the  hatter  speak  ?  6.  He  speaks  to  the  musician.  7.  To  which 
one  does  he  speak  ?  8.  He  speaks  to  this  one.  9.  Have  you  put 
your  tree  in  this  place  ?  10.  I  have  put  it  in  this  place,  and  my  roses 
in  that.  11.  Is  that  officer  going  any  where  t  12.  He  is  going 
nowhere.  13. 1  am  going  to  the  apothecary's  shop.  14.  To  which 
are  you  going?  15. 1  am  going  to  mine.  16.  Are  you  acquainted 
with  that  officer?  17.  Yes,  sir,  every  body  is  acquainted  with  him. 
18.  Does  he  intrust  to  you  his  secrets!  19.  He  intrusts  them  tome. 
20.  What  have  you  fine  1    21.  I  have  nothing  fine. 

22.  Do  you  always  leave  your  books  in  their  place  T  23.  I  al- 
ways leave  them  there.  24.  Does  your  brother  remain  here!  25. 
He  remains  here  to-day  only,  but  he  intends  to  depart  to-morrow. 
26.  Do  you  confide  your  secret  to  me  ?  27.  I  confide  it  to  you. 
28.  Do  you  admire  the  officer  of  whom  we  speak  ?  29.  We  admire 
him.  30.  Why  do  you  take  off  your  cloak  t  31.1  take  it  off  be- 
cause I  am  warm.  32.  What  men  are  you  looking  for  ?  33.  I  am 
looking  for  those  of  whom  you  speak.  34.  The  physician  dwells  in 
Water-street ;  he  is  going  to  the  apothecary's  shop  with  his  friend. 
35.  Of  what  do  you  speak  t  36. 1  speak  of  that  of  which  you  speak. 
37.  My  pencil  is  on  my  desk  with  my  books.  38.  I  have  bought 
the  horse  of  which  you  speak.  39.  Our  neighbor  has  a  dog,  of 
which  we  are  afraid. 




I.  Where  are  you  going  f  2.  I  am  going  to  conduct  this  little 
boy  home.  3.  Where  does  he  dwell  I  4.  He  dwells  near  {pres  du) 
the  market  on  Water-street.  5.  Who  is  his  father?  6.  It  is  Mr. 
Bernard ;  do  you  not  know  him  ?  7.  I  know  him  very  well.  8.  Is 
Mr.  Bernard  at  home  to-day  t  9.  I  do  not  doubt  of  it ;  he  does  not 
often  go  out.     10.  Well,  I  am  going  to  his  house  with  you. 

II.  Who  is  that  man?  12.  Which  one?  13.  He  who  is  going 
to  the  apothecary's  shop  with  Mr.  George.  14.  He  is  the  physician 
of  my  father ;  he  comes  to  our  house  often.  15.  Is  your  father  still 
sick  1  16.  He  is  not  very  well  yet.  17.  I  will  go  and  see  (j'e  vah 
aUtr  voir)  your  father.  18.  You  do  not  come  often.  19.  Do  you 
still  (tou/oura)  live  at  the  same  place  ?  20.  Yes,  we  live  in  Saint 
Francis-street  (la  rue  Saint  Franqois).  21.  You  live  in  a  large  white 
house,  do  you  not  {n^est-ce  pas)  1  22.  Exactly  (exactement§) ;  that 
is  it 


1.  We  have  seen  (Lesson  81,  Nos.  3, 4)  that  negatlre  partltires  take  or  omit  the  ftrtlde 
as  the  aflSrmatlve  or  negative  meaning  preyaUs. 

Has  DOt  thifl  rich  man  money  ? 
Has  not  this  great  king  poteerf 
Has  that  poor  man  no  bread  ? 
To  feel,  to  smell,  feeling,  felt. 

All,  quite.  All  alone. 

InetarUly,  forthwith. 
Too,  too  much. 

Get  homme  riche  n^a-t-il  pas  de  I'argent? 
Cc  grand  roi  n'a-t-il  pas  du  ponvoirf 
Ce  pauvre  homme  n'a-t-il  pas  de  pain  ? 
Sentir,  eentant,  eenti, 

(Conjugated  as  eoHir^  Lesson  £9.) 
Tout  (adv.).  Tout  seul. 

A  rinetant,  sur  le  champ,  tout  de  mite, 
Trop  {de  before  a  noun). 


The  How, 

The  writing. 

Le  coup. 


The  thunder. 

The  reading. 

La  lecture. 




The  hole. 

The  slU,  chink. 

Le  trou. 






The  nest. 


Le  nid. 


SalUd,  salt. 






Does  it  rain  i 

f    It 


Fleut-ilf    Ilpleut. 

When,    The 


of  thunder. 

Quand.     Le  coup  de  tonnerre. 

Do  you  feel  the  north  wind  f 

Sentez-vous  le  vent  du  nord? 

I  feel  it. 

Je  le  sens. 

Are  you  afraid  of 

claps  of  thunder  ? 

Avez-vous  peur 

des  coups  de  tonnerre  ? 

2^ow,  at 

present.    From  here. 

A  present. 


It       W         8        14       •       a  S        12    14       a  » 13       M  C        19  99         U         7  1       C 

poa-Yoir,  sen-tir,  sen-tan^  sen-ti,  ins-tant;  salt*,  coop,  6-cri-ture,  to>»-nerr«,  car-ne,  < 
r6«,  fent«^  rond,  ronde,  maigre,  sa-ld,  Ba-16e,  gras,  grasee,  pleat,  kan<i,  pri-senl 


Do  jon  smell  from  here  the  flowers  of    Sentez-vous  dUci  lea  fleurs  de  Totre 

your  garden  ?  jardin  ? 

Do  the  children  feel  the  cold  ?  Les  enfants  sentent-ils  le  froid  ? 

Tbey  feel  it  and  I  feel  it  also.  Us  le  sentent  et  je  le  sens  aossi. 

Near.    Near  the  church.  Pres,  au  pres  {de  bef.  n.).     Prds  de 


S.  Pr^  is  accidentally  near,  aupr^  ponnanently  near. 

Do  you  see  that  lady  near  the  fountain  ?    Yoyez-Tous  cettc  dame  pria  do  la  fon- 

The  large  tree  is  near  the  fountain.         Le  grand  arbre  est  auprds  de  la  fon- 

I  gire  the  horse  some  water.  Je  donne  de  Feau  au  cheval. 

I  gire  the  horse  some  blows  with  your    Je  donne  au  chcval  des  coups  de  votro 
whip.  fouet  (Lesson  26,  6). 

1.  Esi-ce  que  vons  laissez  cet  enfant  tout  seul  ?  2.  L'oiseau  est- 
U  dans  son  nid  ?  .3.  II  y  est.  4.  Les  rats  font  des  trous  au  plan- 
cher.  5.  Voulez-vous  du  boeuf  sal^  ?  6.  J'en  veux.  7.  Veux-tu  du 
boBuf  gras  on  du  maigre  ?  8.  J'en  veux  du  maigre.  9.  Pleut-il  k 
present?  10.  H  ne  pleut  pa&  11.  Est-ce  que  j©  confie  trop  d'ar- 
gent  k  cet  homme  ?  12.  Vous  lui  en  confiez  trop.  13.  Quand  pen- 
Bez-vous  partir  ?  14.  Je  pense  partir  ce  soir.  15.  Avez-vous  Ten- 
crier  carre  et  le  rond?  16.  Je  n'ai  que  le  carr6.  17.  Cette  Venture 
est  Men  vieifle.  18.  Aimez-vous  la  lecture  ?  19.  Je  Taime  beau- 
coup.  20.  Fourquoi  cet  homme  riche  est<il  triste ;  nVt-U  pas  des 
amis  et  de  Targent  ?  21.  Votre  ami  part  a  Tinstant  22.  Je  lui 
ai  parle.  23.  H  a  regu  votre  lettre,  et  il  va  partir  tout  de  suite, 
or  a  Tinstant. 

1.  Do  you  feel  the  cold  ?  2.  We  feel  it  mucL  3.  Does  the 
grocer  feel  the  cold  ?  4.  Yes,  every  body  feels  it  5.  Do  you  con- 
fide your  secrets  to  your  friend  ?  6. 1  confide  them  to  him.  7.  Do 
jou  buy  the  fine  thread  ?  8.  I  buy  the  fine  thread  and  the  coarse. 
9.  When  do  you  intend  to  depart  ?  10.  I  intend  to  depart  forth- 
witL  11.  Have  you  an  apothecary's  shop?  12.  Ihave  one  on 
Water-street.  13.  Do  you  go  out  \yhen  it  rains  ?  14.  I  never  go 
out  when  it  rains.  15.  Does  it  rain  now  ?  16.  It  does  not  rain. 
17.  Where  does  the  bird  make  his  nest  ?  18.  He  makes  it  in  that 
hole.  19.  Do  you  wish  for  some  salt  fish  or  some  fresh  ?  20.  I 
wish  for  some  salt.  21.  Is  the  garden  square  or  round  ?  22.  It  is 
square.  23.  Who  has  made  a  chink  in  the  door  ?  24.  Some  one 
bas  made  a  chink  in  the  door,  and  a  hole  in  the  floor. 


25.  Do  you  \7ish  for  some  fat  beef  and  some  lean  ?  26.  I  wish 
only  for  some  lean,  and  that  officer  wishes  only  for  some  fat  27. 
Dost  thou  fear  the  clap  of  thunder  ?  28.  I  fear  it.  29.  Dost  thou 
depart  instantly  ?  30.  I  depart  instantly,  and  the  Frenchman  in- 
tends to  depart  to-morrow.  31.  Art  thou  going  anywhere?  32.  I 
am  going  nowhere,  but  the  traveler  is  going  every  where.  33.  Do 
you  speak  French  easily?  34.  No,  sir,  I  speak  French,  but  not 
easily.  35.  Is  not  that  writing  beautiful  ?  36.  It  is  very  beauti- 
ful. 37.  Do  you  like  reading  ?  38.  I  like  it  much.  39.  Has  the 
master  given  you  blows  ?  40.  No,  he  has  given  blows  to  that  bad 
boy  {sti/et).  41.  Dost  thou  smell  those  flowers  from  here?  42.  I 
smell  them.  43.  Of  what  dogs  are  you  afraid  ?  44.  I  am  afraid 
of  those  of  which  you  speak.  45.  I  take  away  that  of  which  you 
are  afraid. 


1.  George,  have  you  nothing  to  do  ?  2.  Yes,  sir,  I  have  to  do 
my  exercise.  3.  Well,  why  have  you  not  done  it  ?  4.  Because  I 
have  no  pen.  5«  But  where  is  your  new  pen  ?  6.  I  am  looking  for 
it,  but  I  do  not  find  it.  7.  You  do  not  take  care  of  your  pens.  8. 
I  always  put  my  pens  in  my  portfolio,  and  some  one  takes  {prend) 
them.  9.  I  doubt  of  it,  because  you  do  not  take  care  of  your  things 
{affaires).  10.  Have  you  some  ink  ?  11.  I  have  still  a  little,  but 
not  much.  12.  I  am  going  to  give  you  another  pen,  and  some  ink, 
if  you  have  need  of  them.  13.  Where  is  your  copy-book  ?  I  wish 
to  see  (voir)  your  writing.  14.  Your  copy-book  is  dirty ;  why  do 
you  not  take  care  of  your  books  ?  15.  Your  brothers  take  care  of 
theirs.  16.  What  is  Teier  {Pierre)  doing?  17.  He  is  studying 
his  French  lesson  {legon  de  franqais),  18.  Peter  is  a  very  good 
child  ;  he  loves  reading,  and  he  takes  good  care  of  his  books.  19. 
You  do  not  hold  your  pen  well ;  that  is  why  {c'est  pourguoi)  you 
write  {ecrivez)  so  badly.  20.  Now  you  can  {pouvez)  go  out.  Good 
morning  {bonjour). 



To  ««,  teeing^  seen.  Voity  voyant^  vu^  e  (fern.). 

Je90i$j         tuvoU,  Uvoit,  nowtoyoM,        touavoyes^       iUwient^ 

1 8e«,  tboa  soest,      he  seca,        wo  sec,  you  sec,  the/  soo. 

)->        r>}98  90         rO       101131         9013  6         S? 

Toir,  vo-yaD<,  voiii,  toK,  ro-yoni,  vo-ye*,  volenlL 



The  road. 
The  drawer. 
A  piece ,  bit. 

The  week.  ^ 
The  rain. 

In  a  moment,  pres- 
The  shin. 
The  eight. 
Wide,  broad. 

Le  ehemin. 
Le  tiroir. 
Un  morceau. 

La  aemaine. 
Tout  a  Vheure. 



The  storm. 



Narrow,  tight 



The  eye.  The  eyes. 

That  paper  is  thick. 

That  plank  is  thick. 

That  man*8  forehead  is  high. 

His  skin  is  white. 

His  sight  is  had. 

Tonr  eyes  are  hiae. 

This  road  is  wide,  and  that  one  is 

What  do  you  put  in  that  drawer? 
I  put  some  pieces  of  cloth  there. 
Do  you  see  the  storm  coming  ? 
I  see  it. 
The  dog  sees  the  birds,  and  the  birds 

see  the  dog. 
HaTe  you  some  more  fruit  ? 
I  have  some  more. 

Some  more.    No  more. 

Ixi  bonheur.  La /mom. 

Le  m€dhew.  La  vim. 

JJorage.  Large. 

he  front.  Chauve. 

Amer.  Amere. 

Etroit.  hroite, 

Ilaut,  ffaute. 

J^pais.  Epaisse. 

Jj  ceil  (sing.).  Les  yeux  (plur.). 

Ce  papier  est  6pais. 

Cette  pknche  est  6pais6e. 

Cet  homme  a  le  front  haat. 

n  a  la  peau  blanche.    (Less.  83,  2.) 

n  a  la  Yue  mauvaise. 

Vous  avez  les  yeuz  bleus. 

Ce  chemin-ci  est  large,  et  celui-lA  est 

Que  mettez-YOus  dans  ce  tiroir  ? 
J*y  mets  des  morceaux  de  drap. 
Voyez-vous  venir  Forage  ? 
Je  le  vols. 
Le  chien  yoit  les  oiseauz,  etles  oiseaux 

Toient  le  chien. 
Avez-Yous  encore  du  fruit  ? 
•Ten  ai  encore. 

Encore  (de).    Ne  plus  (de). 

^loore  sndplus  tako  de 

1.  JSkeore  meaning  tome  more,  b  not  used  with  a  negative. 
before  the  following  noon. 

He  has  some  more  money.  H  a  encore  de  Targent. 

He  has  no  more  money.  H  n*a  plus  d^argent. 

We  have  some  more.  Nous  en  sYons  encore. 

We  have  no  more.  Nous  n*cn  sYons  plus. 
To  have  the  goodness,  or  kindness.  Avoir  la  bontS. 

8.  Atolr  la  honU  and  other  verbal  ezpreasions  formed  of  avoir  and  a  nonn,  take  de 
befiire  the  following  inflnltWe. 

1.  Get  homme  a  beaucoup  de  bonheur  et  pea  de  malhenr.     2. 
Le  m6decin  ne  va-t^il  pas  fiaire  une  operation  a  ce  malade  ?    8.  Si, 

14  T  M     »         99U       M       17         Ml  11  U         11  17  1        11         O 

eii«-minf  SAnalnef  ti-roir,  plal«,  mor-cean,  tna-ta-rAeare.  bon-Aonr,  peau,  mal-Aeur,  vu«, 

Ul  1  ^«  IT  \       7       1       7  6       »      »       »    ^      17  17  »       T       »        U» 

o-ra{E«,  lanE«,  fron/,  chaav«,  a-mer,  a-m6i^  6-troU,  6-troite,  haaf,  baat«,  6-pala,  oeil,  yeiu^ 
eS'Core,  bon-t^. 


il  compte  la  faire  cette  semaine.  4.  Cet  homme  est  chaave ;  il  a  le 
front  haut  et  large ;  il  a  aassi  la  vue  maiivaisa  5.  Qaels  chiens 
ce  gargon  a-t-il?  6.  II  a  ceux  dont  vdus  avez  peur.  7.  Quel 
homme  voyez-vous  ?  8.  Nous  voyons  celui  dont  vous  parlez.  D. 
Ce  vin  n'est-il  pas  amer?  10.  11  est  bien  amer.  11.  Avez-voas 
mis  les  morceaux  de  papier  dans  votre  tiroir  1  12.  Je  les  y  ai  mis. 
13.  Quelles  vaches  avez-vons  achet^es?  14.  Nous  avons  acbet6 
celles  dont  ce  gargon  a  soin.  15.  Voyez-vous  ce  dont  le  cheval  a 
peur  t  16.  Nous  le  voyons.  17.  Votre  frere  a  la  bont^  de  venir 
Bouvent  cbez  moi.  18.  H  a  toujours  soin  de  bien  6tudier  sa  legon. 
19.  Vois-tu  la  fleur  dont  je  parlef  20.  Je  la  vois.  21.  Avez-vous 
vu  ma  belle-soeur  ?     22.  Je  Pai  vue. 

1.  Dost  thou  see  the  lady  of  whom  we  speak  ?  2.  I  see  the 
one  of  whom  yon  speak,  and  those  of  whom  your  friend  speaks 
also.  3.  What  birds  do  you  see  ?  4.  We  see  those  of  which  you 
have  care.  5.  Have  you  seen  our  beautiful  flowers?  6.  I  have 
not  seen  them.  7.  Whom  dost  thou  see  1  8.  I  see  him  of  whose 
courage  you  doubt.  9.  Do  you  go  out  at  night  all  alone  1  10.  I 
never  go  out  alon^;  I  go  out  with  my  father  and  with  my  brother. 
11.  When  do  you  go  home?  12.  I  go  there  forth witL  13.  Do 
you  give  that  ox  some  blows  with  a  whip  (de  fouet)  ?  14.  I  give 
him  some.  15.  I  admire  the  writing  and  the  reading  of  that  scholar. 
16.  This  road  is  broad  and  that  one  is  narrow.  17.  I  have  not 
been  to  my  friend's  this  week,  but  I  intend  to  go  there  forthwith. 
18.  Some  one  has  put  a  piece  of  cake  in  my  drawer. 

19.  Have  you  had  much  bad  fortune  ?  20.  No,  sir,  I  have  had 
much  good  fortune.  21.  The  ox  has  the  skin  thicker  ( plus  epaisse) 
than  the  sheep.  22.  Do  those  birds  see  the  storm  coming  ?  23. 
They  see  it.  24.  Is  not  that  apple  bitter?  25.  Yes,  it  is  very  bit- 
ter. 26.  Is  not  that  coat  too  tight?  27.  It  is  very  tight,  but 
these  pantaloons  are  wide.  28.  That  man's  forehead  is  high ;  are 
not  his  eyes  blue  ?  29.  His  forehead  is  high  and  he  is  bald,  but 
his  eyes  are  black.  30.  Have  you  some  more  wine  ?  81.  I  have 
no  more.  32.  Our  neighbor  has  the  goodness  to  send  us  fruit  and 
flowers.  33.  Do  you  intend  to  depart  this  week  ?  34.  I  intend 
to  depart  forthwith.  35.  Do  you  wish  for  a  piece  of  roast  beef? 
36.  Yes,  sir,  if  you  please. 



1.  Does  your  annt  intend  to  depart  to-morrow  for  New  Orleans 
(pour  la  Nouvelle  Orleans)^  2.  No,  madam,  she  only  intends  to 
depart  next  (proehaine)  week.^  3.  Does  she  always  live  at  your 
house  t  4.  Tes,  madam,  she  lives  there,  but  she  is  not  at  home 
to-day ;  she  is  in  the  country,  at  the  house  of  her  sister.  5.  When 
docs  she  intend  to  return  (revenir)  ?  6.  To-morrow,  madam.  7.  I 
wish  to  see  her  to-day.  8.  Do  you  often  go  to  see  your  aunt  who 
lives  in  the  country!     9.  I  go  there  sometimes. 

10.  What  is  the  matter  with  that  little  girl  ?  11.  She  is  blind. 
12.  Poor  child,  how  {que)  I  pity  her!  13.  It  is  a  thick  film  {taie) 
which  she  has  on  the  eyes ;  our  physician  says  (dit)  that  he  can 
(petit)  take  it  away ;  he  intends  to  perform  (faire)  the  operation 
(operation)  for  her  this  weekf  14.  If  it  is  only  a  film,  the  physi-/ 
cian  can  restore  her  sight  (to  her  the  sight)!^  15.  Do  you  speak  of 
the  general's  good  fortune?  16.  I  speak  of  his  bad  fortune.  17. 
What  do  you  take  away  ?  18.  I  take  away  that  of  which  the  child 
is  afraid. 


To  thut.     To  bring,  Fermer,    Apporter, 

Do  you  shut  the  door  ?  Fenncz-vouB  la  porte  ? 

I  shut  it.  Jo  la  ferme. 

The  servant  brings  some  good  frait.        Le  domestique  apporte  de  bon  fruit. 

1.  Tnx  Imfkbatit*  Mood  of  all  Franofa  rerbs,  'with  very  few  exceptlonSf  wMch  will  be 
given  hereafter,  has  the  first  and  second  persons  pixtral  the  same  as  those  of  the  Indicative 
present,  and  the  second  person  singular  the  same  as  the  first  person  singular  of  the  indlca* 
tive  present,  all  omitting  the  subject    Thus : 

Gome  (thou).    Viens.       Shut  (thou).      Ferme.        Bring  (thou).    Apporte, 
Let  us  come.    Venona.     Let  us  shut.      Fermona.     Let  us  bring.    Appartona. 
Come  (you).     Venez.       Shut  (you).       Fermez.       Bring  (you).      Appartez, 
Come  (thou)  here.     Come  (you)  here.     Vtena  ici.     Venez  ici. 
Go  to  the  neighbor's.  Allez  chez  le  voisin. 

Let  us  go  to  the  neighbor's.  Ailona  chez  le  voisin. 

Shut  the  door.  Ferme  k  porte,  or,  Fermez  la  porte. 

Bring  the  book.  Apporte  le  livre,  or,  Apportez  le  liyre. 

Shut  the  window.    Shut  it.  Fermez  la  fen^re.    Fermez-la. 

%  These  persons  of  the  ImperatiTe,  when  affirmative,  tako  after  the  verb,  and  Join  to 
It  by  a  hyphen,  all  those  pronouns  whioh  usually  come  before  the  verb ;  the  direct  always 
preceding  the  Indirect,  y  and  en  coming  after  the  other  pronouns. 

Give  him  the  bread.  Donnez  {or  donne)-Iui  le  pain. 

Give  it  to  him.  'Bonne  {or  donnez)-lc  lul. 

Let  us  give  her  some  bread.  Donnons-lui  du  pain. 

7         •llASlie         ll«n         11««7  7  8 

fer-mer,  ap-por>ter,  ap-ports^  ap-por-ton«,  ap-por-tes,  ferm«,  fer-mca. 



Let  us  give  her  some.  Donnons-lui-eD. 

Give  some  to  them.  Donnez-leur-en. 

Let  us  give  them  the  napkins.  Donnons-leur  les  serriettes: 

Give  them  to  us.  Donnez-les-nous. 

8b  With  neg&tlve  imperatiTes,  the  pronouns  are  placed,  as  usual,  before  the  verU 
Do  not  carrj  them  to  him.  Ne  les  lui  porte  pas. 

Let  us  not  carry  any  to  them.  Ne  leur  en  portons  pas. 

Do  not  carry  them  there.  Ne  les  y  portez  pas. 

Let  us  not  carry  any  there.  N'y  en  portons  pas. 

Send  them  to  the  village.  Envoycz-lcs  au  village. 

Send  them  there.  Envoyez  {or  envoie)-le8-y. 

Send  some  there.  Envoyez  (or  envoies)-y-en. 

4.  The  second  person  singular  imperative,  If  ending  with  a  vowel,  takes  an  •  when  fol- 
lowed by  y  or  en,  as  in  this  last  phraso. 

Send  some  to  thy  father.  Envoies-eu  k  ton  perc. 

6.  With  afflrmatlTC  imperatives  me  and  U  become  moi  and  toi,  and  are  placed  after  y. 

Bring  me  thy  book. 
Take  me  there. 

Apportc-moi  ton  livro. 

Make  thyself  a  soldier. 

Fais-toi  soldat 

Lend  me  your  pen. 
Lend  it  to  me. 

Pr^tez-moi  votre  plume. 


The  arm,           A  box. 

Le  bras. 


The  noise.          K  person. 
The  return,        A  rule. 

Le  bruit. 
Le  retour. 

Une  personne. 
Une  regie. 

The  honor.         Arithmetic. 


Happy  ^  fortunate. 


Heureux^  for- 

Heureuse^  f&rtunie. 

Unhappy^  unfortunate. 

A  hair.     To  kindU,  to  light. 

MaXheureuXf  in- 

Un  cheveu. 

Malheureuse^  infor^ 


The  hair.     Yesterday^  the  day  before 


1.  AUumez  la  cbandelle.  2.  AUiimons  la  lampe.  3.  Qai  al- 
lume  le  feu?  4.  Le  domestiqae  rallume.  5.  Allumez-vous  la 
lampe?  6.  Non,  monsieur,  j'allume  la  cbandelle.  7.  Allons  a 
I'eglise.  8.  Allez  d  Tecole.  9.  Apportez-moi  la  boite  d'iroire. 
10.  Get  homme  a  le  bras  long  et  le  pied  grand  ;  il  a  aassi  les  cbe- 

1         90  9313       r      U  4      18         7  U         II        1    U  «    19         tl         Sl  • 

bras,  boite,  brul/,  per-sonfie,  rc-tour,  r6-gr1e,  Aon-near,  a-rlt/^me-tike,  lon(7,  longve,  Aeo- 

10  9        •  1«     si      6      1«      92     «  1         !)        »  19        9  U      18     lii      6    l1      M     Si 

reiuB,  Aen-ronze,  for-ta-ne,  for-ta-ne^  mal-Aeu-rpaao,  nial-Aea-reaM|  in-for-ta-n6,  in-for-tn* 

•  4       10  4      10  1      99       S         lir     1    S         117      1        S  H 

n6e,  ohe-ven,  cbe-veoe,  aMu-mer,  Aier,  avant-Aier,  a>prdsde-main. 


renz  noirs.  11.  Sentez-vons  laplaie?  12.  Je  sens  la  plnie  et 
Tair  frais.  13.  Cette  demoiselle  n'est-elle  pas  heurease  ?  14.  Elle 
est  faearense  parce  qu'elle  est  tres-bonne,  et  son  fr^re  est  malheurenx 
parce  qn'il  est  tr^s-mcchant.  15.  Allez  k  votre  chambre.  16. 
Allez-y  tout  a  Theure.  17.  Demeorez-voas  pres  d'icit  18.  Je 
demenxe  dans  la  me  Charles.  19.  Donnez-moi  cette  boite  d^ivoire. 
20.  Qa'est-ce  qui  fait  tant  de  bruit  I  21.  Le  vent  le  &it.  22. 
Get  stranger  est  une  personne  d'esprit  23.  Je  compte  aller  cbez 
Tons  a  mon  retour  de  la  ville.  24.  Savez-yous  les  r6gles  d'arith- 
metique  ?     25.  Je  les  sais  bien. 

1.  Shut  the  door.  2.  Bring  me  thy  copy-book.  3.  Give  me 
the  butter.  4.  Bring  me  the  bread.  5.  Bring  it  to  me.  6.  Give 
the  master  thy  pen.  7.  Give  it  to  him.  8.  Give  the  young  lady 
the  flowers.  9.  Give  them  to  her.  10.  Bring  the  scholars  their 
pens.  11.  Bring  them  to  them.  12.  Carry  the  ladies  the  gloves. 
13.  Carry  them  to  them.  14.  Come  here.  15.  Let  us  look  for 
our  books.  16.  Let  us  go  to  school.  17.  Do  not  speak  to  that 
boy.  18.  Do  not  speak  to  him.  19.  Do  not  give  those  men  the 
fruit.  20.  Do  not  give  it  to  them.  21.  Do  not  bring  it  to  me. 
22.  Is  that  road  narrow  t  23.  That  road  is  narrow,  and  this  one 
is  broad.  24.  I  saw  your  uncle  yesterday,  and  I  saw  the  general 
day  before  yesterday. 

25.  Will  you  please  to  give  me  a  piece  of  cake?  26.  Have 
yoa  some  more  fruit?  27. 1  have  no  more.  28.  That  lady's  arms 
are  very  white,  her  hair  is  black,  and  her  eyes  blue.  29.  Put  your 
papers  in  this  box.  30.  Do  the  children  make  that  noise  ?  31. 
Yes^  sir,  they  make  much  noise.  32.  I  am  acquainted  with  that 
lady ;  she  is  a  person  of  wit.  33.  I  saw  your  brother  yesterday  on 
(d)  my  return  from  the  country,  and  I  saw  your  father  day  before 
yesterday.  34.  What  are  you  studying  ?  35.  I  am  studying  the 
rules  of  arithmetic.  36.  Has  not  the  general  much  good  fortune  ? 
37.  He  has  much  good  fortune  and  the  captain  has  much  bad  for- 
tune. 38.  When  did  you  see  the  general  ?  39.  I  saw  him  yester- 
day, and  I  saw  the  captain  the  day  before  yesterday.  40.  I  intend 
to  go  to  your  house  day  after  to-morrow. 


1.  Do  you  not  feel  the  rain?  2.  Yes,  sir,  it  rains  already 
much.     3.  I  am  going  to  look  for  my  books  which  are  under  the 


tree.  4.  I  am  going  with  yon.  5.  Are  yon  not  cold  t  6.  No,  I 
am  neither  warm  nor  cold ;  the  wind  is  a  little  fresh,  but  it  is  not 
cold.  7.  I  like  to  hear  the  claps  of  thunder  when  I  have  nothing 
to  do,  but  I  do  not  like  them  too  near.  ^  8.  Are  you  afraid  of  them  t 
9.  I  am  not  afraid  of  them.  10.  My  books  are  already  a  little  wet ; 
I  am  going  to  put  them  before  the  fire.  11.  Who  is  in  the  house 
with  John  ?  12.  George  is  there.  13.  I  am  going  to  see  him. 
14.  Why  ?  15.  Because  I  have  his  knife,  and  I  wish  to  return  it  to 
him.  16.  Yon  need  not  go  {cTaller)  to  the  house  for  that ;  they 
are  coming  here  in  a  moment.  17.  Well,  I  remain  here.  18.  Have 
{aj/ez)  the  goodness  to  put  my  books  on  the  table.  19.  I  am  going 
to  put  them  before  the  fire  if  yon  wish  it.  20.  I  thank  yon ;  but 
they  are  not  very  wet.  21.  Well,  I  am  going  to  put  them  in  the 

22.  Lend  me  a  pen.  23. 1  have  none.  ^24.  Who  has  onet 
25.  No  one  here ;  all  the  pens  are  in  that  room,  and  Mr.  B.  has 
the  key.  26.  Have  you  not  a  pencil  ?  27.  I  have  none,  but 
George  has  one./  28.  I  am  going  for  it  {le  chercker). 

45.— quaiiante.cinquiJ:me  LEgON. 

To  drinkf  drinking,  drunk,  Boire,  buvant,  bu^  e. 

JthoU,       tuJxH*,  Uhoil,  notuhuvoM,     wusbuveg,       {l8hoi9€nt, 

I  drink,      thoa  diinkest,      ho  drinks,       we  drink,  yon  drink,        they  drink. 

To  translate,  Traduire  (yaried  as  Conduire,  Lea.  84). 

To  vHiitfor,  expect,  expecting,  expected,  Attendre,  attendant,  aitendu,  e. 

To  lose,  losing,  lost.  Perdre,  perdant,  perdu,  e. 

To  hear,  hearing,  heard.  Entendre,  entendant,  entendu,  e. 

1.  These  last  three  verbs  foUow  the  model  of  the  fourth  coz^agation,  Lesson  84  When 
the  InflnitiTe  only  of  a  verb  is  giycn  hereafter.  It  Is  to  be  understood  that  It  follows  the  reg^ 
vlar  model  of  Its  coi^agatlon. 



The  salt,                 A  line. 


TJne  ligne. 

A  ribbon.                Easy, 

TJn  rtiian. 


Next  (approaching). 



A  month.                 Geography, 

Un  mois. 

La  geographic. 

Long  (in  time).       Some  time. 


Quelque  temps. 

Difficult.    Is  it  not  f  does  Unotf  etc. 



8.  IPest-ccpas^  at  the  end  of  an  affirmation,  like  is  it  not,  does  U  not,  etc,  la  English, 
makes  it  interrogatlTO. 

This  geography  lesson  is  difBcuIt,  is    Cette  le^on  de  g^ographie  est  difficile, 
it  not?  n'est-ce  pas  ? 

aoais        aoconnneao  i   »»     is  i    s      s      i 

boir«,  ba-vant,  bols,  boil  ba-von«,  ba-vesL  holv&rtt,  tra-doirtf,  at-tendre,  a/-ten-dan^  af- 
s      at  rsrai      s         ss      *      s     s      stsu        as      lu 

ten-du,  perdr«,  per-dani!, jper-dn.  en-tendr«,  en-ten-dan^  en-ten-da,  sel,  llgntf,  m-ban,  &-cll^ 

pro-chain,  pro-chain«,  moi»,  ge-o-gra-pbl*,  \0ng-iemp9,  n'est-ea  paa. 


Tliat  man  drinkamuch  wine ;  does  he  Get  homme  bolt  beauconp  de   Tin, 

not  ?  n*e8t-ce  pas  ? 

You  are  waiting  for  the  return  of  jour  Vous  attendez  le  retour  de  tos  pa- 

rclations ;  are  you  not  ?  rents,  n^est-ce  pas  ? 

Those  scholars  do  not  translate  French  Ces  ^coliers  ne  traduissent  pas  bien  le 

well;  do  they?  ^  fran^ais,  n*e8t-ce  pas ? 

I  hear  the  noise  of  the  thunder.  .Tentends  le  bruit  du  tonnerre. 

To  rtturru  To  have  retumedy  to  be  back.  Jievenir.    Mire  de  retour. 

Oar  neighbor  has  returned  home.  Notre  volsin  est  de  retour  chez  lui. 

Perfectly.     Intimately.  Parfaitement.    IrUimement, 

On  ity  there  on.    Under  it,  there  under.  Deseue.    Dessotu, 

To  recite.    He  recites  well.  Reciter.    H  recite  bien. 

Next  year.  Van  prochain.    Vannee  prochaine. 

7%at.     He  says  that  it  rains.  (^  (conj.).    H  dit  qu^il  pleut. 

S.  We  hare  seen  (Leeeoii  82)  iXisXperwnne  withont  %  Torb,  or  with  ne  before  the  verb, 
means  nobody.  With  a  rerb  and  withont  ne,  it  means  any  body^  any  one.  It  is  always 
maaeoline  sinpalar.  Withont  ne^  and  with  an  article  or  demonstratiTO  adjective,  however, 
it  is  a  feminine  nonn,  and  means  per«on  (Lesson  44). 

Does  any  one  desire  to  do  that  ?  Personne  ddsire-t-il  faire  c^a  ? 

Nobody  desires  to  do  it.  Personne  ne  d^Bire  le  faire. 

TTiis  person  desires  to  do  it.  Cette  personne  desire  le  faire. 

4.  No  one^  in  a  general  sense  eqairalent  to  nobody.  Is  personne  /  meaning  not  one  of  a 
number  reibrred  to,  Is  aueun. 

1  know  no  one  here.  Je  ne  connais  personne  ici. 

I  know  no  one  of  those  gentlemen.  Je  ne  connais  aucun  de  ces  messieurs. 

I  bare  none  of  your  books.  Je  n*ai  aueun  de  tos  livres. 

I  haTe  translated  that  whole  page.  J'ai  traduit  cette  page  entidre. 

1.  Voyez-vous  les  lignes  sur  ce  papier?  2.  Je  les  vois.  3.  Per- 
dez-Toas  TOS  paraplaies  ?  4.  Je  les  perds  soaTent.  5.  Buvez-Tons 
de  ce  vin-ci  ou  de  celui-lA  I  6.  Nous  buTons  de  celui-ci  et  notre 
ami  boit  de  eelai-l4.  7.  Nons  ^tudions  les  regies  de  rarithmetique. 
8.  Je  doute  de  rhonneur  de  cet  homme.  9.  Qui  attendez-Tous  t 
10.  J'attends  la  cuisiniere,  et  la  cuisini^re  attend  la  seirante.  11. 
Tradoisez  ce  liTre  frangais.  12.  Traduisez-le.  13.  £tudie  ta  g6- 
ographie.  14.  Cette  dame  a  les  yeux  bleus  et  la  peau  tr6s-blaiiche. 
15.  Sait-il,  lui,  que  je  desire  le  Toirl  16.  Combien  demois  font  un  an 
(une  ann^)  ?  17.  Douze  mois  font  une  annee  (un  an).  18.  Le  fran- 
^ais  connait  intimement  Totre  fr^re.  19.  Apportez-moi  le  sel.  Don- 
nez-moi  le  ruban.  20.  Votre  legon  est-elle  facile  ?  21.  EUe  est  bien 
facila  22.  Bestez-Tous  ici  longtemps  ?  23.  Non,  monsieur,  je  pars 
aprto-demain.     24*  Combien  de  lignes  recitez-Tous  bienf     25.  Je 

4  1S4       18         17  Slilt  S4lt4       18         5aS«Sl« 

TCYe-nir,  re-tonr,  par-fUte-men/,  in-tlme-menC,  de«-su«,  de«-sou«,  re-cl-tor,  an,  an-ne«, 

4    I?      M 

k«!,  aa-cun. 


recite  parfaitement  bien  nne  page  entire.  26.  Mettes-vons  votre 
chapeau  snr  la  table  on  dessoos  ?  27.  Je  ne  le  mets  ni  dessus  ni 
dessoos.  28.  Yotre  fr6re  compte-t-il  revenir  toat  de  suite  ?  29. 
II  est  de  retour  k  present. 

1.  Do  yon  drink  tea  or  coffee  1  2. 1  drink  coffee  and  my  sisters 
drink  tea.  3.  I  know  the  doctor,  and  I  know  that  he  is  a  man  of 
wit.  4.  Are  you  waiting  for  any  one  ?  5.  I  am  waiting  for  the 
return  of  my  brother.  6.  Your  brother  has  returned.  7.  Do  you 
sometimes  lose  your  money  ?  8.  I  never  lose  it.  9.  Do  you  hear 
what  I  say  t  10.  I  hear  it  perfectly.  11.  How  many  lines  do  those 
scholars  translate  ?     12.  They  translate  all  the  lines  of  that  page. 

13.  I  know  that  that  man  is  intimately  acquainted  with  your  father. 

14.  Does  your  brother  return  home  often  ?  15.  He  returns  very 
often.  16.  He  has  returned  now.  17.  Are  the  lessons  easy  or 
difficult?  18.  Our  lessons  are  difficult,  but  the  one  of  that  lazy 
little  one  is  very  easy. 

19.  Have  you  bought  the  blue  ribbons  ?  20.  I  have  bought  them. 
21.  Have  you  recited  your  lesson  well?  22.  I  recited  it  perfectly 
well.  23.  Did  you  translate  all  the  lines  of  that  page?  24. 1  trans- 
lated them  all.  25.  I  intend  to  go  out  in  a  moment.  26.  Give 
me  the  salt.  27.  Bring  me  the  ribbons.  Show  them  to  me.  28. 
Do  not  show  them  to  him.  29.  Do  you  depart  next  week  or  next 
month?  30.  I  depart  day  after  to-morrow.  31.  Is  your  hat  on 
the  bench  or  under  it  ?  32.  It  is  neither  on  it  nor  under  it ;  it  is 
here  on  the  table.  33.  Give  me  thy  book.  34.  Lend  me  your 
knife.  35.  Let  us  drink  the  coffee.  36.  Bring  me  that  box.  Bring 
it  to  me.  37.  Carry  it  to  her.  38.  Do  not  carry  it  to  them.  39, 
Give  it  to  us.  40.  Let  us  take  the  potatoes  to  the  cellar.  41.  Let 
us  take  some  there.  42.  Let  us  go  to  the  church.  43.  Let  us  go 
there.  44.  Has  any  one  my  book  ?  45.  No  one  has  it.  46.  You 
know  my  father ;  do  you  not  ?     47.  I  know  no  one  of  your  relations. 


1.  Do  you  know  any  one  of  those  gentlemen  ?  2.  No,  sir,  my 
brother  knows  many  persons  (monde)  here,  but  I  know  nobody  and 
nobody  knows  me.  3.  Who  takes  you  to  school  ?  4.  Nobody ;  I 
go  there  alone.  5.  Are  you  acquainted  with  none  of  the  pupils  f 
6.  Yes,  I  know  them  all.  7.  Charles,  lend  me  thy  slate.  8.  Yes» 
certainly ;  where  is  thine  ?  9.  It  is  full  of  writing.  10.  Well,  wash 
it.     11.  No,  my  friend.     12.    Why  not  ?     13.  Because  it  is  the 



vriting  of  my  brother,  and  he  has  need  of  it  14.  Well,  mine  is 
there  on  the  bench.  15.  Hast  thou  need  of  a  slate-pencil  {crayon 
tTardoise)  t  16.  Thank  yon,  I  have  one.  17.  Show  me  the  lesson  in 
(fife)  arithmetic.  18.  What  have  we  to  do?  19.  We  have  this  mle 
to  study.  20.  That  is  not  very  diflScult.  21.  What  art  thou 
studying  t  22.  I  am  studying  my  lesson  in  geography,  and  I  am 
going  to  study  my  lesson  in  reading. 

23.  Which  of  all  thy  lessons  dost  thou  like  the  best  (fe  mieux)y 
John  ?  24.  That  of  geography.  25.  Because  that  lesson  is  less 
difficult  than  the  others ;  is  it  not  1  26.  Yes,  Charles  ;  dost  thou 
know  any  pupil  who  likes  difficult  lessons?  27.  No,  my  little 
friend ;  children  are  a  little  lazy ;  but  thou  hast  not  to  study  only 
that  which  is  easy.  28.  No,  I  know  it,  I  wish  to  study  all ;  but  I 
do  not  like  what  is  too  difficult.  29.  Is  thy  father  still  in  the  coun- 
try t     30.  No,  he  has  returned. 

46.— quarante-sixiJ:me  LEgON. 


To  read,  reading,  read. 
Je  lU,  iu  /m,  U  Hi, 

I  read,  thoa  readest,     he  reads, 

To  write^  writingy  written. 
ricrU,  tulcrU,  iUerU, 

I  vrfte,  t]ioa  wrltest,    he  writes, 

To  sat/y  Miying^  said, 
J^dia,  tudia,  Udit, 

1  saj,  thoa  Gayest,      he  says, 


Lire,  liearU^  lu,  e  (fern.). 
natu  liaone,  €ous  lisea,  tie  lieent^ 

W6  read,  you  read,  they  read. 

Ecrire,  Scrtvant,  Icrit. 
notte  ierivone^         vou»  icrivea^     tie  icritent^ 
we  write,  you  write,         they  write. 

DirCj  dieant,  dit. 
nous  dieons,  vowi  dUee, 

we  say,  you  say. 

they  say. 


The  credit.    The  tongue,  language. 
The  prcfj.     To  he  worth. 
To  9eU,    He  sells  wine. 
The  tool.     Then. 

That  man  is  worth  a  hundred  thousand 

La  langue, 
Mre  riche  de. 

ha  credit. 
Lo  profit. 
Vendre.     II  vend  du  tui. 
VoutU.    Alore,  done. 
Get  homme  est  riche  de  cent  mille  dol> 

1.  Then^  an  adrerb  of  time,  is  alora  ;  then,  a  conjanction  of  inference.  Is  dono. 

I  was  at  your  house  this  morning,  and 

then  I  saw  your  brother. 
My  father  is  sick. 

Then  he  does  not  go  out  at  present. 
To  have  the  appearance  of,  to  look. 

J*ai  6t6  chez  vous  ce  matin,  et  alo.M 

j'ai  vu  votre  frSre. 
Mon  p^re  est  malade. 
Done  il  ne  sort  pas  k  pr6sent. 
Avoir  Fair  {de). 

»«      n  »      n   IS    IS  n      n  s     is         s    is     s    i?   s       sue    is    »     w    ai      s    " 

lire,  U-£an«,  11«,  Ut,  ll-zoM,  lizc»,  liz«n/,  6-crir«,  6-cri-van«,  6-crl«,  6-crl«,  6-crl-yon«,  d-cri- 

6     »     w  IS        US        n     la     u  SI        w«        la  «  J?.  ,^  **  ii2  *?«k- 

T«s,  6^rirent,  dire,  di-zani,  dIA  dls,  dl-«on«,  di-zez,  dizent,  cr6-dW,  langi**,  pro-IW,  rich*, 

«  IS  n    1  u      71        r 

rmdr'*,  oo-til,  a-Iort,  done,  air. 



You  look  in  good  health.  Toua  avcz  Tair  d^etre  en  oonnc  9anU* 

She  looks  in  good  humor.  EUe  a  Tair  de  bonne  humefur. 

He  looks  in  bad  humor.  II  a  Fair  de  mauvabe  humeur. 

That  lady  looks  proud.  Cette  dame  a  Fair  ficr. 

%  When  an  adjective  following  ae^r  Tair  moreljr  cxpreaBes  pAytieaZ  4aaIifloaU<»i8,  it 
Is  made  to  agree  with  the  subject;  but  when  applied  to  a  morai  hcalty  or  mOapkifHcal 
dlatinotlon,  it  most  generally  agreea  with  the  word  air.  See  page  489, 2a 

That  apple  looks  good.  Cette  pomme  a  Tair  honne. 

That  lady  looks  good.  Cette  dame  a  Fair  b<m. 

That  lady  looks  badly  formed.  Cette  dame  a  Tair  roal/oi/e. 

8.  We  haye  seen  (Lesson  20, 7)  that  one  yerb  following  another,  and  ezpraasing  its  ob- 
Jeot,  is  put  in  the  inflnltiye.  This  is  often  the  case  when  the  verbs  in  English  are  Joined  by 
a  coijanotlon. 

Come  and  read.    Go  and  write.  Venez  lire.    Allez  6crire. 

Come  and  tell  me  thy  name.  Viens  me  dire  ton  nom. 

4  When  a  negatiye  belongs  partieularly  to  the  inflnltiye  present,  both  parts  (fte  Km,  «« 
poM^  etc)  are  placed  before  the  yerb. 

They  like  to  do  nothing.  Hs  aiment  k  ne  rien  faire. 

I  wish  not  to  write.  Je  desire  ne  pas  dcriro. 

He  takes  good  care  not  to  go  to  school.     D  a  bien  soin  de  ne  pas  aller  A  T^oole. 

&  ^  Is  to  be  repeated  before  eyery  inflnltiye  depending  on  the  same  word  or  phiase. 
I  have  something  to  study  and  recite.     J^ai  qnelque  chose  &  ^tudier  et  k  r6citer. 
We  like  to  read,  write,  and  study.  Nous  aimons  ik  lire,  &dcrire  et  iitudier. 

1.  Get  6picier  a-t-il  du  credit?  2.  H  a  du  credit  et  du  profit. 
3.  Combien  de  langaes  le  maitre  parle-t-il  ?  4.  H  parle  parfaite- 
ment  Tanglais,  le  frangais  et  Tespagnol.  5.  Ces  marchandes  ont  Fair 
bien  gai.  6.  Elles  ont  mdme  Tair  distingue,  mais  leors  marchandises 
ont  Pair  bien  mauvaises.  7.  Que  vends-tu  ?  8.  Je  ne  vends  rien, 
mais  cet  ouvrier  vend  ses  outils.  9.  Sav^z-vous  ce  que  dit  cette 
femme  t  10.  EUe  dit  que  son  fils  sait  parfaitement  le  fran^ais. 
11.  Je  connais  intimement  son  fils,  et  je  dis  qn'il  sait  parfaitement 
le  frangais  et  I'espagnoL  12.  II  est  riche  de  soixantc  mille  dollars. 
13.  Lis-tn  ce  livre  frangais  ?  14.  Je  ne  le  lis  pas,  mais  mon  frdre  le 
lit  et  mes  soeurs  le  lisent  aussL  15.  £cris-tu  beaucoup  de  lettres  t 
16.  J'en  6cris  beaucoup.  17.  Dites-vous  qu'il  pleut  ?  18.  Je  dis 
qu'il  pleut  19.  Vous  avez  Pair  d'etre  malade ;  etes-vous  en  bonne 
sant^t  20.  Je  suis  un  pen  malade.  21.  Pourquoi  cet  eleve  a-t-il 
Tair  de  mauvaise  humeur  t  22.  Parce  qu'il  trouve  sa  legon  unpeu 
difficile.  23.  Quand  avez-vous  6crit  vos  lettres?  24.  Je  les  ai 
6crites  avant  hier. 

1.  What  languages  do  you  speak  ?  2.  I  speak  English  and 
French.     3.  Which  language  do  you  like  the  best  {le  mieux)  t     4. 


It  is  the  English.  5.  Has  tliat  merchant  profit  ?  6.  He  has  nei- 
ther profit  nor  credit.  7.  Is  he  not  rich  1  8.  Yes,  sir,  he  is  worth 
two  hundred  thousand  dollars.  9.  What  is  that  workman  selling? 
10«  He  is  selling  his  tools.  11.  Do  you  read  the  letters  which  we 
write?  12.  We  read  them.  13.  Do  the  scholars  write  letters  to 
their  friends  ?  14.  They  write  some  to  them.  15.  What  do  you 
sayl  16.  We  say  that  it  rains.  17.  Do  those  children  tell  you 
their  names  ?  18.  They  tell  them  to  us.  19.  Tell  me  where  is 
your  father  ?  20.  He  is  at  home.  21.  May  (mat)  is  the  fifth  month 
of  the  year ;  is  it  not  ?  22.  It  is  the  fifth.  23.  That  man  loses  his 

24.  Do  you  hear  the  noise  of  the  wind  ?  25.  Tes,  sir,  and  I 
hear  the  noise  of  the  rain  also.  26.  That  musician  translates  Span- 
ish easily.  27.  Does  the  doctor  dwell  near  here  {pr^s  cTici)  ?  28. 
Xoy  sir,  he  dwells  near  the  market  29.  That  scholar  is  a  little 
lazy.  30.  Then  she  does  not  like  to  study.  31.  Do  you  read  all 
that  the  master  writes?  32.  I  read  it  all.  33.  Has  that  old  lady 
read  the  letters  of  her  daughter  ?  34.  Yes,  sir,  she  received  them 
this  morning,  and  then  she  read  them.  35.  Have  those  children 
told  yon  their  names  ?  36.  They  have  not  told  them  to  me.  37. 
Does  any  one  know  the  name  of  that  stranger  ?  3  8.  No  one  knows  it 
39.  Have  you  read  any  one  of  these  books  ?  40.  I  have  read  none. 
41.  Do  you  intend  to  remain  long  in  this  village  ?  42.  No,  sir,  I 
depart  forthwith  ;  but  my  brother  intends  to  remain  here  some  time. 
43.  That  scholar  likes  to  do  nothing.  44.  6o  and  look  for  your 
copy-book.     45.  Come  and  show  me  your  writing. 


I.  Do  you  see  that  young  lady  who  is  going  to  Madame  B.'s  ? 
2.  Yes,  I  see  her.  3.  Who  is  she  I  are  you  acquainted  with  her  ? 
4.  She  is  the  sister  of  Charles  ;  I  see  her  sometimes  at  church.  5. 
She  lives  near  our  house,  and  she  comes  to  see  my  mother  frequent- 
ly. 6.  What  is  her  name  ?  7.  Her  name  is  Mary  (Marie) ;  do  you 
wish  to  make  her  acquaintance  (sa  connaissance)  ?  8.  With  much 
pleasure.  9.  Well,  one  evening  of  this  week  I  am  going  to  take 
you  to  see  her.     10.  I  thank  you  much. 

II.  George  {Georges),  what  hast  thou  in  that  bag?  12.  They 
are  apples,  sir ;  will  you  have  one  ?  13.  No,  thank  you ;  but  where 
didst  thou  find  so  (de  ai)  beautiful  apples?  14.  At  the  house  of  our 
gnx:er,  where  my  father  sends  me  to  buy  some  sometimes.  15. 
They  are  superb  ;  I  am  going  to  buy  some  also.     16.  Where  does 


your  grocer  live  t  17.  On  Boyal-street,  near  the  market ;  if  you 
are  not  acquainted  with  the  place,  I  am  going  to  conduct  you  there. 
18.  Hast  thou  the  time  to  {de)  go  there  t  19.  0,  yes,  I  have  noth- 
ing to  do.     20.  Thank  thee,  my  friend,  thou  art  very  good. 

21.  The  scholars  recite  their  lessons  perfectly  to-day ;  they  are 
not  lazy.  22.  Generally  (gin^alement)  you  do  not  stay  here  long ; 
do  you  intend  to  depart  tne  day  after  to-morrow  ?  23.  I  intend  to 
depart  next  month.  24.  Do  you  always  put  your  mnhrella  on  the 
table  ?  25.  I  do  not  put  it  on  it,  I  put  it  under  it.  26.  Why  does 
the  Spaniard  look  in  ill  humor  ?  27.  Because  he  is  not  in  good 



1.  TnB  FimrM  of  French  rerbs  Is  formed  from  tho  Infinitive  bj  the  following  general 
rale :  Change  b  final  of  tho  Jlrst  and  second  coi^ugations,  oir  of  tho  thirds  and  r«  of  the 
/(KtrtK,  Into  tho  terminations, 

RAI,  RA8,  RA,  RONS,  RXZ,  EOKT. 

J^aimerait     tuaimercu^      ilaimera^      nous  aimeront,  wms  ainurea,    Usaimerfmi, 
I  shall  love,    thou  wilt  love,  ho  will  lovo,  wo  shall  love,     yon  will  love,    they  will  love. 

Jtfinirai^         tujinirat^       iljinira,       novsjlniron*,     vowtjlnirea^     ilsjlnir&nt^ 
1  shall  finish,    thoa  wilt,  etc.,  he  will,  etc.,  we  shall,  etc,       yon  will,  etc,    they  will,  etc. 

J6  reoevrai,       tu  rec&tras^     il  rtcevra,  noua  reeevrons,  rout  recevrn,    iU  r^t^ront^ 
I  shall  receive,    thou  wilt,  etc.,  he  will,  etc,  we  shall,  etc.,       you  will,  etc,    they  will,  etc 

J6  rendrai^         tu  nmdraa^       il  rendra,     nous  rendrons,  rous  rendrea^  ils  rendront, 
I  shall  give  back,  thou  wilt,  etc,  ho  will,  etc,  wo  shall,  etc,      yon  will,  etc,  they  will,  etc 

2.  Avoia,  to  have,  and  Atrb,  to  be,  have  tho  future  Irregular. 
J^aurai,       tu  auras,  il  aura,         nous  aurons,      rous  aurta.         Us  atiront, 

I  shall  have,  thou  wilt,  etc,   he  will,  etc,  wo  shall,  etc,       you  will,  etc,      they  will,  etc 
Je  serai,       tuseras,  ilsera,  nous  serons,        Tousserea,         Usseront, 

I  shall  be,     thou  wilt  be,      he  will  be,      we  shall  be,  you  will  be,        they  will  be. 

There  are  a  few  other  verbs  (fonrtoen)  whoso  futures  vary  slightly  from  tho  above  n.l. . 
These  will  be  noted  hereafter. 

Will  the  scholars  love  the  master?  Lcs  dcoliers  oimeront-ils  le  maitrc? 

They  will  love  him.  lis  roimcront. 

When  will  you  finish  your  exercises?      Quand  finirez-vous  vos  themes? 

shall  finish  them  this  evening.  Nous  les  fiuirons  ce  soir. 

^'V.  thou  receive  thy  letters  to-mor-     Recevras-tu  tcs  lettres  domain  ? 

^"fe  shi 

7>       61      in       «n       TaM844      «s        «ic«  « 

•injdvrai,  ns,  ra,  ron«,  rea,  ron<,  fi-ni-rai,  ro-cev-ral,  ren-dral,  au-rai,  se-raU 



I  fiball  receive  them  day  after  to-mor^  Je  les  recevrai  aprte-demun. 


The  gentleman  will  give  back  to  you  Monsieur  yous  rendra  Totre  argent 

your  money. 

I  shall  be  at  your  house  to-morrow.  Jc  serai  cbez  youa  dcmain. 

We  shall  hare  our  money  next  week.  Nous  aurons  notre  argent  la  semaine 


S.  Alter  adyerbs  of  Ume,  whero  the  English  employ  other  tenses  for  the  ftiture,  the 
French  employ  the  fatore;  bat  after  «i  condltioxuU,  they  use  the  present 

When  I  kave  my  money  I  shall  be  rich.     Quand/aurat  mon  argent  jc  serai  riche. 
When  we  have  time  we  will  write.  Quand  nous  aurons  le  temps  nous  ^cri- 

He  win  read  when  he  has  books.  H  lira  quand  il  aura  des  livrcs. 

If  I  see  him  I  will  speak  to  him.  Si  je  le  vols  je  lui  parlerai. 

In  all  the  abore  verbs  the  meaning  Is  fatnre,  and  in  French  the  ftitare  Is  nsed  in  all 
except  the  one  following  ^  it 

4  Si^  meaning  whether^  is  followed  in  sach  cases  by  the  future. 

I  do  not  know  whether  he  sets  otU  to-  Jc  no  sals  sMl  partira  demain. 


Do  you  know  whether  wc  recite  this  SaTez-TOUs  si  nous  r^iterons  co  soir  ? 

cTcning  ? 

&  A  fatore  event,  which  is  near,  Is  sometimes  expressed,  in  French  as  in  English,  by 
the  preeenL 

He  arriTes  this  eyening.  H  arrive  ce  soir. 

He  departs  to-morrow.  II  part  dcmain. 

1.  Aimeras-ta  tes  lemons?  2.  Je  les  aimerai  toutes.  3. 
Aimerez-vons  vos  amis  t  4.  Nous  les  aimerons.  5.  Sortiras-tu  ce 
matin?  6.  Non,  mon  ami,  je  sortirai  ce  soir.  7.  Les  enfants 
sortiront-ils  ce  soir?  8.  lis  ne  sortiront  pas  anjourd'hui.  0. 
Quand  recevrez-vous  votre  argent?  10.  Nous  le  recevrons  le  mois 
prochain.  11.  Les  negociants  recevront-ils  le  leur  demain?  12. 
Oni,  monsienr,  et  le  capitaine  recerra  le  sien  apr^s-demain.  13.  Ou 
mettrez-vous  vos  mouchoirs?  14.  Je  les  mettrai  dans  ce  tiroir. 
15.  0\i  les  ouvriers  mettront-ils  leurs  outils  ?  16.  Us  les  mettront 
sur  le  banc.  17.  Nous  mettrons  nos  livres  sur  le  pupitre  ;  oik  met- 
tras-tu  lea  tiens?  18.  Je  les  mettrai  dans  mon  tiroir.  19.  Aurez- 
yons  beanconp  d'argent  demain  ?  20.  Je  n'en  aurai  pas  beaucoup. 
21.  Qnand  les  6coliers  auront-ils  leurs  livres?  22.  lis  les  auront 
tout  k  rhenre.  23.  Vos  amis  seront-ils  ici  demain  ?  24.  Us  seront 
ici  anjonrd'hui.  25.  Serez-vous  chez  vous  ce  soir  ?  26.  J'y  serai 
et  mon  firere  j  sera  anssi  27.  Quand  je  serai  d  New  York,  je  vous 
ecriraL     28.  Si  je  reste  k  Boston,  je  vous  le  dirai. 


1.  When  will  yon  have  your  money  ?  2.  I  slmll  have  it  the 
day  after  to-morrow.  3.  When  wilt  thou  be  in  New  York  ?  4.  I 
shall  be  there  next  month.     5.  When  shall  we  have  some  fruit  t 

6.  We  shall  have  some  next  week.  7.  Where  will  the  general  be 
next  month  ?  8.  He  will  be  in  the  city.  9.  Where  will  his  sons 
be  then  ?  10.  They  will  be  there  also.  11.  My  father  will  have 
his  money  the  day  after  to-morrow  ;  will  you  have  yours  then  also  ? 

12.  I  shall  not  have  mine  this  year.  13.  That  trader  has  no 
money.  14.  Then  he  will  have  neither  profit  nor  credit  15.  Will 
your  brother  go  out  this  evening?  16.  No,  sir,  he  will  remain  at 
home.  17.  When  will  your  relations  receive  your  letters?  18. 
They  will  receive  them  next  week.  19.  Will  you  put  on  your 
cloak?     20.  I  shall  put  it  on  if  I  am  cold. 

21.  What  does  that  lazy  scholar  like  to  do?  22.  She  likes  to 
do  nothing.  23.  Will  not  the  cook  be  pleased  when  she  has  that 
large  fish?  24.  She  will  be  much  pleased.  25.  Where  will  you 
be  to-morrow?  26.  I  shall  be  at  school.  27.  Will  you  have  your 
money  when  we  have  ours  ?  28.  I  do  not  know  when  you  will 
have  yours ;  but  we  shall  have  ours  day  after  to-morrow.  29.  Then 
you  will  have  yours  very  soon  {bientot).  30.  Where  is  George  ? 
31.  Is  he  not  in  the  yard?  82.  No,  no  one  of  the  boys  is  thera 
33.  John  is  there.  34.  No,  no  one  is  there.  35.  They  are  in  the 
house.  36.  Well,  I  am  going  there.  37.  Have  you  bought  the 
countryman's  horses?  38.  I  have  not  bought  them  yet,  but  I  shall 
buy  them  to-morrow. 


1.  Will  you  give  back  to  John  this  knife,  and  bring  me  my 
book  which  is  on  my  table  ?  2.  I  wish  to  write  my  exercises,  I 
forget  them  sometimes ;  do  you  never  forget  yours  ?  3.  No,  never. 
4.  Does  your  brother  ever  forget  his?  6.  Yes,  sometimes,  but  not 
often.     6.  George,  pick  up  your  books  and  put  them  on  the  table. 

7.  K  you  know  your  lesson,  come  and  recite  it.  8.  I  know  mine, 
but  my  brother  does  not  yet  know  his.  9.  Well,  cojne  and  recite 
yours;  how  many  lines  do  you  know?  10.  I  know  a  page.  11. 
Well,  very  well,  you  are  not  lazy  to-day.     12.  Give  me  the  book. 

13.  I  have  it  not  14.  Where  is  it  ?  15.  Charles  has  it.  16.  Go 
and  look  for  it  17.  Charles,  give  me  my  book;  I  am  going  to  re- 
cite my  lesson.  18.  Lend  it  to  me  still  a  little.  19.  I  have  need 
of  it;  Mr.  A.  wishes  for  it.     20.  Well,  take  (preriez)  it. 

21.  Well,  George,  hast  thou  thy  book?  22.  Yes,  sir.  23. 
Give  it  to  me  and  show  me  the  lesson.     24.  It  is  this  one.     25. 


Very  well,  recite  it.  26.  Thou  knowest  it  perfectly ;  go  {va)  and 
write  thy  exercise.  27.  Let  (laissez)  me  carry  this  book  to  Charles, 
if  you  please.  28.  Yes,  carry  it  to  him  ;  but  has  he  not  his  !  29. 
No,  sir,  his  is  at  home.  30.  Tell  him  that  he  will  soon  (bientdt) 
recite  his  lesson.  31.  Permit  (permetiez)  me  to  go  for  ((Taller 
chercker)  some  water.  32.  Yes,  if  you  wish  for  some.  83.  Let 
John  go  (venir)  with  me,  if  you  please.  34.  Yes,  go,  but  do  not 
stay  long.     35.  We  will  be  back  soon. 



1.  AlUr,  to  go,  and  envaper^  to  send,  have  the  fatore  irregular. 

J^irai,  tu{ra9,  ilira,  fums  irons,  vousirtz^       Utiront, 

lehallgo,      thoawiltgo,       bo  trill  go,     ure  shall  go,  you  will  go,   thojwiUgo. 

J^enverrai,  tu  envemUt     il  enterra,     nous  eniferrona,  €<nu  enverrez,   iU  enverront, 

I  shall  send,  thoa  wilt,  etc.,  he  will,  etc,   we  shall,  etc.,        70a  will,  etc.,    they  will,  etc. 

Win  joa  go  to  the  city  to-morrow  ?        Irez-vous  d  la  ville  demain  ? 
I  shall  go  there.  J'irai. 

2.  Fis  always  omitted  before  the  (titore  and  conditional  of  aller  for  euphony. 

My  brother  will 

go  there  also. 

Mon  frire  ira  aussi. 

We  shall  not  go 


Nous  n'irons 


Wilt  thou  send] 

me  ten  dollars? 

M^enverras-tu  dix  dollars  ? 

I  will  send  them  to  thee. 

Je  te  les  envcrrai. 


The  pomr. 

The  health. 

Le  pouvoir. 

La  sant^. 

The  taste. 

Good  ht$nwr. 

he  gout. 

La  honne  humeur. 

The  minister. 

Ill  hamor. 

Le  ministre. 

La  mauvaise  humeur. 

A  kingdom. 

The  company. 

Un  royaume. 

La  compagnie. 







The  cheese.    To  taste  of. 

Le  frontage. 

Avoir  le  gout  de. 

To  bcatj  heating^  beaten. 


battant,  battu,  e. 

S.  Batire  is  rarlod  In  the  present  like  metire  (Lesson  80). 

To  take,  taking,  taken.  Prendre,  prenant,  pris,  e. 

Jzprendt,    tuprendu,     Uprend,       nousprenons,       vousprenez,       Ueprennent^ 
I  take,  thou  takest,    he  takes,        we  take,  you  take,  they  take. 

Jb  recognize.     To  learn.  Reeonnaitre.     Apprendre  (d  bef,  inf.). 

4.  Meeonnatlre  and  apprendre,  compounds  of  eonnattre  and  prendre,  are  xaried  like 
them.    Compounds  generally  follow  the  form  of  their  simples. 

n  «    s      7      «      M      )«      I      •      19       ta     n         is  i9  901217  n       1     u 

i-rai,  cn-ver-ral,  pou-volr,  san-te,  god*,  hu-mour,  ml-nlstr«,  ro-yaum«,  com-pa-gni^ 
1  14     1  J«  »      ^  i»     1         r         1     «        I    sa      »    ,  4    »         la      » 

la-tio,  la-tin«,  grcc,  grecka,  tro-mage,  battr«,  hoi-t&ni,  ba/-tu,  prendre,  pre-nan<,  prl«,prena^ 

s  4   3  4    •        i  4   u      7        1        «  ^ 

prcn<f,  pre-non^,  pre-nea,  prennsn/,  re-co»-naltr«,  a/>-prondra. 


To  comprehend,  Comprendre  (compounded  of  prendre), 

WUlitrainf    It  will  rain.  Pleuvra-UU ?    II  pleuvra. 

Several,    Several  men.  Plusieurs,    Plusieurs  hommes. 

That  soup  tastes  good.  Cette  soupe  a  bon  goftt. 

It  tastes  of  pepper.  Elle  a  uu  goUi  de  poivre. 

Who  beats  the  little  boy  ?  Qui  bat  le  petit  gar^on? 

The  workmen  beat  him  because  he    Les  ouyriers  le  battent  parco    qull 

takes  their  tools.  prend  leurs  outils. 

What  do  you  learn  ?  Qu'apprenez-Yous? 

I  learn  to  read  the  Latin  language.  J'apprends  k  lire  la  langue  latine. 

Do  you  recognize  your  old  friend  ?  Rcconnaissez-vous  votre  vieil  ami  ? 

I  recognize  him.  ,  Je  Ic  reconnais. 

6.  We  bare  seen  (Lesson  41)  that  some  verbs  and  pbrmses  require  d  before  a  following 
InllnltiTe,  and  tbat  others  reqnire  no  preposition.  There  are  some  verbs  and  phrases  also 
which  reqnire  de.  Dire  and  ovhlier^  already  given,  taice  de  before  the  following  inilnitlvew 
Bach  words  will  be  marked,  as  they  are  given  hereafter,  by  the  abbreviation  {de  be£  izi£>. 

He  tells  me  to  do  that.  H  me.  dit  de  faire  cela. 

He  forgets  to  read  the  letter.  II  oublie  de  lire  la  lettre. 

1.  Oil  iras-tu  ?  2.  J'irai  k  la  riviere,  et  mes  fibres  iront  cbez 
euz.  3.  Cette  homme  a  Tair  de  mauvaise  humeur ;  est-il  malade  ? 
4.  Nod,  monsieur,  il  est  en  bonne  8ant6.  5.  Que  prenez-Tons  t  6. 
Je  prends  mes  livres.  7.  Apprenez-vous  k  lire  la  langue  latine  t 
8.  J'apprends  k  lire  la  langue  latine  et  la  grecque.  9.  Le  ministre 
n*a  ni  credit  ni  profit  10.  Ou  irez-yous  demaint  11.  J'irai  a  la 
campagne.  12.  Apprenez-vous  k  lire  la  langue  espagnole?  13. 
J'apprends  a  la  lire  et  k  I'^crire.  14.  Apprends-tu  la  langue 
grecque  f  15.  Je  I'apprends.  16.  Le  ministre  a^t-il  du  pouvoirf 
17.  n  n'a  ni  pouvoir  ni  argent  18.  Est-ce  que  vous  battez  ce 
cbien?  19.  Je  le  bats.  20.  Pleuvra-t-il  aujourd'huit  21.  Je 
crois  qu'il  ne  pleuvra  pas.  22.  Combien  de  rojaimies  TEurope 
comprend-elle  ?  23.  Elle  en  comprend  plusieurs.  24.  Le  presi- 
dent re^oit  de  la  compagnie  a  la  maison  blanche  ce  soir.  25.  Cet 
Spicier  a-t-il  de  bon  fromagef  26.  II  n'a  ni  fromage  ni  beurre. 
27.  Reconnaissez-vous  cet  homme?  28.  Oui,  c'est  le  ministre  de  la 
reine.  29.  La  France  est  un  royaume  riche  et  bien  beau.  80.  Le 
general  recevra  de  la  compagnie  demain. 

1.  Will  your  brother  go  to  school  to-morrow?  2.  No,  sir,  he 
will  go  to  the  city.  3.  Will  you  not  go  there  also  ?  4.  No,  sir,  I 
shall  go  to  my  uncle's.  5.  Will  you  send  some  money  to  that  man  ? 
6.  We  shall  send  some  to  him.     7.  Who  will  send  these  letters  to 

a         •   ,  •       1      ss  nil 

com-prendr^,  pleav-ra,  pla-zlear«. 


the  general?  8.  His  friends  will  send  them  to  him.  9.  The 
minister  of  the  queen  is  not  in  good  health.  10.  This  coffee  tastes 
good  ;  but  that  cake  tastes  of  pepper.  11.  What  does  jonr  brother 
l3am  ?  12.  He  learns  Latin  and  Greek.  13.  Does  that  cheese 
taste  good  1  14.  No,  sir,  it  tastes  of  pepper.  15.  Has  the  minis- 
ter power  T  16.  He  has  much  power ;  he  has  also  money;  he  is 
worth  sixty  thousand  dollars. 

17.  Dost  thou  beat  the  dog?  18.  I  beat  him.  19.  Does  the 
conntryman  beat  his  horse?  20.  He  beats  him.  21.  What  do 
those  children  beat  ?  22.  They  beat  the  ugly  cat.  23.  Do  you 
ever  beat  that  child?  24.  I  never  beat  him.  25.  Do  you  take 
what  I  give  you?  26.  I  take  it.  27.  What  do  those  scholars 
take  ?  28.  They  take  their  slates  and  books.  29.  Why  do  you 
take  your  hats  ?  30.  We  take  them  because  we  are  going  home. 
31.  Does  that  child  comprehend  what  he  reads?  32.  He  compre- 
hends it  perfectly.  33.  Do  you  comprehend  that  history  ?  34.  I 
comprehend  it.  35.  Why  does  that  little  boy  look  in  ill  humor  ? 
36.  Because  he  does  not  comprehend  what  he  studies.  37.  Europe 
comprehends  several  large  kingdoms.  38.  Dost  thou  recognize 
thy  friend  ?  39.  I  recognize  him.  40.  We  shall  receive  company 
to-morrow.  41.  Do  you  recognize  your  writing?  42.  I  recog- 
nize it. 


1.  John,  come  with  me.  2.  Where  are  you  going  ?  3.  I  am 
going  to  the  grocer's  for  (ckercker)  some  sugar.  4.  1  will  go  there 
with  you ;  but  let  us  not  stay  long.  5.  No,  I  do  not  wish  to  stay 
there-  6.  Have  you  a  bag?  7.  I  have  two.  8.  Give  me  one. 
0.  Take  this  one.  10.  What  will  you  ptlt  in  this  bag?  11.  I  will 
put  some  sugar  in  that  one  and  some  coffee  in  the  other.  12.  To 
what  grocer's  are  you  going?  13.  We  will  go  to  Mr.  B.'s ;  he  has 
a  large  store.  14.  Do  you  sometimes  go  to  his  house?  15.  Yes  ; 
I  go  there  often  ;  my  father  sends  me  there  when  he  has  need  of 
something.  16.  I  never  see  you  go  there,  17.  I  often  go  there  in 
the  morning. 

18.  Good  morning  {bovjour),  Mr.  B.,  my  father  sends  me  for 
some  sugar  and  some  coffee.  19.  Well,  my  friend,  give  me  thy 
bags.  20.  How  much  sugar  dost  thou  wish  for?  21.  Fill  the  bag. 
22.  What  sugar  does  thy  father  wish  for?  23.  Some  white  sugar. 
24.  And  how  much  coffee  ?  25.  Put  ten  pounds  in  this  bag.  26. 
Dost  thou  not  wish  for  some  cheese  or  some  butter  to-day  ?  27. 
No,  sir,  we  have  some  still  at  our  house.     28.  I  have  some  good 


cheese  ;  carry  a  piece  of  it  to  thj  father,  and  tell  him  to  taste  it. 
29.  Have  you  some  water?  30.  Yes,  I  have  some  ;  dost  thoa ever 
drink  wine?  81.  No,  I  never  drink  any,  but  I  sometimes  drink 


One,  they,  tee,  people.  On, 

1.  On,  thongb  it  may  sometimes  luiro  a  feminine  or  a  plaral  Agreeing  wiUi  it,  Is  general- 
ly mascniino  Bingulor.    It  ia  used  when  no  definite  antecedent  is  referred  to. 

What  do  they  say  in  yotir  village  ?  Que  dit-on  dans  votre  village  ? 

They  say  that  the  president  is  here.        On  dit  que  le  president  e5t  ici. 

2.  Where  the  English  employ  the  passivo  verb  iritboat  an  agent,  the  French  employ- 
on  with  the  active. 

It  is  said  that  he  is  rich.  On  dit  qu^il  est  riche. 

It  ii  believed.     They  arc  heard.  On  croit.     On  les  entend. 

3.  L'on  is  often  used  for  onphony  in  prcforcnco  to  on  after  the  words  el,  ou,  oft,  que^  qui, 
qual,  «i,  and  some  otlicrs,  unless  it  bo  immediately  followed  hy  le,la,  les,  iui,  or  other 
words  beginnln;;  with  /.  Von  is  never  used  in  an  interrogation,  bat  when  on  follows  a  verb 
ending  with  a  vowel,  a  euphonic  t  is  placed  before  it 

I  know  the  country  where  they  find     Je  connais  le  pays  oil  Ton  trouve  de 

gold.  Tor. 

We  cannot  always  do  what  we  wish.       On  nc  pent  pas  toujours  faire  ce  quo 

Von  veut. 
Is  gold  found  in  California?  Trouve-/-on  de  Tor  en  California? 


The  bodt/.  The  steam,  vapor.         Le  corps.  La  vapeur. 

New,  novel.  Nouveau,  nouvel.  Nouvelle. 

4.  Nowaeau  becomes  noutel  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  K  (See  Note,  Lessoa  10.) 
^>i^  means  newly  made,  or  obtained ;  nouveau,  new  in  kind. 

I  have  seen  the  new  work.  J'ai  vu  le  nouvel  ouvragc. 

I  have  bought  a  new  hat.  J'ai  achetd  un  chapeau  neuf. 

His  (or  her)  duty.      Swift. 
Each  one,  every  one. 


Good,  property.         The  expense. 
JUvil,  harm.  Expenses,  cofit. 

The  neck.  Fain. 

5.  P^penSy  expense,  Is  always  m.iscnlino  plurat 
At  the  expense  of  others.  Aux  dopcns  d^autrui. 

&  Auirui,  others,  other  pcopl<*,  is  used  only  after  prepositions. 

31         IC  1        11  IS       6         4        -.0       V\  1     34  1     n  S         5  3  t  >  M4 

on,  coriM,  va-p«nr,  nou-vcl,  de-voir,  rit«,  cha-cun,  cha-cun«,  sec,  svchd,  baa,  basM,  bien, 
B     s  T«        18     n  7        17      '.-:ii 

de-ponse,  tor^,  dou-Iour,  pein^,  au-trui. 

Son  devoir. 








Le  bien. 

La  depense. 

Le  mat,  tort. 

Les  depenses. 

Le  cvu. 

La  douleur,  peine. 


The/dce.  Le  visage.  LAjiffure, 

J*teeum$.  Pricieux.  FrScieute. 

SwoUen,  tweUed.  Enfik,  Enflee, 

From  street  to  street.    T\\^  figure,  De  rue  en  rue.     La  taille. 

To  undertake.  Entreprendre  (comp.  of  prendre}, 

7.  Whi^  referring  to  place,  and  following  a  preposition,  is  commonly  rendered  bjr  ott. 

The  TiUage  in  which  yoa  dwell.  Le  villago  oh  tous  demeurez. 

The  dtj/rom  which  you  come.  La  ville  doH  tous  veoez. 

The  place  to  which  yoa  go.  Le  lieu  ok  tous  allez. 

The  street  6y  which  you  will  go.  La  rue  par  oU  tous  irez. 

What  do  you  undertake  ?  Qu*est-ce  que  tous  entreprenez  ? 

I  undertake  a  great  work.  J*entrcprends  un  grand  ouTrage. 

I  desire  to  do  good  to  others.  Je  desire  falro  du  bien  &  autrui  (or 

aux  autres). 

1.  On  dit  que  voire  frere  est  malade.  2.  On  trouve  beaoconp 
d'or  icL  3.  On  fait  beaucoup  de  bearre  dans  ce  village.  4.  Cet 
homme  vit  anx  depens  d*autmi.  5.  Nous  voulons  faire  dn  bien  & 
autrui  (aux  autres).  6.  Cet  enfant  a  le  visage  sale.  7.  Cet  ani- 
mal a  le-  corps  long,  il  a  aiissi  lo  pied  enfle.  8.  La  8ant6  est  nn 
bien  trfes-precieux.  9.  Ce  voyageur  entreprend-il  quelque  chose  t 
10.  n  entreprend  un  long  voyage.  11.  Qu'est-ce  que  vous  entre- 
prenez 1  12.  Nous  entreprenons  un  grand  ouvrage.  13.  L'avez- 
vous  entrepris  seulst  14.  Nous  ne  I'avons  pas  entrepris  seuls.  15. 
Qu'entreprennent  ces  messieurs?  16.  lis  n'entreprennent  rien. 
17.  Ce  monsieur  vous  a-t-Q  fait  du  bien?  18.  Non,  monsieur,  il 
m'a  fait  du  tort.  19.  Ce  monsieur  est  trop  gros ;  sa  taille  n'est 
pas  belle.  20.  Je  vois  la  vapeur  de  ce  bateau.  21.  Cet  homme 
vit  de  pain  sec.  22.  Ce  banc  est  bas  et  cette  chaise  est  basse 
aussL  23.  Avez-vous  fait  votre  devoir?  24.  Je  I'ai  fait.  25. 
£crivez-vous  vite?  26.  Je  n'ecris  pas  tres-vite.  27.  J'ai  achet6 
nn  chapeau  neuf,  et  mon  pdre  m'a  achet6  des  bottes  neuves.  28. 
J*ai  vu  le  nouvel  ouvrage  du  docteur  Jean.  29.  Ce  malade  a  le 
ecu  enflo,  il  a  beaucoup  de  douleur. 

1.  What  do  they  make  in  your  village  ?  2.  They  make  hats 
there.  3.  That  man  is  said  to  be  rich.  4.  Do  you  believe  all  that 
they  tell  you  ?  5.  I  do  not  believe  all.  6.  Are  those  cravats  dry  t 
7.  They  are  dry.  8.  The  gardener  has  some  new  fruit.  9.  What 
have  you  new?  10,  I  have  some  new  books.  11,  Do  you  desire 
to  do  your  duty  ?     12.  Yes,  sir,  each  one  desires  to  do  his  duty. 

Ti-zag«,  fl-gure,  pr^-ci-euo*,  pr*-ci-ou«,  t-n-fl.',  en-flce,  tauw,  en-trc-prenard. 


13.  I  have  some  new  horses;  have  you  seen  them!  14.  I  have 
seen  them.  15.  I  shall  always  desire  to  do  my  dnty.  16.  What 
do  they  do  at  your  house  ?  17.  They  read  and  study  much  there. 
18.  Have  you  seen  the  doctor's  new  works  ?  19.  I  have  not  seen 
them.    20.  Are  the  streets  dry!    21.  They  are  very  dry. 

22.  Is  the  river  high  or  low  ?  23.  It  is  very  low.  24.  Do  you 
see  the  vapor  on  the  river  t  25.  I  see  it.  26.  This  chair  is  low, 
and  that  bench  is  low  also.  27.  Does  each  one  sometimes  forget 
his  duties  ?  28.  Each  one  forgets  them  sometimes.  29.  Do  yoa 
live  at  the  expense  of  others  1  30.  I  live  at  the  expense  of  my 
father.  31.  Do  you  wish  evil  to  any  one!  32.  Do  you  wish  to  do 
harm  to  any  one  ?  33.  I  wish  to  do  evil  to  no  one  ;  I  wish  to  do 
good  to  every  body.  34.  What  is  the  matter  with  you  ?  35.  My 
face  and  my  neck  are  inflamed.  36.  Take  good  care  of  your 
health,  for  (car)  it  is  very  precious.  37.  Does  not  that  young  girl 
read  fast?  38.  She  reads  too  fast.  39.  That  lady's  figure  is  very 
beautiful.  40.  Have  you  learned  your  lesson?  41.  I  have  not 
learned  it  yet,  but  I  shall  learn  it  this  evening. 


1.  Which  way  are  you  going?  2.  I  am  going  by  (par)  the 
lake.  3.  Come  this  way,  sir.  4.  Gro  that  way,  my  friend.  5. 
Are  you  acquainted  with  Dr.  B.  ?  6.  Yes,  sir ;  he  is  a  good  old 
man  whom  misfortune  has  made  wise.  7.  What  is  the  matter  with 
you  ?  you  look  sick.  8.  I  am  not  sick,  but  in  bad  humor.  9.  But 
why?  10.  I  need  to  (de)  go  out,  and  it  is  going  to  rain.  11.  It 
will  not  rain  much.  12.  It  rains  already,  and  I  had  the  fever  last 
week.  13.  It  is  unfortunate  ;  but  why  have  you  to  go  out?  14.  I 
have  some  money  to  give  to  Mr.  Richard,  and  he  has  need  of  it  to- 
day. 15.  You  have  no  need  to  (de)  go  out  for  (pour)  that.  16. 
I  ^all  go  to  his  house  this  morning,  and  if  you  wish  it,  I  am  going 
to  carry  it  to  him.  17.  Thank  you ;  you  do  (rendes)  me  a  great 
service.  18.  It  is  no  great  thing  {grand" chose).  19.  It  is  a  ser- 
vice which  you  render  me,  and  for  which  I  thank  you  much. 

20.  Were  you  long  sick  ?  21.  No,  I  had  the  fever  only  two 
days ;  but  my  physician  tells  me  not  to  {de)  go  out  when  it  rains. 
22.  He  is  right ;  if  you  do  not  take  care  of  your  health,  you  will 
be  sick  again.  23.  I  intend  to  stay  in  (d)  the  house  during  {pen- 
dant) a  few  days.  24.  Have  you  had  news  from  your  brother 
lately  {dcrni^ement)^  25.  I  had  some  last  week  ;  he  is  at  New 
York.     2G.  When  does  he  intend  to  return  ?     27.  Next  week. 

28.  Charles,  lend  me  a  cord,  if  you  please.  29.  What  will 
you  do  with  it  ?    30.  I  will  go  and  put  it  on  the  garden-door.    31. 



Take  this  which  is  on  iMa  plank,  if  it  is  good.  32.  Thank  yon ;  I 
am  going  to  pnt  it  on  the  door.  33.  Have  yon  seen  John  ?  34. 
Yes,  sir ;  he  is  in  the  garden.  35.  Tell  him  to  come  here,  and 
send  me  your  hammer  and  a  few  hig  nails. 



1.  Tbe  imperfect  tonae  Is  formed  from  the  present  participle,  bj  changing  Am  into 
the  folloirii^  terminations: 


AIS,            AIT, 

IONS,            lEZ, 



'  Jeparlals, 




1  I  was  speaking, 

he  was  speaking. 

you  were  speaking. 


1  tuparlaU^ 

nous  parlions. 

Us  parlaietU, 


,  thott  wast  speaking. 

we  were  speaking 

they  were  speaking. 


'  JerecetaU, 

U  reeevaU, 

tons  recwieSf 

Reeetfont,        ] 

1  I  was  receiving. 

he  was  receiving. 

you  were  receiving. 


I  iurecevaU^ 

funis  recevians^ 

its  reesvaUnt^ 

,  thou  wast  receiving; 

we  were  receiving. 

they  were  receiving. 

2.  Avoir  and  satoir,,  the  only  exceptions,  have  the  imperfect  thus: 
J^aeais,:     tuataiSy  Ucnait^         nous  avians,       vous<H}ies,        Usataieni, 

I  had,  thou  badst,       he  had,  we  had,  you  had,  they  had. 

Jesatais,    tu  savais^        ilsavait,        nous  savionSy     wmssavisa,       iissavaienty 
I  knew,     -  tUou  knewest,  he  knew,         we  knew,  you  knew,  they  knew. 

8.  This  ten^o  always  denotes  continuous  past  action.  When,  therefore,  any  thing  Is 
q»ken  of  as  onco  done  and  finished,  without  denoting  continuance,  this  tense  is  not  to  be 

dceron  itait  un  grand  orateiar, 
Washington  etait  un  grand  homme. 
Nous  avions  beaucoup  de  fruit  quand 

nous  demeurums  k  la  campagne. 
Je  eherchais  mon  canif  ct  yai  trouvs 

mon  crayon. 


C^ero  was  a  great  orator 

WashiogtOQ  was  a  great  man. 

We  had  macb  ihut  when  we  lived  in 

the  country. 
I  was  looking  for  my  penknife  and  I 

found  my  pencil. 

We  here  see  that  where  continuous  past  action  is  implied,  the  imperfect  is  used.* 
the  following. 
You  were  reading  (continuous)  while 

I  WAS  writing  (continuous). 
They  were  (continuous)  here  when  wo 

saw  (not  continuous)  them. 
He  had  (continuous)  the  horses  when 

I  bought  (not  continuous)  them. 

Yous  lisiez  pendant  que  yierivais. 

Us   iiaient  ici  quand  nous  les  avons 

II  avait  les  chcvaux  quand  je  les  at 


•  WasbinKton  continued  to  bo  a  preat  man,  Cicero  continued  to  be  a  preat  orator,  but 
the  finding  of  tbe  pencil  denotes  no  continuance ;  it  is  therefore  not  in  the  imperfect,  but  in 
the  past  indefinite. 

1       T  7      fn        »^6       T  4     4       y      1       T         1       T 

por-lals,  Ulf,  lion*,  lies,  Ment,  re-ce-vals,  a-val«,  Ka-val*. 


She  was  (continiioas)  at  your  house    Elle  Uait  chez  tous  quand  je  Tai  en- 

when  I  beard  (not  continaotis)  tendue  chanter. 

her  sing. 

acASCULDnc  FKxraKK. 

The  f Off.  The  season.  Le  brouUlard.        Jjbl  saison. 

A  barber.        A  task.  Un  barbier.  Une  tdche. 

During.  While.  Pendant.  Pendant  que. 

To  play.         A  spot.  Jouer.     .  Une  taehe. 

While  I  was  playing.  Pendant  que  jc  jouais. 

As  ffood  bread,  as  good  flour.  D''aussi  bon  pain,  d*au9si  bonne  farine. 

As  ffood  as.    As  rich  as.  Aussi  bon  que.      Aussi  riche  que. 

To  weep.     To  mouni^  go  up,  ascend.  Pleurer.    Monter. 

To  laugh  (at),  laughing,  laugJied.  Eire  (de),  riant,  ri  (irregular). 

Jerts,  turit,  Urii,  nousrions^        wusriee^        ilsrient, 

Ilaagh,        thoa  langbest,  he  langba,  we  laugh,  yoaUagfa,       theylaagh. 

Do  you  laugh  at  that  ?  Riez-vous  de  cela  ? 

I  laugh  at  it.  J'en  ris. 

During  this  month.  Pendant  cc  mois. 

Hare  you  money  still  ?  ATez-vous   encore    (toujours)    de 

Targent  ? 
I  have  no  more.  Je  n'en  ai  plus. 

1.  £taifl-iu  k  Paris  quand  mon  frere  y  etaitf  2.  Je  n'y  etais 
pas.  3.  Tu  travaillais  pendant  que  je  jouais.  4.  lis  jouaient  pen- 
dant que  vous  6tudiiez.  5.  Jouez-vous  beaucoup  ?  6.  Je  joue  quel- 
quefois,  mais  non  pas  beaucoup.  7.  Pleurez-vous  quelquefois  T  8. 
Je  ne  pleure  pas  souvent.  9.  Ne  riiez-vous  pas  pendant  que  nous 
pleurions  ?  10.  Nous  ne  riions  pas.  11.  Que  faisiez-vous  ce  matin 
pendant  que  je  ILsais  t  12.  J'ecrivais  une  lettre.  13.  Cethomme 
avait-il  beaucoup  d'amis  quand  il  ^tait  jeune  ?  14.  H  en  arait  bean- 
coup.  15.  Ou  alliez-yous  ce  matin  quand  je  tous  ai  vn  dans  la  rnet 
16.  J'allais  chez  mon  oncle.  17.  Votre  frere  voulait-il  ses  liTres 
quand  il  6tait  k  la  campagnet  18.  U  les  voulait.  19.  £coutiez- 
Yous  Torateur  hier  pendant  qu'il  parlait  ?  20.  Nous  Tecoutions,  et 
nos  freres  T^coutaient  aussi.  21.  Fourquoi  avez-vous  ri  de  cet 
hommet  22.  Paice  qu'il  n*a  pas  de  chapeaa  23.  Montez-vous 
souvent  dans  votre  chambre  1  24.  J'y  monte  souvent.  25.  Avez- 
vous  fini  votre  tdche?  26.  Je  Tai  finie.  27.  Le  brouillard  est  6pai8 
ce  matin.     28.  Le  barbier  va  k  la  ville,  ou  il  restera  tonte  la  saison. 

29.  Avez-vous  dans  votre  magasin  d'aussi  belle  farine  que  ceile-ci  t 

30.  J*en  ai  de  meilleure. 

ui        r3iii3ft9  IS        laci  ten*      IS 

broall-lard,  stl-son,  bar-bier,  tftoha,  pon-dant;  Joc-er,  tach«.  plea-rer,  mon-ter,  riM. 

ri-ant,  ri«,  rit^  ti-ons,  ii«««»  lient. 


1.  Wast  thou  stadying  when  the  master  spoke  to  theet  2.  I 
was  stadying  my  French  lesson.  3.  To  whom  were  you  speaking 
this  morning  when  the  boy  gave  you  your  letters  ?  4.  We  were 
speaking  to  our  cousins.  5.  Have  you  looked  for  your  pens  ?  6. 
We  were  looking  for  them  when  the  master  spoke  to  us.  7.  Were 
vour  brothers  coming  here  when  we  saw  them  this  morning  ?  8. 
No,  they  were  going  to  the  river.  9.  What  wast  thou  doing  when 
thy  father  spoke  to  theet  10.  I  was  holding  the  horses  of  my 
brother.  11.  Will  not  your  father  laugh  if  he  sees  that  work  ? 
12.  He  will  laugh.  13.  Will  you  not  weep  if  you  lose  your  money? 
14.  I  shall  not  weep.  15.  Will  you  go  up  to  your  room  when  the 
barber  is  here  t  16.  I  shall  go  up  to  it.  17.  Have  you  already 
finished  your  task  ?     18.  1  have  not  yet  finished  it. 

19.  Is  your  task  easy  1  20.  It  is  very  easy.  21.  What  is  that 
scholar  doing  1  22.  He  is  making  spots  on  his  book.  23.  Were 
you  playing  when  you  received  my  letter  ?  24.  I  was  not  playing, 
I  was  reading  the  newspaper.  25.  You  will  stay  here  during  all 
the  week ;  will  you  not  1  26.  I  shall  stay  here  during  all  the  sea- 
son. 27.  Have  you  as  good  butter  as  this  ?  28.  I  have  some  bet- 
ter. 29.  What  made  those  spots  on  your  paper  ?  30.  That  little 
boy  made  them.  31.  Is  it  foggy  (fait-il  du  brouillard)  ?  32.  Yes, 
sir,  the  fog  is  very  thick.  33.  Were  you  listening  while  the  orator 
was  speaking?  34.  I  was  listening.  35.  Which  season  do  you 
like  ?  36.  I  like  all  the  seasons.  37.  Will  you  go  to  the  north 
before  the  beautiful  season  ?  38.  I  shall  not  go  there  this  year. 
39.  Had  you  much  money  when  you  bought  that  horse  ?  40.  I  had 
not  much 


1.  Have  you  seen  Joseph  this  morning?  2.  Yes,  sir,  he  is  com- 
ing. 3.  I  am  going  into  the  garden,  if  you  have  no  need  of  me. 
4.  No,  go  there,  if  that  pleases  you ;  have  you  done  any  thing  in 
the  garden  this  morning?  5.  I  have  done  nothing  there  yet ;  I  am 
going  to  work  there.  6.  If  you  find  some  beautiful  roses  there,  bring 
me  a  few.  7.  I  saw  some  roses  and  some  jonquils,  and  I  am  going 
to  bring  you  some.  8.  Had  you  many  friends  when  yon  lived  in 
(d)  Paris  ?  9.  We  had  many.  10.  What  wast  thou  doing  this 
morning  while  we  were  playing?  11.  I  was  studying  my  lesson. 
12.  Were  you  not  reading  while  we  were  studying?  13.  No,  we 
were  writing  our  exercises.  14.  Have  those  scholars  finished  their 
tasks  ?  15.  They  have  finished  them.  16.  What  has  made  those 
black  spots  on  those  white  stockings  ?     17.  That  little  child  made 


them  with  ink.  18.  Has  not  that  workman  labored  much  !  19. 
He  has  labored  daring  the  whole  night  20.  Have  you  seen  my 
new  house?  21.  I  have  not  seen  it,  but  I  have  been  told  that  it  is 
large  and  beautiful. 



1.  When  an  infinitive  depending  on  ft  verb  has  ft  penonal  prononn  for  lU  olject,  the 
pronoan  is  geneiallj  placed  before  the  inflnltiTe ;  but  eometimes  it  b  placed  before  the  first 

I  wish  to  do  it.  Je  ddsirc  le  faire. 

He  comes  for  me.  II  vlcnt  me  cherchcr  (or  old  iiyU,  II 

me  vient  chcrcher). 
He  likes  to  do  it.  II  aime  a  le  faire  (no/,  U  Taime  a  faire). 

2.  Past  participles  are  not  Taried  to  agree  with  tn,  it  being  an  indirect  object. 
I  give  you  these  flowers.  Je  yous  donne  ces  fleurs. 

I  did  not  give  any  to  my  sister.  Je  n*en  ai  pas  donnS  k  ma  sceur. 

I  gave  some  lo  my  cousin.  J^en  ai  donn6  &  ma  cousine. 

8.  When  two  nouns  Joined  by  a  preposition  form  a  componnd,  d  is  used  to  denote  its 
moving  power  and  parpose,  ds  the  material  and  sphere  of  use. 


A  boat.  A  coffee-cup.  Vn  bateau,  Une  tasse  d  cafe. 

K  steamboat.  K  tobacco-box.  Vn  bateau  dvapeur.   XJne  boite  d  tabor. 

A  mustardpot.         A  schoolmiatress.  Un  pot  a  moutarde.   Une  tnaiiresse  d'i- 


A  bookseller.  A  gold  button.  Tin  marchand  deli-  Vne  bouion  d'or.* 


The  steam-mills.      The  coffee-cups.  Les  moulinsd  vapcur.  Les  tasscs  ii  cafo. 

To  pain^  to  ache,  to  hurt.  Faire  mal. 

My  finger  pains  me.  Le  doigt  me  fait  mal. 

His  neck  pains  him.  Le  cou  lui  fait  mal. 

You  hurt  me.  Yous  me  faites  mal. 

You  hurt  my  foot.  Yous  me  faites  mal  au  pied. 

He  does  me  harm  (an  injury).  II  me  fait  du  mal. 

To  have  a  pain  in,  to  be  sore.  Avoir  mal  d. 

I  hare  a  pain  in  my  finger,  or  a  sore  J^ai  mal  au  doigt. 


He  has  a  headache.  H  a  mal  k  la  tetc. 

He  has  a  violent  headache.  II  a  un  violent  mal  de  t£te. 

Without.    Without  a  hat.  Sans.    Sans  chapeau. 

4  Sans  is  not  followed  by  the  indefinite  article,  unless  it  be  emphatic. 

Without  a  coat     Without  a  friend.  Sans  habit.     Sans  ami. 

*  Snch  compounds,  we  have  seen  (Lesson  18),  form  the  plural  by  changing  the  first  noun. 

1       17       16         T       B  s 

ba-tean,  po<,  mal-tresM,  san«. 

So  much.  So  much  tbat. 

•So  many.  So  many  that. 

At  muck.  Ab  much  as. 

As  many.  Ab  many  as. 


On£*t  ulf^  itself.    For,  in  order  to,         8oi,    Powr, 
For  one^s  self.    In  order  to  do  one*s    Four  sol    Four  fiure  son  devoir, 
A.  rTonoaas  referring  to  masculine  and  feminine  nonns  coUectiTely,  most  be  maacollne 
Are  your  brother  and  sister  sick  f  Yotre  fr^re  et  Totre  sceur  sont-ils  ma- 

They  are  sick.  lis  sont  maladea. 

To  like  better.     To  prefer.  Aimer  mieux,     Preferer, 

I  like  tea  better  than  coffee.  J^aime  mieux  le  th6  que  le  cafe. 

I  prefer  tea  to  coffee.  Je  pri^f^re  le  th6  au  cafe. 

6.  MeUUur  is  an  ac^ectlre,  and  qnallflea  a  noun ;  mteux  is  an  adrerb,  and  generally 
modifiea  a  verb. 

This  man  is  better  than  that.  Get  homme-ci  est  meilleur  que  celui-U. 

This  man  does  better  than  that.  Get  homme-ci  fait  mieux  que  celui-l&. 

Better.    Better  than.  Mieux.    Mieux  que. 

Zees.    Less  than.  Moins  {de  bcf.  n.).     Hoins  que. 

[  Tant  (de  bef.  n.).    Tant  que. 

[  AutatU  {de  bef.  n.).    Autant  que. 

Sttfident,  tvfficienUyy  enough,  Assez  (de  bef.  n.),  BvmaAnment  {de 

bef.  n.). 

1.  Get  homme  a  assez  de  courage.     2.  II  a  saiBsaminent  de  bien 
pour  virre.    3.  Ce  marchand-ci  n'a  pas  autant  de  profit  que  celai-U. 

4.  Ce  marcband  de  liyres  a  tant  de  biens  qu'il  sera  toujours  ricbe. 

5.  Gette  dame  est  moins  jolie  que  sa  soeur.  6.  Mon  p(^re  a  moins 
de  fortune  que  mon  oncle.  7.  Aimez-vous  mieux  le  the  que  le  cafe  ? 
8.  Non,  j'aime  autant  le  cafe  que  le  tb6,  mais  mon  frere  pr^fere  le 
cafe.  9.  Le  visage  vous  fait-il  mal  1  10.  H  me  fait  mal.  11.  Qu'a- 
▼ez-Yous  ?  12.  J'ai  mal  au  cou.  13.  Qu'acet  bomme?  14.  II  a  mal 
k  la  tele,  et  le  pied  lui  fait  mal.  15.  Vous  avez  I'oeil  enile,  n'y  avez- 
vous  pas  mal  ?  16.  J'y  ai  maL  17.  Votre  ami  aime-t-il  mieux  le 
th^  que  le  cafe  ?  18.  Non,  madame,  il  prefcre  le  cafe  au  tbe.  19. 
Ces  bateaux  a  vapeur  vont-il  sur  le  lac  ?  20.  Celui-ci  va  sur  le  lac 
et  celai-l&  sur  la  riviere.  21.  Qu'est-ce  que  la  maitresse  d'ecole  a 
acbete  ?  22.  Elle  a  acbet6  des  tasses  k  cafe,  des  pots  k  beurre  et 
on  pot  k  moutarde.  23.  Votre  p5re  et  votre  m^re  sont-ils  ici  ?  24. 
Nod,  ils  sont  a  la  maison. 

1.  Do  you  undertake  tbat  work  witbout  money  1     2.  We  do  not 

n*  C   f     •        Uli        S         17     8        16       »^U   1  > 

taieaae^  pr6-fo-rer,  molnff  tani,  aa-tan<l,  a«<fle«,  BV-fl-zam-menl. 


undertake  it  without  money.  3.  What  is  the  matter  with  yon  1 
4.  My  finger  is  sore,  and  my  foot  pains  me.  5.  Is  not  your  neck 
swollen  1  6.  It  is  swollen,  and  I  have  a  pain  in  it.  7.  Have  they 
given  you  some  fruit  ?  8.  They  have  given  me  some.  9.  Does  each 
one  live  for  himself?  10.  No,  no  one  lives  for  himself.  11.  Have 
you  bought  the  beautiful  coffee-cups  ?  12.  I  have  bought  them. 
13.  Where  will  you  go  to-morrow  ?  14.  I  shall  go  in  a  steamboat 
on  the  river.  15.  What  does  that  countryman  buy!  16.  He  buys 
some  coffee-cups,  some  butter-plates,  and  a  tobacco-box.  17.  Are 
you  acquainted  with  that  mant  18.  Yes,  sir,  he  is  a  bookseller  of 
our  city,  and  that  lady  is  a  schoolmistress. 

19.  Have  you  a  sore  finger  f  20.  No,  sir,  it  is  my  hand  that 
(d  la  main  que)  is  sore.  21.  Your  mouth  looks  swollen  ;  have  yoa 
a  pain  in  it  ?  22. 1  have  a  pain  in  it.  23.  Do  you  like  the  French 
better  than  the  Spanish  1  24.  No,  sir,  I  like  the  Spanish  as  much 
as  the  French.  25.  Is  that  man  as  rich  as  the  bookseller  ?  26. 
Yes,  sir,  he  has  so  much  money  that  he  never  counts  it.  27-  Was 
your  brother  here  when  you  saw  him  ?  28.  No,  sir,  he  has  not  been 
here  yet,  but  he  will  be  here  to-morrow.  29.  Why  was  your  little 
sister  weeping  when  we  saw  her  the  day  before  yesterday  ?  30.  She 
wept  because  she  had  the  headache.  31.  Do  you  sometimes  have 
the  headache  1  32.  No,  but  I  had  the  headache  often  last  year. 
33.  Have  you  suflScient  sugar?  34.  I  have  sufficient.  35.  Where 
will  you  be  to-morrow?    36.  I  shall  be  at  home. 


1.  John,  go  into  the  yard ;  your  father  wants  you.  2.  Have  you 
the  hammer  ?  3.  No,  I  have  not  seen  it.  4.  See  if  it  is  not  in  the 
box.  5.  Yes,  I  have  it  6.  Well,  take  a  few  big  nails,  and  carry 
them  to  your  father.  7.  How  many  nails  does  he  wish  for  ?  8.  He 
does  not  wish  for  many.  9.  I  am  going  to  carry  him  the  box.  10* 
No,  leave  the  box ;  he  wishes  only  a  few  ;  take  them  in  your  hand. 
11.  Shall  you  be  in  the  yard  ?  12.  No,  I  shall  not  be  there ;  I  hare 
some  work  to  do  in  the  garden.  13.  Well,  I  am  going  to  carry  the 
nails,  and  I  will  go  into  the  garden  also.  14.  Come,  if  your  father 
does  not  want  you.  15.  Will  you  be  here  ?  16.  Yes,  you  will  have 
no  trouble  to  {peine  a)  find  me,  I  shall  not  be  far  off  {loin).  1^* 
Does  my  father  wish  for  the  hammer  also?  18.  Yes,  carry  him  the 
hammer  and  the  nails.     19.  I  comprehend. 

20.  Let  us  go  and  see  Peter  (Pierre).  21.  Well,  is  he  at  home! 
22.  Yes,  he  is  there.  23.  Go  for  (chercher)  your  hat.  24.  Come 
with  me  into  the  house.     25.  No,  I  am  going  to  stay  here.    26. 


Well,  wait  for  me.    27.  Do  not  stay  long.    28.  Have  you  your 
hat?     20.  Yes ;  come,  let  us  go  (allona partons). 



1.  We  have  seen  (Lesson  SO)  that  C6  is  nsod  Instead  of  it,  tUe^  iU^  elUa^  before  etre^  when 
the  predicate  charaeterizes  the  subject,  and  fa  not  an  adjective  merely  with  the  rerb.  The 
following  illustrate  more  ftilly  this  rule  when  the  predicate  contains  a  noun,  a  pronoun,  an 
adyerb^  an  article  with  an  a4)ecti?e,  or  a  verb. 

It  is  my  book.    It  is  your  pen.  C'est  mon  livre,    (Test  TOtre  j^ume. 

They  are  the  books.  Cc  sont  Ics  Hvres. 

It  is  he.     It  is  she.  C^est  lui.    C^est  ellc. 

It  is  they.  Ce  sont  ettXy  ce  sont  elles. 

It  is  to-day.     It  is  the  first.  C^est  aujourcTkuu    C*est  le  premier. 

It  is  to  make  a  good  use  of  one^s  for-     Cest  iaire  un  bon  usage  de  sa  fortune 

tune  to  employ  it  in  good  works.  que  de  Temployer  en  bonnes  oeuvres. 

2.  With  an  a^Jectiyo  alone  in  the  predicate,  ce  is  not  used. 
He  is  good.    She  is  good.  H  est  bon.    Elle  est  bonne. 

He  is  a  good  brother.  C^est  un  bon  fr^rc. 

She  is  a  good  mother.  Cest  unc  bonne  mdre. 

3.  Jiis^  referring  to  a  preceding  proposition,  is  e''eei  ;  referring  to  one  foUowIng,  is  il  ett 
He  has  lost  his  book ;  it  is  a  pity,  H  a  perdu  son  livre ;  c^est  dommage. 

It  is  a  pity  that  ho  has  lost  his  friend.     Jl  eat  dommage  pour  lui  d^aroir  perdu 

son  ami. 
It  is  disagreeable  to  be  always  alone.       II  est  d6sagr6able  d*etre  toujours  seul. 
Yes,  you  are  right,  it  is  very  disagree-    Oui,  vous  avez  raison,  c*est  trds-d6sa- 

able.  gr6able. 

4.  When  the  pronoun  referring  to  a  proposition  Just  stated  is  the  object  of  a  tranaitlTe 
verb  or  a  preposition,  it  may  bo  rendered  by  eela  or  le. 

That  man  is  rich ;  do  you  know  it  ?         Cet  homme  est  riche  ;  savcz-vous  eela 

(or  le  savez-vous)  ? 
6.  Sot,  used  of  persona,  must  refer  only  to  a  vogue  antecedent,  as  on,  cAacurij  etc,  except 
when  perspicuity  requires. 

People  love  to  speak  of  themselves.         On  aime  k  parler  de  eoi. 
A  benefaction  carries  with  it  its  re-    Un  bienfait  porte  sa  recompense  avcc 

ward.  8oi. 

When  that  young  man  does  a  pleasure     Quand  ce  jeune  homme  fait  un  plalsir 
to  his  father  he  works  for  himself.  k  son  pdrc,  il  travaille  pour  «ot.* 

•  In  these  last  two  sentences,  the  antecedents  of  «o»  are  definite ;  bnt  in  the  former,  the 
reforenoe  is  not  to  a  person,  and  in  the  latter,  the  use  of  eoi  instead  of  lui  avoids  an  ambi- 

15  1  1214      T  »     «»  » 

dom-moge,  bien-faii^  rc-com-pens«. 





Un  bienfaiL 
Get  ivroffne. 
Un  accident. 

Une  ricompcnse. 
Ivre,  grit. 










A.  benefit,  benefaction,    A  recompense. 

That  drunkard.        Drunh^  tipsy. 

An  accident.  Useful. 

Thejuieej  gravy.     Study. 




FalsCy  counterfeit. 

Displeasedf  discontented. 

0.  The  Axtnies  of  venir  and  tenir  are  irregnbr. 
Jeviendrai,  tu  viendras^      Uviendra,     nousvUndrons,  wmsviendrea^  ilsviendrontt 
I  shall  come,  thou  wilt  come,  he  will  come,  we  shall  come,     you  will  cpmo,  they  will  come. 
Js  tiendrai,  iu  tiendras,      il  tiendra^     nous  tiendr&ns,  vous  tiendrem,  tie  Uendront, 
1  BhaU  hold,  thoa  wUt  hold,  he  will  hold,  we  shaU  hold,      yoa  wlU  hold,   they  wiU  hold. 

7.  Again^  with  a  verb,  la  often  expressed  by  the  prefix  re  in  French ;  aa, 
7b  make  again.    To  take  again.  Rs/atre.    Hzprendre. 

To  come  again.    I  shall  return.  UEvenir.    Jo  RETiendrai. 

We  will  hold  those  horses.  Kous  tieudrons  ces  cheTaox. 

He  will  come  again  (return)  to-morrow.    H  reviendra  demain. 

a  After  as  and  than,  /,  thou,  he^  ihsy,  are  rendered  moi,  toi^  lui,  euaa,  elles. 
More  than  I.    More  than  thou.  Plus  que  moi.    Plus  que  toL 

More  than  he.    More  than  she.  Plus  que  lui.    Plus  qu'elle. 

As  much  as  we.    As  much  as  you.  Autant  que  nous.    Autant  que  toosl 

As  much  as  they.  Autant  qu^cux.    Autant  quVUca. 

1.  Yiendrez-voos  ici  demain  ?  2.  J^j  viendrai  ce  6oir,  et  mes 
amis  7  viendront  aussL  3.  Tiendrez-vous  les  chevaux  ?  4.  Nod, 
nous  tiendrons  les  livres,  et  les  domestiqaes  tiendront  les  chevaux. 
5.  Get  homme  est-il  plus  riche  que  moi?  6.  Non,  il  est  moins  riche 
que  toi.  7.  Suis-je  anssi  grand  que  voire  frcre  ?  8.  Vons  ^tes  plus 
grand  que  lui ;  mais  il  apprend  plus  vite  que  vons.  9.  Mon  cousin 
lit  plus  que  moi,  mais  j'etudie  plus  que  lui.  10.  Aimez-vous  mieux 
le  vin  que  I'eau  ?  11.  Nous  aimons  mieux  I'eau  que  le  vin.  12.  Ta 
cousine  lit-elle  mieux  que  toi  ?  13.  Non,  monsieur,  je  lis  mieux 
qu'elle.  14.  Est-ce  que  je  travaille  moins  que  mon  cousin  ?  15. 
Yotts  travaillez  plus  que  lui,  et  il  travaille  plus  que  moL  16.  Ce 
monsieur  n'est-il  pas  le  monsieur  que  vous  cherchez  ?  17.  Cest  lui. 
18.  Ces  enfants  ne  sont-ils  pas  vos  cousins!  19.  Si,  ce  sont  eux. 
20.  La  vache  est  un  aaimal  plus  utile  que  le  chien.     21.  Youlez* 

nis        n         uins»is»fa         r        rceasisc 
i-TTogne,  iTM,  gria,  ac-ci-dentS,  n-tile,  Jna,  6-tnde,  rral,  Traie,  goi,  gala,  an-JeH,  aa-jetfe, 

fkuflB^  fiiaa««,  m6-oon-ten<;  mo-con*  tcnt«,  Tlen-drai,  tien-dral,  re-fidre,  re-prendre^  i«T«-nlr, 

4     >314        « 



TODS  da  jnfi  snr  votre  boenf  r6ti  ?  22.  Oni,  monsieiir,  s'il  vons  plait 
23.  Get  homme  est  im  ivrogne,  il  est  ivre  k  present  24.  Notre 
Tie  est  Bujette  k  beauconp  d'accidents. 

1.  Dost  thou  work  as  mach  as  I !  2.  I  work  more  than  thoiL 
3.  Does  thy  brother  study  less  than  thy  sister  ?  4.  He  studies  less 
than  she,  and  she  reads  less  than  he.  5.  Do  you  speak  more  than 
your  sisters  t  6.  I  speak  les  than  they.  7.  Do  your  sisters  speak 
less  than  your  brothers  ?  8.  They  speak  more  than  they.  9.  That 
young  lady  looks  gay.  10.  This  bank-bill  looks  counterfeit  11. 
That  man's  face  is  red ;  has  he  not  drunk  too  much  t  12.  Yes,  sir, 
he  is  a  drunkafd ;  he  is  drunk  now.  13.  Do  you  wish  for  some 
more  of  the  grary  on  your  roast  meat  t  14.  No,  sir,  I  have  enough. 
15.  That  man  is  tipsy ;  is  he  not?  16.  Yes,  sir,  he  is  a  drunkard 
who  is  always  drunk.  17.  Are  we  not  subject  to  many  accidents  ? 
18.  Yes,  sir,  we  are  always  subject  to  accidents. 

19.  Do  you  know  the  great  accident?  20.  Yes,  sir,  it  is  very 
deplorable  (deplorable).  21.  TVhy  is  that  stranger  discontented  ? 
22.  He  is  discontented  because  ho  has  no  money.  23.  Will  you 
come  here  to-morrow  ?  24.  I  will  come  here  to-morrow  morning 
{demain  matin).  25.  WHt  thou  come  to  my  house  ?  26.  Yes,  and 
my  friend  will  come  also.  27.  Will  you  hold  the  horses?  28.  I 
will  hold  them.  29.  They  say  that  you  intend  to  depart  to-mor- 
row ;  is  it  true?  30.  It  is  true.  81.  It  is  said  that  Mr.  A.  is  sick ; 
is  it  true?  32.  No,  it  is  not  true ;  he  is  in  good  health.  33.  Your 
brother  is  here;  do  you  know  it?  34.  I  know  it.  35.  Has  that 
peach  much  juice  ?  36.  Yes,  sir,  it  is  full  of  juice.  37.  Do  you 
like  study?  38.  I  like  it  much.  39.  Does  one  confer  {ripandez^ 
vous)  benefits  without  a  recompense  ?  40.  No,  sir ;  a  benefit  always 
carries  its  recompense  with  it.  41.  Is  not  that  young  lady  gay? 
42.  She  is  gay.  43.  That  little  boy  loves  study,  and  he  is  very 
useful  to  his  relations ;  do  you  know  that  ?    44.  I  know  it 


1.  I  bought  a  penknife  this  morning.  2.  Show  it  to  me.  3. 
Tell  me  what  you  think  of  it  4.  It  is  very  pretty ;  where  did  you 
buy  it  ?  5.  At  l^Ir.  D.'s ;  he  has  some  very  pretty  knives.  6.  I 
wish  to  buy  a  penknife  also ;  mine  is  broken ;  but  I  wish  for  one 
bigger  than  yours.  7.  Buy  a  knife  and  a  penknife.  8.  No,  I  do 
not  need  a  knife.  9.  Let  me  choose  a  penknife  for  you.  10.  Well, 
choose  me  one ;  but  do  not  take  one  too  big.     11.  If  I  do  not  choose 


you  a  good  one,  do  not  take  it.    12.  Well,  let  ns  see  if  you  know 
(how)  to  choose  penknives. 

13.  Are  you  going  to  the  country  to-morrow  t  14.  Xo,  I  am 
not  going  there.  15.  Who  is  going  there!  16.  No  one  is  going 
there  to-morrow.  17.  Well,  lend  me  your  horse  to-morrow  if  you 
do  not  need  him.  18.  Take  him ;  but  where  do  you  intend  to  go  t 
19. 1  am  going  to  my  aunt's.  20.  If  you  go  there,  bring  (apportez) 
me  some  pretty  roses.  21.  Very  well ;  she  has  many  at  her  house. 
22.  Do  not  forget  me.  23.  Do  you  prefer  flowers  to  fruits  t  24. 
No,  sir,  I  prefer  fruits  to  flowers.  25.  Does  Miss  P.  know  French? 
26.  Yes,  miss,  she  speaks  it  very  well  27.  She  has  had  good 
masters,  and  she  has  taste  for  study.  28.  I  have  heard  Mr.  R.  say 
{dire  d  monsieur  E.)  that  he  has  never  seen  any  oc(^  learn  French 
more  easily.  29.  Have  you  seen  Miss  P.  this  week  ?  30.  I  have 
seen  her.  31.  Has  she  not  been  sick  1  32.  She  has  been  a  little 
sick,  but  now  she  is  in  good  health. 



1.  In  designating  soyerelgns,  where  the  English  employ  the  ordinal  nnmbers  with  the 
article,  the  French  employ  the  cardinal,  with  the  exception  of  thejlrsi  and  someUmea  th^ 
aecondy  without  the  article. 

John  the  Jirst,  Je^n  premier. 

William  the  second.  Guillaumc  dettx^  or  second. 

James  the  third.    George  the  fourth.       Jacques  trois.    Georges  quaire. 
Philip  the  sixth.    Henry  the  eighth.        Philippe  six.    HeDri  huit. 

2.  To  go  or  come  to  a  place  is  aUer  d  or  ^enir  rl;  to  go  or  come  to  a  person  Is  generally 
aUer  trouver^  or  venir  trouver. 

He  is  going  to  Charleston.  II  va  &  Charleston. 

He  is  going  to  Charles.  II  va  trouver  Charles. 

He  comes  to  LouisTllle.  II  vient  ^  Louisville. 

He  comes  to  Mr.  Lewis.  H  vient  trouver  M.  Louis. 

8.  In  emphatic  cases,  as  calling,  or  ordering  help,  and  after  p«Mer  and  songer,  to  think, 
the  pronoan  is  nsed  after  the  verb,  and  preceded  by  d. 

Come  to  mo.    Go  to  him.  Yenez  d  moi.    AUez  d  lui. 

Run  to  them.    Think  of  me.  Courez  d  eux.    Pensez  d  moi. 

I  think  of  you.    He  thinks  of  her.  Je  pense  k  vous.    II  songe  k  elle. 

4.  This  constmction  is  generally  employed  when  more  than  one  indirect  objective  pro- 
noun (y  and  en  excepted)  belong  to  the  verb ;  as  also  when  the  pronoan  is  emphatic. 

Do  you  speak  to  him  or  to  me  ?  Parlez-vous  d  lui  ou  d  moi  f 

I  speak  neither  to  him  nor  to  thee ;  I    Je  no  parle  mdlui  mh  toi ;  je  parle 
speak  to  them.  k  eux. 

s  u    IT  a  !•  M  n  «     M       1  IS  n 

Jean,  Ofiill-aams,  JackM,  QeorgM,  Phl-llpps,  /ITen-ri,  Cbarl<v,  Loa>i«. 



8l  2b  hsar  la  enUndr$;  to  hear  qf,  or  that,  is  entendre  dire  otparler;  tohearfrom  la 
rteeeoir  dee  nou^ellee. 

I  heard  the  noise.    He  heard  it. 
I  heard  of  jour  friend. 
I  hare  heard  that  your  friend  is  here. 
I  hare  heard  from  yonr  friend  to-day. 

Hare  you  heard  that  he  is  at  my 

I  haTe  not  heard  it 
7b  be  abU^  ean,  being  able,  been  able. 

Jepeuteorpuie,^     tupeuaoit         Upeut, 
I  cbh,  tboa  eanst,      he  oao, 

Can  I  be  useful  to  you  ? 
Ood  can  do  all  things. 
We  cannot  do  that. 

•Tai  entendu  le  bruit.    II  Ta  entendu. 
tPai  entendu  poller  de  TOtro  ami. 
J'ai  entendu  dire  que  votre  ami  est  ici. 
JV  rept  dee  nouvelUe  de  votre  ami 

Ayez-vous  entendu  dire  qu^ll  est  chez 

Je  n^ai  pas  entendu  dire  cela. 
Pauvoir,  puvanty  pu. 

nouepouvone^   wntepouveet   Qepeiweeml^ 
we  can,  you  can,  they  can. 

Puis-Je  Tous  4tre  utile? 
Dieu  pent  faire  toutes  choses. 
Nous  ne  pouvons  (pas)  faire  cela. 

ft.  Pae  Is  often  omitted  after  poutoir  negative. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  study. 

Je  n'ai  pu  6tudier. 




The  ehouider. 



Th^  heart. 


Le  eoeur. 


The  hnee^  knees. 

The  character, 

he  genou,  genoux. 

La  reputation. 


The  moon. 


La  lune. 

The  {natural)  dU- 

A  star. 

Le  earaetere. 

line  etoile. 


The  bottom. 


lie  fond. 





A,  lame  man. 


tin  boiteux. 

Si  boiteux  (m.). 


Bent^  curved. 


CourbS,  vo&tS  (m.). 

Right,  straight. 




To  pay  attention  to. 

Faire  attention  d. 


Much,  many. 



7.  Adrerbs  of  qnantity,  we  hare  seen,  take  de  before  the  following  noun ;  Men,  mean- 
ing much,  many,  takes  de  and  the  article,  making  du,  de  1\  de  la,  dee. 

Much  money.    Few  friends.  Beaucoup  d'argent.    Peu  d^amis. 

Ifnch  money.     Many  friends.  Bien  de  Targent.    Bien  des  amis. 

Much  courage.    Much  beauty.  Bien  du  courage.    Bien  de  la  beaut6. 

1.  Avez-vous  voire  argent  t     2.  Je  Paurai  bientdt.      3.  Get 
homme  a-t-il  bien  de  Targent  ?     4.  II  a  bien  de  Targent  et  bien 

*  Puie  is  more  used  than  petuo. 

IS       »  us  as  72li         •  U       S  18       «  •  179  17 

poa-Tofi^    pon-ran^  pu,    peua\  puis,  peu^  pou-Tons,  pou-yes,  penT«n<,  Dieu,  do«, 

^panltf,  ca-no-t^a,  ^toils,  fonef,  si,  boi-tence,  boi-tenzs,  sain,  cour-b^  vo&-t4^,  droif,  droits, 

n         1     s    nn      i9i«   ir    lau 
ganche,  a^tea-tion,  bien-tdtt  bien. 


des  amis.  S-Jfai  entendn  dire  que  votre  p^re  est  malade;  est>ce 
yrai  t  6.  Ge  n'est  pas  vrai,  il  est  en  bonne  sante.  7.  Donnez-vons 
des  flenrs  k  mes  freres  et  a  mes  soenrst  8.  J*en  donne  k  eux  et  4 
elles.  9.  Ges  vieillards  peavent-ils  faire  de  ToaTrage!  10.  Bs  n*en 
penvent  pas  faire  beanconp.  11.  PoaTez-yoos  tradnire  ce  Htto 
frangaist  12.  Je  peuz  le  traduire.  13.  Qa*a  ce  vieillardf  14. 
n  a  mal  an  dos  et  k  Vepaule.  15.  N'a-t-il  pas  le  dos  voute?  IG. 
Si,  il  I'a  voiit6.  17.  Pourquoi  ce  petit  garQon  est-il  boitenx?  18- 
II  est  boiteux  paice  qa'U  a  mal  au  genou.  19.  N'avez-Yous  pa3 
mal  k  la  main  droite?  20.  Non,  j'ai  mal  a  la  main  ganche.  21. 
A-t-on  troay6  le  fond  de  ce  lac  f  22.  On  ne  Ta  pas  troav6.  23. 
N'est-ce  pas  nouvelle  lane  aujourd'hui?  24.  Non,  c'est  pleine  Inne. 
25.  La  lune  et  les  6toiles  sont  belles.  26.  Admirez-vous  le  carac- 
t6re  de  Gharles  XXL?  27.  Non,  monsieur,  j'admire  plus  le 
caract^re  de  Louis  XIV.  28.  Get  homme  est  sain  de  corps,  mus 
il  n'a  pas  le  coeur  content. 

1.  Canst  tbou  study  wben  thou  art  warmt  2.  I  can  study 
well  when  I  am  very  warm.  3.  Can  the  carpenters  do  their  work 
to-day?  4.  They  cannot  do  it  to-day.  5.  Do  you  admire  the 
character  of  George  the  Fourth?  6.  I  do  not  admire  it  7.  What 
is  the  matter  with  that  lame  man  ?  8.  He  has  a  pain  in  the  left 
knee.  9.  The  fisherman^s  hammer  is  at  the  bottom  of  the  lake. 
10.  Does  not  God  know  all  hearts?  11.  God  reads  the  bottom  of 
all  hearts,  and  can  do  all  things.  12.  Have  you  a  pain  in  the 
knee?  13.  No,  I  have  a  pain  in  the  back  and  in  the  shoulder. 
14.  Is  that  servant  in  good  health?  15.  He  is  healthy  in  (de) 
body  and  mind,  but  he  is  a  little  lazy.  16.  The  cook  is  so  lame 
that  she  cannot  do  her  work. 

17.  Do  you  pay  attention  to  what  the  master  says?  18.  We 
pay  attention  to  it.  19.  Is  that  line  straight  or  curved?  20.  It 
is  straight.  21.  Have  you  a  pain  in  the  right  hand  or  in  the  left? 
22.  I  have  no  pain  in  the  hand,  I  have  a  pain  in  the  back  and  in 
the  shoulder.  23.  Do  you  like  to  look  at  the  stars  ?  24.  I  like  to 
look  at  the  stars  and  the  moon.  25.  I  have  heard  that  the  general 
is  sick  ;  do  you  know  if  it  is  true  ?  26.  It  is  true.  27.  Is  that 
history  false?  28.  It  is  false.  29.  Have  you  been  able  to  learn 
that  lesson?  30.  I  have  not  been  able  to  learn  it.  31.  Pay  atten- 
tion to  what  I  say.     32.  That  man  is  English ;  he  is  a  subject  of 


the  queen.  83.  Could  yon  speak  the  Frencli  when  you  were  in 
Paris  *?  34.  I  could  speak  it  a  little.  85.  Will  you  come  to  our 
hoose  soon  ?     86.  I  am  so  lame  that  I  cannot  go  there  at  present. 


1.  Have  you  seen  my  brother  to-day  ?  2.  I  saw  him  in  Mr.  C.'s 
store.  3.  I  am  looking  for  him  every  where.  4.  I  have  heard  that 
he  is  soon  going  to  set  out  for  France  ;  is  it  true  1  5.  Yes,  sir ;  he 
sets  out  next  week  by  the  steamer  {le  vapeur)  America.  6.  Does 
he  intend  to  stay  long  in  France  1  7.  He  intends  to  stay  there 
eighteen  months.  8.  He  will  have  time  to  learn  the  French  well 
in  eighteen  months.  9.  He  understands  and  reads  it  sufficiently 
well  already.  10.  I  know  it ;  he  needs  only  practice  (pratique)  to 
(pour)  speak  it  perfectly.  11.  I  know  many  gentlemen  who  read 
French,  but  do  not  know  (how)  to  speak  it.  12.  The  French  is  a 
language  which  is  very  difficult. 

13.  Is  that  child  useful  to  his  relations  ?  14.  He  is  very  useful 
to  his  £ather  and  mother.  15.  That  bank-bill  looks  counterfeit ;  is 
it  not  counterfeit!  16.  It  is  counterfeit.  17.  Has  the  carpenter 
been  able  to  do  his  work  f  18.  He  has  not  been  able  to  do  it. 
19.  When  will  you  come  here  again?  20.  I  shall  come  here  again 
to-morrow.  21.  I  have  heard  that  the  general  is  coming  here ;  do 
yoQ  know  if  it  is  true  t  22.  It  is  true.  23.  Why  does  your  cousin 
look  so  sad  ?  24.  Because  he  has  a  headache  ;  his  head  pains  him 
much.  25.  Who  makes  so  much  noise  ?  2G.  It  is  some  drunkards 
in  the  street.  


1.  The  fatnres  otvoir^  to  see,  and /lire,  to  make,  arc  Irregular. 
JsvemH,     iuverraa,        Uverra^        notuverrons^      TouaverrtB^      ilsverroTit,] 
I  shall  see,     thou  wilt  ace,  he  will  ace,    we  ahaU  aee,         you  will  ace,     they  will  see. 
Je/erai,         tu/ertu,  ilfera^  naua/eroM^     wus/eree,        Us/eront, 

I  afaall  make,  thou  wilt  make,  he  will  moke,  we  shall  make,  you  will  make,  they  will  make. 

Will  you  see  the  general  to-day  ?  Verrez-voua  le  g6n6ral  aujourd'hui  ? 

I  hare  seen  him  already,  and  I  shall  Je  Pal  d^h,  tu,  et  Je  le  reverrai  c- 

see  him  again  this  evening.  soir. 

You  will  do  your  duty,  and  we  shall  Vous  ferez  votre  devoir,  et  nous  ferons 

do  ours.  le  notre. 

To  cauMCf  to  talk.     To  Hng.  Causer.     Chanter, 

uABouusK.  vunmns. 

A  eent.  A  gong.  Un  eenty*  {sou),     Vne  ehanton. 

The  hdxndle.  The  tooth.  Le  manche.  La  dent. 

*  Cent  (ion)  sounds  as  in  English. 

7«  «i7«         se  »«>        '..j*^ 

ver-rai,  fe-ral,  eau-aer,  chan-ter,  chan-son,  maDch<»,  done. 






The  day. 

That  American. 

Foreaah^  eashdoton. 

An  affair^  busineas. 




Une  affaire, 
Passi  (m.)- 
Cette  amerieaine. 
Compiant,  au  comptant,  argent  eomp- 

On  credit.    A  toothache.  A  credit.     Uh  mal  de  dent. 

2.  Gri  la  lued  chiefly  to  form  yerlyal  or  adverbial  ezprossiona  like  the  foUowing: 

To  be  grateful /or. 

Against  one's  liking^  unmllingly. 

To  my  liking.     To  your  liking. 

To  my  taste.    To  your  taste. 

To  that  American's  liking. 

To  every  body's  liking. 

8.  When  several  verba  are  eonneoted  by  nor  in  Engliah,  a<  is  to  bo  repeated  before  each 
verb  in  French. 

He   neither   reads,  nor  writes,    nor    H  ne  lit,  ni  n'^crit,  ni  n'dtudie. 

We  neither  buy  nor  sell.  Nous  n'achctons  ni  ne  Tendons. 

4.  ParlerfranQais  means  to  speak  in  French,  or  to  speak  Frenck,  franeais  being 
used  adverbially.*  Parler  lefrancaia  is  less  used.  Parler  is  the  only  verb  with  which  a 
rational  designation  can  be  used  adverbially. 

He  speaks  French  (or  In  French).  II  parle  fran^ais. 

He  speaks  the  French  of  good  society.     II  parle  le  fran^ais  de  la  bonne  com- 

C  Aimer  mieua^  follovred  by  two  infinitives,  takes  no  preposition  b«fore  the  former, 
bat  requires  de  before  the  latter. 

Un  tableau. 




Cet  anUrietUn. 

Savoir  gri  de, 

CorUre  son  are. 

A  mon  grL    A  voire  grk. 

A  mon  go&L    A  voire  go&L 

Au  gr6  de  cet  am^ricain. 

Au  gr6  de  tout  le  monde. 

I  like  better  to  read  than  to  think,  and 
I  like  better  to  think  than  to 

What  causes  that  noise  ? 

She  talks  with  her  brother,  and  speaks 
to  the  child. 

The  past  month.    The  past  night. 

J'aime-mieux  lire  que  de  penser,  et 
j'aime  mieux  penser  que  d'^rire. 

Qu'est-ce  qui  cause  ce  bruit? 

Elle  cause  ayec  son  frdre,  et  parle  & 

Le  mois  passi.    La  nuit  pass^ 

6,  The  verbs  venir  and  alter  have  in  some  eases  a  use  in  French  diiferent  tram  eoms 
and  go  in  English.  Venir  denotes  movement  towards  the  indlvidoal  who  speaks,  or  to 
what  he  regards  as  his  home,  or  accompanying  when  he  considers  himself  as  taking  the 

Will  you  come  here  to-morrow  ? 
I  will  come  here  with  pleasure. 

Yiendrez-Tous  ici  deroain  ? 
J'y  yiendrai  aveo  plaisir. 

*  Lot  it  be  borne  in  mind  that /ranfa<«,  an  adverb,  cannot  be  the  antecedent  of  a  pro- 

11T17  17SS  S  116     18      7  n  lS9t  SiS 

ta>bleaa,  i\Afalr«,  tra-vail,  6-trange,  ex-tra-or-di-nair«,  contre,  pa«-s^,  comp-tani;  a-m6- 

ri-cain,  a-m6-ri-cain«,  cr6-dit 


When  will  you  come  to  my  house  f  Quand  TiendrezTous  chez  moi  ? 

I  will  come  and  see  you  to-morrow.  Jlrai  yous  voir  demain. 

Win  you  go  along  with  me  to  Boston  ?  Youlez-Tous  venir  k  Boston  arec  moi  f 

I  will  go  willingly,  J^irai  ffolontiers. 

1.  Que  feras-tu  ce  soir  1  2.  Je  ne  ferai  rien.  8.  Ferez-vons 
qadqae  chose  demain  ?  4.  Nous  ferons  beaucoup  de  choses.  5. 
Le  paysan  fera-t-il  du  beurre  t  6.  II  fera  du  beurre  et  du  fromage. 
7.  Verras-tu  ton  oncle  demain  ?  8.  Non,  je  le  verrai  la  semaine 
prochaine.  9.  Qoand  verrez-vous  vos  amis  ?  10.  Nous  les  verrons 
bientdt.  11.  Combien  de  cents  (sous)  font  une  piastre  ?  12.  Gent 
sous  font  une  piastre.  13.  Qui  a  cass6  le  manche  de  ce  marteau? 
14.  Le  domestique  I'a  casse.  15.  Qu'avez-vous  ?  16.  J'ai  mal 
aux  dents.  17.  Cest  un  bien  mauvais  mal.  18.  Avez-vous  quel- 
que  chose  a  faire  ?  19.  J'ai  bien  des  affaires.  20.  Quelles  chan- 
sons chantez-Yous  f  21.  Nous  chantons  des  chansons  anglaises.  22. 
Avez-vous  achet^  ce  tableau  k  cr6dit  ?  23.  Je  Tai  achete  comp- 
tant.  24.  Ce  petit  gar9on  aime-t-il  mieux  I'^tude  que  le  travail  ? 
25.  n  aime  mieux  le  travail  que  T^tude.  26.  Je  connais  madame 
D. ;  e'est  une  femme  extraordinaire.  27.  Get  stranger  est  franqais ; 
e'est  tin  homme  bien  extraordinaire.  28.  Gette  femme  chante  a  mon 
goflt.  29.  Ge  gargon  ne  fera  pas  bien  son  ouvrage,  parce  qu'il  le 
fera  centre  son  gr6.  30.  Sept  jours  font  une  semaine.  31.  Voulez- 
vous  me  vendre  ce  tableau  ?     32.  Bien  volontiers,  monsieur. 

1.  When  will  you  come  to  our  house?  2.  I  will  go  there  day 
after  to-morrow.  3.  Will  you  go  (come)  to  New  York  with  me  f 
4.  I  will  go  there  with  pleasure.  5.  Will  the  soldiers  see  the  gene- 
ral to-day  1  6,  They  will  see  him.  7.  We  shall  see  the  new  pic- 
ture to-day ;  will  not  the  master  see  it  also  ?  8.  He  will  see  it. 
9.  What  caused  so  much  noise  this  morning?  10.  It  is  the  wind 
which  caused  it  11.  What  songs  does  the  English  woman  sing! 
12.  The  English  woman  sings  French  songs,  and  the  German 
woman  sings  (German  songs.  13.  What  will  you  do  to-morrow? 
14.  We  shall  do  nothing.  15.  How  many  cents  will  you  give  to 
that  poor  blind  man  ?  16.  I  shall  give  him  twenty-five  cents.  17. 
The  handle  of  this  knife  is  of  ivory.  18.  I  often  had  the  teethache 
when  I  was  in  the  country. 

19.  Will  the  American  buy  those  pictures  on  credit  or  for  cash? 



20.  He  win  buy  tnem  for  cash.  21.  That  man  likes  to  work  better 
than  to  do  nothing ;  is  not  that  extraordinary  1  22.  It  is  not  ex- 
traordinary that  he  loves  labor.  23.  Have  they  shown  you  some- 
thing strange?  24.  They  have  shown  me  nothing  strange.  25. 
Do  you  buy  on  credit  or  for  cash  ?  26.  I  sometimes  buy  on  credit 
and  sometimes  for  cash.  27.  What  is  the  matter  with  you  ?  28. 
I  have  a  violent  (violent)  toothache  and  a  distracting  {/ou)  head- 
ache. 29.  Has  that  merchant  much  business  (affaires)  1  30.  He 
has  much  business,  and  he  gives  great  attention  to  it.  31.  Does 
that  scholar  study  against  his  will  ?  32.  Yes,  sir ;  and  the  servant 
works  against  his  will.  33.  Are  the  nights  longer  than  the  days 
this  month?  34.  Yes  ;  and  the  days  will  be  longer  than  the  nights 
next  month.  35.  Does  the  American  know  French  better  than  1 7 
36.  No ;  he  neither  reads,  nor  writes,  nor  speaks  that  language. 


1.  Is  not  your  face  swollen  t  2.  Yes ;  I  have  the  toothache. 
3.  Do  your  teeth  pain  you  much  ?  4.  Not  much  at  present,  bat 
the  toothache  is  a  very  bad  pain  (mat).  5.  I  know  what  it  is,  I 
have  had  it  often  enough.     6.  Do  you  know  any  remedy  (remide)  ? 

7.  I  know  only  one  good  one  (de  bon),  it  is  the  cold  iron  (le/er), 

8.  I  do  not  like  that  one  much  ;  I  desire  not  to  lose  my  teeth.  9. 
What  do  the  merchants  say  ?  are  they  doing  good  business  ?  10. 
Not  very  (irop)  good ;  they  are  not  doing  much  business  at  present. 
11.  In  (dam)  two  or  three  months,  I  intend  to  undertake  some 
business.  12.  What  can  you  do  ?  13.  I  do  not  know  yet ;  if  I 
can  find  a  good  store  for  sale  (d  vendre),  I  intend  to  buy  it 

14.  I  know  one  on  Water-street  which  is  for  sale.  15.  What 
store  is  it?  16.  It  is  a  wine-store  which  is  on  that  street,  and 
which  you  are  acquainted  with  undoubtedly  (sans  doute),  17.  You 
mean  (voulez  dire)  that  of  Mr.  C.  ?  18.  Yes,  it  is  the  very  same 
(celui-ld  tneme),  19.  But  why  does  Mr.  C.  wish  to  sell  it?  20. 
His  health  is  not  good,  and  he  wishes  to  make  a  journey  in  (en) 
England.     21.  Well,  I  will  go  and  see  his  store  to-morrow. 



1.  In  fonning  tho  p&st  definito  and  other  oompoand  tenses  of  the  verhs  aller^  vefUr, 
and  sevenl  others  which  will  bo  given  hereafter,  the  past  participle  Is  joined  to  the  tenses 
of  itre  instead  of  aroir^  and  then  the  participle  always  agrees  with  the  subject  of  the 




;au;.  or 




Patt  indefinite  of  alleb,  ^o  go, 

I  aUi,  or    __^ *»«,-„, $  oUti^  or    „„ .  .,„ <  alU;  or    Ut  *oiU  $  alU;  oi 

a  est 

ha  wen^  v«  went,  jou  vent, 

Pcut  indefinite  of  VENin,  to  come 

Um7  w«Dt 


tsn.  •»«*'»•  j 

Yonr  brother  has  come. 

Mr  sifiter  has  gone  to  school. 

H J  father  has  gone  to  the  store. 

We  came  here  this  morning. 

Hy  sisters  came  also. 

If  J  brothers  hare  gone  to  the  country. 

Be  has  been  near  the  fountain. 

He  has  gone  near  the  fountain. 

%.  AiU  implies  that  tho  person  has  returned ;  eet  atU  that  he  has  gone  merely, 
a.  Verbs  in/rir  and  «Wr  have  in  the  present  (and  some  other  tenses)  the  same  terml* 
nations  as  Terbs  of  the  first  conjugation. 

Offrlr  {de  bcf.  inf.),  offrant,  offert,  c. 
Ouvrir,  ouvranty  ouvert^  e. 

nous  ouvrone^     votte  ouvrez^     ils  outrent, 
we  open,  yoa  open,  they  open. 

Votre  fr^ro  est  venu. 

Ma  sceur  est  allk  h  r6cole. 

Mon  p^re  est  alle  au  magasin. 

Nous  sommes  venus  ici  ce  matin. 

Mes  soeurs  sont  venues  aussi. 

Mes  frdres  sont  alles  &  la  campagne. 

II  a  ete  pr^  de  la  fontaino. 

n  est  alle  pr^  de  \&  fontaine. 

To  offer^  offering^  offered. 

To  cpefif  opening^  opened. 
J^ouvre^        tu  ouvres^        U  ouere^ 
I  open,  thonopencst,  he  opens, 


Bttidieux.  Studieuse, 

Un  mari.  JJnof emme. 

Un  epoux.  Une  spouse. 

Le  pouee.  La  sScheresse. 

Un  legume.  Fixe. 

Un  associe,  Une  lumiere. 

Un  defaut.  Une  erreur,  miprise. 

Par  migarde. 

Habile.  TJnefaute. 

4  Fauie  Implies  deviation  firom  daty  or  rale ;  difaut^  defect  of  mind  or  body ;  erreur, 
misapprehension  or  miscalculation ;  miprise,  tho  taking  of  one  thing  for  another. 

To  valk.  To  borrow. 

How.  Frequently. 

To  extinguislu  * 

A  husband. 
A  spouse. 
The  thumbs  inch. 
A  vegetable. 
A  partner. 
A  fault,  defect. 
BkUlful,  abU. 

A  wife. 

The  drgnessy  drought. 


A  light. 

An  error,  mistake. 

A  fault,  mistake. 

To  promise. 

At  %phat  price,  for  how  much. 

How  does  your  partner  do  that  ? 

For  bow  much  does  he  sell  this  cloth  ? 

He  promises  his  father  to  be  studious. 

Marcher.  Empruntcr. 

Comment,  Frequemment. 

tlteindre  (varied  as  plaindre.  Less.  35). 
Protnettre  (comp.  ofmettre,  de  bef.  inf.). 

Comment  votre  associ^  fuit-il  cela  ? 

Combien  vend-il  ce  drap  ?. 

II  promct  &  son  p6re  d'etre  studioux. 

II  12  IS   8    IS  r     18   13   18    S     18   7    IS       18       18    n    18    < 

q^frir,  <y-franf,  o/^fert  ou-vrir,  ou-vraniL  ou-verf,  ou-vm,  on-vr«*,  ou-vron»,  ou-vrea, 

13         SI  1210     Xi  U  10     1  I'i   1       8   IB   «   IB      18     6      ft     ft  2J 

ourrent,  stu-dienar,  Btn-di-euz«,  ma-rl,  fcmm^,  6-pousr,  c-pouz^,  pouce,  8o-cn<»-rcs«r,  I6-gumS| 

n       1        U19«     a     KT  6     IT       7        ll  ft        18  ft       1  17  '       ».  *       *  "*       • 

flx«,  s#-80-ci«%  ln-ml6r«»  dc-fau&  cr-reur,  mo-prize,  mo-garde,  faute,  mar-cher,  em-pmn-ter, 

U  ■  SI  8         ft      14  U       ft  21        1314 

« fr^kem-ment,  e-teindre,  pro-me(tre,  com-bien. 


She  offers  to  bnj  that  silk  'gown.  Elle  offre  d'acheter  cette  robe  de  soie. 

He  has  opened  the  door.  11  a  onvert  la  porte. 

I  have  offered  to  buy  that  house.  J^ai  offert  dVcheter  cette  maiBon. 

I  am  grateful  to  the  master  that  he  Je  sais  gr6  au  maitre  do  ce  qu'il  m*a 
has  given  me  this  good  book.  donn6  ce  bon  livre. 

1.  Voulez-vous  bien  me  preter  ce  livre?  2.  Tr^-volon tiers, 
monsieur.  3.  On  ne  pent  pas  rappeler  le  temps  pass^.  4.  Vos 
fibres  sont-ils  alles  ^  Tecole?  5.  lis  y  sont  alles.  6.  £s-ta  vena 
ici  ce  matin  ?  7.  Non,  je  sais  vena  bier  an  soir.  8.  Vos  fr^res 
Bont-ils  venns  bier  aussi  ?  9.  Non,  ils  sont  venus  la  semaine  (pas- 
B^e)  derni^re,  10.  Ouvrez  la  porte.  11.  Ouvrons  la  fenetre.  12, 
Cette  clef  ouvre  cette  boitc-1^     13.  jSteignez  le  feu.     ifiteignons-le. 

14.  La  lune  emprunte  sa  lumi6re.  15.  Le  pouce  me  fait  maL  16. 
Ge  domestique  n'a-t-il  pas  des  defauts  ?  17.  II  en  a  quelque»-uns. 
18.  Avez-Tous  fait  des  fautes  dans  votre  tbdme?  19.  J'en  ai  fait 
quelques-unes.  20.  Combien  vendez-vous  ce  livre?  21.  Je  le  vends 
un  dollar.  22.  Pourquoi  eteignez-vous  le  feu "?  23.  Je  I'eteins  parce 
que  je  sors.  24.  La  lune  emprunte-t-elle  sa  lumi6re  du  soleil  ?  25. 
Elle  la  lui  emprunte.  26.  Me  promettez-vous  de  bien  etudier  ?  27. 
Je  vous  le  promets.  28.  Get  enfant  marche-t-il  dej4  ?  29.  H  ne 
marcbe  pas  encore.  30.  Ma  mere  est  allee  cbez  la  voisine.  31.  Ce 
medecin  est  tres-babile.  32.  A-t-il  emprunt6  de  Targent  A  votre 
p^re  ?     33.  Non,  il  a  emprunt6  deux  mille  dollars  k  mon  cousin. 

1.  Do  tbe  children  open  tbe  windows?  2.  They  open  them. 
3.  Does  the  doctor  extinguish  the  light  when  he  goes  out  f  4.  He 
extinguishes  it.  5.  Do  you  extinguish  your  candle  when  you  go 
out  at  night  ?  6.  I  extinguish  it  frequently,  but  not  alwaya  7. 
Do  you  walk  more  than  I  ?  8.  We  walk  less  than  you.  9.  Do  you 
offer  some  money  to  that  poor  man?  10.  I  offer  liim  some.  11. 
Do  you  frequently  recite  your  lessons  tp  your  father?  12.  I  recite 
them  to  him  very  frequently.  13.  What  do  the  scholars  promise  to 
the   master?      14.  They  promise  to  show  him  their  copy-books. 

15.  Do  they  offer  to  sell  you  their  books?  16.  They  offer  to  sell 
them  to  us,  and  we  offer  to  buy  them  of  them  (lea  leur),  17.  Does 
your  partner's  niece  promise  to  be  studious  ?  18.  She  promises  to 
be  very  studious. 

19.  Is  not  Doctor  Jones  an  able  man  ?  20.  He  is  very  able, 
and  his  brother  is  able  also.  21.  Hast  thou  more  vegetables  than  I? 
22.  No,  my  friend,  I  have  more  fruit  than  thou,  but  I  have  not  so 


many  vegetables.    23.  Hast  thou  more  vegetables  than  thy  brother  t 

24.  Yes,  because  the  drought  has  injured  {fait  mat)  his.     25.  How 

many  inches  make  a  foot  ?     26.  Twelve  inches  make  a  foot,  and 

twenty-four  inches  make  two  feet.     27.  Has  your  brother  gone  any 

-where?     28.  No,  sir,  he  went  to  the  city  this  morning,  but  he  has 

returned  (revenu*)  from  there.      29.  When  did  you  return  from 

the  country?    30. 1  returned  from  there  this  morning.     31.  Do  the 

fixed  stars  borrow  their  light  ?    82.  No,  sir,  the  fixed  stars  are  suns. 

33.  Is  that  man  the  husband  of  that  lady  f     34.  No,  sir,  he  is  the 

husband  of  my  partner's  niece.     35.  The  wife  of  your  cousin  writes 

her  exercise  without  a  fault.     36.  This  drought  will  do  harm  to  the 



1.  Does  that  woman  sing  better  than  her  husband?  2.  She 
sings  better  than  he,  but  he  reads  better  than  she.  3.  Has  the 
drought  hurt  the  vegetables  ?  4.  It  has  done  them  much  harm.  5. 
Have  you  seen  the  peaches  which  I  bought  ?  6.  No,  I  have  not 
seen  them ;  where  are  they  ?  7.  I  have  sent  them  to  the  cook ;  but 
I  am  going  to  tell  John  to  bring  me  a  few  of  them.  8.  How  do 
yon  find  them?  9.  They  are  superb ;  I  have  not  seen  so  fine  ones 
this  year.  10.  They  are  bringing  much  fruit  to  market  now ;  v.  hence 
do  they  bring  it?  11.  It  comes  from  the  country.  12.  One  does 
not  see  many  vegetables  at  the  market  {au  marche).  13.  No,  we 
have  not  had  rain  for  (depuis)  so  long  a  time,  that  all  the  gardens  are 
dried  up  (desseches).  14.  The  gardeners  say  that  they  have  never 
seen  such  a  {une  telle)  drought ;  they  are  doing  nothing  at  all  {du 

15.  They  say  that  the  rivers  are  very  low.  16.  I  wish  to  make 
a  short  {petit)  journey ;  but  if  the  rivers  are  so  low,  I  will  not  go  in 
a  {en)  steamboat.  17.  Where  do  you  desire  to  go  ?  18.  I  desire  to 
go  as  far  as  Cincinnati.  19.  The  small  boats  go  as  far  as  there  ; 
when  do  you  think  to  set  out  ?  20.  Next  week ;  I  am  waiting  for 
the  return  of  my  father,  who  is  in  the  country. 


1.  The  plapcrfect  tense  is  formed  In  French  as  In  English,  by  Joining  the  patt partiei- 
pU  to  the  imperfect  o/ihe  auxiliary. i    Thus, 

J^avai^ftni,    tu  avaisjini^     U  avaUJlni^  nous  avionsjtni,  voua  avietjlnl,  ils  avaierUJtnif 
1  had  finished,  thou  hadst,etc,  ho  had,  etc.,  vre  had,  etc.,        yon  had,  etc.,     thej  had,  etc 

*  Componnda  generally  take  the  same  auxiliary  as  their  simples, 
t  The  only  verbs,  thus  lar  given,  which  talLe  iire  for  anxilianr,  u®  a^r  and  ««r 
the  others  take  avoir. 



I  had  come,  thou  hadst  como,  he  had  oome,  we  had  come,        joa  had  come,   they  had  comi^ 

Hadst  thou  Icarued  thy  lesson  when 

the  master  came  ? 
I  had  learned  it 

Had  you  written  your  exercises? 
We  had  written  them. 
They  had  gone  to  school,  and  he  had 

gone  there  also. 

AvaU'iM  appris  la  leqon  qaand  le  mat 

tre  est  venu? 
Je  Vavais  appriu. 
Aviez'TOUB  icrit  vofl  themes? 
Nous  les  aviont  icrits. 
lis  etaieni  allis  d  F^cole,  et  il  y  itait 

alU  austu 


What  weather  ii 
The  weather  is 

It  is  cold.    It  is 

\  it  ?  how  is  the  weather? 
cold.    The  weather  is 


It  is  warm.    It 

is  very  warm. 

His  appetite. 
The  moonlight. 

A  chain. 
A  match. 
A  v!ork. 

2.  In  spoaking  of  the  weather,  the  French  commonly  employ /z<r«,  to  make,  Impenon- 

Quel  tempi  fait-U  f 

Le  temps  est  froid.      Le  temps  est 

n  fait  froid.    II  fait  frais. 
II  fait  chaud.     H  fait  bien  chaud. 

UASC1TLXXX.  naKcmrs. 

Le  chagrin.  Une  chaine. 

Son  appHit,  Une  allumetie. 

Le  clair  de  lune.       Une  a:uvre, 
8.  Travail  implies  the  act  of  working;  cworage^  the  produce  of  the  work ;  omvre,  th« 
production  of  talent  or  merit 

An  exerei^.    A  long  exercise.  Un  exerciee.    Un  long  cxercice. 

Slippery.     Dark.  Glissant.    Sombre^  obaeur. 

4.  Sombre  implies  scarcity  of  light;  ol>8Curt  absence  of  light 

[As  the  learner  Is  now  snffidentlT  acquainted  with  forming  the  femfnlne  of  a4)ectiT«t 
and  participles,  they  will  be  gtTen  omy  in  the  masculino,  except  in  peculiar  caaea.] 

Wet    Dampf  moitt. 
Agreeable.    AmicibUf  lovely. 
To  aleepf  slept. 
To  refuse.     To  gain. 

On  horseback.     On  foot. 
This  summer.    In  summer. 
This  autumn.    In  autumn. 
This  winter.    In  winter. 
This  spring.    In  spring. 

6.  JZfo  is  used  Indefinitely  with  the  names  of  the  scoaona,  except  printemps,  which  b 
never  preceded  by  en.    They  are  all  masculino. 

Do  you  sleep  less  in  winter  than  in  Dormez-rous  moins  en  hirer  (or  Thi- 
spring  ?  Tcr)  qu'au  printcmps? 

Yes,  and  I  sleep  more  in  summer  than  Qui,  et  jo  dors  plus  en  6t6  (or  Vite) 
in  autumn.  qu^en  automne. 

^1     14         I       1      «  n    I    23     «  T       »  5      r    1-1       n    8       u  m 

cha-grin,  chains,  ap-pe-ti/,  al-lu-met^,  dalr,  <ruTr«,  og-zer-cic«,  gli«-8anl  sombre,  obs- 
n       2i     li      I     »  I         7     1  10     la     16     H    4    aa  «        »      e     •  e    i«   n  ii 

cure,  Att-mtde.  a-grc-abU,  ai'mable^  dor-mir,  dor-mi,  re«fU-aer,  ga-gner,  £t^,  au-tomnet  hi- 

Tar,  prin-tem/M. 

Mouilld.     Humide. 

Agreable.     Aimable. 

Dormir^  dormi  (as  sortir,  Les.  29).     p 

Jiefuser  (de  bef.  mf.).     Gagner  (d  bef. 

A  cheval.    A  pied. 
Get  Hi.    En  hik  or  VM. 
Get  automne.  En  automne  or  rautomne. 
Get  hiver.    En  hiver  or  Thivcr. 
Cc  printemps.    Au  printcmps. 



Is  it  dry  ?    No,  it  is  wet. 

Is  it  dark  ?    No,  it  is  moonlight. 

It  is  fine  weather.    It  is  stormy. 

It  is  good  walking.    It  is  slippery. 

It  is  foggy.     It  is  muddy. 

It  is  night.    It  is  day. 

It  has  been  windy  and  dusty. 

It  will  be  sunny. 

The  mud.     The  diut. 

By.    By  mistake. 

Fait-il  sec  ?    Non,  il  fait  humide. 

Fait-il  obscur  ?  Non,  il  fait  clair  dc  lunc. 

II  fait  beau  temps.    II  fait  de  Torage. 

II  fait  bon  marcher.    II  fait  gllssant. 

II  fait  du  brouillard.    II  fait  de  la  boue. 

II  fait  nuit.    II  fait  jour. 

II  a  fait  du  rent  et  de  lapomnere, 

II  fera  da  soleil. 

La  boue.     hii  poussicrc. 

Far.    Par  m^prise. 

1.  Voulez-vous  bien  me  preter  ces  ceuvres  de  F^nelon  ?  2.  Tr^s- 
volontiersy  moDsieor.  3.  Gombien  yendez-vous  cette  chaine  ?  4.  Je 
la  vends  cinq  dollars.  5.  Avez-voas  pris  ma  plame  ?  6.  Je  Tai  prise 
par  m^garde.  7.  Avais-tu  appris  ta  le^on  quand  tu  as  la  le  joar* 
nal  ?  8.  Je  Tavais  apprise.  9.  £tiez-vous  revenus  de  la  campagne 
qoand  vons  avez  va  mon  p^re  ?  10.  Nous  en  etions  revenus.  11. 
Voire  frdre  avait-il  lu  cet  ouvrage  quand  il  me  Ta  prete  ?  12.  11 
Tavait  la.  13.  Vos  frcres  6taient-ils  allcs  d  Tccole  quand  vous  6tes 
vena  chez  noos  ?  14.  lis  y  6taient  alles.  15.  £tais-ta  alle  ^  la 
campagne  quand  nous  sommes  all6s  cbez  toi  1  16.  J'y  etais  alle. 
17.  Vos  fr^es  avaient-ils  appris  le  fran^ais  quand  ils  ont  ^tudi6 
Tespagnolt  18.  lis  pouvaient  parler  un  peu  frangais.  19.  Avez- 
vons  beaucoup  d'app6tit  en  automne  ?  20.  J'ai  beaucoup  d'app6tit 
en  automne  et  en  hiver  (I'automne  et  I'hiver).  21.  Irez-vous  ^  la 
ville  &  pied  ou  a  cheval  ?  22.  Je  n'irai  ni  &  pied  ni  ^  cheral,  j'irai 
en  bateau  k  vapeur.  23.  Ce  pauvre  homme  n'a-t-H  pas  beaucoup 
de  chagrin?  24.  Si,  madame,  il  est  tres-malheureux.  25.  Que 
desirez-vous  acheter  1  26.  Je  ddsire  acbeter  une  chaine  d'or  et  une 
boite  d'allumettes.  27.  Ces  6coliers  studieux  refusent-ils  de  r6citer 
leors  lemons  ?  28.  lis  ne  refusent  pas  de  les  reciter.  29.  Gagnez- 
vons  beaucoup  d*argent  ?    30.  Je  n'en  gagne  pas  beaucoup. 

1.  Do  you  promise  to  come  and  see  me  soon  ?  2.  I  promise  to 
come  (go)  and  see  you  to-morrow.  3.  Is  that  studious  man  amia- 
ble ?  4.  He  is  very  amiable.  5.  How  is  the  weather  t  6.  It  is 
fine  weather.  7.  Is  it  not  cold  1  8.  No,  it  is  neither  warm  nor 
cold.  9.  Is  it  not  damp  ?  10.  No,  sir,  it  was  damp  this  morning, 
but  it  is  dry  now.  11.  Is  it  uot  dark  this  evening?  12.  No,  sir, 
it  is  moonlight     13.  Is  it  not  slippery?     14.  No,  it  is  good  walk- 

it        IS    IS7 

boa«,  poa«-fli£r^. 


ing.  15.  Is  it  not  muddy?  16.  No,  it  is  neither  muddy  nor  dusty. 
17.  Is  it  very  good  walking  ?  18.  No,  sir,  it  is  a  little  slippery. 
19.  Has  not  that  poor  man  much  sorrow  t  20.  He  has  had  much 
sorrow,  but  he  is  happy  now.  21.  Will  you  buy  a  chain  of  gold  or 
of  silver?  22.  I.  shall  buy  a  gold  chain.  23.  Hare  you  some 
matches  ?     24.  I  have  a  box  of  good  matches. 

25.  Have  you  much  appetite  in  autumn  ?  26.  Yes,  I  have  more 
appetite  in  autumn  than  in  summer.  27.  Do  you  sleep  more  in 
winter  than  in  spring?  28.  No,  sir,  I  sleep  as  much  in  spring  as 
in  winter.  29.  Do  we  sleep  more  than  you  ?  30.  No,  you  sleep 
less  than  we.  31.  Do  those  scholars  sleep  much  ?  32.  Yes,  they 
sleep  too  much,  but  the  master  does  not  sleep  enough.  33.  Do  those 
shop-keepers  gain  much  money  ?  34.  They  gain  much.  35.  Do 
you  gain  more  than  they  ?  36.  No,  I  gain  less  than  they.  37. 
What  weather  is  it  ?  38.  It  is  very  agreeable  weather  (un  temps). 
39.  It  was  dark  last  night ;  will  it  not  be  dark  to-night  ?  40.  No, 
sir,  it  will  be  moonlight.  41.  Do  you  take  exercise  frequently?  42. 
I  take  exercise  morning  and  evening. 


1.  Has  it  been  foggy  this  week?  2.  Yes,  sir,  but  it  is  dry  now. 
3.  Is  it  good  walking  ?  4.  It  is  good  walking,  but  it  has  been  slip- 
pery. 5.  Why  do  you  extinguish  the  lights  ?  6.  I  extinguish  them 
because  it  is  day.  7.  Did  the  American  buy  his  pictures  on  credit 
or  for  cash?  8.  He  bought  them  for  cash.  9.  What  is  the  matter 
with  you?  10.  I  have  a  violent  toothache,  and  my  thumb  pains 
me.  11.  They  speak  much  of  the  new  work  of  Dumas ;  have  yon 
seen  it  ?  12.  I  never  read  his  works.  13.  Why  ?  do  you  not  like 
them?  14.  They  are  not  to  my  taste.  15.  I  have  heard  that 
Dumas  writes  very  well. 

16.  I  am  going  to  buy  a  lamp  ;  I  have  broken  mine.  17.  Do 
you  wish  for  a  small  one  or  a  large  one  ?  18.  I  wish  for  a  large 
one.  19.  How  did  you  break  yours?  20.  I  let  it  fall  {iamber), 
21.  Is  this  one  good  ?  22.  Yes,  it  is  exactly  Uxa4:iement)  what  I 
wish.  23.  For  how  much  do  you  sell  a  lamp  like  (comme)  this  ? 
24.  I  will  let  you  have  it  (at)  two  dollars.  25.  Well,  I  take  it ; 
have  you  some  matches  ?  26.  Yes,  I  have  some  ;  how  many  boxes 
do  you  wish  for  ?    27.  Six  or  eight  boxes  {ce)  will  be  enough. 




Im  it  neeeuary  f  Faut-il  f  or,  Est-^l  nSeeuainf 

It  18  oeceraarj.  IlfatU^  il  est  ndceasaire. 

Was  it  necessary?    It  was  necessary.  FaUait-ilf    llfaUaiU 

Has  it  been  necessary  ?    It  has  been  A-i-ilfaUut    Ilafalla. 


Had  it  been  necessary  f    It  had  been  Avaii-UfaUuf    II  ayait  fallu. 


Win  it  be  necessary?    It  will  be  ne-  Faudra-t-Ut    II  faudro. 


1.  FaUoir  and  itre  n^CMBaire  may  be  used  alike,  except  negatlrely,  bat  the  fonn«r 
Is  a  little  stronger.  When  a  person  is  naed  with/tUloir^  if  it  be  a  pronoon.  It  is  the  indlreet 
olject ;  if  a  aonn,  it  is  preceded  by  ik 

I  need  (must  have)  a  string.  II  me  faut  un  cordon. 

He  must  have  a  horse.  H  lui  faut  un  cheyah 

They  will  need  money.  H  leur  faudra  de  Fargent. 

That  man  must  have  money.  H  faut  de  Targent  k  cet  homme. 

He  must  write  a  letter.  H  lui  faut  6crire  une  lettre.* 

To  hixve  a  mind,  detire^  fancy  (for).  Avoir  envie  (de)  {dt bef.  n.  and  inf.). 

Haye  yon  a  fancy  for  my  pen  ?  Ayez-vous  enyio  de  ma  pltmie  ? 

I  haye  a  deare  to  learn  French.  tTai  enyie  d'apprendre  le  fran^ais. 
To  ruHy  runninffy  run,  Courir^  courantj  eouru, 

Jeeatu^      tu  court,  il  courts        nouteouroMf       voutcourtB,        titeourent^ 

Iron,  thou  mnnest,     he  runs,       vemn,  yon  ran,  they  ran. 

2.  The  ftitare  of  courir  is  irregular  by  dropping  the  i. 

J'^eourrai,   tueomroJi,       Ucourra,     nouM courron$,  voue eourrea,  UtcourrofU, 

Ishallmn,     thoa  wilt  ran,  he  will  run,  we  shall  ran,     you  will  run,  they  will  nuL 

Topercdve,  descry^ perceiving, perceived        Apereevoir,  apercevant,  aperfv. 

Do  you  perceive  that  light  ?  Apercevez-yous  cette  lumi^re  ? 

I  perceiye  it.  Je  raper9oi8. 

To  give  pleasure.     To  please.  Faire  plaieir,    Plaire. 

&.  These  two  verbs  always  goyem  the  dative ;  i.  e.,  they  always  take  the  noon  preceded 
by  d,  or  the  indirect  objecttve  pronoun. 

He  pleases  his  father,  his  father  is  II  plait  k  son  pere. 

pleased  with  him. 

He  pleases  him.  H  lui  plait. 

You  win  please  me  by  your  good  con*  Vous  me  ferez  plaisir  par  votre  bonne 

duct.  conduite. 

*  When /bZMr,  with  a  person,  is  followed  also  by  a  verb,  the  conjunction  que  with  the 
sabjunctive  is  generally  preferred. 

17  ^fi      T      i.Tian     iisosis      iswisi        isnu 
^    tkioL  n6-«e«-eairtff  fa^lait,  iU-la,  Iku-drn,  fti-loir,  en-viei  eon*rir.  oou-ranl,  eoa-m,  eoora 
-IS        un       usM  u«rr4soiT4Si7iir 

eoor^  ooa-ron«,  cou-rei^  oourefti;  ooor-rai,  a-per-ce-volr,  a-per-cc-vani;  a-per-^  plaira. 


I  am  pleased  with  him.  H  me  platt,  or,  Je  snis  content  de  Im. 

If  they  come,  will  you  perceive  them  ?    S'ils  Tiennent,  les  apercevrez-vous? 
I  shall  perceive  them.  Je  les  apercevral. 



The  strinff. 

Le  cordon. 


A  mile. 

A  hoe. 

Un  miUe, 

Une  Aoue. 

The  middle. 

The  Bpad£, 

Le  milieu. 

La  beche. 


The  ikovtl. 



The  least. 

An  ax. 

Le  moijidrey  le  moina. 

Une  kache. 

4.  Mbindre  is  an  a^ectiye,  and  belongs  to  a  noun ;  moint  is  an  adverb,  and  modlfles  a 
verb,  atJ^ectiTe,  or  adverb. 

He  has  not  the  least  courage.  II  n'a  pas  le  moindre  courage. 

He  studies  the  least.  II  ^tudie  le  moins. 

In  the  middle  of  the  path.  Au  milieu  du  chcmin. 

Cheap,  A  plow,  A  bonmarcIU,         Une  cAarrue. 

Dear.  A  cart.  Cher,  Une  charrette. 

Strong,  A  wheelbarrow.  Fort,  Une  broueite. 

Interestedly^  from  interest.    Disinter^  Far  interet.    Sans  interet 


To  go  a  mile,  Faire  un  mille. 

I  shall  go  ten  miles.  Je  ferai  dix  milles. 

They  sell  cheap,  but  I  sell  cheaper  Ilsvcndentiibonmarch^,maisje  vends 

than  they.  d  meilleur  march^  qu^eux. 

1.  Que  faut-il  (est-il  necessaire  de)  faire  ?  2.  II  faut  apprendre 
nos  lemons.  3.  A-t-il  fallu  (6t6  necessaire  de)  travailler  ?  4,  II  a 
fallu  (ete  necessaire  de)  travailler  beaucoup.  5.  Faudra-t-il  (sera- 
t-il  necessaire  de)  aller  a  la  rividre  ?  6.  II  ne  faudra  pas  y  aller. 
7.  n  faut  une  houe  au  jardinier.  8.  H  nous  faut  une  charrette  et 
une  brouette.  9.  II  a  fait  chaud  la  semaine  passee,  mais  k  present 
il  fait  un  temps  agr^able.  10.  Ge  marchand  ne  rend-il  pas  chert 
11.  Non,  il  vend  a  bon  marche.  12.  Courez-yous  plus  vite  que 
moi  T  13.  Je  ne  cours  pas  aussi  {or  si)  vite  que  vous.  14.  Get 
etranger  fait-il  plaisir  k  votre  ami  par  interet  ?  15.  Qui,  il  ne  rend 
pas  le  moindre  service  sans  interet  16.  Apercevez-vous  celui  que 
vous  cherchez  ?  17.  Nous  Papercevons  et  il  nous  aper^oit,  18. 
Ces  enfants  courent  parce  qu'ils  ont  peur  de  la  pluie.  19.  Nousne 
courons  jamais,  mais  ces  petits  gardens  courent  beaucoup.  20. 
Vous  faut-il  quelque  chose  1  21.  II  me  faut  un  cordon  et  une  beche, 
et  il  faut  au  paysan  une  pelle  et  une  hache.  22.  Le  jardinier  a-t-il 
tout  ce  qirU  lui  faut  t     23.  Non,  il  lui  faudra  encore  un  charrue, 

M      «  lft\     n  »  MM*        8  U       fB        7"         1  9       SS  IS 

cor-don,  moda  Inilld,  hoatf,  mi-li«n,  bteb«,  in-to-re/;  pell«i  hachf.  'dur-raa,  ohsi^retta^ 
fort,  bToa-et<«. 


ime  charrette  et  nne  grosse  bronette.      24.  Ce  cheval  est-il  fort  ? 

25.  II  est  fort  et  bien  doax.  26.  Courrez-vous  si  vous  voyez  le 
gros  chien  f    Je  conrrai. 

1.  What  does  the  blacksmith  make  ?  2.  He  makes  hoes,  spades, 
eboTels,  axes,  and  plows.  3.  Why  does  that  cat  rnn  ?  4.  He  rans 
because  he  perceives  the  dogs.  6.  Why  do  you  run  ?  6.  We  run 
because  we  perceive  the  storm.  7.  If  you  see  your  brother,  will  you 
not  ran  to  him?  8.  I  shall  run  to  him.  9.  Of  what  has  the  wash- 
erwoman need  ?  10.  She  has  need  of  a  cord  or  of  a  long  string. 
11.  Will  you  go  a  mile  this  morning?  12.  I  shall  go  two.  13. 
Where  does  the  servant  put  the  hoe  and  the  ax  ?  14.  He  puts  the 
boe  in  the  middle  of  the  garden,  and  he  puts  the  ax  in  the  middle 
of  the  yard.  15.  Is  not  butter  dear?  16.  Yes,  every  thing  is  dear 
now.  17.  Does  not  the  merchant  sell  dear?  18.  No,  sir,  he  sells 
very  cheap ;  he  has  not  the  least  profit. 

19.  Have  you  seen  the  sister  of  my  friend  ?  20.  I  have  seen 
ber;  she  is  pretty  and  very  amiable.  21.  Had  you  written  your 
exercise  this  morning  when  the  master  came  ?  22.  I  had  written 
it.  23.  Had  your  brothers  gone  to  school  when  I  saw  you  yester- 
day?   24.  They  had  gone  there.     25.  Of  what  have  you  need? 

26.  I  must  have  some  cxmdles  or  a  lamp.  27.  Do  you  perceive  the 
traveler?  28.  I  perceive  him,  and  he  perceives  me.  29.  Do  you 
take  much  exercise?  30.  Yes,  sir,  I  go  two  miles  in  the  morning 
and  two  miles  in  the  evening.  31.  Is  any  thing  the  matter  with 
yon?  32.  I  have  a  pain  in  my  thumb.  33.  Is  the  workman  in 
want  of  any  thing?  34.  He  is  in  want  of  a  wheelbarrow  and  a 
cart  35.  Labor  is  the  least  of  evils,  consequently  {conseqttemmeni) 
it  is  the  one  which  I  feel  the  least 


1.  Have  you  read  the  works  of  Lamartine  ?  2.  I  have  read  a 
few  of  them.  3.  What  will  the  weather  be  to-morrow  ?  4.  It  will 
be  cold.  5.  Will  it  be  good  walking  ?  6.  It  will  be  slippery.  7. 
Does  that  sailor  like  to  go  on  foot  ?  8.  He  likes  better  to  go  on 
foot  tban  to  go  on  horseback.  9.  Whose  is  (A  qui  est)  that  dog 
^bich  is  following  you?  10.  It  is  a  dog  that  one  has  given  me. 
11.  I  have  never  seen  him  follow  you.  12.  He  does  not  follow  me 
often,  but  he  has  broken  his  cord  this  morning.  13.  Why  do  you 
not  buy  him  a  chain  ?  14.  I  have  one  which  I  bought,  and  which 
he  cannot  break. 

15.  Let  OS  go  and  take  the  air  in  the  country  to-morrow.    16.  I 


am  perfectly  {bien)  willing ;  the  air  of  the  city  is  not  good.  17.  It 
is  not  so  good  in  summer  as  in  winter.  18.  What  are  yon  doing  t 
19.  I  am  patting  my  linen  in  (a)  the  air.  20.  Fat  it  on  this  cord. 
21.  Let  us  open  the  door ;  the  air  of  this  room  is  warm.  22.  Yes ; 
but  is  not  the  air  of  the  street  too  cold  t  23.  It  is  not  very  cold 
to-day.  24.  Do  not  open  the  door ;  open  the  window.  25.  Where 
are  you  going?  26.  I  am  going  into  the  yard  to  look  for  some- 
thing. 27.  Do  not  go  in  the  air  nor  in  the  son  without  a  hat.  28. 
I  am  not  going  to  stay  long,  and  my  hat  is  in  the  other  room.  29. 
Put  on  mine ;  I  do  not  want  it.  30.  Well,  give  it  to  me,  if  you 
please.    31.  It  is  a  little  too  small ;  put  it  on,  however  {toujours). 



1.  The  English  participial  noon  is  commonly-  rendered  into  French  hj  the  inflnitiTei 
Is  studying  much  agreeable  to  you  ?        Voua  est-il  agr 4able  d^Hudier  bcaucoup? 
Heading  at  night  hurts  my  eyes.  Lire  la  unit  me  fait  mal  aux  yesx. 
Writing  at  night  is  still  worse.  ikrire  la  nuit  est  encore  plus  maarai«. 

2.  Prepositions  followed  by  Terbal  expressions  in  English  take  the  inflnlttre  in  FreocL 
JSh,  as  will  be  seen  hereafter,  is  an  exception. 

Do  you  gain  much  by  doing  that  ?  Gagnez-vous  beaucoup  hfain  cck? 

I  have  a  fancy /or  learning  French.  J*ai  envie  d^apprendre  le  fran^is. 

He  recites  his  lesson  mthoiU  making  a  II  recite  sa  le^on  eanM  faire  de  faute 
mistake.  (or  une  faute). 

8.  Pour  before  a  nonn  or  pronoun  means  ybr;  before  an  inflnitlye  it  moans  (o,  or  <» 
order  to. 

For  me.    For  him.    For  them.  Pour  moi.    Pour  lui.    Pour  eux. 

He  will  come  to  see  you.  H  viendra  pour  yous  voir. 

I  study  in  order  to  learn.  «r6tudie  pour  apprendre. 

4b  Participles  osed  as  a4)eetiTe8  always  agree  with  their  nouns. 

Clothes  made  in  the  new  fashion.  Des  habits /ai^  &  la  nouvelle  mode. 

A  gown  made  in  the  old  fashion.  Une  rohefaite  k  la  vieille  mode. 

In  the  fashion.  In  the  French  fiishion.  )l  la  mode.    A  la  mode  fran^aise. 

Future  o/BAYOin^  to  know.    Irregular. 
Jeeaureti,      tueauras,         ileaura,         noueeaurone,  wnueaureB,    4te  eauroni, 
I  shall  know,  thou  wilt  know,  he  will  know,  we  shall  know,  you  will  know,  they  will  know. 

If  it  rains,  will  you  know  it  ?  S'll  pleut,  le  saurer-vous  ? 

I  shall  know  it.  Je  le  saurai. 

To  appeoTy  appearing,  appeared  Paraitre,  paraissant,  paru  (as  otmnai- 


If     sit  ITS       in 

sau-rai,  pa-raltre,  pa-nd«-sani;  pa-ru. 


This  motion,  impulte.    Early.  Co  mouivemtni.         De  bonne  heure, 

A  lawytr.                       Sooner.  Un  avocat.               Plus  tot, 

A  motive.                       Rather,  Un  motif y  mobile,    Plutot, 

&  PlutH,  on«  wordi  means  rather  ;  plus  tot,  two  words,  means  sooner. 

You  will  return  sooner  than  I.  Vous  reyiendrez  plus  t6t  que  moi. 

I  will  do  good  rather  than  evil.  Je  feral  du  bien  plut6t  que  du  mal. 

An  action^  faetj  deed.    Earlier.  Vnfait^aete.    De  meUleure  heure, 

6L  Tait  means  something  aocompllshed;  acts  expresses  action,  or  the  result  of  action. 

Btmday^  on  Sunday.  Le  dimanehe^  dimanche. 

Monday^  on  Monday.  Le  lundi,  lundi. 

Taesdai/y  on  Tuesday.  Le  mardi^  mardl 

Wednesday,  on  Wednesday.  Le  mererediy  mercredi. 

Thursday^  on  Thursday.  Lejeudi,  jeudl. 

Friday^  on  Friday.  Le  vendredi,  rendredi. 

Saturday^  on  Saturday.  Le  samedi^  samedi. 

Almost.     Perhaps,  Presque.    PeutStrc, 

7.  The  article  Is  used  with  the  days  of  the  week  to  denote  whst  is  habitual  or  periodi- 
cal (when  the  plaral  may  be  nsed  in  English) ;  also  when  they  are  used  definitely.  Used  as 
adTerbs,  they  take  neither  article  nor  preposition. 

They  return  home  Sundays.  Us  reviennent  chez  eux  le  dimanche. 

I  shaU  be  here  on  Sunday.  Je  serai  ici  dimanche. 

She  comes  here  Saturdays.  Elle  Tient  ici  le  samedi. 

We  will  return  on  Saturday.  Nous  reviendrons  samedi. 

1.  Est-ce  que  je  parais  malade  t  2.  Non,  monsieur,  vons  parais- 
8ez  ^tre  en  bonne  sante.  3.  Fait-il  nait  f  4.  H  fait  nuit,  et  la 
lone  et  les  etoiles  paraissent.  5.  Les  faits  de  cette  histoire  sont 
extraordinaires.  6.  Ce  cheval  a  les  mouvements  beaux.  7.  Be- 
viendrez-Tous  lundi  on  mardi  ?  8.  Je  reviendrai  de  bonne  heure 
lundL  9.  Vous  para!t-il  agreable  d'^tudier  beaucoup  1  10.  Cola 
me  parait  agreable  et  utile.  11.  Quand  irez-vous  chez  Tavocat  ? 
12.  ePirai  mercredi.  13.  Eevenez-vouB  de  chez  lui  k  present?  14. 
J'en  reviens.  15.  Allez-vous  au  marche  de  bonne  heure  ?  16.  Oui, 
mais  Tons  j  allez  de  meilleure  heure  que  moi.  17.  H  n'a  pas  fait 
froid  cette  semaine ;  n'est-ce  pas  ?  18.  Si,  presque  toute  la  semaine, 
mercredi,  jeudi,  vendredi  et  samedi.  19.  Get  homme  yous  rend-il 
service  par  interett  20.  Oni,  I'interet  est  son  seul  motif  (mobile). 
21.  Si  mon  fr^re  vient  ici,  le  saurez-vous?  22.  Nous  saurons  la 
le^n  plus  t6t  que  vous,  et  mon  cousin  la  saura  plus  tdt  que  nous. 
23.  cTapprends  le  frangais  mais  non  pas  Tespagnol.     24.  Le  maitre 

IS  S  U         1     U    1  U19        U    13  a   17       7      1  M       S  »       U       1 

-nonr^-nieni:,  heme,  s-yo-cai  mo-till  mo-hile,  plu-td<t  fiii^  «ct«,  dl-manch^  lun-dl,  mar- 
dl,  mcr-ezv-di,  Jea^di,  Ten-dre-di,  same-dif  prceke^  peu-tAtra. 


est  alle  chez  lui ;  peut-Stre  qu'il  reviendra  bientot.  25.  Silence, 
restez  tranquille :  cet  enfant  est  le  mouvement  perpetueL 

1.  Does  the  washerwoman  wish  for  any  thing  t  2.  She  wishes 
for  a  long  string  and  some  soap.     3.  What  does  the  gardener  need? 

4.  He  needs  a  shovel,  an  ax,  a  plow,  a  cart,  and  a  wheelbaiTOw. 

5.  Is  that  servant  useful  to  you?  6.  No,  he  does  not  render  me 
the  least  service.  7.  Does  the  shop-keeper  sell  cheap  ?  8.  No ;  be 
sells  very  dear.  9.  How  is  the  weather  ?  10.  It  is  cold  this  morn- 
ing. 11.  Is  it  not  night?  12.  It  is  night,  and  the  stars  appear. 
13.  Do  those  ladies  appear  to  you  amiable?  14.  Yes,  they  appear 
to  me  very  amiable.  15.  Does  that  man  appear  to  you  lame!  16. 
Yes,  sir,  he  is  lame ;  he  has  a  pain  in  the  left  foot.  17.  Are  yon 
returning  from  the  lawyer's  ?  18.  I  am  returning  from  his  honse. 
19.  Has  your  partner  gone  to  the  lawyer's?  20.  No;  he  went 
early  this  morning  to  the  country ;  perhaps  he  will  return  to-day. 

21.  Is  the  motion  of  this  boat  agreeable  to  you  ?  22.  No,  it  is 
not  agreeable.  23.  That  man  obliges  {rend  service  a)  every  body; 
what  is  his  motive  ?  24.  Interest  is  his  only  motive.  25.  Do  you 
know  any  one  without  fault  ?     26.  I  know  no  one  without  fault 

27.  This  new  history  is  extraordinary ;  it  is  full  of  strange  facts. 

28.  Do  you  go  out  early  in  the  morning?  29.  Yes,  ))ut  my 
brother  goes  out  earlier  than  I.  30.  Will  you  go  to  school  earlier 
than  your  cousin?  31.  I  shall  go  earlier  than  he.  32.  Had  your 
brother  gone  to  school  when  we  saw  you  this  morning?  33.  He 
had  gone  there.  34.  Had  you  recited  your  lesson  when  we  recited 
ours  ?  35.  I  had  recited  it.  36.  Has  that  child  courage  ?  37. 
He  has  not  the  least  courage.  38.  Is  it  warm  this  evening  ?  39. 
No,  it  is  almost  always  in  the  evening  that  it  is  the  least  warm. 


I.  See  that  pretty  little  dog  which  follows  that  lady ;  he  is 
very  small  and  all  white,  the  pretty  little  animal !  2.  Do  you  like 
dogs  ?  3.  I  like  them  much ;  I  like  dogs  and  horses ;  they  are  good 
animals.  4.  The  horse  is  a  very  useful  animal.  5.  You  are  right, 
he  is  an  animal  very  useful.  6.  Is  it  healthy  to  {de)  stay  in  the 
air  without  a  coat?  7.  It  is  not  healthy.  8.  Well,  let  us  go  and 
put  on  our  coats.  9.  Yes,  I  feel  that  the  air  is  damp  this  morning. 
10.  Damp  air  is  not  healthy  in  the  city  [en  ville)  ;  in  the  country 
we  do  not  think  of  it. 

II.  Who  gave  you  that  great  box?  12.  No  one  gave  it  tome ; 
I  bought  it.    13.  What  will  you  do  with  it  ?     14.  I  am  going  to 


give  it  to  the  gardener  to  (pour)  pat  his  tools  in  (it)  (y).  15.  What 
tools  will  he  put  in  it  f  16.  He  will  pat  in  it  his  hoe,  his  spade, 
his  shovel,  his  ax,  and  some  other  tools.  17.  Is  that  hox  long 
enoQ^h  to  pat  a  hoe  or  a  spade  in  (it)  1  IS.  Yes,  it  is  long  enough. 
19.  They  say  that  you  have  a  fine  garden.  20.  Yes;  oar  new 
gardener  has  made  (rendu)  it  very  fine.  21.  Have  you  a  plow  ? 
22.  No,  we  have  none.  28.  I  have  one,  and  it  is  at  your  service, 
if  yon  wish  for  it  24.  Thank  yoa,  hut  we  have  no  need  of  it ;  we 
do  every  thing  {tout)  with  (a)  the  spade. 

25.  Will  you  return  from  the  river  earlier  than  your  hrotherst 
26.  No  ;  they  will  return  earlier  than  we.  27.  When  wilt  thou  go 
to  Boston  t  28.  I  shall  go  there  on  Monday.  29.  WUt  thou  re- 
tnm  on  Tuesday  t  30.  No ;  I  shall  return  on  Wednesday  or  Thurs- 
day ;  my  brother  will  return  on  Friday,  and  my  cousin  will  return 
on  Satorday  or  Sunday. 


1.  There  are  ihxee  degrees  of  comparison,  thtpoHUes^  eomparaiitt^  and  tuptrlaUv*, 
Sl  Of  compantiTes  there  are  also  those  ot  superiority^  equality,  and  ir^feriortty. 
8.  The  comparatire  Is  formed  by  placing  before  the  a(^ectlve  the  adverbs  plu»  for  sn- 
perioxi^,  avsH  for  equality,  and  maint  for  inferiority,  and  que  after  it    Thus : 

Small,  tmaUer^  a»  tmaUy  leu  snuUl.         Petit,  plus  petit,  auui  petit,  moins 

SUgant,  fnore  eUgantj  <u  elegant,  leu    Elegant,  pltis  iUgatit,  aussi  iligant, 
elegant.  moine  ilegant. 

i.  Many  adrerbs  are  compared  in  the  same  way  as  a^jectiyes. 

EaaOy,  more  easily,  as  easily,  less  ea-    Faeilement,  plus  faeilement,  aussi  fa- 

nig*  cilement,  moins  faeilement, 

6,  When  qnaatitiea  are  compared,  phis,  a/uUimt,  moins  are  used  with  de  before  the  ob- 
ject eompared,  and  que  de  before  the  one  it  is  compared  with ;  as, 

More  butter  than  bread.  Plus  de  bcurrc  q\te  de  pain. 

As  much  of  this  as  of  that.  Autant  de  celui-ci  que  de  celui-lL 

Less  money  than  clothes.  Moins  (f  argent  que  cThabits. 

&  The  snperlative  is  formed  by  prefixing  the  article  U,  or  a  possessiTe  a^ectiTS,  to  the 
eompanUTC  of  superiority  or  inferiority. 

Small,  smaller,  smallest.  Petit,  plus  petit,  le  plus  petit.  \ 

Cold,  less  cold,  least  cold,  Froid,  moins  froid,  le  moins  froid 

7.  There  are  a  few  Irregularities.  MeOleur  and  le  meilleur  are  sometimes  used  for  the 
comparatire  and  superlative  of  bon  ;  moindre  and  le  moindre  for  those  of  petit;  mieuat 
and  le  mieua  for  those  of  bten  ;  pire  and  le  pire  for  those  of  mauvais  ;  pis  and  le  pie  for 
thoee  of  maiL 

My  foot  is  smaller  than  yours.  Mon  pied  est  plw  petit  que  le  v6tre. 

His  foot  is  the  smallest,  T\.Kle  plus  petit  pied. 

s   s   s 



TluB  scholar  is  less  studious  than  that     Get   ^l^ve    est   tnoins   studieux  qae 

That  one  is  the  least  studious  of  all.         Celiii-llt  est  le  moins  studieux  de  toua. 
It  is  my  best  horse  ;  he  is  the  best  that     G'est  mon  meUleur  cheval ;  c^est  U 
I  have.  meilleur  que  j^aL' 

8.  IHua  petit  more  commonly  applies  to  what  is  measured ;  mdndre^  to  what  Is  valaed. 

My  brother  is  smaller  than  I.  Mon  frdre  est  plus  petit  que  moi. 

He  is  the  smallest  of  the  family.  C^est  le  plus  petit  de  la  famille. 

His  talents  are  less  than  yours.  Sea  talents  sont   moindres   que    les 


He  is  the  smallest  of  small  minds.  C'est  le  moindre  des  petita  esprits. 

Sweet,  sweetened.     To  anstoer,  SucrS.    HSpondre  {de  before  nouns). 

The  side.     The  liquor,  cordial.  Le  c^S.     La  liqueur. 

The  chin.    The  sweet  liquor.  Le  menton.    La  liqueur  douce. 

On  this  side.    On  that  side.  De  ce  cdt6-«i.    De  ce  c6t4-U. 

The  spectacle,  play.    To  the  plaj.  Le  spectacle.    Au  spectacle. 

His  turn. ,  In  his  {or  her)  turn.  Son  tour.    X  son  tour. 

A  pig,  swine.     A  fat  pig.  Un  eoehcm,     Un  cochon  gras. 

Something  else.    Nothing  else.  Quelque  autre  chose.  Rien  autre  chose. 

Consequently.    I  read  the  best.  Consequemment.    Je  lis  le  mieox. 

To  keep.    He  keeps  my  letters.  Oarder.    II  garde  meslettres. 

To  fall.  Tomber  {itre  for  auxiliary). 

He  has  fallen  from  a  horse.  U  est  tomb6  de  cheval. 
Do  they  come  on  this  side  or  on  that     Yiennent-ils  de  ce  c6t6-ci  on  de  ce 

side?  c6UAh? 

They  come  on  this  side.  lis  viennent  de  ce  c6t4-ci. 

Did  you  answer  that  man  ?  Atcz-vous  r6pondu  &  cet  homme  ? 

I  answered  him.  Je  lui  ai  r^pondu. 

1.  Avez-yous  envie  d'aller  qnelque  partt  2.  Oiu,  j'ai  enTie 
d'aller  k  la  campagne.  3.  Acbetez-vous  des  habits  faits  k  la  mode 
frangaise  ?  4.  Non,  j'ach^te  des  habits  faits  k  la  mode  anglaise. 
5.  Avez-vous  plus  de  fromage  que  de  beurre  1  6.  Non,  moHsieur, 
j'ai  autant  de  beurre  que  de  fromage.  7.  Avez-vous  moins  de  pcches 
que  de  pommes  ?  8.  Non,  j'ai  moins  de  pommes  que  de  peches. 
9.  Votre  sceur  n'est-elle  pas  plus  grande  que  vous  ?  10.  Elle  est 
plus  grande  que  moi,  mais  mon  frere  est  le  plus  grand  de  la  famille. 
11.  Votre  cousin  n'est-il  pas  moins  studieux  que  vous?  12.  Oui, 
il  est  le  moins  studieux  de  I'ecole.  13.  Vous  lisez  mieux  que  moi, 
mais  mon  frcre  lit  le  mieux.  14.  Qu'avez-vous  ?  15.  J'ai  mal  au 
menton.     16.  Buvez-vous  la  liqueur  sucr6e  t     17.  Je  la  bois.     18. 

U14  11        It       »      <      S     91  17    «      U     11  S       «l  5       1  It        IS       11 

xnolndre,  pirtf,  pl«,  su-crd.  r6-pondre,  c6-U,  U-kear,  men-ton,  spec-tacltf)  tour,  co-chon, 
coa-6^-kA}f»-mon^  gar-dor,  tom-ber. 


Barez-yons  qaelqne  autre  chose  ?  19.  Je  ne  bois  rien  autre  chose. 
20.  Tombeat-vous  souvent  quand  fl  fait  glissantf  21.  Je  tombe 
qnelqaefois,  mais  non  pas  soavent.  22.  Ma  plume  est  meilleure 
que  la  votre,  cons6quemment  j'^ris  mieux  que  yous.  23.  J'ai  la 
meilleare  des  plumes,  et  c'est  moi  qui  6crit  le  mieux.  24.  Ma  plume 
est  manvaise,  celle  de  Charles  est  pire,  la  votre  est  la  pire  de  toutes ; 
cons^quemment  j'^cris  mal,  Charles  6crit  pis  que  moi,  et  yous 
6criyez  le  pis  de  tous. 

1.  Do  you  answer  all  the  letters  of  the  captain  ?  2.  I  answer 
them  (y).  3.  Have  you  answered  the  doctor?  4.  I  have  not 
answered  him.  6.  When  will  you  answer  his  letter  t  G.  I  shall 
answer  it  on  Thursday.  7.  Do  you  keep  the  money  that  you  gain  ? 
8.  I  keep  mine,  but  my  brother  does  not  keep  his.  9.  What  have 
you  a  mind  to  do?  10.  I  have  a  mind  to  write  some  letters.  11. 
Is  this  liquor  sweeter  than  that  ?  12.  Yes,  this  liquor  is  sweeter 
than  that,  but  that  of  the  cook  is  the  sweetest.  13.  Is  this  pig  as 
fat  as  that  ?  14.  No,  this  pig  is  less  fat  than  that.  15.  What 
does  that  man  buy  ?  16.  He  buys  a  coat  made  in  the  old  fashion, 
and  his  wife  buys  a  gown  made  in  the  new  fashion.  17.  Do  you 
take  your  sister  to  the  play  ?     18.  I  take  her  there. 

19.  Is  that  scholar  as  studious  as  his  cousin  ?  20.  He  is  more 
studious  than  his  cousid,  but  he  is  less  studious  than  his  brother; 
the  son  of  the  German  is  the  most  studious  of  all.  21.  Do  you 
gpeak  in  your  turn  ?  22.  Yes,  each  one  speaks  in  his  turn.  23. 
That  scholar's  merit  (meriU)  is  less  than  yours,  but  his  brother's  is 
the  least  of  alL  24.  My  ink  is  bad,  yours  is  worse,  and  this  little 
boy's  is  the  worst  of  all.  25.  This  little  girl  reads  badly,  her 
brother  reads  worse,  and  her  cousin  reads  the  worst  of  all  the  school. 
26.  Is  not  your  chin  swollen  1  27.  My  chin  is  swollen,  and  I  have 
also  the  toothache.  28.  Where  is  the  roast  pig  ?  29.  The  cook 
has  carried  it  to  the  kitchen.  30.  Is  your  friend  coming  on  this 
side  t  31.  No,  he  is  coming  on  that  side.  32.  You  learn  French 
and  Spanish ;  do  you  learn  any  thing  else  ?  33.   I  learn  nothing  else. 


1.  Have  you  seen  the  carriage  which  I  have  bought  t  2.  No ; 
I  have  been  told  that  you  have  bought  a  new  one,  but  I  have  not 
yet  seen  it ;  is  it  large  ?  3.  Not  very  large ;  I  have  need  of  a  cart 
also  5  mine  is  all  (tou(e)  broken.  4.  I  have  seen  some  very  good 
ones  at  John  the  blacksmith's.     5.  Are  they  large?    6.  I  saw  some 


large  ones  and  some  small  ones ;  you  bad  better  {ferez  bien  de)  go 
and  see  tbem.  7.  Yes,  I  will  go  to-morrow ;  I  am  in  want  also  of 
a  little  wbeelbarrow.  8.  You  will  see  some  at  bis  bouse.  9.  They 
say  tbat  Jobn  is  a  very  good  workman.  10.  Yes,  bis  work  is 
strong,  and  does  not  break  like  (comme)  tbat  of  so  many  otbers. 
11.  Tbe  work  wbicb  tbey  make  at  present  is  none  too  {pas  trap) 
good.     12.  Tbey  do  not  always  take  care  to  cboose  good  wood. 

13.  George,  do  you  know  wbere  your  little  brotber  is  t  14.  He 
is  in  tbe  middle  of  tbe  road.  15.  Can  you  tell  me  wbere  my  dic- 
tionary and  my  grammar  are?  16.  Yes  ;  your  brotber  bas  carried 
(emportSs)  tbem  off  into  bis  room.  17.  He  is  studying  bis  lesson  ; 
but  I  do  not  yet  know  mine.  18.  Have  you  not  studied  it  yet? 
19.  I  bave  studied  it  a  little,  but  not  enougb.  20.  Take  my  gram- 
mar if  you  bave  need  of  it.  21.  You  are  very  good ;  if  I  do  not 
study,  our  master  will  be  displeased  {meconteni)j  and  be  will  be 

60.— SOIXANTlfiME  LEgON. 


7h  reward.    To  punish.  Reeompenur,    Punir. 

To  esteem.    To  despUe.  Eetimer.    Mq^rieer, 

To  correct.     To  neglect.  Corriger.    Nigliger  (de  bef.  inf.). 

The  tlUef^  robber.    Ignorant  Le  voleur.     Ignorant. 

1.  Tns  Pabsztb  Vsbd  is  formed  in  French,  as  ia  English,  bj  Joining  the  past  portidple 
to  the  aoxlllaiy  Jtre,— the  past  participle  agreeing  in  gender  and  nnmher  with  the  aabject 

lam  loved.  Je  wis  aimk  or  aimSe. 

Thou  art  loved.  71*  es  aimi  or  aimie. 

He  is  loved.    She  is  loved.  H  est  aimi.    Elle  est  aimie. 

We  are  loved.  Nous  sommes  aimSs  or  aimie*. 

^  ,      ,  ^       .      i  «w*^  or  aimie. 

Tou  are  loved.  Vous  ites  •<     .    ,  •    «     • 

(  aimis  or  avnies.* 

They  are  loved.  lis  sont  aimis  or  elles  sont  ainties. 

I  was  rewarded.  J^etais  recompense  or  ricompenaie. 

Thou  hast  been  punished.  Tu  as  He  puni  or  punie. 

He  had  been  neglected.  H  avail  iti  nigligi. 

Sht  had  been  esteemed.  ElU  avail  He  estimie. 

We  shall  be  despised.  Xous  serons  meprises  or  miiprisiei. 

tr        'tt  t      ^        J  ^  {  estimi  or  estimie. 

Tou  wul  be  esteemed.  Vous  serezX     ,.    ,  ^.    . 

(  estimes  or  esttmies. 

•When  totu  refers  to  but  one,  the  participle  is  singular ;  when  to  more  than  one.  It  b 

•    31        8     «      a  w    ft    n    «         tut       la    n   «       s     12  s      is  11     n     u  a 
^  ,f«-<»°»-Pjn-«J'*.^P»»-»^fj«5-ti-mer,  m^-^rl-zer^  cor-ri-ger,  nd-gli-ger,  To-leur.  l-gno-tin^ 
r6-coni-pen-e6,  pn-ni,  n^-gli-gj,  es-ti-m^,  md-pri-ze. 


2.  By  before  the  e^nt  of  a  psaslTe  verb  to  rendered  by  cfe  when  speaking  of  the  aonti- 
meots  of  the  heart;  by  par,  of  actions  phjsieal  or  mental 

Thej  were  lored  by  their  friends.  EUes  ^taient  aim^  de  leurs  amis. 

He  will  be  punished  by  the  master.  II  sera  puni  ^ar  le  maitre. 

The  exercises  Tf  ill  be  corrected  by  the  Lcs  themes  seront  corrigds  par  le  ma!- 
mftster.  tre. 

8.  The  paasire  yerb  Is  not  often  nsed  in  French  when  the  agent  Is  general  or  unknown. 
Exptcaslona  like  the  following,  therefore,  thoogh  passlTe  in  English,  mnst  be  active  in  French. 

This  house  \stohe  sold,  Gette  maison  est  d  vendre. 

That  poor  man  is  to  be  pitied,  Ce  pauvre  homme  est  d  plaindre. 

That  hoQse  is  to  be  let.  Cette  maison  est  d  louer. 

That  is  an  animal  to  be  feared.  G^est  un  animal  d  eraindre. 

It  is  said  that  he  is  sick.  On  dU  quUI  est  malade. 

We  have  been  told  that  you  are  rich.  On  nou$  a  dit  que  Toua  fttes  riche. 

Instead  of.     To  bring ^  to  take  to.  Au  lieu  de.     Amener. 

4.  Apporter  is  to  bring  by  carrying ;  amener,  to  bring  without  carrying ;  etnparter  a)ao 
is  to  carry  away;  emmener,  to  load  or  take  away. 

Is  there,  are  there  /  77iere  is,  there  are.  Y  a-t-il  ?    II  y  a. 

Has  or  have  there  been  f  wis  or  vtere  Y  a-t-il  eu  f 

there  f 

There  has  or  have  been,  there  was  or  were.  H  y  aeu. 

Will  there  be  f    There  fcill  be.  Y  aura-til  f    II  y  aura. 

Was  there  f    There  was.  Yavait-ilF    Hyavait. 

Had  there  been  /    There  had  been.  Y  avait-il  euf    II  y  avait  eu. 

He  brings  his  sister.  II  amdne  sa  sosur. 

He  brings  his  book.  H  apporte  son  livre. 

Are  there  some  people  at  your  house  ?  T  a-t-il  du  monde  chez  vous  ? 

There  will  be  some  to-morrow.  II  y  en  aura  demain. 

There  haye  been  many  people  at  church  H  y  a  eu  beaucoup  de  monde  k  P^glise 

this  erening.  co  soir. 

1.  Get  homme  neglige  sa  sante,  il  sera  malade.  2.  Ces  6coliers 
negligent  d'etudier,  lis  seront  punis.  3.  Get  61eve  sera-t-il  r6com- 
pens^  ?  4.  Non^  il  est  paressenx,  il  neglige  ses  legons,  et  il  sera 
puni  an  liea  d'etre  recompense.  5.  Ces  enfants  sages  seront  es- 
times  an  lien  d'etre  meprises.  6.  Par  qni  ^tes-vous  recompenses  Y 
7.  Nona  sommes  recompenses  par  le  maitre.  8.  Nous  serons  aimes 
de  nos  parents.  9.  Ce  voleor  a-t-il  etc  puni  ?  10.  Pas  encore, 
mas  il  sera  bientot  puni.  11.  Ce  gros  gar9on  est  tr&s-ignorant. 
12.  Ooi,  il  est  si  ignorant  qu'il  ne  salt  pas  lire.  13.  Yos  themes 
Bont-il  corriges?  14.  Non,  mais  ils  seront  bient6t  corriges  par  le 
maitre.  15.  J^eA  amene  ma  soeur  ici,  et  j'y  ai  apporte  sa  malle. 
16.  N'y  a-t-il  pas  un  livre  sur  votre  pupitre  ?      17.  II  y  en  a  un. 

U    •       1  < 

lon-er,  ame-ner. 


18.  T  a-t-il  des  papiers  dans  Totre  tiroirt     19.  II  n'y  en  a  pas. 

20.  N'7  a-t-il  pas  en  beancoap  de  brnit  dans  la  me  hier  an  soir? 

21.  II  7  en  a  en  beancoup.  22.  T  anra-t-H  beanconp  de  monde  chez 
Yons  demain  ?  23.  II  y  en  anra  beancoap.  24.  Y  avaitril  bean- 
coup  de  fruit  k  la  campagne,  quand  vous  y  6tiez1  25.  11  yen 
avait  beancoup. 

1.  Has  the  master  given  yon  any  thing?  2.  Yes,  sir,  he  has 
given  me  a  pretty  book.  3.  Has  he  given  yon  any  thing  else  ?  4. 
No,  he  has  given  me  nothing  else.  5.  Is  that  tea  sweetened  ?  G. 
It  is  sweetened.  7.  Are  those  pears  good  ?  8.  They  are  sweet 
and  good.  9.  Was  your  exercise  finished  when  the  master  cor- 
rected mine?  10.  Yes,  I  had  finished  it,  and  the  master  had  cor- 
rected it.  11.  Has  that  lazy  scholar  been  punished  t  12.  Yes,  sir, 
and  that  studious  scholar  has  been  rewarded.  13.  Who  will  be 
esteemed  and  who  will  be  despised?  14.  The  studious  scholar 
will  be  esteemed,  and  the  ignorant  scholar  will  be  despised,  lo. 
When  will  the  thief  be  punished  ?  16.  He  will  be  punished  next 
week.  17.  Is  not  that  scholar  ignorant  ?  18.  He  is  very  ignorant ; 
he  plays  instead  of  studying,  and  he  will  be  punished  by  the  master. 

19.  Do  you  correct  your  exercises  ?  20.  No,  sir,  the  master 
corrects  them.  21.  Do  you  not  neglect  your  health  ?  22.  No,  I 
do  not  neglect  it.  23.  Do  you  play  instead  of  stud3dng?  24.  No, 
sir,  I  have  learned  my  lesson,  and  now  I  am  going  to  play.  2^* 
Are  there  not  thieves  in  this  city?  26.  There  are  a  few.  27.  Were 
there  not  some  people  at  your  house  yesterday  ?  28.  Yes,  there 
were  many  there  yesterday,  and  there  wiU  be  many  to-morrow. 
29.  Are  there  not  some  books  on  your  table?  30.  There  are  a  fe^- 
31.  Do  you  answer  all  the  letters  that  yon  receive?  32.  I  answer 
them.  33.  Do  you  keep  all  the  money  that  you  gain  ?  34. 1  do  not 
keep  it  all.  35. 1  have  brought  my  little  brother  to  school.  36.  Hare 
you  brought  his  books  also  1  37.  I  have  brought  them.  38.  Hare 
you  brought  any  thing  else  ?     39.  I  have  brought  nothing  else. 


1.  Show  me  (faites-moi  voir)  the  lesson  ;  let  ns  see  if  it  is  that 
which  I  have  studied.  2.  It  is  this  one.  3.  Very  well ;  it  is  the 
same.  I  know  already  the  half  of  it ;  I  can  learn  it  eas3y.  4. 
Which  is  the  more  useful,  the  French  or  the  Latin  ?  5.  The  French 
undoubtedly  {sans  doute) ;  but  I  wish  to  know  the  Latin  also ;  ^^ 
you  not  intend  to  learn  it  ?     G.  I  do  not  know  yet ;  I  prefer  the 


French.  7.  Bat  yon  can  learn  the  Latin  also.  8.  Tes,  if  I  have 
the  time,  for  {car)  I  wish  to  learn  also  the  Spanish  and  the  German. 
9.  Do  yon  sometimes  speak  French  to  your  sister  ?  10.  I  speak 
French  to  her  sometimes.  11.  She  comprehends  French  very  well ; 
does  she  nott  12.  Tes,  and  she  speaks  it  snfiSciently  well.  13. 
Why  do  yon  not  always  speak  French  to  hert  14.  I  often  forget 
to  do  ity  and  besides  {(Tailleurs)  it  is  a  little  difficult  for  me.  15. 
The  more  one  speaks,  the  sooner  one  learns ;  does  he  not?  16. 
Certainly  {certainement) ;  one  has  need  of  study  and  of  practice  also. 
17.  Are  the  soldiers  coming  on  this  side  or  on  that  side  ?  18. 
They  are  coming  on  that  side.  19.  My  father  gives  me  money  to 
go  to  the  play.  20.  Does  he  give  you  any  thing  else?  21.  He 
gives  me  nothing  else.  22.  Has  there  been  much  fruit  this  sum- 
mer? 23.  There  has  been  much.  24.  Will  there  be  much  cotton 
this  autumn?  25.  There  will  not  be  much.  26.  What  do  you 
buy?  27.  I  buy  some  apples.  28.  Do  you  buy  any  thing  else? 
29.  I  buy  nothing  else.  30.  Does  that  child  fall  often?  31.  He 
falls  very  often.  32.  Do  yon  prefer  the  Spanish  to  the  French? 
33.  No,  I  preier  the  French  to  the  Spanish. 



To  touch.    To  oWf  must,  etc.  Toucher.    Devoir, 

JDo  yo»  0100/    /  owe.  Devez-vcue  t    Je  dote. 

They  owe  me  money.  Us  me  doivent  de  Targent. 

He  owes  me  gratitude.  H  me  doit  de  la  reconnaissance. 
1.  J>e9oir  has  maoy  sfgnlflcatioiu  in  EngliBb,  all  denotiDg  obllgatioii  In  tataie. 

I  most  write.     I  should  write.  ^ 

I  OQght  to  write.    I  have  to  write.  \  Je  dois  ^crire. 

I  am  to  write.  ) 

The  breakfatt.    To  breakfast.  Le  dejeuner.    Difeuner. 

The  dinner.     To  dine.  Le  cRner.     Diner. 

The  tpord.    The  word  (spoken).  Le  mot.    La  parole. 

The  cabhage.    The  earthy  ground.  Le  chou.    La  terre. 

At  breakfast.    At  dinner,  A  dejeuner.    A  diner. 

Coffee  mth  milk.     Coffee  without  milk.     Cafe  au  lait.     Cafe  noir. 

Malieiaus,  cunning.  Malin.    Maligne. 

Short     Charming.  Court     Charmant. 

He  is  near-sighted.  II  a  la  vue  conrte  (or  basse). 

That  man  cultivates  the  earth.  Get  homme  cultive  la  terre. 

Take  away  that  man.  Kumenez  cet  homme. 

IS  6         4      so         SB         4      «        S      9        e         »    •  17       1     IS         7  I     14  1    IS 

ton-cher,  de-voir,  doU,  de-Te0,  dd-Jen-nef*,  d!-ner,  mo<,  pa-role,  terre,  ma-lin,  ma-ligne, 

IS  1         s 

coar^  ehar-manib 


JoyouM.  Joyeuz,    J<n/euMe. 

Crazy.  Fou,    FolU, 

2.  Fou  becomes  yM  before  a  vowel  or  a  silent  A. 
Wheats  grain,    A  pancake,  Le  6/«,  grain.     TJne  crepe. 

Buckwheat.  Le  earratin,  le  bU  noir. 

A  buckwheat  cake.    '  Une  erSpe  de  sarroHn  (or  de  hU  fiotr). 

He  wbhes  for  buckwheat  cukes  with    II  veut  des  crapes  de  sarrasin  aubcurre 

butter  and  syrup.  et  au  tirop. 

It  is  good  traveling.     It  is  good  living.     TXfait  hon  voyager.    IXfait  hon  vivre, 
a  Comparatives  of  saperiority  or  inferiorltj  take  ne  before  the  following  verb,  nnlev 
the  comparison  be  negative. 

Tou  have  more  money  than  I  hare.        Yous  aycz  plus  d^argent  que  je  n*en  ai. 

He  drinks  less  than  you  drink.  II  bolt  moins  que  vous  ne  bnvez. 

I  have  no  less  courage  than  he  has.         Je  n'ai  pas  moins  de  courage  qu*il  en  a.* 

4.  Comparatives  generally,  when  the  following  verb  may  have  a  participle,  an  a^j^^^'^** 
or  a  verb  understood,  after  it,  require  such  verb  to  be  preceded  by  le. 

He  is  not  so  sick  as  he  believes.  II  n^est  pas  aussi  malade  qull  le  croit. 

That  is  not  so  difficult  as  they  think.       Cela  n*cst  pas  aussi  difficile  qu^on  le 


6.  When  a  comparative  of  this  latter  kind  is  also  one  of  superiority  or  Inferiority,  and 
not  negative,  it  takes  of  coarse  both  ne  and  le  before  the  verb. 

They  are  richer  than  wo  arc.  Us  sont  plus  riche  que  nous  ne  le 

He  is  more  skillful  than  you  believe.        II  est  plus  habOe  que  tous  n«  le  croycz. 
0.  The  pronoun  li  is  commonly  used  before  powsoir^  and  some  other  verbs,  instead  of  a 
preceding  verb  repeated. 

He  learns  as  fast  as  he  can.  H  apprend  aussi  vite  quMl  le  peut. 

He  learns  well  when  he  will.  II  apprend  bicn  quand  il  le  veuL 

The  Future  c/touloib,  to  he  willing^  ia  irregular. 

Jewmdrai,      tutoudrae,      ilwmdra,   noua  €Oudrons^    roueTOudrea^  HevoudrotU, 
I  shall  wish  for,  thou  wilt,  etc,  ho  wiU,  etc.,  we  shall,  eta,        you  will,  etc,    they  will,  etc 

Will  you  want  some  paper  ?  Voudrez-vous  du  papier  ? 

I  shall  want  some.  J^en  voudrai. 

He  has  carried  away  my  book.  II  a  emport6  mon  livre. 

1.  Devez-Yoas  beaaconp  d*argent?  2.  Nous  n*eii  devons  pas 
beaiicoup.  3.  Combien  d'argent  me  dois-ta  ?  4.  Je  ne  te  dois  rien. 
5.  Touchez-Yous  cet  animal  ?  6.  Je  le  toacbe  avec  un  b&ton,  je  ne 
le  toucbe  pas  de  la  main.  7.  Cette  dame  est  cbarmante ;  elle  aTair 
aimable,  mais  sa  soeor  a  l*air  malin.     8.  D^jeunez-vons  chez  voire 

*  Ke  is  not  inserted  in  this  last  sentence  because  the  comparison  is  negative, 
t  In  these  sentences  a  verb  may  be  supplied,  thus :  He  Unateoeiek  ae  he  belU^ee  (ttof 
he  i9\  That  U  not  to  digteuU  aethey  iMnk  {it  to  he). 

SDn»        »nt  U  14  •  1        1     14       19  17  It         • 

jo-yenos,  jo-youxa,  fol^  grain,  er«pe,  sar^ra-sln,  si-rop,  v<m-draL 


ami  ?  9.  Non,  monsienr,  je  dine  chez  lui,  mais  je  d^jenne  chei  moL 
10.  Fait-il  bon  vivre  en  Europe?  11.  II  y  fait  bon  vivre.  12. 
Fait-il  cher  vivre  k  Paris  ?  13.  II  fait  anssi  cher  vivre  h  New  York 
qa'^  Paris.  14.  L*Angleterre  touche-t-elle  &*  la  France  ?  15.  File 
n'y  tonche  pas.  16.  Y  a-t-il  en  da  caf6  an  lait  k  d^jeoner  ?  17.  II 
7  a  en  da  cafe  aa  lait  a  dejeuner,  et  il  y  aura  du  caf(§  noir  k  diner. 
18.  n  y  aura  da  boeuf-roti  a  diner.  19.  Je  sais  mieux  le  fran9ais 
que  mon  fr5re  ne.le  sait.  20.  Nous  avons  de  meilleurs  fruits  que 
vous  n*en  avez.  21.  II  a  6te  pire,  bien  pire  qu'il  n'^tait.  22.  Nous 
sommes  meilleurs  qu'on  ne  le  dit.  23.  J*6tudie  quand  je  le  puis. 
24.  Savez-vous  tons  les  mots  de  votre  legon  ?  25.  Je  les  sais  tons. 
26.  Allez  voir  cette  pauvre  femme,  et  dites-lui  quelques  bonnes  pa- 
roles de  consolation.  27.  Fait-il  bon  marcher  ?  28.  Non,  il  fait 
beaocoup  de  bone. 

1.  Carry  away  these  books.  2.  Take  away  this  child.  8.  Does 
not  that  child  fall  often  when  it  is  slippery  ?  4.  He  falls  often 
when  it  is  good  walking.  5.  My  talents  (talents)  are  less  than 
yoursy  but  this  scholar's  are  the  least.  6.  Do  those  men  owe  you 
money  ?  7.  They  owe  me  much.  8.  Do  you  still  owe  us  some  ? 
9.  We  owe  you  a  hundred  dollars.  10.  What  art  thou  to  do  to- 
morrow ?  11. 1  am  to  write  many  letters.  12.  What  is  your  little 
brother  to  do  ?  13.  He  is  to  go  to  schooL  14.  Has  the  cook  bought 
some  cabbages  ?  15.  He  has  bought  some  cabbages  and  some  let- 
tuce- 16.  Why  is  that  scholar  so  joyous  ?  17.  He  is  joyous  be- 
cause he  knows  his  lesson  well.  18.  Do  you  touch  that  dog  ?  19. 
I  do  not  touch  him.  20.  Does  America  touch  Fngland  ?  21.  It 
does  not  touch  it     22.  That  man  owes  more  money  than  you  owe. 

23.  That  maid-servant  looks  cunning ;  is  she  as  cunning  as  she 
appears  ?  24.  She  is  more  cunning  than  she  appears.  25.  That 
man  looks  crazy ;  is  he  as  crazy  as  he  appears  ?  26.  He  is  less 
crazy  than  he  appears.  27.  My  friend  is  very  sick ;  he  has  a  ma- 
lignant fever.  28.  What  is  the  matter  with  that  man  ?  29.  He 
is  near-sighted.  30.  How  many  words  have  you  learned  ?  81.  I 
have  learned  all  the  words  of  this  page.  32.  Is  it  always  good 
traveling  in  summer  ?  33.  It  is  always  better  traveling  in  sum- 
mer than  in  winter.  34.  Is  that  lady  as  charming  as  she  appears  ? 
35.  She  is  more  charming  than  she  appears.     36.  Will  thcat  gentle- 

•  Thueher^  meaning  to  border  npon^  takes  d  before  ita  object 



man  want  coffee  with  milk  or  coffee  without  milk  ?  37.  He  will 
want  some  without  milk.  38.  What  will  you  want  to-morrow  at 
school  ?  39.  We  shall  want  some  books,  some  paper,  some  pens, 
and  some  ink.  40.  Those  gentlemen  will  want  some  coffee  with 
milk,  and  some  buckwheat  cakes  with  butter  and  syrup. 


1.  Paris  is  not  more  beautiful  than  London;  is  it?  2.  Yes, 
Paris  is  the  most  beautiful  city  in  (de)  Europe.  3.  Hare  you  re- 
cited your  lesson  in  (de)  French  ?  4.  Yes,  1  have  recited  it,  and 
Charles  has  recited  his  also.  5.  How  many  mistakes  make  ? 
6.  I  made  only  one,  but  Charles  made  three.  7.  He  is  not  studious. 
8.  Not  (pas)  always ;  but  sometimes  he  recites  his  lesson  well. 

9.  Show  me  {/aiies-moi  voir)  your  exercise.  10.  I  have  put  it  in 
my  copy-book.  11.  Have  you  written  {ecrit)  it  without  a  mistake  ? 
12.  No,  Mr.  B.  found  in  it  two  or  three  small  mistakes.  13.  I  have 
not  yet  written  my  exercise ;  1  have  a  mind  to  go  and  write  it  now. 
14,  Why  have  you  not  yet  done  it  ?  15.  I  have  not  had  the  time. 
16.  All  my  lessons  ara  recited  and  I  have  nothing  to  do.  17.  Go 
and  write  your  exercise,  and  after  that  {ensuite)  we  will  go  to  the 
city.  18.  Wait  for  me,  I  shall  not  be  long.  19.  Where  do  you  go 
Sundays  ?  20.  I  go  to  church  Sundays,  and  I  go  to  school  Mon- 
days and  the  other  days  of  the  week.  21.  Do  you  go  to  school 
Saturdays  ?     22.  There  is  no  school  Saturdays. 

23.  Will  you  see  Mr.  P.  soon  ?  24.  I  shall  see  him  to-morrow 
in  the  country  at  Mr.  A.'s,  where  we  are  both  {tous  deux)  going. 

25.  Do  me  the  pleasure  to  give  him  a  note  which  1  am  writing  him. 

26.  1  will  do  it  with  much  pleasure.  27.  It  is  necessary  to  give  it 
to  me  this  evening,  for  {car)  1  must  (t7  mefaiidra)  set  out  to-mor- 
row morning.  28.  You  must  have  a  horse  ;  take  mine,  if  you  wish. 
29.  Thank  yon,  I  have  one  already.  30.  Well,  when  you  have  need 
of  one,  mine  is  at  your  service.    31.  You  are  very  good. 



1.  The  tatote  otpouvolr,  to  be  able,  is  liregolar. 

Jepourraif     tupourras,     ilpourra,    notupourrant,  wnitpourrmt     Ctpourroni, ' 

I  sbflU  be  able,  thon  wUt,  etc,  he  will,  ctc^  we  shall,  etc.,      you  will,  etc^      they  wUl,  etc. 

To  pray.    I  pray  yon.  Prier.    Je  vous  prie. 

To  freeze.     To  produce.  Geler.    Produire(aseofiduire,Jj6S.M). 

S.  The  names  of  conntrles  take  the  article,  and  those  ending  in  e  are,  with  few  excep- 
tions, feminine. 

M«       «   <        IS   an 

pri-er,  ge-ler,  pro-doir^^ 





La  France. 




La  Suisse. 




La  Russie. 

La  Prusse. 







La  Suede. 




La  Turquie. 


ft.  Those  of  other  terxnlnationa  are  generally  maacallno.* 

Denmark.  Portugal. 

Canada.  Peru. 

Europe  touches  Asia. 
Africa  does  not  touch  America. 
Sweden  produces  iron. 
I  set  out  to-morrow  for  France,  Swe^ 

den,  and  Denmark. 

Le  Danemark.     Le  Portugal. 

Le  Canada,  Le  Pbrou. 

L*Europe  touche  h  VAsie. 
VAfriqtte  ne  touche  pas  k  L^Am^rique. 
La  Su^de  produit  du  fer. 
Je  pars  demain  pour  la  France,  la 

Su^de  et  le  Danemark. 

4.  At,  in,  to,  before  names  of  oountries,  is  sn^/rom  is  always  ds  ;  and  after  these  prep- 
ositions (fin,  d€\  feminine  names  of  eonntries,  when  without  an  a^ective,  omit  the  article.t 
We  are  going  to  Germany.  Nous  aliens  en  Allemagne. 

It  freezes  much  in  Russia.  II  gUe  beaucoup  en  Russie. 

They  come  from  Spain.  Ha  viennent  d^Espagne. 

fi.  Before  some  masculine  names  of  countries  (mostly  distant  ones)  au  du  are  used  in- 
stead cfdde,asJs  vais  au  Pirou;  js  wiis  au  Canada  ;  Je  viens  du  Japan;  Je  reviens 

&  Names  of  cities  do  not  take  the  article. 
Paris  is  more  beautiful  than  London.       Paris  est  plus  beau  que  Londres. 
He  goes  to  Paris.  II  va  &  Paris. 

New  York  is  larger  than  Boston.  New  York  est  plus  grand  que  Boston. 

He  comes  from  Boston.  II  vient  de  Boston. 

7.  These,  howerer,  derived  from  common  noons,  or  having  an  adjective  or  its  eqniva* 
lent  for  part  of  the  name,  take  the  article. 

He  dwells  at  (or  in)  Havre.  H  demcure  au  Havre.X 

He  comes  from  New  Orleans.  H  vient  de  la  Nouvelle-OrUans. 

&  lUi  after  a  superlative,  and  equivalent  to  <2^  Is  rendered  by  de. 
He  is  the  richest  man  in  our  village.        G^est  Thomme  le  plus  riche  de  notre 

France  is  the  finest  country  in  Europe.     La  France  est  le  plus  beau  pays  de 


9.  After  mal^  as  wo  have  soen,  d  Is  used  to  denote  the  part  affected,  de  the  name  of  the 

I  have  sore  eyes.  J'ai  mal  aux  eux. 

He  has  a  pain  in  the  back.  II  a  mal  au  dos. 

How  is  your  headache  ?  Comment  est  votre  mal  de  t^te  ? 

How  comes  on  your  earache  ?  Comment  va  votre  mal  d'oreille  ? 

*  The  two  names  of  oonntriea,  Meaoique  and  Sengale,  are  tho  only  ones  which  are  mas- 
caline  with  a  feminine  termination. 

t  JSh  Portugal,  en  Danemark,  also  are  generally  used. 

X  Havre  formerly  meant  harbor. — 

s  «sw      »      1  aa    M      n       s    w      n    a  ^^^      "  ^   '*   «?    J?   «  ? 

FraocA,  8ais««.  E»-p«gn«,  Eu«-8ie,  Prusw,  6-coe»*,  Ir-land«,  Suede,  I-ta-l}^,  Tur-kle,  Qrice, 
1         inaaiiiisisiiii"        14  *        !«»» 

Daae^nark^,  Ca-na-da,  P6-rou,  A-zie,  Af-rlk«,  Londre»,  Havre,  Or-lo-an». 


1.  II  gMe  plus  en  Eossie  qa*en  Angleterre.  2.  UEspagne  et  le 
Portugal  produisent  du  vin.  3.  Pourrez-vous  aller  en  Sa6de  Tete 
prochain  ?  4.  Je  pourrai  y  aller.  5.  Pourrons-nous  aller  en  Prosset 
6.  Oui,  et  nous  pourrons  aussi  aller  en  £co8se  et  en  Irlande.  7. 
Gele-t-il  plus  en  Suede  qu'en  Italie  1  8.  Oui,  il  ne  g^le  pas  beau- 
coup  en  Italie.  9.  La  Turquie  est-elle  plus  grande  que  la  Oi^cet 
10.  Oui,  et  la  Prusse  est  plus  grande  que  la  Suisse.  11.  AUez-yous 
au  Canada?  12.  Non,  je  vais  en  Portugal.  13.  Le  Canada  pn>- 
duit-il  du  bl6  ?  14.  Qui,  le  Canada  produit  du  bl^,  et  le  P^rou 
produit  de  I'or.  15.  L'Asie  touche-t-elle  k  I'Afrique  ?  16.  Oui,  elle 
y  touche.  17.  L'Asie  est-elle  plus  grande  que  I'Afrique  ?  18.  Oui, 
et  I'Am^rique  est  plus  grande  que  I'Asie.  19.  Allez-vons  en  AUe- 
magne  ?  20.  Non,  je  vais  d  Londres  et  au  Havre.  21.  Yenez-vous 
de  Marseille  ?  22.  Non,  je  viens  de  la  Nouvelle-Orldans.  23.  Mes 
enfants,  ne  toucbez  pas  k  mes  papiers  ni  aux  fruits. 

1.  Will  the  workmen  be  able  to  do  their  work  to-morrow  I  2. 
Noy  they  will  not  be  able  to  do  it  this  week.  3.  Wilt  thou  be  able 
to  learn  thy  lesson  well  ?  4.  Tes,  sir,  and  my  brother  will  also  be 
able  to  learn  his  well.  5.  Take  away  this  child,  I  pray  you.  6. 
Take  away  this  table  also.  7.  Is  not  that  horse's  neck  too  short  ? 
8.  Tes,  his  neck  is  too  short,  and  his  legs  are  too  short  alsa  9.  Do 
you  wish  for  some  syrup  t  10.  Yes,  sir,  if  you  please.  11.  Do  those 
trees  produce  any  thing?  12.  Yes,  sir,  they  produce  beautiful  fruits 
13.  Is  not  France  the  most  beautiful  country  in  Europe?  14.  Yes, 
and  Russia  is  the  largest  country  in  Europe.  15.  Is  not  London 
larger  than  Paris  ?  16.  Yes,  London  is  the  largest  city  in  the  world. 
17.  Is  not  New  York  larger  than  New  Orleans?  18.  Yes,  New 
York  is  the  largest  city  in  America. 

19.  Does  Scotland  touch  Ireland?  20.  No,  Scotland  touches 
England,  but  it  does  not  touch  Ireland.  21.  When  will  yon  be 
able  to  go  to  Europe  ?  22.  I  shall  be  able  to  go  there  when  I  hare 
a  mind.  23.  Will  you  be  able  to  go  to  Italy  this  summer  ?  24.  I 
shall  be  able  to  go  to  Italy,  to  Turkey,  and  to  Greece.  25.  Do  yoa 
dwell  in  Paris  ?  26.  No,  I  dwell  in  Havre.  27.  When  will  you  go 
to  New  Orleans  ?  28.  I  shall  go  there  when  I  can.  29.  Is  your 
friend  irom  Baltimore  ?  30.  No,  he  is  from  New  Orleans.  31.  Do 
you  dine  at  the  general's  to-day  ?  32.  No,  I  dine  at  my  friend's  ; 
but  I  shall  breakfast  at  the  general's  to-morrow.     33.  Is  there  a 


light  in  your  roomt  84.  No,  there  is  none.  85.  That  man  culti- 
Tates  (culiive)  the  earth.  86.  There  was  coffee  with  milk  at  break- 
fast, and  there  will  be  coffee  without  milk  at  dinner. 


1.  Is  not  that  man  rich  ?  2.  Yes,  he  is  richer  than  yon  think. 
8.  What  do  those  children  wish  for  ?  4.  They  wish  for  buckwheat 
cakes  with  butter  and  syrup.  5.  Is  there  a  church  in  this  village  ? 
6.  Tes,  there  are  two.  7.  Is  there  some  wine  at  the  bottom  (au 
fond)  of  that  barrel  ?  8.  There  is  a  little.  9.  Is  that  man  as  sick 
as  he  thinks  %  10.  He  is  not  so  sick  as  he  thinks.  11.  When  will 
yon  learn  your  lesson  ?     12.  I  shall  learn  it  when  I  can. 

13.  How  is  the  weather  f  14.  It  is  fine  weather,  but  a  little 
cold.  15.  That  is  nothing,  if  it  is  not  damp.  16.  No^  it  is  dry 
weather.  17.  It  is  good  walking  when  it  is  cold.  18.  To-day  it 
has  been  very  windy  (beaucoup  de  vent)  and  very  dusty.  19.  Go 
and  write  your  exercise,  and  we  will  go  to  the  city.  20.  Come  with 
me.  21.  Why,  have  you  need  of  me  1  22.  No,  I  can  write  it  with- 
out you,  but  I  like  better  to  have  company.  23.  You  can  write  it 
better  without  me,  and  I  want  {fat  besoin)  to  go  out  a  little.  24. 
Go,  if  yon  wish,  but  do  not  set  out  without  me.  25.  No,  I  intend 
to  come  for  you  (vous  ekercker).  26.  I  shall  be  in  the  room ;  re- 
turn soon. 

27.  Are  those  ladies  as  amiable  as  they  appear  1  28.  They  are 
more  amiable  than  they  appear.  29.  How  many  windows  are  there^ 
in  your  room?  30.  There  are  four.  31.  Will  you  be  at  home  to- 
morrow I    32.  No,  sir,  I  am  to  go  to  the  country. 

63.--soixante-troisi{:me  lecon. 


To  pats.     To  gather.  Passer.     CueiUir. 

1.  CueiUir  haa  Its  presont  and  fhtnro  like  the  first  conjugation. 
Do  JOQ  gather  pears  and  plums  f  Cucillez-vous  des  poires  ct  dee  pranesf 

I  gather  apples  and  pears.  Je  cucille  des  pommes  et  des  poires. 

Js  eusSUrai,  iu  eusUUras^  41  eueiOertt^  notu  euelUerons,  vous  eueUierst^  UseusUUroni^ 
I  shall  gather,  thou  wilt,  etc,  he  will,  etc,  we  shall,  etc.,        you  will,  etc,     they  will,  etc. 

We  shall  gather  flower&  Kous  cueillerons  des  fleurs. 

The  theater.      Music.  Le  thedtre.     La  musique. 

The  opera.        A  passion.  •  Vopira.  Une  passion. 

Are  yea  going  to  the  theater  (play)?      Allez-Yoos  an  th^&tre  (spectacle) ? 
SL  Speetaton  who  go  for  amusement  would  say  au  tpeetade  rather  than  au  tMdtrs, 

3C         via       •         s       ss       15(19    nti 
pa«-eer,  cuell-lir,  cueilk-ral,  tAo>&tre,  o-po-ra,  pas-fiion. 


8.  When  pare€  qut^  and  other  oomponnd  words  ending  in  que^  are  repeated  In  a  aee- 
ond  dAQoe,  gue  only  is  need. 

That  man  falls  because  he  is  drunk,     Get  homme  tombc  parce  qu^il  est  iyre, 

and  heeausB  it  is  slippery.  et  ^^11  fait  glissant 

1F%t7€  you  were  breakfasting,  and  tff/uZtf    Pendant  que  tous  d^jeuniez,  ei  qye 

you  were  reading,  I  studied.  vous  lisiez,  j^^tudials. 

4.  Que  is  naed  in  the  same  way  also  for  comme,  quand,  and  «2,  repeated  in  a  second  clana4. 
As  it  is  late,  and  as  he  is  not  here,  we     Comme  il  est  tard,  et  ^'il  n'est  pas  id, 

will  go  home.  nous  irons  chez  nous. 

When  one  is  young,  and  tofun  one  is  in     Quand  on  est  jeune,  et  que  Ton  est  en 

good  health,  he  ought  to  be  happy.  bonne  santd,  on  doit  Atre  heureox. 

6.  The  names  of  the  months  are  masculine. 























What  day  of  the  month  is  it  to-day  ? 

;  Quel  jour  du  mois  cst<e  aujourdliui? 
Quel  quantieme  est-ce  aiyourd^bui? 

( Nous  sommes  ai 

It  is  the  second. 

\  deux. 

It  is  the  third. 

C*est  le  trois. 

6k  The  French  nse  the  cardinal  numbers  with  all  the  days  of  the  month  except  the 
first,  and  in  dates  generally  employ  flgares. 

It  is  the  third.    It  is  the  fourth.  CTest  le  trois.    C^est  le  quatre. 

In  storCy  stored.    In  the  store.  En  magasin.     Dans  le  magasin. 

7.  Dans  has  a  sense  precise,  en  more  yagne.  Thus  dans  Is  always  used  with  an  article 
or  determinative  adjectiye ;  en  generally  withoat  one. 

I  bare  some  flour  in  that  store.  tTai  do  la  farine  dans  ee  magann. 

I  have  some  in  store  (stored).  JTen  ai  en  magasin. 

He  is  in  the  prison.  H  est  dans  la  prison. 

He  is  in  prison  (imprisoned).  II  est  en  prison. 

Phikdelphia,  December  15,  1861.  Philadelphie,  le  15  dccembre,  1861. 

Zaie.    He  dines  late.  Tard.    JX  dine  tard. 

Before  dining.  Avant  de  diner  (avanl  takes  debet  inf.  )• 

He  breakfasts  earlier  than  I.  H  d6jcune  de  meilleure  hcure  que  moL 

1.  Votre  coasin  lit-il  plus  que  vous  t  2.  Oui,  pendant  que  j'e* 
cris  et  que  j'ctudie,  il  lit.  3.  Avez-vous  du  cidre?  4.  J'en  ai 
beaucoup  en  baril.  5.  N'y  en  a-t-il  pas  dans  ce  baril-ci  t  6.  II  y 
en  a  un  peu.  7.  Dejeunez-rous  de  meilleure  beure  que  moi  t  8. 
Oui,  mais  je  dejeune  plus  tard  que  notre  voisin.     9.  New  York,  le 

B       13«       S      lis  1         1        II         «     Bl4    nil    S        IB         «        S  U      15  U    « 

lan-vier,  fe-vricrf  mars,  a-rrll,  mai,  Juin,  joi-Uet,  oofit,  sep-tembre,  oc-tobre,  no-rembre, 

si  B       127  1 

dd-oembre,  kan-tieme,  tart/. 


5  Janvier,  1859.  10.  J'ai  rega  yotre  lettre  da  dix  da  mois  dernier. 
11.  Boston,  12  F^vrier,  1860.  12.  Qael  jour  da  mois  est-ce  au- 
jonrd'hoi  ?  13.  C'est  le  cinq.  14.  Quel  quantieme  du  mois  est-ce 
aajourd'hai?  15.  C'est  le  sept  16.  Nouvelle-Orleans,  18  Mars, 
1856.  17.  Ou  passez-vous  I'et^?  18.  Je  le  passe  d  la  campagne. 
19.  Qu'est-ce  que  vos  voisins  caeillent  ?  20.  lis  cueillent  des  fruits, 
et  cette  petite  fille  cueille  des  fleurs.  21.  Aimez-vous  la  musiquef 
22.  Oui,  c'est  ma  passion.  23.  Allez-vous  an  spectacle  (au  th^&* 
ire)  t  24.  Oui,  je  vais  k  Top^ra.  25.  Quand  cueillerez-Yoas  vos 
pommes  ?  26.  Je  les  cueillerai  au  mois  d'octobre.  27.  Je  ne  veux 
pas  ^rire  mon  th^me  k  present.  28.  Yous  ne  devez  pas  dire^^  veius 
etje  ne  veux  pas. 

1.  Is  your  sister  going  to  the  opera?  2.  She  is  going  there;  I 
am  going  also  to  the  play,  but  to  another  theater.  3.  What  flowers 
art  thou  gathering?  4.  I  am  gathering  roses  and  violets.  5. 
Wilt  thou  gather  thy  fruit  to-day  ?  6.  I  shall  not  gather  mine,  but 
my  brother  will  gather  his,  and  our  neighbors  will  gather  theirs. 
7.  Do  you  pass  the  month  of  April  heret  8.  Yes,  sir,  but  we  shall 
pass  the  month  of  May  in  the  country,  and  our  neighbors  will  pass 
it  there  also.  9.  March,  April,  and  May  are  the  months  of  spring, 
and  June,  July,  and  August  are  the  months  of  summer.  10.  I  pre- 
fer September,  October,  and  November  to  the  months  of  winter.  11. 
Does  your  sister  like  music  ?  12.  She  likes  it  much  ;  it  is  her  pas- 
sion. 13.  Lend  me  this  book,  I  pray  you.  14.  Very  willingly,  sir. 
15.  Do  you  like  better  to  go  to  the  French  theater  than  to  go 
to  the  opera  I  16, 1  like  better  to  go  to  the  opera.  17.  When  will 
you  gather  your  fruit?  18.  I  shall  gather  it  in  autumn.  19.  Those 
little  boys  fall  often  because  it  has  frozen  much,  and  because  it  is 
slippery.  20.  That  man  is  afraid  because  he  has  enemies,  and  be- 
cause he  has  no  gun.  21.  Why  is  that  man  discontented  ?  22. 
He  is  discontented  because  he  has  the  headache,  and  his  teeth  pain 
him.  23.  Do  you  breakfast  late  ?  24.  No,  sir,  I  breakfast  earlier 
than  you.  25.  Is  there  company  at  your  house  to-day?  26.  There 
is  none  to-day,  but  there  will  be  some  to-morrow.  27.  Will  you 
please  show  me  your  letter?  28.  I  am  quite  willing.  29.  I  will 
not  write  my  exercise  now.  30.  Children  ought  not  to  say,  I  will 
and  I  will  not.     31.  Some  one  has  taken  away  my  books. 



1.  I  have  a  fancy  to  go  and  work  a  little  in  the  garden.  2. 
What  do  you  wish  to  do  there  1  3.  I  wish  to  dig  up  {b^keA  a 
square  (un  carre)  in  order  to  put  a  few  cabbages  in  it  4.  I  will  go 
with  you ;  I  like  to  work  (d)  the  ground  sometimes.  5.  I  have  only 
one  spade.  6.  Send  your  boy  to  borrow  that  of  the  neighbor.  7. 
YeSy  he  has  one.  8.  Charles,  go  to  Mr.  B.'s  and  ask  him  (demandez 
lui)  to  lend  me  his  spade,  if  he  has  no  use  for  it,  until  {jusqt^d) 
this  evening.  9.  Very  well,  sir ;  have  you  not  need  of  a  hoe  also? 
10.  Certainly  {sans  doute) ;  but  we  have  one :  where  is  it?  11.  It 
is  at  Mr.  B.*s ;  he  borrowed  it  yesterday  morning.  12.  Well,  bring 
it  if  he  has  no  need  of  it. 

13.  Do  you  often  work  in  the  garden  t  14.  The  work  which  I 
do  there  is  not  extraordinary  ;  I  leave  that  to  Charles.  15.  This 
lettuce  looks  good  (a  bonne  mine),     16.  Yes,  it  is  sufficiently  fine. 

17.  I  admire  your  garden  ;  it  is  very  pretty.     It  is  not  very  large. 

18.  Sufficiently  for  you;  you  have  no  need  of  one  very  large;  you 
keep  (tenez)  it  very  clean.  19.  It  is  Charles  who  does  all  that ;  it 
is  his  work.  20.  He  does  not  look  lazy.  21.  No,  he  is  a  good  fel- 
low, and  he  has  taste  for  work.  22.  I  see  him  coming  {venir)  with 
the  tools ;  he  did  not  stay  long.  23.  Well,  gentlemen,  take  each 
one  the  tool  which  you  wish,  and  let  us  see  what  you  are  going  to 
do.  24.  Give  them  to  us.  25.  I  take  the  hoe  ;  you  are  going  to 
see  something  fine.  26.  I  like  better  to  work  alone.  27.  As  you 
please  (comme  il  vous  plaira),  we  can  do  this  without  you. 


VERBS  IN  OES,  CSR,  UEli,  AND  lER. 
To  seat,  Beating^  seated,  Asteoir,  cMeyant^  aMM»  e. 

J^OMUdSf      tuattUdtt^        Uassied^      nous  a$8eyon*,       voMOSteyeMt      iiMtUBeymii^ 
I  teat,  thou  seatcat,     he  scata,       we  seat,  yon  seat,  they  seat 

Will  you  teat  f    I ihall  Beat,  Assihez-wmsf    J^assicrai.* 

To  place^  placing^  placed.  Placer^  plaint,  placi. 

To  eat.    To  travel.  Manger.     Voyager. 

1  Verbs  In  ger  Insert  a  silent «  after  the  g^  and  verbs  in  ear  a  ocdilla  ander  tha  e,  In  all 
terminations  before  a  and  o. 

J$  mange,       tuman{fe9,       ilmangt,     nous  mangtone^  roue  nutngen^  Uemangent, 
I  eat,  tboaeatest,        be  eats,         we  cat,  yon  eat,  they  eat 

Je  voyagwaU^  tu  voijagwaUt  ii  voyagKtit^  nous  toyagions^  wus  voyagim,  its  toyaffwti^nt^ 
Itrareled,       thou  traTeledst,  he  traveled,  we  traveled,        yon  traveled,  they  traveled.  ^ 

*  The  forms  aswyerai  and  OMoirai  are  also  used  in  the  fatnre. 

1      so     1     si?t      1     II   1  las        1    !•!<     1     sissi     1     Bias     i     ra       i     iss    c 
a«-s«oir,  a«-BC-yanl  a«-8is,  a«-sie(f«,  a«-6ie<f,  as-ee-yoo^,  as-se-yea,  aa-aeyMil  as-oi'^xal, 
1    «       IS         I    S      I      «      »iai    «       t  #>iii      7 

pla-cer,  pla^^an^,  pla-cS,  ouui'ger,  vo-ya-ger,  manga,  ve-ya-geoia. 


0o  you  place  f    We  place.  Placez-vous  ?    Nous  pla^ons. 

S.  Verba  In  iter  take  a  dlieresU  orer  the  <  In  the  fiiBt  and  second  pezvon  plonl  of  the 
Impeifeet,  as  noiujouioru,  vow  joulez^  we  played,  you  played.  Verba  in  Ur  doable  the  i 
In  the  lame  pexaona,  as  nam  itudiion^  voua  Hudiies^*  we  studied,  yon  studied. 

To  tuffer^  aufferitig,  suffered,  Souffrir^  wuffratity  tauffert,  e. 

To  cover^  covering^  covered,  Couvrir,  eouvranty  eouvert^  e. 

&  Sm^rir^  couerir^  and  their  oompoondsi  are  varied  like  ouvrir  (Lesson  66>, 
The  «ty,  heaven.    Each,  Le  eiel  (pi.  cieuz),     Chaqve^  chacun, 

A  eioud.     Out  of,  Un  nuage.    Hon, 

An  inttruineni,    Jl  flute,  Un  instrument,     VnefliUe, 

A  violin.    Practice,  Un  violon.    La  pratique. 

To  play.     To  belong  to.  Jouer.    Appartenir  d,  Hre  d. 

A.  Jouer  takes  de  before  the  name  of  the  instrnment,  and  d  before  the  game. 
I  play  the  violin,  you  play  the  flute.        Je  joue  du  violon,  tous  jouez  de  la  flilte. 
To  play  ball.    To  play  cards.  Jouer  d  la  balle,    Jouer  aux  cartes. 

That  Tiolin  belongs  to  my  brother.         Ce  violon  appartient  (est)  ^kmonfrdre. 
It  belongs  to  him.  II  lui  appartient  (il  est  k  lui). 

JUaefy.    Ready  for  dinner.  Frit.    Pr^t  pour  le  diner. 

&  Frit  takes  pour  before  a  noon,  d  bofore  an  infinitive. 
He  18  Kady  to  dine.  II  est  pr^t  jt  diner. 

It  requires  much  practice  to  speak    II  faut  beaucoup  de   pratique  poor 

French.  parler  fran^ais. 

6l  Fdehi  meaning  sorry  takes  de  before  a  noan,  meaning  angry  it  takes  oontre*  It 
takes  ds  before  the  Inflnitive. 

I  am  sorry  for  your  misfortune.  Je  suis  f(Lch6  de  votrc  malheur. 

He  is  angry  at  me.  H  est  fl&ch6  centre  moi. 

I  am  very  sorry  to  lose  that.  Je  suis  bien  iUch6  de  perdre  cela. 

T.  Claque  is  an  adjective,  and  always  used  with  a  noun ;  chaeun  is  a  pronoun,  and  al- 
ways used  without  one. 

Each  scholar  will  come,  and  each  one    Chaque  61&ve  vicndra,  et  chaeun  aura 
will  have  his  lesson  ready.  sa  le^on  prcte. 

8.  All  adjectives  may  be  placed  after  their  nouns  when  they  are  qualified  by  adverbs. 
He  has  salt  as  fine  as  this.  H.  a  du  sel  aussifin  que  celui-cL 

A  very  good  book.  Un  livre  bien  bon, 

1.  Oa  asseyez-vouB  cet  enfant  ?  2.  Je  Tassieds  sur  cette  chaise. 
3.  Od  le  maltre  pla^ait-il  les  enfants?  4*  II  les  pla^ait  ear  les 
bancs.  5.  Nous  pla<;ons  icl  les  enfants.  G.  J'ai  les  plumes  que  vous 
avez  plac^es  sur  la  table.  7.  Yoyagez-vous  plus  que  nous  ?  8.  Non, 
monsienr,  je  voyage  moins  que  vous.  9.  Votre  fr^re  voyageait-il 
Tei^  pa8s6  pendant  qn'il  6tait  au  Canada  ?     10.  H  Toyageait  toujours. 

^  Tbff,  however,  is  strictly  according  to  the  rule  for  forming  the  imperfect  (Lesson  60). 

It       U         U         S  U       7  U       M        18        S  18       r         13  •     M 10       ,    1  1     M 

soaf'Mr,  annf-tnnt  aouf-tert^  oou-vrir,  cou*vrani;  con-verf,  ctel.cieuz,chak«,oha-cun, 
a  I    ^i«     M       «    i       »      nun        i  w       m  «    i      i    «    »     *_^      J- 
m-uge,  bote,  Ina-tru-mene,  flat«,  vl-o-lon,  pra-ttktf,  jou-er,  ap-par-te-nlr,  carte,  prM. 



11.  Ne  souffirez-vous  pas  du  froid  1  12.  Je  n'en  souffre  pas.  13.  Ge 
pauvre  homme  n*a-t-il  pas  souffert  du  froid?  14.  II  en  a  bien  soufiert. 
15.  De  quoi  couvrez-vous  votre  livre  t     16.  Je  le  couvre  de  papier. 

17.  De  quoi  le  domestique  a-t-il  couvert  les  pommes  de  terre  ?  18. 
n  les  a  couvertes  de  terre.  19.  Que  mangez-vous  1  20.  Nous  man- 
geons  du  fruit.  21.  Mes  papiers  sont  hors  de  leur  place.  22.  Ce 
pauvre  enfant  pleure  de  chagrin.  23.  N'y  a-t-il  pas  un  nuage  aa 
ciel?  24.  II  7  en  a  plusieurs.  25.  De  quels  instruments  jouez- 
Tous?  26.  Nous  jouons  du  violon  et  de  la  flute.  27.  Ces  instru- 
ments Yous  appartiennent-ils  (sont-ils  ^  vous)  ?  28.  Non,  ils  ap- 
partiennent  (sont)  au  maitre.  29.  A  qui  (est  cette  flOte)  cette  fliite 

1.  Is  your  task  well  done?  2.  It  is  well  done.  3.  At  (de) 
what  is  that  lady  laughing  ?  4.  She  is  laughing  at  those  children. 
5.  Are  there  not  some  clouds  in  the  sky  ?  6.  Yes,  the  sky  is  cov- 
ered with  clouds.  7.  Has  each  scholar  his  task?  8.  Each  one  has 
it  all  {toute)  ready.  9.  To  whom  does  that  instrument  belong? 
10.  It  belonged  to  the  musician  formerly  {autrefois)^  but  now  it  is 
mine.  11.  Is  the  barber  going  up  to  his  room?  12.  He  is  going 
up  there.  13.  Were  you  playing  on  the  flute  while  we  were  study- 
ing? 14.  I  was  playing  on  the  flute,  and  my  brothers  were  playing 
on  the  violin.  15.  Has  each  scholar  his  book?  16.  Yes,  sir,  and 
each  one  studies  well.     17.  Are  not  your  books  out  of  their  place? 

18.  My  books  are  out  of  their  place,  and  mj  papers  also. 

19.  Did  you  eat  much  fruit  when  you  dwelt  in  the  country? 
20.  I  did  not  eat  much  because  I  had  not  mucL  21.  Were  you 
traveling  last  summer  while  I  was  going  to  school  ?  22.  I  traveled 
in  the  month  of  August.  23.  Where  will  you  seat  that  child  ?  24 
I  will  seat  him  here  in  (sur)  this  chair.  25.  That  physician  has 
much  practice.  26.  Are  not  December,  January,  and  February  the 
months  of  winter  ?  27.  Yes,  and  March,  April,  and  May  are  the 
months  of  spring.  28.  June,  July,  and  August  also  are  the  months 
of  summer,  and  September,  October,  and  November  are  the  months 
of  autumn.  29.  Is  that  child  weeping  from  rage  (rape)  ?  30.  No, 
sir,  he  is  weeping  from  sorrow,  because  he  has  made  some  spots  on 
my  paper. 


1.  Where  is  Joseph  ?  I  have  not  seen  him  this  morning.     2.  He 


is  sleeping  stilL  The  lazy  one !  Go  and  call  (appeler)  him.  3.  I 
have  already  called  (appele)  him,  bat  he  did  not  answer  me.  4.  He 
did  not  hear  you ;  did  yon  open  the  door  ?  5.  No ;  I  am  going  to 
open  it,  and  call  him  again.  6.  Joseph,  your  father  calls  (appelle) 
yoQ  ;  come  forthwith :  what  are  yon  doing  in  bed  (au  lit)  ?  7.  I  am 
sleeping ;  it  is  good  sleeping  (t7  fait  ban  dormir)  in  the  morning. 
8.  Yea,  but  it  is  not  good  sleeping  all  day  {toute  la  jaurnee),  9.  Is 
it  day  already?  10.  Is  it  day  I  do  you  not  see  the  sun?  11.  Is 
it  not  the  moon  ?  12.  Stay  in  bed,  if  you  will ;  your  father  will 
come  and  call  you,  and  make  you  know  the  difference  {difference) 
that  there  is  between  (entre)  the  sun  and  the  moon.  13.  No,  thank 
you ;  I  see  well  that  it  is  the  sun.  14.  Tell  (d)  my  father  that  I  am 

15.  How  is  the  weather  out  {dehonf)  1  16.  It  is  very  agreeable 
weather.  17.  Did  it  rain  {a-t'ilplu)  during  the  night?  18.  No, 
sir,  it  was  moonlight  all  night  19.  Open  the  window ;  it  is  a  little 
dark  in  this  room.  20.  Will  you  have  some  fire  ?  21.  No,  it  is  too 
warm.  22.  Had  you  finished  your  task  when  your  father  returned  ? 
23.  I  had  finished  it. 



1  Ths  imrsE  pkbpcot  tenae  Is  formed  In  French  as  In  Engliali,  by  Joining  the  past 
ptrUdples  to  the  fatore  of  tbe  auxiliary:  as, 

Xawrai  su^  tu  aura*  en,    il  aura  eu,  noui  auront  eu,  vous  aure»  «u,  iU  auroni  m*, 

I  shall  have  had,  thou  wilt,  etc,  he  will,  etc.,  we  shall,  etc.,      you  will,  etc,   they  will,  ot& 
Jetsraivsnu,  tu  »eraa  venu^    Uteravenu^     ncua  MroM  venu*,  «ofi«  teres  «eniM, 

I  shall  have  come,     thou  wilt,  etc,  he  will,  etc,       we  shall,  etc,  you  will,  etc, 

As  i€ront  venut^  they  will  have  come. 
When  I  shall  have  received  my  money     Quand/aurat  refu  mon  argent,  Je  tous 

I  will  pay  you  for  this  horse.  paierai  ce  cheyal. 

When  he  shall  have  breakfasted,  he    Quand  il  aura  d^jeund,  il  sortira. 

will  go  out. 
Ton  will  have  learned  your  lesson.  Vom  aurez  appris  votre  leyon. 

We  shall  have  gone  home.  Noua  Berons  attit  chez  nous. 

They  will  hayo  returned.  IU  seront  revenua. 

To  content.     To  move,  Coruentir  {d  bef.  inf.).    Remuer,  mwh 


Jemeuti   tumeue,  Umeui,  noutmowDon%      vouemawvea^   iUmeumeni^ 

I  more,     thou  movest,  he  moves,       wo  move,  you  moye,        they  move. 

*  Mouvoir  means  to  set  in  motion;  se  mowcotr,  to  be  In  motion;  dUoger  and  dinUmi* 
fr  mean  to  change  lodgings. 

tiai«4»«       MW        t         f        uai        us        • 

oon-sen-tir,  re-ma*er,  mon-voir,  mens,  meul.  mon-vons,  mou-vea,  meuTsn* 


I  consent  to  sell  you  my  horse.  Je  consens  k  vous  vendre  mon  chevaL 

7b  acquire.    Acquired.  Acquerir.     Acqui^^  e. 

J^aequi€r»f    tu  aequierSy     U  aegui^rt^  nous  acqu^rofu,  vou9  acquireM^  iU  aequiirent^ 
I  acquire,       thoa  acqoirest,  he  acqaizea,  we  acquire,  yon  acquire,      they  acquire. 

The  merchant  acquires  credit.  Le  marchand  acquiert  du  credit. 

?b  die.    Died.  Mowrir  (itrt  for  auxiliary).   Mori,  e. 

Je  meurs^  tu  tneurs,  U  meurt,       nous  mouronSj     vaus  mourea^    Us  msurentt 

I  die,         thou  dlest,         hu  dies,  we  die,  you  die,  they  die. 

The  poor  sometimes  die  of  hunger.  Les  pauvres  meureut  quelquefois  de 


The  carpenters  are  moving  the  school  Les  charpentiers  meuvent  les  bancs  de 

benches.  I'^cole. 

You  have  acquired  many  friends.  Yous  avez  acquis  beaoconp  d^amia. 

The  sick  man  died  this  morning.  Le  malade  est  mort  ce  matin. 

The  hall.    A  sickness^  disease.  Le  hal,    Une  maladie. 

The  lot.    Anger,  Le  sort.    La  colere. 

That  towel.    Peace,  Cet  essuie-main.    La  paix. 

War,    A  just  war.  La  guerre,     Une  guerre  juste. 

During.     Without  doubt,  certainly,  Durant,     Sans  doute. 

2.  Jhirant  implies  the  whole  time  through ;  pendant^  some  period  during  that  tim«. 

The  army  will  stay  in  Italy  during  the  L*arm4e  restera  en  Italie  durant  Thi- 

winter.  ver. 

They  gained  a  battle  daring  the  win-  £lle  a  gagn4  une  bataiUe  pendant  Thi- 

ter.  ver. 

Does  the  barber  appear  angry?  Le  barbier  parait-il  f&ch6 ? 

He  appears  so.  H  le  parait 

8.  The  pronoun  le  in  French,  like  so  in  English,  is  often  used  in  reference  to  a  quality 
or  circumstance  previously  mentioned  It  may  be  taken  as  a  general  rule  that  when  so  of 
this  kind  is  expressed,  or  can  be  understood  in  English,  Is  is  to  be  used  in  French. 

Does  she  seem  angry  still  ?  Parait-elle  encore  f Ach^  ? 

8be  seems  so.  Elle  le  parait. 

4.  When  le  used  in  this  way  represents  an  adjective,  or  a  noun  used  a^Jeetively,  It  is  In- 
variable; but  when  it  represents  a  noun,  or  an  adjective  used  as  a  noun,  it  agrees  with  it  in 
gender  and  number. 

Madam,  are  you  sick  ?    I  am.  Madame,  6tes-vous  malade  ?  Je  le*  snia. 

Are  you  the  sick  person ?    I  am.  £tes-vous  la  malade ?    Je  la*  suis. 

Are  you  ministers?    We  are.  ^tes-vousministres?  Nous  le*  sommes. 

Are  you  the  ministers  of  the  queen  ?  £tes-vous  les  ministres  de  la  reine  ? 

We  are.  Nous  les  *  sommes. 

*  In  the  first  of  these  four  answers,  le  is  Invariable  because  It  refers  to  an  a^ecUve,  aM 
In  the  third  becauM  it  rufers  to  a  noun  used  a^ectively  ;  in  the  second  it  agrees  becaiue  it 
refers  to  an  adjective  used  as  a  noun,  and  In  the  fourth,  because  It  refers  to  a  noun. 

1      6  IS    1     u  1     nr     1    isr     1      s  n      1    isr  u   zi      u         u         u 

ae-k6-rir,  ac-ki«,  ac-klcrs,  ac-kiort,  ae-ku-rou«,  ac-kldrett/,  mou-rir,  moriL  roeur«,  meurl 

Utl  U«  U  1  IIUM  M7ft     SiU     1«  T  r  S    S 

mou-rvns;  mou-res^  meuren<,  bal,  ma-la-dia,  sort,  oo-ltoa,  e«-sul-main,  palae^  guerre,  du-nnl 


1.  Consentez-Yous  k  me  donner  ces  essuie-mains  t  2,  Je  con- 
sens  d  vous  les  donner.  3.  Les  charpentiers  peavent-ils  mouvoir 
cette  maison  ?  4.  lis  ne  le  peavent  pas.  5.  Acqa^rez-vous  bean- 
conp  d*argent  ?  6.  Je  n*en  acquiers  pas  beaaconp.  7.  Avez-yoos 
acquis  des  amis  ?  8.  Nous  en  avons  acquis  quelqnes-uns.  9.  Les 
pauTres  menrent-ils  qnelquefois  de  froid  ?  10.  Qaelques-nns  meu- 
rent  de  froid  en  hirer.  11.  Pref6rez-vons  jamais  la  guerre  k  la 
paix  ?  12.  Non,  je  pref^re  toujours  la  paix  k  la  guerre.  13.  Voy- 
agerez-vous  durant  tout  cemois?  14.  Je  voyagerai  quelques  jours 
senlement  pendant  T^te.  15.  AUez-vous  au  balcesoir?  16.  Non, 
monsieur,  je  vals  au  spectacle  et  ma  soeur  va  au  bal.  17.  Ce  petit 
garden  est-il  en  colore  contre  quelqu'un?  18.  II  est  en  colcre 
contre  son  frere.  19.  N'allez  pas  dans  la  yille  ;  la  maladie  y  est. 
20.  Son  sort  est  d'c^tre  malheureux.  21.  Flagons  le  malade  sur 
cette  chaise  et  asseyez  I'enfant  sur  celle-1^.  22.  Sa  maladie  est 
longae.  23.  Le  m^decin  viendra  sans  doute  ici  ce  soir.  24.  Le 
voisin  est  mort  hier ;  et  son  fils  est  mort  ce  matin. 

1.  Can  the  servants  move  that  cask?  2.  They  can  move  it 
easily.  3.  Does  that  man  acquire  credit  t  4.  He  acquires  credit 
and  profit  5.  Has  he  acquired  money!  6.  He  has  acquired 
money  and  friends.  7.  Do  the  poor  often  die  of  hunger  1  8.  They 
often  die  of  hunger  in  Ireland^  and  in  {dans)  other  countries  of 
Europe.  9.  Do  some  die  of  cold  ?  10.  Some  die  of  cold  in  winter. 
11.  He  who  has  no  courage  dies  a  thousand  times.  12.  Are  you 
going  to  the  ball  ?  13.  No ;  I  am  going  to  the  theater,  and  my 
cousin  is  going  to  the  ball.  14.  Did  you  acquire  much  profit  while 
you  dwelt  in  the  city?  15.  I  did  not  acquire  much.  16.  Does 
anger  move  (porte)  the  soldier  to  that  action  {action)  1  17.  Yes, 
sir,  anger  moves  him  to  it.  18.  Is  your  friend  sick  t  19.  Yea, 
and  his  disease  is  dangerous  {dangereuse),  20.  Do  you  wish  for 
towels  or  napkins  ?     21.1  wish  for  towels. 

22.  Will  your  brother  study  mucht  23.  Without  doubt  he 
^  learn  his  lessons  well.  24.  There  are  some  persons  who  prefer 
war  to  peace.  25.  Does  that  scholar  consent  to  sell  his  books? 
26.  He  consents  to  sell  them.  27.  Has  that  workman  worked 
during  all  the  week  ?  28.  He  has  worked  all  this  month.  29. 
I^  you  like  better  to  play  cards  than  to  play  ball?  30.  No;  I 
prefer  to  play  ball.     31.  When  I  shall  have  finished  my  task,  I  will 


pl&7  on  the  violin.  32.  The  scholar  will  have  learned  his  lesson 
when  the  master  comes.  33.  Will  joa  have  read  that  book  when 
I  shall  have  need  of  it  t  34.  We  shall  have  read  it  35.  The 
scholars  will  have  written  their  exercises  when  the  master  comes. 
36.  Madam,  are  you  French?  37.  I  am.  38.  Are  yon  the  sister 
of  the  Frenchman?  39.  I  am.  40.  (Gentlemen,  are  you  soldiers! 
41.  We  are.  42.  Are  you  the  soldiers  of  the  king?  43.  We  are. 
44.  When  did  the  general  die  ?     45.  He  died  this  morning. 


1.  It  is  (t7  fa%C\  very  agreeable  in  the  country  at  present ;  there 
are  many  persons  who  are  going  there.  2.  Yes,  in  summer  the 
country  is  much  more  agreeable  than  the  city.  3.  The  city  is  sad 
now  ;  there  are  no  amusements  {amu^tmenUl) ;  every  body  is  going 
to  the  country  in  order  to  pass  the  summer  there.  4.  The  theater 
is  shut,  is  it  not?  5.  Yes ;  I  believe  {je  crois)  that  I  have  seen 
(avoir  vu)  the  announcement  {Tannonee)  of  a  new  theater  which 
they  are  going  to  open  next  autumn.  6.  I  have  not  seen  it,  hut  I 
have  been  told  that  there  wHl  be  one. 

7.  Do  you  often  go  to  the  theater?  8.  No;  I  go  there  bat 
rarely  {rarement)^  but  I  go  suflSciently  often  to  the  opera.  9.  You 
love  music.  10.  It  is  my  passion  ;  there  is  nothing  that  I  love  so 
much.  11.  Music  is  a  thing  very  agreeable ;  but  every  body  has  not 
so  much  taste  as  you.  12.  Do  you  not  prefer  the  opera  to  the 
French  theater?  13. 1  love  them  both  (tons  deux)  sufficiently;  bat 
hardly  know  {ne  sals  gu^e)  which  I  prefer.  14.  How!  you  must 
not  (il  ne  faut  pas)  say  that.  15.  I  like  a  good  play  (pi^e)  better 
than  a  bad  opera.  16.'  It  is  true  that  there  is  nothing  more  dis- 
agreeable {desagreable)  to  hear  than  bad  music.  17.  Wilt  thou 
have  written  thy  exercise  when  the  master  comes  ?  18.  I  sha& 
have  written  it.  19.  Are  you  English  ?  20.  I  am.  21.  Are  yon 
the  sister  of  Charles?  22.  I  am.  23.  Are  you  the  children  of  oar 
neighbor?     24.  We  are. 



To  hope.    An  aeHon.  Espirer,    ITne  aetion. 

To  fall  tOf  become  due,    ""Fallen  to.  kchoir  (defective),     tehu. 

Tour  note  falls  due  to-day.  Yotre  billet  6choit  aujourd*hui. 

TTt^A  all  hie  might.     Together.  Be  toute  sa  force.     Eneemhle* 

Champagne  wine.    Xf/e,  living.  Du  vin  de  ^ampagne.    La  vie. 

f<«lU2l6M5tll«tt  tl«U 

0B-p6-rer,  ac-tioD,  6-choir,  i-chu,  forc«,  eD-sembl«,  cham-pagiM,  yie. 


Qyii€y  peffeetltf.    Quite  charming.  TouftJ^faii.    Tout  k  fait  channant. 

It  ifl  a  note  fallen  due  yesterday.  C^est  un  billet  6chu  depuis  hier. 

1.  i>«,  like  df  befon  the  inflnitlye,  la  to  be  repeated  before  eyery  yerb  depending  on  the 
laiDo  word  or  phraeeu 

He  refuses  to  eat  and  drink.  II  refuse  de  maogcr  et  de  boire. 

They  hare  forgotten  to  read  and  write.    Us  ont  oubli^  de  lire  et  cf  6crire. 
It  is  he.    It  is  not  she.  Cest  lui.    Ce  n'est  pas  ellc. 

8.  In  phnses  like  these,  where  ee  Is  the  subject^  lui^  tUe,  etiogi,  iUMt  are  not  to  be  nsed 
in  the  predicate  in  reference  to  animals  and  things,  but  /«,  fa,  2e«,  must  then  be  employed. 
Is  that  jour  book  ?    Tes,  it  is.  £st-ce  \h  votre  liyre  ?    Qui,  ce  Test. 

Arc  those  your  books?    They  are.  Sont-ce  U  vos  liyres?    Ce  Us  soot. 

Are  those  jour  cousins?    They  are.       Sont-co  1&  voscoufflnes?  Cesont«//M. 
Are  those  the  soldiers  ?    Thej  are.         Sont-ce  \k  les  Boldats  ?    Ce  soot  eux, 

8.  The  Tcrb  Hre^  with  ce  for  its  Bubject,  Is  plural  only  when  followed  by  the  third  pei^ 
■on  ploraL 

It  is  we.    It  is  you.    It  is  they.  CcBt  nous.    Cest  vous.    Ce  tont  eux. 

It  is  he  and  his  brother.  CVst  lui  et  son  fr^re. 

I  hope  that  he  will  come.  J^cspdre  qu*il  viendra. 

To  he  vorth,  being  teorth^  been  toorth.       Fa/otr,  volant,  valu. 
JerauoB,         iuTaws,  Uvaut,  novMvalone^    vousTaht,        ilivaltntf 

I  am  worth,    thou  art  worth,   he  is  worth,   we  are  worth,  you  are  worth,  they  are  worth. 

The  future  ofrALom  is  irreffiUar,  thus : 

J*  vaudrai,        tu  vaudraSt     il  vaudra,   nous  vaudrons,  vous  vaudre/t^  its  vaudronU, 

I  shall  be  worth,  thou  wilt,  etc,  he  will,  etc,  we  uhall,  etc,      yoa  will,  etc,  they  will,  etc 

4.  The  learner  has  now  had  all  the  irregular  fhtares.    Thej  are  these  * 


.     rUTUBIL 



i  Assierai,     ^ 



in  Lesson  4& 

Asa«^,     ' 


.   in  Lesson  64. 




i  Assoirai,      ) 































**        68. 
















The  terminating  letters  are  always  the  same  without  any  exception,  as  given  in  Lesson 
41;  max,  EAs,  xa,  xohs,  bbz,  bowt. 

&  Aequirir,  couHr^  and  mourir^  drop  i  in  the  ftitai«,  and  make 
X'aefuorrai^tuaequerras^etc  Jseourr<U,tueourras,eiG.  Jemourraiflumourras^eta. 
I  shall  acquire,  etc  I  shall  mn,  etc  I  shall  die,  etc 

In  these  three  flitnres  the  two  r*B  must  both  be  sounded. 

iekoir^  to  flUl  to,  also  makes  the  fatoro  icherrai,  etc 

I  hope  that  the  good  lot  will  fall  to    J'espcre  quo  le  bon  lot  lui  ieherra, 


•  Except  prltoir  and  pourtoir^  compounds  of  voir,  which  hare  in  the  future  pr4wirai 
and  pourvoirai. 

I    »        IS         1    tl      IT        IT        in         1    •       1  "    ,  •.    *    ^*      •.      "       •, 

ya-loir,  ra-lant  ya-lu,  Taua,  vao^  TarloM,  ya-lea,  yalent,  vau-dial,  ao-ker-ral,  oonr-ral, 
IS       •    •      T      i 
mour-fai,  i-eher-ra. 


I  shall  die  of  tbiB  disease.  Je  moumn  de  cette  maladie. 

Ton  will  acquire  many  fnends.  Yous  atguerrez  beaaconp  d\ 

He  will  run  with  all  his  might  H  courra  de  toute  sa  force. 

A  huahel.     To  turn.  Un  boisteau,    Toumer. 

His  due.    A  bad  cold.  Son  dti.    Un  manyais  rhume. 

The  brain.    The  breast.  Le  cerveau.    La  poitrine. 

A  cold  in  the  head.  Un  rhume  de  cerreau. 

A  cold  on  the  chest.  Un  rhume  de  poitrine. 

A  fever  from  a  cold.  Une  fi^Tre  dc  rhume. 

Do  not  move  that  tabic.  Ne  remuez  pas  cette  table^ 

8.  In  phrases  like  the  following,  the  measaro  of  qnantitj,  which  takes  a  in  EngUsfa, 
takes  U  in  French. 
Apples  are  worth  a  doUar  a  bu$hel.  Lcs  pommes  Talent  une  piastre  U  boU- 

Butter  is  worth  twenty-five  cents  a    Le  beurre  vaut  vingt-cinq  sons    la 

pound.  livre. 

Flour  will  be  worth  ten  dollars  a  barrel.     La  farine  vaudra  dix  gourdes  le  baril. 

1.  Ce  petit  gar^on  court  de  toate  sa  force  parce  qa*il  a  pear  de 
ce  chieiL  2.  Ces  enfants  sont  tonjoors  ensemble,  ils  viendront 
sans  doute  ici  ensemble.  3.  Qa'avez-vous  offert  ^  cet  homme  T  4. 
Je  lui  ai  offert  du  vin  de  champagne.  5.  Esp^rez-vous  qu*il 
pleuvra  ?  6.  Nona  esperons  qu'il  ne  plenvra  pas.  7.  Cet  homme 
gagne-t-il  sa  vie  k  faire  da  bearre?  8.  Non,  11  gagne  sa  vie  a 
dcrire.  9.  II  fait  bean  temps.  10.  Oui,  il  fait  an  temps  tout  4 
fait  charmant.  11.  Combien  les  pommes  de  terre  valent-elles  le 
boisseaa  t  12.  Elles  valent  an  dollar  le  boisseau.  13.  Combien 
ce  cheval  peat-il  valoir  ?  14.  II  vaat  cent  dollars.  15.  Yaadra-t- 
il  an  pen  plas  en  hiver  t  16.  Non,  il  vaadra  beaacoap  moins  en 
hiver.  17.  Poarqaoi  toamez-voas  la  tcte  t  18.  Je  la  toame  paroe 
qae  je  veax  voir  la  personne  qai  vient.  19.  Le  commis  voas  don- 
nera-t-il  votre  d^?  20.  II  noas  donnera  tonjoars  notre  d(i.  21. 
Votre  billet  6choit-il  aajoard'hai  t     22.  Non,  il  6cherra  demain. 

1.  Will  yoa  have  written  yoar  letters  when  the  boj  comes? 
2.  I  shall  have  written  them.  3.  Do  yon  hope  to  see  your  friends 
to-morrow  t  4.  I  hope  to  see  them  this  evening.  5.  Will  that 
workman  do  mach  work  ?  6.  Without  doubt  he  will  work  with  all 
his  might.  7.  How  does  he  gain  his  living  ?  8.  He  gains  his  liv- 
ing by  making  bricks.     9.  You  do  not  admire  that  lady ;  do  you  ! 

10.  Tes,  madam,  she  is  perfectly  amiable  and  perfectly  beaatifoL 

11.  How  much  may  (pent)  that  ox  be  worth  t     12.    He  is  worth 

SD       17  U         C  »        n  7         17  so     11 

boi«-fieaa,  toar>ner,  dO,  rhuin«,  oer>Toao,  poi-trin«i 


only  fifty  dollars  now,  but  he  will  be  worth  sixty  in  the  spring.  13. 
What  will  that  man  drink?  14.  He  will  drink  some  champagne 

15.  Why  do  you  turn  your  head  I  16.  I  turn  it  because  I  hear 
a  (du)  nois&  17.  Do  you  turn  your  head  because  one  speaks  to 
you?  18.  No,  sir,  I  turn  it  because  I  wish  to  see  the  man  who  is 
coming.  19.  Does  the  shopkeeper  give  you  your  due  t  20.  Yes ; 
he  always  gives  each  one  his  due.  21.  How  much  is  wheat  worth 
a  bushel  t  22.  It  is  worth  a  dollar  a  bushel.  23.  Have  you  a 
cold  in  the  head,  or  a  cold  on  the  chest  ?  24.  I  have  a  cold  on  the 
chest.  25.  J£  you  offer  champagne  wine  to  those  men,  will  they 
drink  it?  26.  They  will  drink  it.  27.  What  is  the  matter  with 
that  man  ?  28.  He  has  a  bad  cold  in  the  head.  29.  Do  not  move 
those  chairs.  30.  Do  not  move  them.  31.  Will  those  children  go 
to  school  together  ?  32.  They  will  go  there  together.  33.  Will 
yon  have  dined  when  your  friend  comes?  34.  We  shall  have 
dined.  35.  We  breakfast  a  little  late,  but  we  always  dine  early. 
36.  Did  your  friend  die  this  week  ?   37.  Yes,  he  died  this  morning. 


1.  What  instrument  of  music  do  you  prefer  ?  2.  The  violin, 
when  it  is  well  played.  3.  It  is  an  instrument  so  difficult  that 
there  are  not  many  persons  capable  of  {capables  de)  playing  it  well. 
4.  Whose  {a  qui)  is  that  flute  ?  5.  It  is  mine.  6.  I  have  one,  but 
mine  is  not  so  beautiful  as  yours.  7.  Do  you  play  ?  8.  Very  little. 
9.  Who  gives  you  lessons?  10.  Mr.  G. ;  I  go  to  his  house  three 
times  a  (par)  week.  11.  It  needs  time  in  order  to  learn  even 
(mime)  Uie  flute.  12.  If  I  know  (how)  to  play  it  well  in  two  years 
I  shall  be  pleased.  13.  It  needs  much  practice  in  order  to  play 

14.  Good  morning  {bonjotir),  gentlemen;  are  you  making 
music?  15.  No,  we  are  speaking  of  it,  that  is  all.  16.  Are  you 
(an)  amateur  (amateur)  of  music,  Mr.  Charles  ?  17.  Not  much ;  I 
like  reading  better  than  the  opera.  18.  Music,  however  (cependant)^ 
is  a  thing  very  agreeable.  19.  That  is  true ;  but  you  will  not  often 
see  me  put  aside  {de  cote)  a  good  book  to  listen  to  the  best  musician 
in  the  world.  20.  There  are  few  persons  who  think  like  {comnie) 

21,  On  what  instruments  do  you  play?     22.  I  play  on  the 

•  violin,  and  my  friend  plays  on  the  flute.     23.  Does  this  instrument 

Wong  to  you  ?     24.  Yes  ;  it  belongs  to  me.     25.  Are  you  the  re- 

lations  of  my  friend  ?     26.  We  are.     27.  Are  these  your  papers  ? 

28.  They  are.     29.  Are  these  your  brothers?     30.  They  are. 




To  pay  the  labor  of  a  day.  Payer  le  traTBil  d^xme  jovmet. 

1.  Jour  Is  the  epoch,  day  merely ;  journie  is  a  qaantltj,  «I1  the  day  throngh. 

He  will  surely  come  the  day  that  he    H  viendra  certunement  le  joar  qoll  a 

haa  said,  and  will  pass  the  whole  dit,  et  il  passera  toute  la  jouniee 

day  at  your  house.  chez  tous. 

There  Is  the  same  distinction  in  the  following. 
The  morning.   The  morning  {through),     Le  matin.     La  matinee. 
The  evening.    The  evening  (through),     Le  soir.    La  <otr^. 
He  will  read  all  the  morning.  II  lira  toute  la  matin6e. 

They  will  sing  all  the  evening.  EUes  chanteront  toute  la  soir^. 

!7b  succeed,  attain  to.    Succeed^  Parvenir  (d  bef.  inf.).     Parvenu, 

S.  To  snccoed,  to  haye  saeoess,  is  riueeir  ;  to  come  after,  euceider  d  /  to  attain  to,  J9ar> 

He  succeeds  well  in  his  studies.  II  r^ussit  bien  dans  scs  Etudes. 

Louis  Philip  succeeded  Charles  X.  Louis  Philippe  a  succ^dd  ik  Charles  X. 

We  succeed  in  learning  that.  Nous  parvenons  k  apprendrc  ceU. 

He  attains  to  the  foot  of  tho  monn-     H  parvient  au  pied  de  la  montagne. 

cNe  before  the  verb,  guere  after  it; 
But  little^  butfew^  scarcely  any,  •<         without  a  verb,  guere  {debet  a 

(         noun). 
That  man  has  hardly  any  money.  Cct  hommc  n^a  gudrc  d^argent 

He  has  hardly  any.  II  n*cn  a  gudre. 

I  have  but  few  books.  Je  n^ai  gu6rc  do  livrcs. 

More^  further^  furthermore.    No  more.     Plus,  davantage.    Ke  plus, 

8.  Plus  is  nsed  in  the  middle  of  a  sentence,  and  davantage  altrays  at  tho  end;  pl^ 
meaning  no  more^  may  ho  placed  at  the  end.  DavantaffS  is  never  followed  by  a  noan,  bat 
is  always  used  absolatcly. 

I  study  more  than  you.  J'dtudie  plus  quo  vous. 

That  pleases  me  more.  Ccla  me  plait  davantage. 

Have  you  still  more  money  ?  Avez-vous  encore  de  Targent  f 

I  have  no  more.  Je  n*en  ai  plus. 

He  can  do  for  you  further.  II  pent  fairc  davantage  pour  vous. 

To  be  bom.    Bom,  Kaitre  {etre  for  auxiliary).    Ke.    -A'tV. 

Je  naU,       tu  nais^  il  natt^        nous  naiasons,    vous  naisse».       Us  nai9»ent, 

I  am  bom,   thou  art  bom,   he  is  bora,    we  are  born,        you  are  bom,       they  are  bora. 

I  was  bom  in  America,  you  were  bom    Je  suis  n6  en  Am6rique,  vous  6te8  no 

in  Europe.  en  Europe. 

To  clothe^  clothed.     To  change.  Vetir,  vetu.     Changer. 

4.  Changer,  to  lay  aside  one  thing  and  take  another,  is  followed  by  de  ;  meaning  to  ex- 
change,  hypour  or  eontre;  and  meaning  to  convert,  by  en. 

iit«      SOS       1      4   11      1      4SX5SS    nni«         r        ii.i         ! 
ma-ti-ncA,  8ol-ro«,  par-vo-nir,  par-ve-nn,  r6-u«-sir,  suc-co-dcr,  su^rs,  da-van-tag«,»>«'» 

•       7         7TS»7«7  iw         a«  ^o       ^  -B 

n6,  nai«,  naif,  nal«-80D«,  nalt-sea,  naisMn<,  T6-tlr,  chan-ger. 


He  changes  bis  hat.  n  change  de  cbapeau. 

We  change  our  boolu  for  some  pic-    Nous  chaogeons  nos  livres  powr  (or 

tures.  contre)  des  tableaux. 

He  changes  water  into  wine.  H  change  de  Teau  en  vin. 

Weak.    His  t^omocA  is  weak.  Faible.    D  a  PM^ainac  faible. 

Pwe,    Xatwre,  Pur.    Ia  nature. 

Creduhut.     Beauty.  Criduie.    La.heaute. 

Incndnloue.     A  queetion.  IneriduU.     Unc  gueetion. 

To  ask  questions.    The  beard.  Faire  dcs  questions.    La  barbe. 

With  good  trill,  heartily.  De  bon  coeur^  de  bon  grL 

1.  Voyagerez-vous  cet  6t6?  2.  Je  voyagerai  toute  Tann^e.  3. 
Voolez-Yous  beaucoup  de  bceuf !  4.  Je  ii*en  veux  gu^re.  5.  Tout 
ce  qai  nalt  est  sujet  k  mourir.  G.  N'etes-vous  pas  d6  en  Europe  ? 
7.  Nod,  monsieur,  je  suis  ne  en  Am6rique.  8.  Le  yieuz  soldat 
est-il  mort  ce  mois-ci  I  9.  Non,  madame,  il  est  mort  le  dix  juillet. 
10.  Ou  6te8-you8  ne  ?  11.  Je  suis  n6  a  New  York.  12.  Ces  fleurs 
ne  naissent-elles  pas  au  prentemps  ?  13.  Si,  monsieur,  elles  uais- 
sent  au  mois  d'avril.  14.  Cet  homme  riche  a-t-il  vctu  tons  ses  do- 
mestiques  ?  15.  II  les  a  bien  T^tus.  16.  J'admire  toutes  les  beautes 
de  la  nature.  17.  Tons  les  enfants  ne  sont-ils  pas  cr6dules  !  18. 
Os  sont  bien  cr6dules.  Ces  bommes  sont  bien  incr^dules.  19.  Je 
cherche  le  barbier  parce  que  j'ai  la  barbe  longue.  20.  Cette  eau 
cst-elle  pure  ?  21.  EUe  est  tres-pure.  22.  Cet  enfant  fait  bien  des 
questions.  23.  Cet  ouvrier  travaille-t-il  de  bon  coeur  t  24.  II  tra- 
vaille  de  bon  coeur  toute  Tannde.  25.  Combien  de  temps  votre 
grand-p^re  a-t-il  v^cu  ?  26.  II  a  vecu  cent  ans.  27.  Apportez-moi 
un  peu  d'eau  fraiche,  je  vous  prie. 

1.  Where  is  the  old  soldier  t  2.  He  is  dead.  3.  When  did 
hpdiet  4.  He  died  this  year.  5.  Where  was  that  young  man 
bom?  6.  He  was  bom  in  Germany,  the  sixth  of  August,  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-eight.  7.  Are  not  all  animals 
bom  feeble  t  8.  Yes,  sir,  all  animals  are  bom  feeble.  9.  Why  do 
those  travelers  change  their  clothes  (habits)  1  10.  They  change 
them  because  they  are  wet.  11,  Do  you  change  your  French  book 
for  English  booksl  12.  No,  sir,  I  change  them  for  pictures.  13. 
Does  not  cold  change  water  into  ice  (glace)  t  14.  Yes,  it  frequent- 
ly changes  it  into  ice  in  winter.  15.  When  will  you  receive  more 
money  1     16.  I  shall  receive  no  more.     17.  Have  you  mucht     18. 

fiUbU,  es-to-mac,  par,  na-tur*,  cri-duU,  beaa-to,  lii-cr6-dul«,  k«s-Uon,  barbe. 


I  have  hardly  any.  19.  Do  you  ask  questions  of  the  (au)  master  t 
20.  I  ask  him  many  questions.  21.  Do  you  admire  the  beauties  of 
nature?  22.  I  admire  much  the  beauties  of  the  earth  and  of  the 

23.  That  man  is  looking  for  a  barber  because  his  beard  is  very 
long.  24.  That  child  is  too  credulous,  he  believes  all  that  they  say 
to  him.  25.  Is  not  that  man  incredulous?  26.  Yes,  he  does  not  h^ 
lieve  what  you  have  told  him.  27.  Does  not  that  lady  sing  much? 
28,  She  sings  all  the  morning  and  all  the  evening.  29.  Does  her 
sister  sing  much  ?  30.  No,  she  sings  scarcely  any,  but  she  reads  all 
day.  31.  Does  the  barber  work  all  the  day?  32.  He  works  all 
the  year.  33.  Do  you  drink  much  wine?  34.  I  drink  scarcely 
any.  35.  Will  you  travel  next  month?  36.  No,  I  shall  not  travel 
any  more  ;  I  prefer  to  stay  at  home ;  that  pleases  me  more.  37. 
Spring  succeeds  to  winter,  and  autumn  to  summer.  38.  Has  that 
merchant  succeeded  in  becoming  (devenir)  rich  ?  39.  Yes,  he  has 
attained  to  a  great  fortune  {fortune).  40.  Does  the  general  suc- 
ceed in  (d)  war  ?    41.  No,  he  will  succeed  in  nothing. 


1.  Is  there  any  news  from  Europe  to-day?  2.  Yes,  they  say 
that  there  has  been  a  great  fire  {incendie)  in  London.  3.  I  have 
not  heard  that ;  what  do  tbey  say  of  it  ?  4.  That  is  all  that  I  know 
of  it;  Mr.  L.  told  it  to  me.  5.  Do  they  speak  of  peace  ?  6.  They 
say  that  peace  is  made.  7.  I  am  delighted  at  it  (fen  suis  ckarmS)  ; 
we  need  peace,  for  business  {car  les  affaires)  suffers  much.  8.  That 
is  true ;  it  will  need  time  to  bring  them  back  to  the  condition  in 
which  {la  condition  ou)  they  were  before  the  war.  9.  Do  they 
know  the  conditions  of  the  peace  ?  10.  They  have  not  yet  learned 
them.  11.  All  merchandise  is  {marchandisea  sont)  very  dear,  but 
if  we  have  peace  they  will  be  cheaper. 

12.  Have  they  made  a  (une)  good  crop  {rScolte)  of  cotton  this 
year?  13.  Yes,  pretty  good.  All  the  crops  have  been  good.  14. 
Flour  will  be  cheap  next  winter.  15.  Without  doubt ;  and  if  there 
is  no  war  in  Europe,  cotton  will  be  dear.  16.  What  will  you  say 
if  we  have  war  with  England  or  France  before  one  year  {an)  ? 
17.  We  must  {ilfaut)  hope  that  that  will  not  be.  18.  War  will  do 
no  good  to  any  one,  and  it  can  do  us  much  evil. 

19.  Do  those  shopkeepers  succeed  in  becoming  rich?  20.  They 
succeed  in  it.  21.  Have  you  not  a  cold  in  the  head?  22.  No ;  I 
have  a  cold  in  the  chest.  23.  Has  your  sister  gone  to  the  the* 
ater  ?    24.  No,  she  has  gone  to  the  baJl. 




Past  definite  of  faslkr,  to  epeak, 

Jspartaii   tuparlaa,        Uparla^     none parlAmee^      wmepartdtet,   <lt parUrenO^ 
1  spoke,       thouspokest,    hecpoke,     wo  spoke,  yoa  spoke,         they  spoke. 

1.  An  Torbs  of  the  first  ooi\)agation  follow  this  model  in  the  past  definite. 

S.  This  tense  is  used  only  of  time  which  is  limited  to  tb^  past,  and  separated  from  the 
preaeBt  by  at  least  one  day.  If  the  time  spoken  of  therefore  does  not  ezolade  the  present 
dsy,  the  past  indefinite  most  bo  osed,  and  not  the  past  definite ;  thus, 

I  spoke  (baye  spoken)  to  your  brother.     «rat  parU  4  votre  frdre. 

I  spoke  to  him  this  week.  Je  lui  aiparU  cctte  semune. 

I  spoke  to  him  last  week.  Je  lui  parlai  la  semaine  demi^re. 

In  the  first  of  the  aboTS  phrases  the  present  day  is  not  exdndedf  for  nothing  is  said  of 
tbe  time.  In  the  second  phrase  it  is  not  excluded,  for  this  week  includes  the  present  day. 
In  these  therefore  the  past  indefinite  is  used.  In  the  last,  the  past  week  excludes  the  pres- 
ent day,  and  the  past  definite  is  therefore  nsed. 

The  same  distinction  is  illostrated  in  the  following,  where  {eat.)  denotes  j>resenl  day  ee- 
tiwdsdL,  and  (ik  ex,)  preeent  day  not  exclude 

I  was  at  your  bouse  this  morning  (n.  ex.).  S'ai  ite  chez  tous  ce  matin. 

I  went  to  your  bouse  on  Thursday  {ex. ).  J^alUu  chez  tous  Jeudi. 

He  mended  my  coat  (n.  ex,).  II  a  raeeommodS  mon  habit. 

He  mended  it  last  week  (ex.),  II  le  raceommoda  la  semaine  dernidre. 

He  broke  his  pen  to-day  (n.  ear.).  II  a  easeS  sa  plume  aujourd'bui. 

I  broke  mine  on  Friday  (ex,),  Je  ecueai  la  mienne  Tendredi. 

They  bought  my  horse  (n.  ex.).  Us  07U  aeheti  mon  cheval. 

They  bought  him  last  summer  (ex.).  lis  Vacheterent  V6U  pass6. 

We  fonnd  your  pencil  (n.  ex.).  Nous  awmn  trouvS  rotre  crayon. 

We  fonnd  it  on  Saturday  (ex.).  Nous  le  trouvdmes  samedl 

Ton  traveled  this  summer  (n.  ex.),  Vous  avez  voyagi  cet  6t6. 

Ton  trareled  Uist  summer  (ear.).  Vous  voyagediee  V^i^  dernier. 

Tocoet.     To  oak,  Couter.    Demander  (d  or  de  bet  mL). 

To  pay^  to  pay  for.     Toeteal^rob.  Payer.     Voter. 

&  These  last  three  verbs,  as  also  aeheter,  to  boy,  and  prendre^  to  take,  when  foUowed 
by  objects  both  of  the  person  and  thing,  take  the  thing  for  the  direct,  and  the  person  for  the 
indirect  object 

Do  you  pay  that  man  for  the  carriage  ?  Payez-vous  la  Toiture  k  cet  homme  ? 

I  pay  him  for  it.  Je  la  lui  paie. 

I  ask  the  schohr  for  the  book.  Je  demande  le  livre  k  T^colier. 

I  aak  him  for  it  Je  le  lui  demande 

I  take  it  from  him.  Je  le  lui  prends. 

He  buys  it  for  them.  II  le  leur  achate. 

They  have  stolen  it  from  me.  On  me  Ta  to16. 

4.  The  abore-mentloned  verbs  with  a  single  object  always  take  the  direct;  and  demait^ 
der  then  means  to  ask  for. 

par-lai,  laa,  la,  lAm<«,  lAtes,  Mtreni^  coft-ter,  dc-man-der,  pa-yer,  vo-ler. 


Ask  for  my  father.  Demandez  mon  p^re. 

The  neighbor  has  been  robbed.  On  a  yol4  le  Toisin. 

His  fruit  has  been  stolen.  On  a  vole  son  frait. 

Pay  the  man.    Pay  for  it.  Payez  Thomme.    Payez-le. 

How  much  does  he  pay  for  it  ?  Combien  le  paie-t-il  ? 

It  costs  him  a  hundred  dollars.  II  lui  coikte  cent  gourdes. 

It  is  a  good  price.  Cest  un  bon  pHx. 

1.  Le  maitre  touiI  a-t-il  donn6  ce  livre  t  2.  Oai,  il  me  le  donna 
vendredi.  3.  Quand  avez-vous  achet6  cette  maison  ?  4.  Je  Tachetai 
Phiver  pass6  or  demier.  5.  Oi\  aMtes-vous  lundi  ?  6.  Nous  all4mes 
k  r^cole,  et  nos  cousins  y  allerent  aussi.  7.  Ou  allas-tu  dimanchet 
8.  J*allai  k  Teglise.  9.  Quand  ayez-vous  trouv^  le  livre  que  toos 
aviez  perdu  f  10.  Je  le  trouvai  la  semaine  derni^re.  11.  Combien 
Yous  codte  ce  cheval  1  12.  II  me  coiite  deux  cents  dollars.  13.  Arez- 
vous  pay^  la  vache  au  paysan  *?  14.  Je  la  lui  ai  pay6e.  15.  Le  prix 
de  ce  drap,  n'est-il  pas  6leve  t  16.  Non,  le  prix  est  bas.  17.  Avez- 
Tous  demands  le  fruit  au  jardinier?  18.  Je  le  lui  ai  demande. 
19.  On  a  vol6  le  manteau  au  jardinier?  20.  On  le  lui  a  xoU:  21. 
Combien  cette  voiture  vous  coiite-t-elle  ?  22.  Elle  me  coiite  cinq 
cents  gourdes.     23.  Cest  un  prix  tr^s  ^ley6. 

1.  Did  you  buy  the  countryman's  apples  t  2.  I  bought  them  of 
him.  3.  When  did  you  buy  them  ?  4.  I  bought  them  last  montL 
5.  Did  you  pay  him  for  them  then  ?  G.  No,  I  paid  him  for  them 
last  week.  7.  When  did  you  ask  the  master  for  his  book  1  8.  We 
asked  him  for  it  on  Tuesday.  9.  Did  you  ask  for  the  newspapers 
at  the  same  time  ?  10.  We  did  not  ask  for  them.  11.  Has  that 
man  lost  any  thing  ?  12.  Some  one  has  stolen  from  him  his  cloak. 
13.  Do  not  those  horses  cost  more  than  they  are  worth  ?  14.  No, 
they  are  worth  more  than  they  cost.  15.  Where  is  your  horse? 
16.  It  has  been  stolen  from  me.  17.  Was  it  stolen  last  week? 
18.  Yes,  it  was  stolen  last  week,  on  Wednesday.  19.  What  day 
of  the  month  is  it  ?  20.  It  is  the  eleyenth.  21.  Has  the  servant 
robbed  his  master  ?     22.  Yes,  he  has  stolen  from  him  much  money. 

23.  How  much  may  {peutj  that  cow  be  worth?  24.  She  is 
worth  only  thirty  dollars.  25.  How  much  are  peaches  worth  a 
bushel?  26.  They  are  worth  two  dollars  a  bushel  27.  Is  it  not 
a  high  price?  28.  No,  it  is  not  high.  29.  When  did  your  cousins 
buy  those  beautiful  pictures  ?  30.  They  bought  them  last  summer. 
31.  When  did  the  tailor  mend  your  coat?     32.  He  mended  it  on 


Thnrsdaj.  33.  Are  these  yonr  books!  34.  Yes,  they  are.  35. 
Are  these  your  little  sisters  ?  36.  Yes,  they  are.  37.  Miss,  are 
yon  French  ?  38.  Yes,  sir,  I  am.  39.  Are  you  the  sister  of  that 
Frenchman?  40.  Yes,  sir,  I  am.  41.  Does  not  that  lady  appear 
perfectly  amiable?  42.  She  appears  so.  43.  Your  brother  likes 
mosic  ;  on  what  instrument  does  he  play  ?  44.  He  plays  on  the 
flute  and  on  the  violin. 


1.  Does  Peter  B.  live  near  here  (pr^  cTict)  1  2.  Yes,  he  lives  in 
this  street ;  are  you  acquainted  with  him  ?  3.  Very  well ;  we  have 
been  together  at  school  during  more  than  (de)  a  year,  and  I  have 
still  some  books  that  are  his.  4.  He  is  a  young  man  of  an  excel- 
lent character  (caractere)^  and  quite  charming.  5.  We  have  always 
been  good  friends,  and  I  have  a  great  desire  (bien  envie)  to  see  him. 
G.  If  you  wish  it,  I  will  take  you  to  his  house  this  evening.  7.  I 
thank  you,  that  will  be  impossible  for  me ;  I  expect  this  evening  a 
friend ;  but  I  will  go  with  you  another  evening  of  this  week.  8. 
Well,  what  day  is  it  to-day  ?  9.  It  is  Tuesday.  10.  I  cannot  go 
to-morrow,  but  Thursday  or  Friday  I  shall  be  at  your  service.  11. 
Thank  you ;  Thursday,  then,  if  it  be  not  bad  weather,  we  will  go 
to  see  him. 

12.  What  do  you  think  of  London  1  13.  It  is  an  immense  (im- 
fnense)  city,  but  it  is  not  a  beautiful  city.  14.  Are  not  the  houses 
beautiful  there  ?  15.  There  are  some  beautiful  and  very  large  ones, 
but  those  of  Paris  are  still  more  so.  16.  I  must  go  to  Paris  one 
day ;  I  desire  much  to  see  it. 



The  past  definite  la  generally  treated  by  French  grammarians  as  a  prlmltiTe  tense. 
Boles  fiir  its  formation,  however,  will  be  nseftal  to  the  English  learner. 

"L  The  past  definite  of  all  French  yerbs  may  be  formed  as  follows :  In  thx  fxbst  ooivjir- 
OAnov,  as  we  have  seen,  change  er  final  of  the  InflnltiTe  into 

▲Z,  ^  A,  AJOB,  ATIS,  iBKRT. 

In  the  sxooin>  and  foitbtb,  ir  and  re  final,  into 

n,             n,             IT,             iMxa,  tns,             xbzst. 

Thos^nnt,  to  finish,  and  vtndax,  to  sell,  make 

JsJlniSf        iujtnis^              UJtnit,           nousJlrMnM^  vomjtniiea^      ii9jtfUreni, 

Iflnlsbed,     thoa  finishedst,  he  finished,     we  finished,  you  finished,     they  finished. 
JtvendU,     tuvertdit,           Uv&ndU,        nouav&ndlmMj  voutwndUet^  iUvmdir&nS^ 

Isold,           thonsoldeet,        he  sold,           we  sold,  you  sold,           they  sold. 

It  u     n    IS         IS       IS 
fi-nis,  ni(,  ntmes,  nl<M,  nirent 


In  the  third,  xtoib,  into 

va,  us,  trr,  txss,  tns,  vubt. 

Thiu,  r^cBTODt,  to  reoelre,  makes 

I  recelyed,    thon  receivedst,  he  received,    we  received,       70a  received,    they  reeelved. 
2.  To  the  above  rule  most  be  added  the  three  following  remarks : 
First,  verbs  which  have  the  pest  participle  in  <•  or  if  make  the  past  definite  by  ehsBgliif 

the  <•  or  i<  into  the  terminations  of  the  second  and  fourth  ooiyogatioaa,  UtU^U^  ete. 
Thus  meUre^  past  part  mis,  and  dirt,  past  part  (/rr,  make 

Ipnt,  thon  pattest,       he  put,         we  put,  yon  pot,  they  put 

JedU,         tudU,  Udil,  ft9tw(f  tines,        wnadiUs,        UtdiretO^ 

I  said,  thonsaidst,         he  said,         we  said,  yon  said,  they  said. 

Second,  all  irregular  verbs  of  the  second  and  fourth  coi^agations,  which  have  the  put 
participle  In  «,  except  viUr^  baUre^  rompre,  and  their  compounds,  have  this  tense  like  Uw 
third  coi\)ugation,  changing  u  final  Into  us,  «m,  «<. 

Thus  cowrir,  past  part  courxjy  and  hoire,  past  part  &v,  make 
t/eoouriM,    tucouruM^        ilcourut,     now  couHtmea,    wnucour^tes,     Uteounrmii 
I  ran,  thou  rannest,     he  ran,         wo  ran,  70U  ran,  they  ran. 

JebuHy         tubutf  Ubvl,  nouabi^fM*,  wnubiUM,  iUbureHt^ 

I  drank,        thou  drankest,   he  drank,     we  diank,  you  drank,  they  drank. 

Third,  all  verbs  in  aindrs^  etndrt^  oindre^  and  uire^  form  this  tease  by  changing  aai  of 
the  present  participle  into  <«,  O,  i^  eta 

Thus  enUndre^  to  fear,  present  participle,  craignAsn,  make 
a/s  craignU^  tti  oraignUy     il  eraignit,  naua  eraiffntmeaj  wma  eraignUet^  {U  eraigfdrwt 
I  feared,        thou  fearedst,  he  feared,     we  feared,  you  feared,  theylbared. 

AtMndre^  to  attain  to,  aUefgnAxr^  makes  fatUignia^  iu  aUeignia,  etc 
Joitidre^  to  Join,  joignkjsr,  makeajajoignia^  tujaignia^  itJoignU,  eta 
Cuirey  to  cook,  euisABT,  makes  Je  ottiaia,  tu  ouiMs,  U  euiait^  etc 

To  9ew,    Sewed,  Coudre,     Coumu, 

Jeeouda^     tueouda^  Ucaud,  noua  eouaona,       wmacauaeat        Haeemunlt 

I  sew,  thousewest,      he  sews,  we  sew,  you  sew,  they  sew. 

That  tailor  sews  well.    He  has  sewed    Ce  taillear  coud  bien.     II  a  coosa  dcs 
some  buttons  on  my  coat  boutons  4  mon  hablL 

To  resolve^  to  eolve.    Resolved,  JUeoudre,    lUeolu,  and  riaoM," 

Jariaoua^    turiaoua^  ilriaout^        noua riaolvona^    iroueHaofoes,    ila  riaohant, 

I  resolve,     thou  resolvest,  he  resolves,     we  resolve,  you  resolve,     they  resolve. 

It  is  fog  changed  into  rain.  CTest  du  brouillard  r^sous  en  pluie. 

Have  they  resolved  upon  peace  or  war?     A-t-on  r^solu  la  poix  on  la  guerre  ? 
He  has  solved  the  question.  II  a  r6solu  la  question. 

1.  Ces  senrantes  consent-elles  bien  ?  2.  Elles  cousent  tout  aassi 
bien  que  le  tailleur.  3.  Le  tailleur  a-t-il  cousu  yos  pantalons  t  4. 
n  les  a  cousus.     5.  Qui  a  casse  la  croisce  ?     6.  Le  domestiqne  la 

*  JUaoua  is  used  only  in  the  sense  of  changed  into.    It  Is  not  used  in  the  feminine. 

4  93     a     a         a        a  n      u   a     a       r      n    iiu         m      t      »    ^ 

re-yna,  (Ul  ^tlmes,  (dtsit,  (ureni^,  ml«,  oon-rns,  bus,  crd-gnis,  Jolndre.  Joi-gnant  Jol-gnK 

a/-telndr«,  a/-tel-gnan^  a<-tct-gnU,  culrs,  cnl-san<,  cui-zls,  coudre,  cou-su,  eonds,  coa<f,  coo- 

II  la      6  19  5       U  I     M   23      •      18         «      U  5    U       31  S      1*      •         «    U 

sons,  cou-ses,  couseni;  r6-zoudre,  r6-Ko-ln,  re-cons,  r^-conl,  r6-zol-vons,  r^-fbl-vei,  r^-tolveM. 


cassa  mardi.  7.  Avez-voos  la  le  livre  allemand  qne  je  voas  ai 
pr6te  t  8.  Qui,  monsieur,  je  le  lus  le  mois  dernier.  9.  Le  tradui- 
bites-vous  en  meme  temps  ?  10.  Non,  je  Tai  traduit  cette  semaine. 
11.  Condaisites-vous  Tetranger  a  Teglise  dimanclie?  12.  Noiis  Py 
condaisimes  dimanche,  et  mon  frcre  le  condoisit  an  spectacle  lundL 

13.  Parlas-tu  an  general  quand  tu  le  vis  d  Londres  I'^t^  dernier  ? 

14.  Je  ne  lui  parlai  pas.  15.  Begutes-vous  ma  lettre  la  semaine 
dernieret  16.  Nous  la  re^dmes  lundi,  et  nous  la  lumes  aussitot, 
et  DOS  amis  la  lurent  aussi.  17.  Vendis-tu  tes  chevaux  samedi? 
18.  Oui,  et  mes  cousins  vendirent  les  leurs  en  mdme  temps !  19. 
Quand  as-tu  lu  ce  livre  fran^ais  t  20.  Je  le  lus  samedi,  et  mon 
fr^re  le  lat  dimanche.  21.  Quecoudce  tailleur?  22.  llcoudmon 

1.  Do  those  maid- servants  sew  well  ?  2.  They  do  not  sew  so 
well  as  the  tailor.  3.  Have  they  sewed  any  thing  for  you  ?  4.  They 
have  sewed  some  buttons  on  my  coat.  5.  Have  you  been  to  the 
neighbor's  this  week  1  6.  Yes,  sir,  I  went  there  on  Monday,  and  I 
went  there  again  yesterday.  7.  Didst  thou  speak  to  the  general  on 
Tuesday  •?  8.  I  spoke  to  him,  and  my  brother  spoke  to  him  also. 
9.  When  did  you  find  those  beautiful  flowers  ?  10.  We  found  them 
last  week  in  the  woods.  11.  Hast  thou  drunk  the  wine  which  I  sent 
thee  yesterday  ?  12. 1  drank  of  it  yesterday,  and  my  brother  drank 
of  it  also ;  we  found  it  very  good.  13.  Didst  thou  finish  thy  writ- 
ing yesterday  ?     14.  Yes,  I  finished  it  early. 

15.  When  did  you  read  the  first  volume  of  that  history?  16. 
We  read  it  last  winter,  and  my  father  read  it  also,  17,  Did  you 
read  the  second  volume  at  the  same  time  {epoque)  ?  18.  We  did 
not  read  it,  but  our  sisters  read  it.  19.  Have  you  translated  that 
exercise  into  French  ?  20.  I  translated  it  yesterday,  and  my  broth- 
er translated  it  also.  21.  Did  you  translate  it  into  Spanish  the 
same  day  t  22.  We  translated  it,  and  our  cousins  translated  it 
also.  23.  How  old  is  your  brother  ?  24.  He  is  not  quite  twenty- 
five  years  old.  25.  Has  the  gardener  many  apples  ?  26.  He  has 
hardly  any.  27.  Do  you  study  German  ?  28.  No,  sir,  I  do  not 
study  it  any  more.  29.  Does  your  brother  study  it  still?  80,  Yes, 
he  studies  German  and  French. 


L  What  will  you  do  when  you  are  in  the  country  ?      2.  Wo 


sball  read  much,  and  we  shall  write  many  letters.  3.  When  the 
gardener  offers  you  fruit,  will  you  take  it  ?  4.  I  sball  take  it  5. 
I  am  going  to  tell  you  the  names  of  the  months,  and  to  count  them 
at  (en)  the  same  time.  G.  January,  one ;  February,  two ;  March, 
three;  April,  four;  May,  five;  June,  six;  July,  seven;  August, 
eight ;  September,  nine ;  October,  ten ;  November,  eleven ;  Decem- 
ber, twelve.  7.  In  the  {au)  month  of  January  it  is  very  cold,  and 
the  days  are  very  short.  8,  In  the  month  of  February  it  is  very 
cold  still,  but  the  days  are  a  little  longer ;  the  night  does  not  come 
so  quick  (yite),  and  in  the  morning  it  is  day  a  little  sooner.  9.  The 
country  is  still  very  sad.  10.  Do  you  know  that  this  month  is  the 
shortest  of  allt  11.  It  has  only  twenty-eight  days,  while  (tandis 
que)  the  others  have  thirty,  and  some  thirty-one.  12.  January  is 
the  first  month,  and  February  is  the  second. 

13.  Did  your  cousin  read  much  while  he  was  at  your  house  ? 
14.  He  read  much,  and  he  wrote  many  letters.  15.  When  I  come 
to  the  city,  will  you  know  it  f  16.  I  shall  know  it  17.  When 
thou  hast  a  master,  wilt  thou  learn  the  French  language  t  18.  I 
shall  learn  it,  and  my  brother  will  learn  it  also.  19.  When  the 
master  speaks  to  the  scholars  in  French,  will  they  comprehend  him  t 
20.  They  will  comprehend  him. 



The  learner  has  now  been  made  acquainted  with  the  imperfect,  past  indefinite,  and  past 
definite  tensea.  Aa  these  divisions  of  post  time  do  not  correspond  to  any  English  tenses,  they 
reqnire  especial  attention,  and  the  following  additional  mle  and  iUostrationa  will  aerre  to 
explain  more  clearly  their  nsc. 

1.  If  the  verb  expresses  something  past,  which  i^  habitual^  repeaUd,  or  eoniintunf*  it 
most  be  In  the  imperfect  Unee;  if  it  do  not  express  that,  and  refers  to  a  time  including  the 
present  day,t  the  past  indeftniU  must  be  naed ;  bat  if  it  refer  to  a  time  excluding  the  pres- 
ent day,  the  patt  deJlniU  is  to  be  used. 

Did  yoa  ever  see  (n.  ex.)  President  T. ?  Avez-voits  jamais  vu  le  prudent  T.  ? 

Tea,  when  I  was  (eont.)  in  Washing-  Out,  quand  fetaia  k  Washington,  je  )e 

ton  last  winter  I  saw  {ex.)  him.  vis  rhiver  dernier. 

When  did  yoa  find  (n.  ex.)  your  glove  ?  Qnand  avez-v<ms  trauvi  votre  gant  f 

Yesterday;  as  I  was  looking  {cant.)  Hier,  comme  je  cherchaU  mon  moa- 

for  my  handkerchief,  I  found  {ex.)  choir,  je  trouvai  mon  gant. 

my  glove. 

Who  broke  (n.  ex.)  your  mirror?  Qui  a  eaasS  votre  miroir  {glace)  f 

My  brother  broke  it  last  week  {ex.) ;  CVst  mon  fr&re  qui  le  ecusa  la  semalne 

he  was  playing  {cont.)  with  his  derniere ;  il  jouait  avec  sa  ballc, 

*  These  three  qnalities  are  essentially  the  same;  for  what  Is  habitual^  and  what  la  re- 
peat^^  may  bo  rujiranled  as  contintwus  or  unflniHhfd.    Hence  the  name  iMPBRrscr. 

t  If  tho  time  referred  to  bo  the  present  day,  the  present  week,  month,  year,  or  age,  or. 
If  the  time  be  not  8i>eciflod,  the  present  day  is  included. 



ball,  and  he  threw  (ex.)  it  just  in  et  il  la  Jeia  juste  au  milieu  de  ma 

the  middle  of  mj  glass.  glace  (mon  miroir). 

2.  Glace  Is  a  mirror  of  a  large  sizo. 

Did  you  receive  (n.  er,)  my  note  ?  Avez-voiis  re^u  mon  billet? 

We  received  it  Saturday  (ex.)  while  we    Nous  le  regumee  samedi  pendant  que 
were  breakfasting  {e<mt.),  nous  dejeunions, 

8.  In  conTersation,  when  no  importance  is  attached  to  the  time,  the  past  indefinite  is 
often  used  for  the  past  definite, — i.  e.,  it  is  used  when  the  present  day  is  excluded ;  but  not 
the  opposite,— the  past  definite  is  not  to  be  used  when  the  present  day  may  be  included. 
We  may  say,  Je  lui  ai  paels  Aier,*  la  eemaine  demiire,  etc.,  but  not,  Je  lui  fablai  a«- 
jourd'kui  esUe  nemainty  etc 

4.  In  historical  writing;  and  in  narratires  of  events  long  past,t  the  post  indefinite  is  not 
to  be  used;  as, 

Napoleon,  the  first  consul,  gained  the 
celebrated  victory  of  Marengo 
over  the  Austrians,  the  14th  of 
June,  1800. 

Csesar  reduced  Spain,  and  conquered 
Gaul;  he  penetrated  even  into 
Germany ;  he  subdued  Egypt 

A  remedy.     To  look  at. 

To  be  right.     To  be  tcrong. 

The  shore.    The  sea. 

Learned.    Interesting. 

Ingenious.     Along. 

Hardly,  scarcely.     WitJioiU  the  hnouH' 

edge  of. 
Without  his  knowledge. 

Napoleon,  premier  consul,  remporta  la 
c^ldbre  victoire  de  Marengo  sur 
les  Autrichlens,  le  14  Juin,  1800. 

C^sar  reduisit  TEspagne  ct  conquit  la 
Oaule;  il  penetra  jusqu'en  Alle- 
magne ;  il  soumit  TEgypte. 

Un  reinede.    Regarder. 

Avoir  raison  (de  bef.  inf.).  Avoir  tori 

Le  rivage.    La  mer. 

Savant.     Interessant. 

Ingenieux.     Le  long  de, 

A  peine.     A  Pinsu  dc. 

X  son  Insu. 

4.  To  be  worthy  to  possess,  we  have  seen,  is  Ure  riehe  de ;  to  be  worth  in  intrinsic  valaa 

To  be  worth  more,  to  be  better.  Valoir  mieux. 

Ton  are  worth  more  (better)  than  he.      Vous  valez  mieux  que  lui. 

*  The  use  of  the  past  Indefinite  for  the  past  definite  takes  place  by  a  kind  of  syllonsls 
with  the  word  recently,  or  some  one  eqaivalent;  hence  when  the  time  is  meant  to  oe  defi- 
nitely and  prominently  stated,  the  change  is  not  made. 

-f  In  continoed  narration  of  events,  even  of  the  present  day,  the  post  definite  may  bo 
osed,  as  seen  in  the  following: 

This  morning  I  met  Mr.  A.  in  the  park. 
I  sainted  him,  he  returned  my  politeness,  and 
continoed  his  way ;  I  followed  him  with  my 
eyes.  At  the  moment  when  be  arrived  in 
BeacoD'Strcet,  I  saw  him  overthrown  by  a 
horse  which  was  excited.  I  was  very  much 
friirbtcned.  I  ran  up  the  steps,  I  rushed  to- 
ward my  friend,  I  raised  him,  and  asked  him 
If  he  was  not  woundeiL  *'  No,^  be  replied  to 
nM,  lariffhinff.  **  thank  God,  I  have  had  no 
hann  but  the  harm  of  fear.'^ 

Ce  matio  fai  rencontre  monsieur  A  dans 
le  pare,  je  I'ai  saluc,  il  ma  rendu  ma  politesse, 
et  il  a  continue  son  chemin.  Je  le  KuiHs  des 
yeuz.  Au  moment  od  il  arriva  dans  Bea- 
con-street, Je  le  ri»  rcnverser  jwir  un  chovnl 
qui  sV'tatt  emport6.  Jo  fus  trcs-efl'rajro,  jo 
montai  Tescalier  en  conrant  jo  me  precipi- 
tai  vers  mon  ami.  je  lo  rfUvaiy  et  jo  lui  <tt- 
nuindai  s'il  n'etait  p<fnt  bles«6.  "Non,"  mo 
repondit-W,  en  riant,  '*Dieu merd,  je  nal  au- 
cun  mal  que  lo  mal  de  peur.^ 

1    U  5tl        «    1  IT       en         4      T         4     1       •HI  ^      *      ■  ,  I*   *•    •. 

Ka-po-lc-on,  Ce-iar,  Ganla,  E-gypt,  re-mods,  re-gar-der,  ri-vags,  mer,  sa-van«,  in-te-res- 
14     5    jss       7      )4     a 
\  iii-g<6'nieiu^  peine,  in-sn. 


He  is  worth  fifty  thousand  dollars.  II  est  riche  de  cinqnante  mille  dollars. 

He  is  worth  more  (better)  than  his    U  vaut  mieux  que  son  fr^re« 

1.  Avez-vous  lu  mon  nouveau  livre  ?  2.  Oui,  qnand  j'etais  k 
la  campagne  Tele  dernier,  je  le  trouvai  chez  mon  ami,  et  je  le  Ins. 
8.  Quand  avez-vous  fini  d'ecrire  votre  theme  ?  4.  Hier,  pendant 
que  vous  rdcitiez  voire  le^on,  je  le  finis.  5.  Avez-vous  des  chevanx? 
6.  Je  n*en  ai  pas  k  present,  j'en  avais  trois  le  mois  passe  ;  mais, 
j'en  vendis  nn  la  semaine  demi^re,  j*en  donnai  un  aussi  dimanche 
k  mon  ami  et  Ton  m'a  vole  le  troisieme  hier  au  soir.  7.  Que  re- 
gardez-vous  ?  8.  Je  regarde  ces  tableaux.  9.  N'avez-vous  pas  tort 
de  parler  d  cet  homme  ?  10.  Non,  j'ai  raison  de  lui  parler,  parce 
qu'il  est  mon  ami  11.  Est-ce  que  je  ne  vaux  pas  autant  que  mon 
frere?  12.  Vous  valez  mieux  que  luL  13.  Ou  desirez-voos  aller? 
Je  desire  aller  le  long  du  rivagc  de  lamer.  14.  Avez-vous  demeure 
longtemps  a  New  York  ?  J'y  ai  6te  k  peine  deux  jours.  15.  Le 
malade  a-t-il  pris  son  bain  ?  16.  II  le  prit  (Pa  pris)  hier  matin. 
17.  Cet  homme  est-il  savant?  18.  II  est  fort  savant  dans  rhistoire. 
19.  Mon  cousin  par  tit  hier  k  mon  insu. 

1.  Do  you  sometimes  go  along  the  shore  of  the  sea?  2.  Yes, 
sir,  I  often  go  on  the  shore  of  the  sea ;  I  like  to  look  at  the  sea  and 
the  sky.  3.  Have  you  thrown  away  your  gloves  ?  4.  Yes ;  I  threw 
them  away  yesterday,  because  they  were  worth  nothing.  5.  That 
man  is  studious ;  is  he  not  learned  ?  G.  Yes,  he  is  well  versed 
{verse)  in  history.  7.  Who  broke  that  glass  ?  8.  That  child  let  it 
fall  yesterday.  9.  That  lady  looks  interesting.  10.  Yes,  she  is 
interesting  and  beautiful ;  she  is  not  so  tall  as  she  appears,  but  her 
brother  is  taller  than  he  appears.  11.  Has  the  sick  man  taken  the 
remedy?  12.  He  took  it  day  before  yesterday,  and  it  has  done 
him  good.  13.  Am  I  not  worth  as  much  as  my  cousin  ?  14.  You 
are  worth  more  than  he.  15.  Will  you  be  long  in  the  country? 
16.  I  shall  be  there  hardly  two  days. 

17.  Is  that  workman  ingenious?     18.  He  is  very  ingenious. 

19.  Did  your  brother  buy  that  horse  without  your   knowledge? 

20.  He  bought  him  without  my  knowledge,  and  without  the  knowl- 
edge of  my  father.  21.  When  thou  wast  dining  with  (chez)  the 
general  on  Saturday,  didst  thou  taste  his  best  wine  ?  22.  I  did 
not  taste  it,  because  I  never  drink  wine ;  but  the  captain  drank  of 
it,  and  found  it  very  good.     23.  That  man  looks  interesting ;  are 


joa  acqaainted  with  him  ?  24.  Yes,  sir ;  he  is  learned,  ingenious, 
and  interesting.  25.  Madam,  are  you  sick  ?  26.  I  am.  27.  Are 
you  the  wife  of  the  captain  1  28.  I  am.  29.  Gentlemen,  are  you 
physicians  1  30.  We  are.  31.  Are  you  the  physicians  of  the 
king?     32.  We  are. 


1.  London  is  the  principal  (principaie)  city  or  the  capital  {la 
capitate)  of  England.  2.  Edinburgh  {Edinhourg)  is  the  capital  of 
Scotland,  and  Dublin  is  the  capital  of  Ireland.  3.  These  three 
kingdoms  belong  to  the  same  prince,  whom  they  call  (appelle)  king 
of  England.  4.  To  the  east  of  England  one  finds  Denmark,  of 
which  the  capital  is  Copenhagen  ( Copenhague).  5.  The  capital  of 
Sweden  is  Stockholm.  G.  To  the  east  of  Sweden  one  finds  Russia, 
which  is  a  very  large  country,  of  which  the  capital  is  Moscow. 

7.  Where  were  you  yesterday  evening  ?  I  looked  for  you  every 
where.  8.  I  was  at  the  theater  ;  had  you  need  to  see  me  ?  9.  No ; 
I  had  nothing  to  do,  and  I  desired  to  take  a  walk  (/aire  nne  prome- 
nade). 10.  Where  did  you  wish  to  go  I  11.  I  had  a  desire  to  go 
and  see  the  Miss  C.'s.  12.  Well,  let  us  go  there  this  evening.  13. 
Very  willingly;  have  you  seen  them  lately  (dernierement)!  14.  I 
saw  them  the  past  week  in  the  street,  as  they  were  going  to  my 
sister's.  15.  I  have  not  had  the  time  to  go  and  see  them  often  this 
winter.  16.  I  am  very  much  occupied  (tres-occvpe)  all  day,  and 
often  it  is  necessary  for  me  to  pass  the  evening  in  writing  {d  ecrire). 


1.  When  sometblDg  present  is  pointed  oat,  (here  is,  there  are,  here  it,  Jure  are^  fhit  if, 
(hat  U,  these  are^  those  arty  arc  rendorcd  as  follows : 

Uere  U,  here  are^  this  is^  these  are^  be-  Void  (contraction  of  vois  id), 


There  is,  there  are,  that  t>,  those  are,  Voild  (contraction  of  vois  la), 


There  is  jour  cloak.     Thero  it  is.  Toil^  votre  manteau.    Le  voil^ 

Here  are  yoar  spectacles.     Here  tbcy  Yoici  vos  lunettes.    Les  voici. 


There  he  ia.    There  is  some.  Le  ToilA.    En  voil^. 

Here  I  am.    Here  we  arc.  Me  Toici.     Nous  voici. 

He  is  looking  for  the  towel  which  is  H  cherche  ressuie-main  que  voici. 


I  seek  him  who  ia  there.  Je  cherche  celui  que  voiU. 

Here  she  comes.  La  voici  qui  vicnt. 

vol-ci,  voi-U. 


There  is  irhat  he  wishes  for.  Voild  ce  qu'il  Teat 

To  fatigue^  to  tire.     Yes,  indeed*  Faiiguer,     Si  or  Hfait. 

2.  Si/aU  is  used  familiarly  (and  rather  Inelegantly)  to  affirm  a  lact  which  another  de- 
nies or  colls  in  doubt ;  as  wo  use  yes^  it  ia  ;  ye«,  Ad  doea^  etc     It  is  regarded  bj  some  as  a 
Tulgarism;  and  H  alone,  or  pardo7ine»'moi^  is  to  be  preferred. 
You  have  not  seen  my  brother.  Vous  ii'ayez  pas  vu  mon  fr^re. 

Yes,  I  have ;  I  saw  him  this  morning.     Si  {or  si  fait),  {cr  pardounez-moi) ;  je 

Tai  vu  ce  matin. 
You  do  not  know  me.  Vous  nc  me  connaissez  pas. 

Yes,  I  do  ;  I  know  you  well.  Si,  madame,  je  vous  connais  bicn. 

I  believe  that  he  never  comes  here.        Je  crois  quMl  ne  vient  jamais  ici. 
Yes,  he  does ;  he  comes  here  often.        Si,  moosieur  {or  pardonnez-moi)^  11  y 

vient  souvcnt. 
At  your  service,  at  your  disposed,  at     A  votre  service,  d  voire  di9p<mlio»y  d 

your  command.  vos  ordres. 

From  time  to  time^  occasionally.  De  temps  en  temps. 

At  least.    Some  good  spectacles.  Au  mains.    De  bonnes  lunettes. 

5%tf  yrain.     To  accept.  Le  grain,  les  grains.     Accepter. 

8.  Grain^  as  a  collective  noun,  is  used  In  the  plural  to  express  different  qualities  or 
kinds  of  grain. 

A  dollar  more.    A  dollar  less.  Un  dollar  de  plus.   Un  dollar  de  mains. 

A  sou  too  much.     A  sou  too  little.  Un  sou  de  trap.     Un  sou  de  moins. 

Do  not  give  him  a  cent  more,  nor  a     Ke  lui  donnez  pas  un  sou  de  plus  ni 

cent  ess.  un  sou  de  moins. 

He  has  neither  too  much  nor  too  little.     II  n*a  ni  trop  ni  trop  peu. 
A  rock.    What  distance,  how  far  f  Un  rochet.     Quelle  distance 

A  quarter.     An  hour,  -  Un  quart.    Une  heure. 

A  step,  pace.     Half.  Un  pa».     Demi. 

Almost.     Come  then.  Presque.     Venez  done. 

4.  Done  is  sometimes  used  for  mere  emphasis. 
Far.     About,  nearly.  Loin.     Fnviron. 

How  far  is  it  from  here  to  that  rock  ?      Quelle    distance   y   a-t-il   d'ici    k    ce 

rocher  ? 

5.  In  speaking  of  the  distance  to  any  place,  meaning/rom  here  to  the  phice,  cTici  nraat 
not  be  omitted  in  French,  unless^iMgtM  be  used. 

Is  it  far  to  the  hotel  ?  Y  a-t-il  loin  d'ici  &  Xh&lel  f 

It  is  about  two  miles  and  a  quarter.         II  y  a  environ  deux  milles  et   (un) 

I  am  going  as  far  as  the  river.  Je  vais  jusqu^a  la  riviere. 

6.  Demi  is  an  adjective,  and  is  invariable  when  placed  before  its  noun,  to  which  U  Is 
then  always  Joined  by  a  hyphen;  when  placed  after  the  noun,  it  agrees  with  it  in  gender, 
and  is  always  singular ;  as, 

Half  an  liour.    An  hour  and  a  half.  Une  demi-heurc.    Une  heure  et  demie. 

1.  Vous  cherchez  de  I'eau  pure,  en  voici.     2.  Quel  livre  voulez- 

1  »      «      r     n         14     1      5      «      15     s       u    a  i         ii         i       4     is  sou 

&-tl-gver,  Ber*vic«,  grain,  ak-cep-ter,  ro-cher,  dls-tano^  karf,  heure,  paa,  de-ml,  loia, 

•n-vi-ron,  Ad-teL 


vous  1  3.  Je  veux  celui  que  voili.  4.  Voici  ce  que  je  cherche. 
5.  Voili  un  arbre  sur  lequel  il  y  a  des  oiseaux.  6.  Voici  un  jardin 
ou  il  7  a  du  fruit  7.  Yoilk  votre  ami;  est-il  venu.ici  ce  ma- 
tint  8.  n  y  est  venu  de  tr6s-bonne  heure.  9.  Voici  de  I'eau 
pure  et  fraiche ;  en  voulez-vous  1  10.  Cette  homme  lit-il  sans  lu- 
nettes? 11.  Non,  il  ne  pent  pas  lire  sans  lunettes.  12.  Ce  gar9on 
a  I'air  fatigue  ?  13.  II  est  fatigue  parce  qu'il  a  couru  toute  la  jour- 
nee.  14.  Voulez-vous  du  vin  t  en  voici  tk  votre  service.  15.  Ac- 
ceptez-vous  ce  que  je  vous  donnet  16.  Je  I'accepte.  17.  Avez- 
Tous  dix  dollars  de  plus  k  ma  disposition  ?  18.  Qui,  j*cn  ai  cent  de 
plus,  qui  seront  k  vos  ordres  quand  vous  en  aurez  besoin.  19.  Cette 
femme  a  six  fils  et  quatre  fiUes.  20.  AUez-vous  quelquefois  au 
spectacle  ?  21.  J'j  vais  de  temps  en  temps.  22.  Y  a-t-il  loin 
d'ici  a  rh6tel?  23.  11  y  a  prds  d'un  miile  et  demi.  24.  II  y  a 
environ  cent  pas  d'ici  a  ce  rocher. 

1.  There  is  my  exercise;  it  is  short.  2.  There  is  a  pure  sky 
and  without  a  cloud ;  it  is  very  beautiful.  3.  Here  is  the  man 
whom  you  are  looking  for.  4.  Here  he  is.  5.  Here  I  am.  G. 
Here  we  are.  7.  You  are  looking  for  the  servants ;  there  they 
are-  8.  There  is  the  school  to  which  my  brother  goes.  9.  Are 
you  looking  for  the  man  who  is  here  t  10.  No ;  I  am  looking  for 
him  who  is  there.  11.  Are  you  not  fatigued  ?  12.  I  am  fatigued 
because  I  have  run  all  the  morning.  13.  There  is  what  I  have  at 
your  service ;  do  you  accept  it  1  14.  I  accept  it.  15.  Do  you  read 
without  spectacles?  16.  No,  I  cannot  read  without  spectacles. 
17.  Are  you  not  wrong  in  buying  that  horse?  18.  No,  I  am  right 
in  buying  him,  because  1  have  need  of  him. 

19.  Does  that  man  still  owe  you  money  ?  20.  He  owes  me  a 
hundred  dollars  at  least.  21.  Does  the  doctor  see  you  sometimes? 
22.  He  sees  me  occasionally.  23.  Do  you  ever  go  to  the  opera? 
24.  I  go  there  occasionally.  25,  Give  me  five  dollars  more.  26. 
Give  him  a  dollar  less.  27.  I  have  given  you  a  dollar  too  much, 
and  you  have  given  me  a  dollar  too  little.  28.  Is  there  too  much 
sugar  in  your  tea?  29.  There  is  neither  too  much  nor  too  little. 
30.  There  is  some  fruit  at  your  service  ;  do  you  accept  it?  31.  I 
accept  it.  32.  Do  you  wear  spectacles?  33.  Yes;  I  am  near- 
sighted. 34.  That  countryman  has  at  least  ten  goats.  35.  What 
distance  is  it  to  that  hotel?    36.  It  is  about  a  mile  and  a  quarter. 


37.  Is  it  far  to  your  house  1     38.  It  is  hardly  three  hundred  paces. 
39.  It  is  about  two  miles  and  a  quarter  to  the  church. 


1.  I  believe  that  yon  do  not  like  music.  2.  Yes,  sir,  I  like  it 
much.  3.  Do  you  not  prefer  reading  to  music  ?  4.  They  are  both 
(loutes  deux)  good ;  but  if  it  is  necessary  to  choose  one  or  the  other, 
I  say  that  it  is  necessary  to  choose  the  most  useful.  5.  You  are 
wrong.  6.  How !  do  you  not  like  better  to  read  than  to  listen  to 
a  violin  ?  7.  Not  at  all ;  reading  fatigues  me  sometimes,  but  music 
never  fatigues  me.  8.  There  is  Mr.  H.  coming  (qui  vienl) ;  let  us 
see  what  is  his  opinion  (opinion),  9.  Good  morning  (bonjour),  Mr. 
H. ;  come  in  (entrez),  there  is  a  chair.  10.  You  are  acquainted 
with  Mr.  Charles,  I  believe.     11.  Perfectly. 

12.  What  are  you  doing,  gentlemen  t  13.  Almost  (a  peu  pres) 
nothing ;  we  are  speaking  of  music  and  of  reading ;  tell  us  which 
of  the  two  you  prefer.  14.  That  is  not  difficult.  15.  I  prefer  read- 
ing in  the  morning,  and  music  in  the  evening.  16.  I  understand  ; 
you  love  music  when  you  are  fatigued  with  (de)  reading.  17. 
Exactly  so  (lout  juste),  18.  But  if  it  is  necessary  to  choose  one 
or  the  other,  which  of  the  two  will  you  choose?  19.  Reading,  with- 
out doubt.  20.  Mr.  Albert  is  not  of  your  opinion  ;  he  gives  the 
first  place  to  music.  21.  Each  one  to  his  taste  ;  and  every  thing 
ought  to  have  its  place.  22.  Innocent  amusements  (amusements 
innocents)  are  without  doubt  very  useful ;  and  as  (comme)  there  is 
more  than  (de)  one,  every  body  will  not  be  obliged  (oblige)  to  chooeo 
the  same. 



1.  Almost  all  the  Irrcgnlar  past  participle.%  that  i.s  those  differing  from  the  nilet  giren 
in  Lessons  23, 2S,  82, 34, 35,  haTc  now  been  given.    They  are  these : 





Acquurir,  AcquIm*  acqaircd. 


J/£«,  put 


Courir,      Couru^  ron. 


Mort,  died. 

Coudre,    Couiu,  sewed. 


JVV,  born. 


Souffert,  suffered. 

Couvrir,    Convert,  covered. 


Offert,  offered. 


SuiH,  followed. 

Dire,         jP«,sald. 


Ourert,  opened. 


Vitn,  clothed. 

l^:crlre,      Kcrtt,  written. 

Prendre,  /»r/«,  taken. 


r*cu,t  lived. 

Faire,       FaU^  done. 


Jli\  laughed. 

•  The  other  compounds  of  qiiirir,  viz.,  conquiHr,  enquiriry  and  requirir^  Jbna  thi» 
particlnle  in  the  same  way  as  arquiHr. 

t  The  following  complete  the  list  of  irrcgnlar  past  participles : 

ISFINTnVK.                               PARTICIPLE.                               IXriXIXm.  PAETiriPLB. 

As^eoir,       to  seat,              j4«m,          seated               Lnirf.     to  shine,  Lni^       shone. 

iSurneoir^      to  ro>pite,         iSur»i»^         respited.            JfoiuIrA,  to  grind,  Moultk,  croand. 

/J-fw/r,           tobloKS,            A^nir,  Wni,  blessed.             jVuire^     to  Inlnre,  ^Vl,      ti^orcd. 

Circoncire,  to  clrcuoiciae,  CirconcU^  circumcised.     H^hure^  to  glitter,  Jitlui^   glittered. 

riore^           to  close,            (7o*,            closed.              Su^re^    to  suffice,  SfiM,     aoffieed. 

Frire,          to  fry,               Ft-U,            fried.                 Truire,  to  milk,  Trak    milked. 


S.  Words  lire  often  bspbatxd  nr  FRXircn  when  thej  are  not  In  English.  The  urtiele 
and  posieasive  ac^ecUve  were  spoken  of;  Lesson  2S.  We  may  add  that  adjectives  geneimlly 
which  precede  the  noun,  are  to  bo  repeated  before  each  nonn  to  which  they  belong;  as, 

I  buy  some  good  glores  and  stockings.     J*ach^tc  dc  bons  gants  et  de  bona  bas. 
Ue  has  the  best  butter  and  cheese.  II  a  le  meilleur  beurro  et  le  meillevr 


Z,  The  snbjeet-pronouns,  when  etotau  nsed  alone  connect  the  Terbs,  may  be  repeated 
or  not. 
I  fear  and  hate  him.  Je  le  crains  et  ( je)  le  hais. 

4,  When  the  yerbs  connected  by  «<  or  ou  are  not  in  the  same  tense,  or  have  many  words 
interrening;  or  if  the  object  of  the  first  yerb  be  not  a  personal  prononn,  the  subject-pronoun 
Is  repeated. 
I  am  going  to  see  him,  and  shall  speak    Je  vais  le  voir,  etje  lul  parlcrai. 

to  him. 
I  will  go  and  tell  him  that  you  have    JUrai  lui  dire  quo  yous  ctes  yenu,  et^ 

come,  and  will  give  him  your  let*  lui  donnerai  TOtre  lettre. 

I  hare  received  your  letter,  and  have     J'ai  reju  votre  lettre,  et^'e  Pai  lue. 

read  it. 
&  The  objective  pronoun  is  repeated  In  simple  tenses,  not  usually  in  compound  oneo* 
I  desire  to  see,  persuade,  and  bring    Je  desire  le  voir,  le  persuader  et  Tam- 

him.  ener. 

I  bave  seen,  persuaded,  and  brought    Je  Tai  vu,  persuade  et  amen6. 


&  When  the  second  verb  is  a  compound  of  the  first,  the  objective  pronoun  is  not  n- 
peated,  except  when  the  actions  are  difTerent 

He  does  it  and  does  it  again  without  H  le  fait  et  refait  sans  cesse. 


He  does  it  and  undoes  it  without  ceas-  H  le  fait  et  le  defait  sans  cesse. 


7.  The  prepositions  d  and  de  are  to  be  repeated  before  each  of  their  objects. 

I  speak  to  the  man  and  his  son.  Je  parle  d  Thomme  et  d  son  fils. 

We  speak  of  you  and  him.  Nous  parlons  de  vous  ct  de  lui. 

A$.    Cold  as  ice.  Comfne.    Froid  comme  glace. 

To  build.     A  country-house.  Bdtir.     Une  maison  de  campagne. 

What  a5re/     To  lead.  Queldgef    Charger. 

A  bouquet.     To  burn.  Un  bouquet.     BrUler. 

A  moment.     Ripe.  Un  moment,    Mur. 

To  dean.     To  cough.  Nettoyer.     Tousser, 

The  danger.     Now.  Lc  danger.    Maintenant. 

To  avoid.     To  arrive^  happen.  Ji'viter  (de  bef.  inf.).     Arriver. 
8b  Arriver  takes  itre  for  its  auxiliary.* 

*  Of  verbs  taking  itre  for  anxlUary,  the  following  have  now  been  given  :  cUer^  mourir, 
naUre^  parvenir^  revenir^  tomber^  venir,  and  arriver. 

U  S19«  18       5  !»«  US  SSB      9Dia«        M        •  S        •  14 

eomm«,  b&-tir,  A?«,  bou-ket,  brft-ler,  mo-menC,  m(ir,  nef-to-yer,  tous-aer,  dan-ger,  mainte- 

S       »    IS  c      1       u    « 

naal,  ^-vl-ter,  ar-ri-ver. 


When  did  you  arrive  ?  Quand  Stes-Yona  arrivS  f 

I  arrived  this  morning.  Je  wii  arrive  ce  matin. 

0.  In  speaking  of  age,  the  French  use  the  verb  to  hate^  the  English  the  verb  to  6a 
ffow  old  are  you  ?  Quel  dge  avez-voua  / 

I  am  less  than  sixteen  years  old.  J^ai  moins  de  seize  ana. 

10.  Than  before  a  number  is  rendered  in  French  \>j  de. 
He  is  more  than  fifteen  years  old.  II  a  plus  de  quinze  aus. 

More  than  two  hours  and  a  half.  Plus  de  deux  heures  et  demie. 

1.  B4tissez-vous  une  maison  de  briques  ?  2.  Non,  j'en  Mtis  une 
de  bois  ;  mais  mon  voisin  en  b4tit  une  de  briqae.  3.  Combien  de 
milles  y  a-t-il  d*ici  k  voire  maison  de  campagne  ?  4.  II  y  a  pri's 
de  deux  milles  et  demi.  5.  De  quoi  cbargez-vons  ce  chevalT  6. 
Je  le  charge  de  grain.  7.  Ce  bateau  est-il  charge  de  vin  ?  8.  Non, 
il  est  charge  de  sel.  9.  Pourquoi  evitez-vous  cet  homme  ?  10.  Je 
Tcvite  parce  que  c'est  mon  ennemi.  11.  Nettoyez-vous  tos  bottes 
le  matin?  12.  Non,  le  domestique  les  nettoie  le  soir.  13.  Cet  en- 
fant tousse-t-il  beaucoup?     1*4.  Non,  il  ne  tousse  pas  beaucoup. 

15.  Avez-vous  un  bouquet  de  fleurst  16.  Qui,  j'ai  un  bouquet  de 
roses  et  de  violettes.  17.  Que  brdle  cet  ^colier?  18.  II  brule  ses 
papiers.  19.  Voila  des  pommes  mftres;  en  voulez-rous?  20.  J*cn 
mangerai  une  dans  un  moment.  21.  Y  a-t-il  dn  danger  k  Tester 
ici?  22.  II  n'y  a  pas  de  danger.  23.  J'ai  fini  ma  t&che  et  je  vais 
maintenant  chez  moi.  24.  Bevenez  demain,  je  ne  puis  pas  vous 
recevoir  aujourd'hui.  25.  Je  n'ai  jamais  vu  une  fleur  comme  celle- 
U ;  en  avez-vous  d'autres  ?     26.  J'en  ai  beaucoup. 

1.  Do  they  build  the  houses  of  (en)  stone  in  your  village!  2. 
They  do  not  build  many  of  stone,  they  build  more  of  brick  and  of 
wood.  8.  Is  that  scholar  studious  ?  4.  Yes,  sir,  he  studies  as  well 
as  his  brother.  5.  Is  that  iron  cold?  6.  It  is  cold  as  ice.  7.  How 
far  is  it  to  that  coHntryrhouse  ?  8.  It  is  more  than  two  miles  and 
a  quarter.  9.  What  are  you  building  ?  10.  I  am  building  a  hand- 
some country-house.  11.  How  old  are  you?  12.  I  am  hardly 
twelve  years  old.  13.  How  old  is  your  brother?  14.  He  is  more 
than  fifteen  years  old.     15.  With  what  do  they  load  that  vessel  ? 

16.  They  load  it  with  cotton.  17.  Give  the  bouquet  to  that  lady. 
18.  Make  me  a  bouquet  of  roses  and  violets.  19.  Here  are  some 
ripe  apples ;  will  you  eat  some?  20.  In  a  moment.  21.  What  are 
you  burning  ?     22.  We  are  burning  these  old  papers. 

23.  Are  those  peaches  ripe?     24.  No,  they  are  not  yet  ripe. 


25.  Is  it  far  to  your  house  ?  26.  It  is  not  more  than  a  mile  and 
three  quarters.  27.  Wait  then  a  moment,  and  I  will  go  with  you. 
28.  Had  the  servant  cleaned  your  hoots  when  you  spoke  to  him  this 
morning?  29.  He  had  cleaned  them.  30.  Does  he  clean  them 
well  ?  31.  He  does  not  clean  them  very  well.  32.  Do  you  cough 
much  ?  33.  No,  I  do  not  cough  much.  34.  Do  you  avoid  those 
men  ?  35.  I  avoid  them.  36.  Is  there  danger  in  going  on  the 
river  ?  37.  There  is  no  danger.  38.  I  have  read  this  hook,  and 
now  I  have  a  desire  to  read  that  one.  39.  Has  your  hrother  ar- 
rived? 40.  He  has  arrived.  41.  When  did  he  arrive?  42.  He 
arrived  yesterday  morning.  43.  Is  it  far  to  those  rocks?  44.  It 
is  almost  two  miles.  45.  How  far  is  it  to  the  hotel  ?  46.  It  is 
about  half  a  mile.  47.  Will  you  be  here  two  hours  ?  48.  I  shall 
be  here  more  than  three  hours. 


1.  There  is  the  moon  beginning  (qui  commence  d)  to  appear. 
2.  It  is  full  moon  this  evening.  3.  It  is  very  fine  weather  now.  4. 
The  evenings  are  very  beautiful.  5.  There  is  some  fog  in  the  morn- 
ing, but  that  is  not  bad.  6.  We  have  a  superb  season,  and  there 
will  be  much  fruit  this  year.  7.  Yes,  if  it  is  not  too  dry.  8.  We 
shall  have  some  rain  before  one  week.  9.  I  believe  as  you  that  the 
weather  is  going  to  change  soon.  10.  There  are  some  clouds 
around  {auiour  de)  the  moon.  11.  Yes,  each  night  one  sees  more. 
12.  It  has  been  very  warm  during  three  or  four  days.  13.  Until 
ijusque)  now,  the  nights  have  been  cool  enough.  14.  Last  night 
it  was  very  warm ;  there  was  no  wind.  15.  I  am  subject  to  the 
headache  when  it  is  warm  at  night,  and  then  I  cannot  sleep. 

16.  How  far  is  it  from  here  to  the  church  ?  17.  It  is  not  quite 
half  a  mile.  18.  How  far  is  it  to  that  rock?  19.  It  is  only  two 
hundred  paces.  20.  Did  you  not  pay  too  much  for  that  horse  ? 
21.  I  paid  neither  too  much  nor  too  little  for  him.  22.  Did  you 
not  pay  that  man  more  than  you  owed  him?  23.  No ;  I  paid  him 
neither  a  cent  more  nor  a  cent  less  than  his  due.  24.  This  watch 
costfl  me  more  than  it  is  worth ;  I  paid  three  hundred  dollars  for 
it.  25.  Have  you  much  money  ?  26.  No ;  I  have  hardly  five  dol- 
lars. 27.  Were  you  right  in  buying  that  horse?  28.  No.  I  was 
wrong;  for  {car)  the  price  was  too  high. 



1.  For  the  hours  of  the  day,  one  o'elocky  tteo  o^dock^  halfpati  two,  etc^  tho  Froneh  n 
merel/  the  namher  with  the  hoar,  and  say,  one  lumr^  tufo  Aoura,  hoo  houn  and  a  Aa(^ 


What  o'clock  isitf  QtielU  heure  est-il  f 

It  is  ooe  o'clock.    It  is  two  oVlock.  U  est  une  heurc.    II  est  deux  heures. 

It  is  half  past  three.  II  est  trois  heures  et  deniie 

Is  it  not  five  o'clock  ?  K'est-il  pas  cinq  heures  ? 

It  is  a  quarter  past  ten.  II  est  dix  heures  et  quart  (or  on  quart). 

2.  Tho  fhictional  part  of  the  time  is  always  after  the  nambcr  in  French,  and  joined  to 
it  hy  et,  expressed  or  understood,  when  past  the  hoar,  and  by  moint  when  before  it ;  thoa. 

It  is  a  quarter  before  nine.  II  est  ncuf  heures  moins  un  quart. 

It  is  ten  minuies  before  ten.  II  est  dix  heures  moins  dix  minutes. 

It  is  twenty  minutes  after  elevexL  II  est  onze  heures  (et)  vingt  minutes. 

It  is  twelve  o'clock,  noon^  midday.  II  est  midi. 

It  is  half  post  twelve  (at  noon).  II  est  midi  et  demic. 

It  is  twelve  o'clock  Midnight.  II  est  minuit. 

It  is  half  past  twelve  (at  night).  II  est  minuit  et  demic. 

8.  Douu  heure*  is  used  only  to  express  the  period  of  twelve  hoars. 

It  is  twenty  minutes  before  twelve  (at  II  est  minuit  moins  vingt  minutes. 


(II  est  six  heures,  trois  quarts. 
It  la  a  quarter  to  seven.  j  j,  ^^^  ^p^  ^^„^  ^^i„,  „„  ^^^ 

The  top.     A  minute.  Le  haut^  gommet.     Une  mintUe. 

The  bottom.    Elsewhere,  Le  6cu,  fond.    Ailleurs. 

The  ntunber,    A  party^  a  game.  Le  nombre.    Une  partie. 

The  number.    Novelty,  Le  numero.     La  notweaute. 
4.  Kombre  is  a  collection  of  nnlta,  numiro  is  one  of  a  marked  scries. 

The  number  ten.  Le  nombre  dix. 

He  lives  at  number  six.  II  dcmeure  (No.  6)  num6ro  six. 

6.  A  nonn  nsod  in  an  attrihutive  sense,  in  apposition,  or  as  subject  predicate,  takes  no 
article  in  French,  though  it  does  in  English. 

He  passes  for  a  soldier.  H  passe  pour  soldat. 

We  have  the  king  for  a  friend.  Nous  avons  le  roi  pour  ami. 

Cicero,  a  celebrated  Roman  orator.  Cic^ron,  ceUbre  orateur  romais. 

Charles,  the  king  of  Sweden.  Charles,  roi  de  Su^de. 

I  am  an  JSfiglishman.  Je  suis  anglais. 

He  is  a  physician.  II  est  medecin. 

Tou  are  a  merchant.  Yous  etes  negociant. 

a.  When  the  noun  thus  nsed  is  limited  by  an  ai^jective  or  other  word,  the  article  b 
used,  and heU^UiSt  etc,  are  rendered  &est.    (See  Lessons 80 and  52.) 

U  that  man  a  lawyer  f  Cet  homme  est-il  avocatf 

No,  he  is  a  rich  merchant.  Non,  c'est  un  richc  negociant. 

He  passes  for  a  soldier  of  the  king.  II  passe  pour  un  soldat  du  roi. 

He  is  a  good  physician.  C'est  un  bon  mddecin. 

7.  Alter  verbs  of  motion, /br  is  rendered  in  French  by  cherchtr. 

19    a  12   13      13    2313      17        15  S         S       fil  r       II  31  1      13         13       5    17 

mi-nute,  mi-di,  mi-nui/,  hanf,  som-met,  baa,  font/,  oll-leara,  nombre,  par-tie,  na-me>raL 

IS         17       9 



To  gofer.     To  come  for.  Alter  ckercher.     Venir  cherchtr. 

To  tend  for.     To  run  for.  Envoyer  ckercher.     Courir  chercher. 

Go  for  some  water.    I  am  going  for  Allez  cbercher  de  Teau.      J'en  Tab 
some.  chcrcber. 

I  come  back  for  mj  book.  Je  reviens  cbercher  mon  lirre. 

Do  you  send  for  tbc  horses?  EnToyez-vous  cbercher  les  cheyaux? 

We  send  for  them.  Nous  les  eoTovons  chcrcber. 

&  £«ery  before  a  noan  of  Umo  Is  rendered  by  tout  and  the  article  with  the  noan  plnraL 
Ecery  year.     Every  dnj.  Tons  les  tina.     Tom  lea  jonrs. 

Every  hour.     Every  minute.  Toutes  les  heurcs.     Toutes  les  minutes. 

1.  Quelle  henre  est-il  ?  2.  II  n'est  pas  tard ;  il  est  neuf  heures. 
3.  Est-il  midi  t  4.  Non,  il  est  onze  heures  et  demie.  6.  N'est-il 
pas  minuit  ?     6.  II  est  minuit  et  dix  minutes.     7.  Est-il  tard  ?     8. 

II  est^ix  heures  trois  quarts.  9.  H  est  midi  moins  un  quart.  10. 
Est^il  onze  heures  ?  11.  II  est  onze  heures  moins  cinq  minutes. 
12.  AUez-vous  au  haut  de  cette  montagne  ?  13.  J'y  vais.  14.  Y 
a-t-il  loin  d'ici  au  has  de  la  montagne  ?  15.  II  y  a  environ  trois 
milles.  16.  Vous  ne  trouverez  pas  ailleurs  du  fruit  comma  celui-ci. 
17.  n  7  a  un  grand  nombre  de  spldats  sur  ce  navire.  18.  Demeu- 
rez-rous  au  numero  huit  ?  19.  Non,  je  demeure  au  num^ro  quinze. 
20.  Y  a-t-il  une  partie  de  plaisir  chez  vous  ce  soir  1  21.  Non,  il  n'y 
en  a  pas  aucune  ce  soir ;  mais  il  y  en  aura  une  demain  soir.  22. 
Allez- vous  chercher  quelque  chose  ?  23.  Je  vais  chercher  mon  livre. 
24.  Envoyons  chercher  du  vin.  25.  Voyez-vous  souvent  le  mede- 
cin  ?  26.  Je  le  vois  tous  les  jours.  27.  AUez-vous  a  la  ville  tous 
les  mois  1  28.  J'y  vais  toutes  les  semaines.  29.  Voyez-vous  votre 
ami  tous  les  jours  1    80.  Je  le  vois  tous  les  matins  et  tous  les  soir. 

1.  Is  there  danger  in  (d)  going  up  to  the  top  of  that  mountain  f 
2.  There  is  no  danger.  3.  We  had  arrived  at  the  bottom  of  the 
mountain  when  \re  saw  your  friend.  4.  I  dwell  in  Dauphin-street, 
at  number  twenty-five.  5.  We  have  arrived  at  the  bottom  of  the 
mountain,  and  now  we  wish  to  ascend  to  the  (en)  top.  6.  Is  there 
elsewhere  better  fruit  than  this  t  7.  There  is  none  better.  8.  Is 
that  scholar  going  for  his  books  ?  9.  No,  sir,  he  is  going  for  his 
papers.  10.  Do  not  children  love  novelty?  11.  Yes,  everybody 
loves  novelty.  12.  What  does  that  workman  come  for  ?  13.  He 
comes  for  his  money.  14.  Have  you  sent  for  some  coflfee  ?  15.  I 
have  sent  for  some  coffee  and  some  sugar.  16.  Do  you  cough  mucht 
17.  I  cough  every  five  minutes.  18.  That  child  drinks  every  hour. 
19.  I  go  to  the  market  every  morning  and  every  evening. 


20.  What  time  is  it  f  21.  It  is  half  past  six.  22.  At  what 
hour  do  yoa  breakfast  ?  23.  I  breakfast  at  a  quarter  past  seTen. 
24.  Is  it  twelve  o'clock  (at  noon)  ?  25.  It  is  ten  minutes  after 
twelve.  26.  Do  you  dine  at  half  past  two  ?  27.  I  dine  at  a  quar- 
ter before  three.  28.  Did  you  return  from  the  ball  at  midnight? 
29.  I  returned  at  a  quarter  past  twelve.  SO.  What  do  you  buy  ? 
31.  I  buy  some  good  gloves  and  stockings.  82.  Our  neighbor  has 
the  best  apples  and  peaches.  33.  I  will  borrow  this  book  and  read 
it  to  my  brother.  34.  Will  you  read  that  book?  35.  I  shall  read 
and  translate  it.  36.  To  whom  do  you  speak  1  37. 1  speak  to  that 
man  and  his  son.  38.  Do  you  often  go  to  church  ?  39.  I  go  there 
every  Sunday.  40.  Is  not  that  sick  man  weak  ?  41.  He  is  weak 
as  a  child.  • 


1.  What  are  you  looking  for  ?  2.  I  am  looking  for  my  (eanne) 
cane.  3.  This  is  yours,  is  it  not  ?  4.  No,  it  does  not  belong  to 
me ;  mine  is  black.  5.  Then  whose  {d  qui)  is  this  T  for  it  is  not 
mine.  6.  I  saw  your  cousin  with  a  cane  like  {comme)  that.  7. 
That  is  true,  it  is  his  ;  he  left  it  this  morning,  and  he  has  taken 
mine.  8.  There  is  (en  voild)  another ;  whose  is  it  ?  9.  It  is  mine ; 
my  cousin  forgot  his,  and  he  has  not  taken  (pris)  mine.  10.  But 
where  is  yours  t  I  put  it  here  under  the  table.  11.  Wait,  I  am 
going  to  ask  the  boy  if  he  has  seen  it.  12.  George,  do  you  know 
where  the  gentleman's  cane  is  ?  13.  I  believe  that  he  has  left  it 
in  the  garden  ;  I  am  going  for  it.  14.  Thank  you ;  I  believe  that 
you  are  right. 

15.  Hadst  thou  arrived  when  the  doctor  came  here  t  16.  I  had 
not  arrived.  17.  Had  your  brother  arrived  in  the  city  when  you 
saw  him?  18.  He  had  arrived  there.  19.  See  the  beautiful 
strawberries  which  I  have.  20.  Where  did  you  find  them  t  21.  I 
picked  (prises)  them  in  the  garden.  22.  How!  I  have  not  seen 
any  there  yet.  23.  There  are  no  more  ripe,  but  there  will  be  be- 
fore long  (avant  peu)y  wherewith  to  fill  a  plate.  24.  What  are  you 
going  to  ao  with  these  ?  25.  Nothing ;  do  you  wish  for  them  t 
26.  If  you  please ;  I  will  send  them  to  Mrs.  C.  I  know  that  she 
likes  them  much.  27.  There  are  exactly  (^toute  juste)  enough. 
Send  her  at  the  same  time  a  few  flowers.  28.  I  am  going  to  make 
her  a  bouquet.     29.  Wait  a  moment ;  I  will  go  with  you. 


1.  The  present  participle  is  leas  used  in  French  than  In  English,  it  belagi  as  we  haT» 
seen  (Leason  68\  often  rendered  Into  French  bj  the  inflnitiYe. 


Wben,  howerar,  two  actions  an  apoken  of  as  performad  at  tha  sama  tlma,  tha  moia  an- 
during  of  tha  two  maj  generally  be  rendered  bj  this  participle,  preceded  by  tha  piapoat- 

He  eats  tohile  he  ta  reading.  n  mange  en  lUanU 

We  talk  ithiU  we  are  working,  Koos  causons  en  travaillani. 

Too  talk  lohile  you  sleep.  Yous  parlez  en  dormant. 

I  read  the  letter  while  dining.  J*ai  lu  la  lettre  en  dinant. 

S.  The  partidpla  used  In  this  way  always  belongs  to  the  subject  of  tha  Tsrb.  Belonging 
to  the  aabject,  it  is  someUmos  used  also  wlthont  the  preposition  &n. 

Doing  nothing,  do  you  hope  to  succeed?     Ne  faisant  rien,  esp^res-Tous  r^ussir  f 
KeTer  studying,  can  you  learn  French?    NUtudiant  jvLtnAla,   pouvez-Tous    ap- 

prendre  le  fran^ais  ? 

&  Tha  present  participle,  without  tha  preposition,  may  belong  also  to  the  object  of  the 
▼erb,  when  the  connection  Is  intimate  and  free  from  ambiguity;  but  the  infinitive  or  other 
oonatrnction  is  eren  then  to  bo  preferred. 

I  saw  <he  boy  stealing  my  fruit.  J'ai  vu  lo  petit  gar^on  volant  mes  fruits, 

(or  better)  voler  (or  ^t  volait)  mes 
I  see  them  running  toward  the  city.        Je  les  Tois  courant  (better  eourir)  vert 

la  vUle. 
4  .As,  as  already  Men  (Lesson  66X  is  the  only  preposition  in  French  which  can  be  fol- 
kiwad  by  (his  participle.    Participlea  and  participial  nouns,  therefore,  following  a  preposi- 
tion  which  cannot  be  translated  by  a«s  as  in  No.  1  above,  must  be  rendered  by  the  infini- 
tive, or  by  a  noun,  or  by  a  change  of  oonstmotlon. 

Writing  at  night  hurts  the  eyes.  J6crire  la  nuit  fait  mal  aux  yeux. 

He  likes  reading  very  much.  H  aime  beaucoup  d  lire  (or  la  Ueture). 

What  do  yon  gain  bg  doing  that  Que  gagnez-vous  d/aire  cela  ? 

We  study  without  saying  a  word.  Nous  Studious  sans  dire  un  mot. 

The  past  definite  of  £trk,  to  be^  is  irregtdar. 
Jefite^  tufuM^  Ufut,  nouB/ames^       voue/AUe,        ilefurent, 

I  was,  thou  wast,        he  was,        we  were,  you  were,         they  were. 

I  was  too  good  for  thee  last  week,  but  Je  fus  trop  bon  pour  toi  la  semaine 

my  brother  was  not  good  enough.  demi^re,  mais  mon  fr^re  ne  UftU 

pas  assez. 

Were  you  pleased  to  see  the  general  Mies  yous  contents  de  voir  le  g6n6ral 

on  Monday  ?  lundi  ? 

We  were  pleased  to  see  him,  and  our  Nous /t2mes  contents  de  le  Toir,  et  nos 

cousins  were  pleased  also.  cousins  le/urent  aussL 

The  past  definite  o/jltoir,  to  have^  is  irregular. 

•Tana,  tuewt,  iletOf  noueedmes,       vousetiUa^       ih  eurent^ 

I  had,  thoahad^t,      he  had,        we  had,  you  had,  they  had. 

Thou  hadst  my  book  day  before  yes-    Tu  eus  mon  Utto  avant-hier ;  n'esiKse 

terday ;  hadst  thou  not?  pas? 

I  had  it  not,  my  brother  had  it.  Je  ne  Veus  pas,  c'est  mon  fr^re  qui  Veui. 

n    n 


Had  you  my  pens?  JBAiei-Tona  mes  plamea? 

We  had  them  DOt ;  your  brothers  had  Nous  ue  les  eAmfU  pas ;  vos  frdrcs  lea 

them.  eurent 

To  praise.     To  blame.  Lover.    Bldmer. 

Indwttrious.     Diligent.  Jndustrieux^  labcricux.    JHligetU, 

A  globe.     The  forrn^  Jigure.  JJn  globe,    lok  forme ^  figure. 

Good  morning,  good  dag,  good  after'  Bonjcur. 


Good  evening.     Good  night.  Bonaoir.     Bonne  nuit. 

Negligent.     Strength.  Negligent.     La,  force. 

Yonder.     Mg  faith.  Ld-bae.     Mafoi. 

Surprised.     Pleased^  much  pleased.  Surpris.    Aisey  bien  aise. 

1.  Fiites-vous  bien  re9u  k  New-York  Tctd  demicrl  2.  J'y  fus 
bien  re9a.  3.  Nous  fumes  surpris  de  vous  voir  dimanche,  et  nos 
freres  le  furent  aussi.  4.  Hon  fr^re  fut  bien  aise  de  receyoir  votre 
lettre  mardi.  5.  J*eu8  voire  livre  la  semaine  passee  ;  n*est-ce  pas  ? 
6.  Non,  vous  efites  ma  plume,  et  voire  frdre  eui  mon  livre.  7.  Ce 
chien  mange  en  courant.  8.  Ces  ccoliers  ne  parlent-ils  pas  en  etu- 
diani  1  9.  lis  parlent  en  6iudiant  et  en  r^citant  leurs  lemons.  10. 
Get  homme  ne  chanie-il  pas  en  iravaillant?  11.  H  chanie  en  tra- 
vaillant  et  aussi  en  marcbani.  12.  Get  bomme  n'esi  pas  bonne te ; 
je  Tai  surpris  (volant)  k  voler  mon  fruit.  13.  Ne  connaissant  pas 
cet  bomme  lui  faiies-vous  credit  ?  14.  Je  ne  lui  his  pas  credit 
15.  Je  loue  Tbomme  laborienx,  et  je  bl&me  celui  qui  est  negli- 
gent. 16.  La  terre  a  la  figure  d*un  globe.  17.  J'ai  acbete  un  bon 
cheval ;  il  a  beaucoup  de  force.  18.  Pourquoi  le  maiire  loue-t-il  cet 
6colier  ?  19.  II  le  loue  parce  qu*il  est  diligent  et  il  bUme  son  fr^re 
parce  qu'il  est  negligent.  20.  J'aime  beaucoup  cette  maison ;  elle 
est  tres-belle.  21.  Est-il  tard?  22.  II  est-minuit  et  quelques  mi- 
nutes.    Bonne  nuit. 

1.  Good  morning,  sir ;  I  am  deligbted  to  see  you.  2.  Is  that 
sick  man  very  weak  ?  3.  Yes,  be  bas  lost  all  bis  strengtb.  4. 
Wbom  does  the  master  praise?  5.  He  praises  tbat  industrious 
scbolar.  6.  Does  be  blame  any  one  ?  7.  He  blames  bim  wbo  is 
negligent.  8.  Is  tbat  scbolar  diligent  t  9.  He  is  diligent,  bat  bis 
sister  is  negligent.  10.  Has  tbe  sun  tbe  form  of  a  globe?  11.  Tbe 
sun  bas  tbe  form  of  a  globe,  and  tbe  moon  also.  12.  Good  morn- 
ing, madam ;  I  am  mucb  pleased  to  see  you ;  bave  you  recovered 

18   «  9       6       14       »        IS  10         1    IS     l"!  10         12  19    S  13  l«  U    B  U        18 

loa-er,  bla-mer,  In-dns-trl-etKe,  la^bo-rleuflg;  di*li-geiil  elob«,  forma,  fl-gur«|  boa-tour. 
boO'Mlr,  B^-gli-genli  forc«,  Bur-prta,  uize. 


{repris)  your  strength  t  13.  Yes,  sir,  I  am  in  good  health  now. 
li.  Are  there  not  some  soldiers  yonder?  15.  There  are  a  few; 
in.  Do  you  ever  read  while  you  are  eating?  17.  No,  I  never  read 
while  I  am  eating.  18.  That  man  talks  while  he  is  sleeping,  and 
those  children  sing  while  they  are  studying. 

19.  Wast  thou  not  much  pleased  to  see  thy  friend  on  Wednes- 
day t  20.  I  was  surprised  and  delighted,  and  my  brothers  were 
so  likewise.  21.  Had  you  not  the  master's  inkstand  on  Friday  ? 
22.  We  had  it  not ;  those  little  boys  had  it  23.  Hadst  thou  not 
his  penknife?  24.  Yes,  I  had  his -penknife  and  his  pen,  and  my 
brother  had  his  pencil.  25.  How  old  is  your  father  ?  26.  He  is 
almost  (pres  de)  fifty  years  old,  and  my  grandfather  is  more  than 
seventy-eight.  27.  Had  you  finished  your  exercise  when  the  mas- 
ter came  ?  28.  I  had  finished  it.  29.  Did  your  friend  return  from 
the  ball  at  midnight  ?  30.  No,  he  returned  a  quarter  before  one. 
31.  There  are  many  people  yonder.  32.  Will  you  send  for  some 
wine  ?  33.  The  servant  has  gone  for  some.  34.  Have  you  lost 
your  money  ?  35.  My  faith,  I  have  lost  it  all.  36.  Is  it  late  ? 
37.  It  is  half  past  eight.     Good  evening. 


1.  There  will  be  much  fruit  this  year,  I  believe.  2.  All  the  trees 
are  loaded  with  flowers  and  young  fruit.  3.  Your  uncle  dwells  in 
the  country  ;  does  he  not  ?  4.  Yes,  but  the  house  in  which  (where) 
he  dwells  is  not  his.  5.  To  whom  then  does  it  belong?  6.  To  Mr. 
C.  7.  I  thought  {croyais)  that  your  uncle  had  a  country-house  of 
his  own  (d  lui),  8.  That  in  which  he  dwelt  last  year  was  his,  but 
it  is  burnt  9.  I  did  not  know  it ;  does  he  not  intend  to  build 
another?  10.  Yes,  they  were  working  on  it  (y)  the  last  time  tiiat 
I  saw  him.  11.  Have  you  seen  the  new  house  which  he  is  build- 
ing? 12.  No,  I  have  not  seen  it ;  but  my  uncle  has  told  me  that 
it  will  be  larger  than  the  old  one.  13.  Is  not  your  sight  weak? 
14.  Yes,  sir ;  I  can  not  study  as  I  did  last  year.  15.  Is  it  far  to 
the  doctor's?     16.  It  is  not  quite  a  mile. 

17.  Have  you  any  thing  to  do  this  evening  ?  18.  No ;  why  do 
you  ask  me  that?  19.  Come  and  pass  the  evening  with  me  ;  you 
will  make  the  acquaintance  of  the  gentleman  of  whom  I  have  spoken 
to  you,  and  who  is  a  very  amiable  fellow.  20.  With  much  pleas- 
ure ;  I  have  nothing  to  do,  and  I  shall  be  delighted  to  pass  the 
evening  in  a  manner  (d'une  maniere)  so  agreeable.  21.  Bring  your 
cousin  with  you.  22.  Well,  I  will  bring  him,  if  I  see  him.  I  shall 
be  at  the  store  a  little  lat^.  23.  We  can  wait  for  you  a  little.  24. 
You  are  very  amiable. 


25.  Does  that  carpenter  work  mucht  26.  Yes,  he  is  very  la- 
borious. 27.  Do  you  see  the  soldiers  yonder!  28.  I  see  them. 
29.  Are  you  a  Frenchman  ?     30.  No,  sir,  I  am  an  Englishman. 


The  past  definite  o/fai&k,  to  make  or  do^  is  irregvlar;  thuSj 

Jejti^  iufie^  iljlt^  noua/tmM^  voiufltea^  iUJiretU, 

I  did.  thou  didst,       he  did,       W6  did,  yoadid,  they  did. 

Did3t  thou  do  tby  exercise   well  on  FU-in  bicn  ton  theme  lundi  ? 

Monday  ? 

I  did  it  well,  and  Charles  did  his  well ;  Je  Ic  fie  bien,  et  Charles  fit  bien  le 

did  you  do  yours  well  ?  sien ;  fUee-vous  bien  les  Totres? 

We  did  them  well,  but  those  little  boys  Nous  les  fimee  bien,  mais  cos  petits 

did  not  do  any  at  all  garyons  n^en^re^i^  pas  du  tout. 

The  past  definite  q^voiR,  to  wc,  w  irregular;  thus, 

Jetie,        tutia,  Uvit,  noustlmeSf        vousvUes,  ilevirent, 

I  saw,         thoa  sawest,      he  saw,       we  saw,  yoa  saw,  they  saw. 

Did  you  see  Prince  Albert,  last  year,  Vites-voua  le  Prince  Albert,  Pannte 

when  you  were  in  London  ?  pass^e,  quand  vous  6tiez  k  Londres? 

I  saw  him,  and  my  brother  saw  hlra  Je  le  vis,  et  mon  fr^re  le  vit  aussi ;  nos 

also ;  our  friends  saw  the  queen,  amis  virent  hi  reine,  mais  nous  oe 

but  we  did  not  see  her.  h.  vvnes  pas. 

To  go  to  meet.  Alter  au  devant  de,  or  Alter  d  la  renn 

contre  de. 

To  meet.    The  meeting.  Reneontrer,    La  rencontre. 

To  deceive.     To  begin.  Tromper.  Cotnmencer  {d  or  de  bef.  inf.). 

Thank  Ood.     Charmed,  deliglUed.  Dieu  merci,     Charme  {de  bef.  infl). 

Yesterday  evening,  last  evening.  Hier  au  soir,  hier  soir. 

Tour  cousin  is  yonder ;  let  us  go  to  Votre  cousin  est  la-bas ;  allons  an-de- 

meet  him.  vant  de  lui  (or  &  sa  rencontre). 

1.  Commeneer  takes  d  before  the  i&ilnitire  when  progress  is  denoted,  de  when  it  is  noL 
He  begins  to  speak  French.  II  commence  d  parlcr  fran9ais. 

He  begins  to  dine  at  two  o^clock.  H  commence  de  diner  h  deux  henres. 

2.  The  yerb  aller  with  an  inflnitivo  expresses  an  immediate  faioxt ;  venir  de  with  aa 
infinitive  expresses  an  immediate  past 

We  are  just  going  (will  go)  for  our  Kous  allons  chercher  nos  livres. 


I  am  just  going  to  (or  will  now  go  and)  Je  vaisfinir  mon  th^mc. 

finish  my  exercise. 

We  have  just  been  for  our  books.  Nous  venons  de  chercher  nos  livres. 

I  have  just  finished  my  exercise.  Je  viens  definir  mon  thfeme. 

uiiasi  sisis        80       rn6« 

fl«,  vi«,  ren-coDtre,  trom-per,  com-men-oer,  mer-cl,  char-me. 


To  hate.    Mated,  JKHr  (d  bef.  iDf.).    JKii 

J<8kai8,       tuhaii,  UAaii,  nauehaiaeone,       wnuhaiaue,       i:s  haJseent, 

I  bate,         thoa  hatest,        he  hatea,        we  bate,  you  bate,  tbey  bate. 

To  swim.    An  offer.  Nager.    Une  offre. 

To  nnoke.    The  afternoon.  Fumer.    Vapree-midi. 

8.  Midi  is  masealine  geoder,  apria-midi  is  feminine. 

4.  The  present  participle,  like  the  past,  used  as  an  adjeotiye,  becomes  one  ht  all  reqMcts, 
and  is  Taxied  aecordlngly ;  bat  as  a  participle  it  is  always  invariable.* 

They  are  persons  loving  every  body.  Ce  sont  des  personnea  aimant  tout  le 


They  are  loving  (affectionate)  persons.  Ce  sont  des  personnea  aimantes. 

Read  the  ptigea  following  this  lesson.  Lisez  les  pages  auivant  cette  legon. 

Read  the  following  pages.  Lisez  les  pages  auivantes. 

Sleeping  waters  are  dangerous.  Les  eaux  dormantea  sont  dangereuses. 

I  saw  them  sleeping  extended  beneath  Je  les  ai  vus  dormant  dtendus  sous  un 
a  tree.  arbre. 

1.  Ne  fites-vous  pas  du  th6  samedi  t  2.  Je  fis  du  the,  mon  frere 
fit  du  cafe,  et  nos  scears  firent  des  gateaux.  3.  Vites-vous  le  gene- 
ral, dimaDchet  4.  Noas  le  vimes,  et  nos  cousins  le  virent  aussL 
5.  Ne  le  vis-tu  pas  1  6.  Je  le  vis  samedi  et  mon  fr^re  le  vit  ven- 
dredL  7.  Allez-vous  au-devant  de  votre  oncle  ?  8.  Oui,  je  vais  au- 
devant  de  lui.  9.  Get  ^colier  trompe-t-il  le  maitre?  10.  Non,  il 
ne  le  trompe  jamais.  11.  Get  enfant  commence- t-il  a  parler  ?  12. 
n  commence  a  parler  nn  pea.  13.  £lte8-vous  malade  ?  14.  Non, 
Dieu  merci,  je  suis  en  bonne  sant6.  16.  Quand  avez-vous  vu  le 
medecin?  16.  Je  le  vis  hier  au  soir.  17.  Oii  allez-vous?  18.  Je 
vais  chercber  mon  livre.  19.  Votre  ami  est-il  arrive  ?  20.  Oai,  il 
vient  d'arriver.  21.  Fumez-vous  da  tabac  t  22.  Non,  monsieur,  je 
hais  le  tabac.  23.  Get  enfant  n*a  que  sept  ans,  mais  il  nage  tr^ 
bien.  24.  Ge  monsieur  m'a  fait  une  belle  offre,  mais  je  ne  puis  pas 
Taccepter.  25.  Serez-vous  chez  vous  cette  apr^s-midi?  26.  J'y 
serai  toute  la  jonrn^e.  27.  Alors,  j'irai  chez  vous  cette  apr^s-midi 
a  qnatre  heures.  28.  Nous  haissons  le  temps  froid.  29.  Ge  mau- 
vais  6colier  n'etudie  jamais  ;  il  sera  bal  et  m6pris6. 

1.  Didst  thou  not  make  too  much  noise  yesterday  evening  in  thy 
room  ?  2.  I  did  not  make  any  at  all ;  but  the  little  boys  made  too 
much.     3.  Did  you  make  a  (du)  noise  on  Thursday  t    4.  We  did 

•  The  Iramer  will  of  course  distin^nlah  between  the  participle  and  oi^ectiTe  In  French 
the  aaroo  ai  in  Englbh.  If  the  word  merely  express  the  qaality  of  the  noun,  It  la  an  a<Uec- 
tire ;  but  if  It  takes  an  object,  or  expresses  action  like  a  verb,  It  is  a  participle. 

ha-ir,  ha-1.  haU, bait, hft-U-6on«,  ha-I«-sea,  ha-to««»«, nager, oft#,  fti-mer.  a-prfia-ml-dl. 


not  make  any ;  your  cousin  made  some.  5.  When  have  you  seen 
my  brother  ?  6.  I  saw  him  last  evening,  and  my  brothers  saw  him 
on  Saturday.  7.  Did  you  see  the  general  on  Wednesday?  8.  We 
saw  him  on  Wednesday,  and  the  captain  saw  him  on  Thursday.  9. 
What  did  you  do  on  Friday  afternoon  in  the  country?  10.  I  did 
nothing.  11.  Are  you  going  to  meet  your  friend  ?  12.  Yes,  I  am 
going  to  meet  him.  13.  Do  you  ever  deceive  the  master  ?  14.  I 
never  deceive  him.  15.  Did  your  friend  arrive  at  noon?  16.  No, 
he  arnved  in  the  afternoon  at  three  o'clock. 

17.  Does  that  child  begin  to  walk  ?  18.  He  begins  to  walk  a 
little.  19.  Have  you  many  relations  ?  tlO.  No,  sir,  I  have  none 
at  all ;  but,  thank  God,  I  have  good  friends.  21.  1  have  just  seen 
your  brother ;  have  you  seen  him  ?  22.  Yes,  he  has  just  arrived 
from  the  country.  23.  Is  that  scholar  ignorant  ?  24.  Yes,  he  is 
ignorant ;  he  plays  instead  of  studying,  and  he  is  hated  and  de- 
spised. 25.  Do  you  hate  any  one?  26.  No,  sir,  I  hate  no  one. 
27.  We  hate  the  cold,  and  our  friends  hate  it  also.  28.  Do  you  like 
to  swim  ?  29.  I  like  to  swim  sometimes.  30.  Do  you  smoke  to- 
bacco ?  81.  No,  sir,  I  do  not  smoke  at  all ;  I  hate  tobacco.  32.  Is 
that  man  a  merchant  ?  33.  No,  sir,  he  is  a  physician.  84.  Are 
you  a  Frenchman  ?  35.  No,  sir,  I  am  a  German.  36.  Are  you 
hungry  ?  87.  No,  sir,  I  have  just  dined.  38.  It  is  late ;  good 
evening,  sir. 


1.  Whose  is  that  white  horse  ?  is  it  yours  ?  2.  No,  it  is  my 
cousin's ;  the  black  one  belongs  to  me.  3.  I  find  his  more  beautifcd 
than  yours.  4.  Yes,  he  is  a  handsome  horse ;  there  are  few  as 
handsome.  5.  How  much  did  he  pay  for  him  ?  6.  He  cost  him  two 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars  ;  it  is  not  dear.  7.  It  is  a  good  price  for 
a  horse ;  but  there  are  some  horses  which  cost  still  more,  and  which 
are  not  as  good  as  that  one.  8.  He  looks  very  gentle.  9.  What 
have  you  done  with  the  (du)  little  horse  that  you  bought  of  (a) 
Mr.  Charles?  10.  I  have  him  yet.  11.  Have  you  him  here?  12. 
No,  I  left  him  in  the  country.     13.  Do  you  not  desire  to  sell  him  I 

14.  No,  I  have  no  mind  to  be  without  a  horse.  I  have  need  of  one 
in  winter,  and  I  like  always  to  have  a  horse  of  my  own  (d  moi)^ 
when  the  desire  takes  me  to  make  a  tour  {tin  tour)  in  the  country. 

15.  You  are  right ;  I  do  not  like  horses  that  I  am  not  acquainted 

16.  Where  is  your  sister  ?  She  has  gone  to  a  party  of  pleas- 
ure in  the  city.  17.  Is  there  danger  in  passing  that  river  ?  18. 
There  is  no  danger.     19.  1  have  hardly  any  money  about  me  {gur 


mot) ;  lend  me  a  few  dollars.  20.  Here  are  three ;  I  can  lend  them 
to  you.  21.  Do  not  the  French  love  novelty  ?  22.  Yes,  all  men 
love  novelty.  23.  Does  your  friend  smoke  t  24.  No,  sir,  he  does 
not  like  tobacco.  25.  Does  he  know  how  to  swim  ?  26.  Yes,  he 
swims  very  welL 



1.  Thx  past  aktesios  is  fonned  by  onneziDg  the  post  portielple  to  the  past  definite  of 
the  Auziliarj;  thus, 

F<ist  anterior  ©/"DbER,  to  dine^  and  venir,  to  come. 
J^eua  dini,         tu  eus  dtni^  41  eui  dlni^  notu  etimes  dinl,    90U»  e&tea  dini^ 

I  had  dined,        thou  hedst  dined,     he  had  dined,        wo  hod  dined,  you  had  dined, 

ila  eurent  dini,  they  hod  dined. 
Je/Usvenu^    tu/ustenu,         il/tUvenu,       nomfdnittvenut^        vou»futf§venu9^ 
I  Iiad  come,     thoa  hadat  come,  he  had  come,    we  hod  come,  yon  had  come, 

Uafurtnt  v«ntM,  they  hod  como. 

2.  This  tense  denotes  that  a  past  action  had  been  done  immediately  before  another  ac- 
tion, also  past  It  is  generally  preceded  by  an  adrerb  or  conjunction  expressing  immediate 
time,  and  attended  by  another  verb  in  the  past  definite  or  indefinite.  (See  preyious  rales, 
pages  287  and  24S.)  AtmU6t  que  fsvi  nini  je  eortie;  J^ai  ierU  ceUe  leUre  ai^ourd'hui 
atteeitvt  qitefEvs  dIxe. 

&  The  adverbs  and  conjnnctions  generally  preceding  this  tense  are  these: 

As  Boon  as  \  -^^**^^  9^'  When.     Lorsque,  quand. 

'  (  Sitoi  que.     Dee  que.  After.     Apres  que. 

Hardly.     A  peine.  No  sooner.     Pas  plus  t6t. 

Yesterday  as  soon  as  I  had  breakfast-    Hier  aus8it6t  que  feus  dejeuni  j'allai  & 

ed  I  went  to  school.  Tecole. 

Testerday  evenhig,  as  soon  as  we  had     Hier  soir,  d^s  que  nous  eUtmes  regu  la 

received  the  news,  we  went  home.  nouvellc,  nous  all&mes  chez  nous. 

This  morning,  when  he  had  breakfast-     Ce  matin  quand  il  eut  dejeune^  il  est 

ed,  he  set  out.  parti. 

4.  This  tense  may  also  be  nsed  without  any  other  verb,  when  accompanied  by  some 
phrase  denoting  immediate  time,  or  when  it  expresses  the  completion  of  an  action  at  a  pre- 
cise time. 

They  had  soon  finished.  lis  eurent  bient6t^««. 

We  had  finished  before  them.  Nous  eunuafini  avant  eux. 

5.  When  something  oontinnons  or  habitnal  is  spoken  of,  instead  of  this  tense  with  tbo 
past  definite,  the  pluperfect  with  the  imperfect  is  used. 

He  nsed  to  read  as  soon  as  he  had     II  lisait  aussit^t  qu*il  avait  60up6. 


You  vsed  to  go  out  when  you  had    Yous  sortiez  quand  vous  aviez  dtn6. 

To  fit,  to  become.  Alter  bien^  seoir  (not  used  in  the  inf.). 

JVW  to  fit.  Alter  mat,  ne  pas  bien  alter. 

17     II    rr      IS    ir        T       W  17  29      IT 

ans-si'tu^  si-tu^  d6«,  lorske,  a-pr6«,  plus  t^s. 


To  salt.    Afg,  Saler.    Vnejigue^ 

The  Tolume.*    The  cause.  Le  volume.     La  cause. 

To  enter.    A  revolution.  JSntrer.    Une  revolution. 

ErUrer  takes  itre  tot  auxiliary. 

Certain.     A  headrdress.  Certain.     Une  coiffure. 

The  supper.    A  toilet.  Le  «otiper.    Une  toilette. 

To  sup.     Too  soon,  Souper.     Trop  t6t. 

Immediately.    Soon  enough.  AussiUt.    Assez  tSt. 

Does  that  head-dress  fit  that  ladj  ?  or  Cette  coiffure  Ta-t-elle  bien  (ded-elle) 
Does  that  stjle  of  hair-dressing  &  cette  dame  f 

become  that  lady  ? 

It  does  not  fit  her.  EUe  lui  va  mal  (ne  lui  sied  pas  bien). 

1.  Cette  coiffure  ira  bien  h  cette  dame.  2.  Le  garden  sera  id 
assez  t6t  poor  aller  chercher  da  sel  et  saler  les  poissons.  3.  Com- 
bien  de  yolumes  de  cette  histoire  7  a-t-il  ?  4.  II  y  en  a  trois.  5. 
Savez-vous  la  cause  de  la  revolution  anglaise  ?  6.  Je  laconnais  fort 
bien.  7.  La  nouvelle  est-elle  certaine  ?  8.  Elle  est  certaine  et  tres 
agreable.  9.  Cette  ouvrier  est-il  fatigue  1  10.  II  est  bien  fatign^. 
11.  A  quelle  heure  soupez-Tous  ?  12.  Quand  j*ai  bien  din^,  je  ne 
soupe  point.  13.  VoiU  de  bonne  prunes  et  de  bonnes  figues,  en 
voulez-voust  14.  Jeveux  des  figues  mais  non  pas  des  prunes.  15. 
A  quelle  heure  entrez-vous  dans  votre  chambre  f  16.  J^y  entre  k 
buit  heures.  17.  Je  fais  ma  toilette  de  bonne  heure.  18.  Aossitdt 
que  Yous  fiites  arrives  la  semaine  pass6e  all&tes-vous  voir  le  gene- 
ral? 19.  Non,  aussit6t  que  nous  fumes  arrives,  nous  all&mes  chez 
notre  ami.  20.  Quand  avez-vons  regu  ma  lettre?  21.  Hier  des 
que  je  fns  entre  dans  ma  chambre  je  la  regus.  22.  Votre  fr^re  esi- 
il  all6  a  la  campagne  ?  23.  Qui,  k  peine  fut-il  arriv6  hier  qu'il  re- 
partit  pour  la  campagne.  24.  Yos  amis  sont-ils  arrives  ?  25.  Oai, 
monsieur,  ce  matin,  k  peine  e^mes-nous  d^jeun6  qu'ils  sont  arrives. 

1.  Did  Charles  go  to  scbool  on  Monday  f  2.  Yes,  madam ; 
when  he  had  breakfasted,  he  went  to  school.*  3.  Are  the  masons 
here  !  4.  No ;  last  Saturday,  as  soon  as  they  had  finished  tbeir 
work,  they  departed.  5.  Did  you  go  to  your  uncle's  early  on  Satur- 
day! 6.  We  went  there  as  soon  as  we  had  dined.  7.  What 
didst  thou  do  yesterday  ?      8.  Yesterday,  after  I  had  breakfiftsted. 

*  In  books,  rolume  denotes  that  which  is  bound  into  one ;  tornt^  the  dirlslon  of  a  work 
made  by  the  author.  The  former  may  contain  several  of  the  latter.  They  are  sometimea 
synonymous.     Toms  is  leas  used. 

1   6     ia         u  fls         17      s       6      s    u  a  issi     r      u       so   9       us      s»  s 
sa-ler,  figwe,  To-lums,  eauxs,  en-trer,  r6-yo-Ia-tion,  cer-taln,  co^furs,  sou-por,  tol-I«tls. 


I  read ;  and  aft^r  I  had  dined,  I  went  to  my  aunt's.  9.  As  soon 
as  I  had  received  your  letter,  the  other  day,  I  carried  it  to  your 
brother's.  10.  As  soon  as  the  countryman  had  bought  those  fish 
last  week,  did  he  not  salt  them?  11.  He  salted  them  all.  12. 
Where  did  you  go  yesterday  ?  13.  As  soon  as  we  had  breakfasted, 
we  went  to  the  country.  14.  Is  the  Frenchman  at  your  house? 
15.  No,  sir;  when  he  had  arrived  yesterday,  he  went  to  my 

16.  What  does  the  cook  send  for?  17.  He  sends  for  some  salt 
to  salt  the  meat.  18.  Has  he  salted  the  soup?  19.  He  has  salted 
it  too  much.  20.  That  head-dress  becomes  that  lady ;  do  you  not 
admire  it?  21.  I  admire  it  much.  22.  Do  you  know  the  causes 
which  brought  (on)  the  French  revolution  ?  I  am  not  acquainted 
with  them  all.  23.  Do  you  like  figs  better  than  peaches  ?  24.  No ; 
I  like  peaches  as  much  as  figs.  25.  That  coat  does  not  fit  you. 
26.  At  what  o'clock  does  the  scholar  enter*into  his  room  ?  27.  He 
enters  there  at  eight  o'clock  every  morning.  28.  Is  that  house  to 
be  sold  ?  29.  No,  it  is  to  be  let  30.  I  do  not  wish  to  go  to  church 
too  soon ;  if  we  go  there  at  eleven  o'clock  it  will  be  soon  enough, 
and  not  too  soon.  31.  I  shall  go  there  as  soon  as  you.  32.  My 
brother  will  make  his  toilet  immediately. 


1.  What  were  your  brothers  doing  when  you  left  them?  2. 
They  were  writing  letters  to  their  friends.  3.  I  have  some  letters 
to  write  before  supper,  and  I  had  almost  forgotten  it.  4.  I  write 
my  letters  in  the  evening.  5.  I  cannot ;  my  sight  is  a  little  weak 
at  present  6.  What  has  made  your  sight  weak  ?  7.  I  believe 
that  it  is  from  having  read  too  much  at  night,  as  I  did  the  winter 
past     8.  That  is  bad ;  it  is  necessary  to  take  care  of  your  sight. 

9.  Next  week  we  are  going  to  make  a  party  of  pleasure  in  the 
country  ;  you  will  go  {viendrez)  also,  wUl  you  not  ?  10.  Certainly 
(ceriainemeni)  \  who  will  be  of  the  party?  11.  Miss  B.,  George 
C.  and  his  sister,  our  cousins,  and  several  other  persons.  12.  That 
will  be  very  agreeable ;  where  shall  we  go?  13.  We  do  not  know 
yet ;  but  I  think  we  shall  go  to  the  same  place  where  we  usually 
{prdinairement)  go,  '  14.  I  know  a  place  which  is  quite  {tout)  as 
beautiful  as  that  where  we  were  the  last  time,  and  I  like  better  to 
go  there  (la)  this  time,  if  the  others  consent  to  it  (^).  15.  Well, 
we  will  see  what  they  think  of  it ;  as  for  me  {quant  a  mot),  I  like 
novelty.  16.  Tbat  is  just  {tout  juste)  my  reason ;  I  believe  that  it 
will  be  more  agreeable  than  to  go  always  to  the  same  place ;  and 


as  that  of  which  I  speak  to  you  is  near  the  river,  we  shall  be  able 
to  make  a  turn  {un  tour)  in  a  boat  (en  bateau).  17.  Very  well. 
We  shall  have  one  pleasure  more. 

tu  vin8^ 


nous  vinmM, 


iU  vinrent, 

thoa  earnest, 


we  came, 

you  came. 




nous  ttnmeat 



thoa  heldcst, 

he  held. 

wo  held. 

you  held. 

they  held. 



1.  Thb  past  antkriob  iKDBPiinTK  has  the  same  relation  to  the  psst  aaterior  that  the 
past  Indefinite  has  to  the  past  definite.  It  is  used  when  the  accompanying  words  are  each 
as  tx>  require  the  post  anterior,  and  the  time  such  as  to  reqaire  the  post  indefinite,  L  e^  not 
excluding  the  present  day;  and  it  is  accompanied  by  a  verb  in  the  past  indefinite. 

2.  It  is  formed  by  annexing  the  past  participle  to  the  past  indeilnite  of  the  anzUiaxy; 

J*ai  eu  diniy    tuaaeu  dinl^       ilaeu  dini^     noua  avons  eu  dlni,    vous  aveg  eu  ditU, 
I  had  dined,      thoa  hadst  dined,  he  had  dined,    we  had  dined,  you  bad  dtned, 

ils  avaUni  eu  dtne^  they  had  dined. 

When  I  had  breakfasted  this  morn-    Quand  j^ai  eu   d^jetxni  ce  matin,  je 
ing,  I  came  here.  euis  venu  ici. 

a  This  tense,  boweyer,  is  but  little  ased,  and  in  the  above  phrase  a  different  eonstrno- 
tlon  would  generally  be  preferred;  as,  Apres  avoir  d^euni  ee  matin^  Je  ntis  v«ni»  id, 

Ttiepoit  definite  of  yehir^  to  come,  and  tekir,  to  hold,  U  irregular;  thuf, 
I  came, 

Je  tin9, 
1  held. 

Did  you  come  here  last  week  ?  Vintes-Toua  ici  la  semaine  demidre  ? 
We  came  here,  and  our  brothers  came    Nous  y  vinmes^  et  nos  fr^rea  y  vinretU 

also.  aussi. 

Didst  thou  come  here  early  ?  Ftns-tu  ici  do  bonne  heure? 

Ko,  I  came  here  late.  Non,  j^y  vins  tard. 

Did  you  hold  the  horses?  Tintea-voua  Ics  chevanx? 
We  did  not  hold  them,  the  serrants    Nous  ne  les  dnmet  pas,  lea  domcstiqnes 

held  them.  les  tinrent. 

Can  there  he  f    There  can  be.  Peut-il  y  avoir  f    J\  peut  y  avoir. 

There  cannot  be.  H  ne  peut  pas  y  avoir. 

To  offend.     Riches,  Offenser,     La  richesse^  les  richesses. 

To  wish.    The  look,  Souhaitcr,     La  mine. 

To  take  place.     The  ceremony.  Avoir  lieu.     La  ctremonie. 

It  takes  place.    Immediately,  II  a  lieu.     Tmrn^diatement, 

To  try.    The  lip.  Essayer  {de  bef.  Inf.).    La  Uvre. 

Commendable.     The  check.  Louable,    Lmjoue, 

The  coin,  change,  money.  La  monnaie. 

Dangerous.  Dangerevx,    Dangereuse. 
Occupied,    Places  occupied.  Occupi,    Des  places  occupies. 

14  14  14  14  14       15      S        6       13        S  '  M         7      6  IS  i     i        IS    M 

▼ins,  vlnmes,  rtntM,  vinr«n(,  tins,  q^fen-ser,  ri-chesss,  soa-Aai-ter,  mins,  cd-rv-mo-nt«, 

It         «    Ml         S         S       Slid       7  18    1  IS  16         7  8  10         S  10         li       Sl     < 

lm-me-diat-men<^  e«-sa-yer,  Idvrs,  lou-abl<,  Joue,  mon-nals,  dange-reuso,  dang^-reazs,  oe-ca-pe^ 


It  \ri;l  take  place  immediately.  H  aara  lieu  imm^diatement. 

I  wish  you  a  good  morning.  Jo  voua  souhaite  lo  bonjour. 

He  wishes  us  a  good  evening.  II  nous  souhaite  le  bonsoir. 

Lend  me  the  change  of  a  dollar.  Prctcz-moi  la  monnaie  d^un  dollar. 

That  roast  meat  looks  good.  Cc  ruti  a  bonne  mine. 

He  is  a  good-looking  man.  Cost  un  hommc  de  bonne  mine. 

4.  We  have  seen  (Lessons  81,  88,  84,  and  42),  that  negative  partitives,  when  the  meaning 
is  affirmative,  do  not  omit  /«,  but  take  d»,  de  la,  or  <Uh,  as  If  affirmative.  We  may  add  fur- 
ther, that  affirmative  partitives,  when  the  meaning  is  negative,  omit  the  article ;  they  take 
ds  only,  as  If  negative.    This  is  seen  in  the  folio wiug  phrases : 

He  has  written  his  exercise  without  II  a   6crit  son  th&mo  sans  faire  de 

making  any  mistake.  faute. 

He  cannot  write  his  exercise  without  II  ne  pout  pas  6crire  son  thSmo  sans 

making  mistakes.  faire  desfautes* 

6l  Negative  partitives  which  are  limited  by  an  adjective  or  fullow^ing  clause,  may  have 
an  affirmative  character,  and  will  then  take  the  partitive  article ;  thus, 

Do  not  lend  him  any  change.  Ne  lui  pr^tez  pas  de  monnaie. 

Do  not  lend  him  counterfeit  coin.  No  lui  pretez  pas  de  la  fausse  mon- 


1.  fetes-vous  Venn  ici  la  semaine  passce  ?  2.  J'y  vins  (suis  venu) 
hier  et  mon  frere  aussi.  3.  Vintes-vous  ici  la  semaine  derni6re  ? 
4.  Noas  n'j  vinmes  pas,  mais  nos  cousins  y  vinrent.  5.  Cet  homme 
n'offense-t-il  pas  ses  amis?  6.  Si,  monsieur,  il  offense  frequem- 
ment  ses  meilleurs  amis.  7.  Peut-il  y  avoir  da  danger  a  aller  sur 
le  lac  ?  8.  II  n'y  a  pas  le  moindre  danger.  9.  Je  vous  souhaite 
nne  bonne  sante  et  de  grandes  richesses.  10.  La  cercmonie  aura 
lieu  cette  apres-midL  11.  Votre  joue  est  enflee  ;  y  avez-vous  mall 
12.  Non,  j'ai  mal  aux  dents.  13.  Avez-vous  essay e  votre  nouvelle 
plume?  14.  Je  Tai  essay ee,  elle  est  bonne.  15.  On  m'a  dit  que 
cet  bomme  est  dangereux.  16.  La  fiUe  de  notre  voisin  est  une 
demoiselle  de  bonne  mine,  elle  a  les  joues  fraiches  et  les  Idvres  ver- 
meilles.     17.  Faire  du  bien  k  autrui  est  une  action  louable. 

1.  When  did  you  come  here?     2.  I  came  here  on  Tuesday.    3. 

•  In  the  former  of  these  two  phrases,  the  Idea  is  negative,  that  he  makes  no  mistalvcs' 
and  de  only  is  used ;  in  the  latter,  it  is  affirmative,  that  ho  makes  some  mistalies,  and  iho 
partitive  article  is  nsed. 

t  The  idea  in  this  latter  phrase  is  affirmative  in  character :  Lend  him  some  money,  out 
not  eounUrJHL 

I  will  make  yon  no  reproaches.  Je  ne  vons  feral  pas  de  reprochee. 

I  will  malce  you  no  frivolous  reproaches.     Je  no  vous  ferai  pas  des  reproches/rtvolee, 

I  have  no  money.  Je  n'ai  pas  d'argent, 

I  have  no  money  to  spend  madly.  Je  n'ai  pas  de  r argent  pour  la  dcpenser  fol- 


Here  Is  the  same  distinction.  First,  IwiU  make  you  no  reproaches  (n^^ative).  Sec- 
ond, ItcUl  make  you  reproaches,  hut  not  friroloua  onea  (afflrmative  in  «ff^ct).  i  ?/*""'/ 
hafi4  no  money  (negative).  Fourth,  /  have  mon^,  hut  not  to  spend  madly  (afflrmative  in 
effect).  Thos  we  see  that  an  adjective  or  limiting  clause  may  give  a  Itlnd  of  ararmaUva 
•    f  to  negative  partitives,  when  they  take  the  partiUve  articles,  du,  tfe  «»,  a*«. 



Did  yonr  brothers  come  also  ?  4.  No ;  Charles  came  with  roe.  5. 
Did  you  come  in  the  morning  ?  6.  No,  we  came  in  the  evening  at 
half-past  seven.  7.  Why  didst  thou  hold  thy  cousin  by  the  arm 
yesterday,  when  I  saw  thee  in  the  street?  8.  I  held  him  by  the 
arm  in  order  to  speak  to  him.  9.  Can  there  be  danger  in  staying 
here?  10.  There  can  be  much  danger.  11.  Have  you  not  offended 
that  lady?  12.  I  do  not  know,  but  I  did  not  wish  to  offend  her. 
13.  Do  you  wish  for  great  riches  ?  14.  No,  sir ;  I  wish  for  good 
health,  but  not  for  great  riches.  15.  Did  your  neighbor  wish  you  a 
good  evening?  16.  Yes,  sir,  and  he  wished  me  all  kind  (iouies 
aortes)  of  prosperity  { prosper ite)  .  17.  Will  the  ceremony  take 
place  early?  18.  It  will  take  place  immediately.  19.  Do  not 
offend  the  master. 

20.  Your  cheek  is  swollen ;  have  you  a  pain  in  it  ?  21.  Yes,  I 
have  a  pain  in  the  right  cheek.  22.  Have  you  tried  my  knife? 
23.  I  have  tried  it,  and  I  find  it  very  good.  24.  Does  that  sick 
man  try  to  walk?  25.  He  tries,  but  he  cannot  walk  much.  26. 
Do  you  do  good  to  those  who  have  offended  you?  27.  Yes,  sir ;  it 
is  an  action  very  commendable.  28.  Does  the  Frenchman  smoke  ? 
29.  He  never  smokes,  but  the  German  smokes  all  day.  30.  Do 
you  know  how  to  swim?  31.  Yes,  sir;  I  swim  every  evening. 
32.  Does  that  head-dress  fit  your  cousin  ?  33.  It  does  not  fit  her. 
84.  When  will  you  come  for  your  money?  35.  I  come  for  it  now. 
36.  I  have  just  given  some  money  to  your  brother ;  you  have  not 
seen  him  ?     37.  Yes,  I  have  just  seen  him  in  the  street 


1.  How  many  shall  we  be  in  all  at  that  party  of  pleasure  ?  2. 
Twelve  or  fifteen  at  least.  3.  That  is  enough;  when  there  are  too 
many  persons  {de  monde)  it  is  not  so  agreeable.  4.  Have  yon 
spoken  of  it  to  Miss  B.  ?  5.  Yes  ;  she  will  come,  and  she  is  {doit) 
to  bring  her  cousin.     6.  I  have  told  her  that  you  will  go  for  ^em. 

7.  Very  willingly ;  they  dwell  on  my  road  ;  but  how  will  they  go? 

8.  On  horseback.  But  I  {moije)  shall  go  in  a  carriage  with  my 
sister.  9.  Not  at  all ;  I  shall  have  myself  (moi-mSme)  the  pleasure 
of  conducting  (mademoiselle)  your  sister,  and  she  will  go  on  horse- 
back also.  10.  Then  I  will  go  on  horseback ;  I  prefer  it  11.  At 
what  o'clock  shall  we  return  ?     12.  A  little  late  in  the  afternoon. 

13.  Is  it  not  John  who  is  coming  yonder  ?  14.  Yes ;  I  am  cer- 
tain that  it  is  he.  15.  He  was  sick  the  other  day.  16.  He  is  still 
weak  ;  let  us  go  to  meet  him.     17.  Good  morning,  John  ;  we  are 


delighted  to  see  you.  18.  You  have  been  very  sick,  have  you  nott 
19.  My  faith,  yes ;  the  physician  believed  that  I  was  going  to  die, 
but  I  have  had  the  good  fortune  to  deceive  him.  20.  What  was 
the  matter  with  you  t  21.  I  had  the  fever ;  and  I  suffered  much 
from  the  headache  during  all  the  time  that  I  was  sick.  22.  Do  you 
begin  to  regain  (reprendre)  your  strength  t  23.  Yes,  I  gain  some 
every  day.  24.  Then  you  are  no  more  in  danger  t  25.  No,  thank 

78.— soixante-dix-huitiJ:me  LEgON. 


JTiepati  definiU  o/* scribe,  to  vrritey  is  irregular;  ikuSj 
J^icrivUt     iuierivit,        Uicrivit^        nous  ierivtmet^    wusierUfttss,    Us  ieriviretU, 
I  wrotof        thou  wTotest,    he  wrote,        we  wrote,  you  wrote,        they  wrote. 

Did  you  write  to  your  friends  last    ArivUes-roua  d  vos  amis  la  semaine 

week?  demifire? 

We  wrote  to  them,  and  they  wrote  to    Nous  leur  icriwneSf  et  ils  nous  Scrivir- 

us.  eni. 

Didst  thou  write  to  thy  father  ?  Arivis-iVL  d  ton  p6re  ? 

I  wrote  to  him,  and  my  brother  wrote    Je  lui  ierivis,  et  mon  fr^re  lui  ScrivU 

to  him  also.  aussi. 

27ie  past  definite  of  coudre,  to  seWy  is  irregvlar  ;  ihusj 
JscausiSt     tueontlSy         UcouHt,        nous  eoustmss^      wusoousUss,     Us  eousirsnt^ 
I  sewed,        thoasewedst,    he  sewed,        wefewed,  yoa  sewed,         they  sewed. 

Didst  thou  sew  thy  copy-book  ycster-  Cousit-tu  ton  cahier  hier  ? 


I  sewed  mine  and  Charles  sewed  his.  Je  cousis  le  mien  et  Charles  eousit  le 


Did  yon  sew  the  buttons  on  your  Cotmtes-Toua  les  boutons  de  tos  ha- 

coats?  bits? 

We  did  not  sew  them,  the  tailors  sewed  Nous  ne  les  eounmes  pas,  les  taOleurs 

them.  les  cousirent. 

An  enemy.    Snow,  Un  ennemi.    La  neige. 

A  iooking-glast.    A  mirror  (large).  Tin  miroir.     Une  glace. 

A  pie.    Astronomy,  JJn  pdle,    Vastronotnie, 

A  metre.    Mathematics,  Un  metre.    Les  maihhnaiiquss. 

The  college.    For  (conj.).  Le  college.     Car. 

Ciphering,  computation.    Different.  Le  caleul.    Different, 

To  call.     To  throw,  throw  away.  Appeler.    Jeter, 

L  Terhe  in  eler  and  etsr  doable  the  I  and  i  when  these  letters  are  ibllowed  by  «  mnte. 
(Aeh€€er  and  geUr,  we  have  seen,  Lessons  27  and  62,  are  exceptions.*) 

^  I  have  here  followed  the  academy.    It  makes  six  exceptions,  acheter,  boureUr^  die*' 
Isr^  gslsr^  harceler^  and  peler. 

•       MM        li    19     S  M       T  M     »         I  «     »    1        16     1»     IS  *  '    *e*a       * 

6-eri-Tlt,  eoa-si«,  cnn^-mi.  nelg#,  ml-rolr,  glaw,  pft-t6,  os-tro-no-mis,  metre,  ma-tae-ma- 
M      M    7        1     aa     11  »   s      I         •         6 
CiLs,  co^l^e,  cal-cn],  6\f'tc-Tent,  appe-ler,  Jeter. 


J^apptUe^    tu  appelUa,     il  appelU,         notu  appelone^     rout  appeU^^     Ha  appaOent^ 
I  call,  thou  callest,      ho  colls,  ve  call,  joa  call,  thsj  <^n 

Do  you  throw  away  your  gloves  ?  Jetez-rous  vos  gante? 

I  do  not  throw  them  away.  Je  nc  leajctte  pas. 

It  is  two  hours  since  I  finished.  II  y  a  deux  hcures  que  j*ai  finL 

It  is  two  years  since  I  have  been  there.  II  y  a  deux  ans  que  je  n'y  ai  dt£. 

2.  Que  used  as  above  in  the  sense  of  depute  que^  since,  requires  ne  before  the  following 
verb,  when  the  phrase  can  bo  made  negatiro  In  English.^ 

It  is  an  hour  since  I  dined.  II  y  a  une  heure  que  j*ai  d!n^. 

It  is  two  months  since  I  saw  him.  II  y  a  deux  mois  que  je  ne  Tai  vn. 

8.  The  varioiis  meanings  otdetoir  hare  been  spoken  of  (Lesson  €1). 

My  brother  is  to  arrive  to-morrow.  Mon  frirc  doit  arriver  demain. 

They  are  to  go  home  this  evening.  lis  doivent  allcr  chez  eux  ce  soir. 

Something  is  to  happen.  Quclque  rhose  ciotf  arriver. 

It  there  to  bei  are  there  to  he  f  DoiC-il  y  avoir  f 

There  i»  to  be,  must  be,  H  doit  y  avoir. 

There  must  have  been,  11  doit  y  avoir  eu. 

Is  there  to  be  a  ball  at  your  house  ?  i>ot/-il  y  avoir  un  bal  chez  toqs  ? 

There  is  to  be  one.  II  doit  y  en  avoir  un. 

The  ceremony  is  to  take  place  to-mor-  La  c6r^monie  doit  avoir  lien  demain. 


That  man^s  lips  are  thick.  Get  homme  a  les  Idvres  ^paisses. 

1.  Quand  avez-vous  ^crit  votre  th^me  ?  2.  J'dcrivis  le  mien 
hier,  mon  fr6re  ecrivit  le  sien  avant  hier,  et  mes  cousins  ^rivirent 
les  leurs  mardi  ;  ecrivites-vous  les  votres  hier  ?  3.  Nous  les  ^ri- 
Times  lundL  4.  Cousis-tu  ton  pantalon  hier?  5.  Je  ne  le  coasis 
pas,  le  tailleur  le  cousit.  6.  Ne  cousites-vous  pas  vos  cahiers  hier  ? 
7.  Nous  cousimes  les  ndtres  et  nos  cousins  cousirent  les  leurs.  8. 
Get  homme  est  gcnereux,  il  fait  du  bien  k  ses  ennemis.  9.  M'ap- 
pelez-voust  10.  Je  vous  appelle.  11.  Jetez-vous  votre  argent  t 
12.  Je  ne  le  jette  pas.  13.  Que  jette  cet  ecolicr  ?  14.  H  jette  ses 
vienx  papiers.  15.  Qu'ach^te  ce  jeune  homme  ?  16.  H  achete  un 
p&td,  une  boule  d'ivoire  et  un  petit  miroir.  17.  Y  a-t-il  beaucoup 
de  neige  an  Canada  cet  hiver  ?  18.  Oui,  il  y  a  deux  pieds  de  nei^^e 
sur  la  terre.  19.  Cet  el6ve  sait-il  Tarithm^tique?  20.  II  saittoutos 
les  math6matiques  et  I'astronomie.  21.  Savez-vous  ce  qui  doit  ar- 
river ?     22.  n  doit  arriver  quelque  malheur.     23.  Quand  irez-vous 

*  In  the  former  of  the  above  phrases  we  cannot  Miy  with  propriety,  Jli^itwohouretJiat 
I  have  notJlntMhed  ;  but  in  the  latter  we  may  »ay.  It  in  itco  yforn  thttt  Thatenotbeen  tkerr, 
8o  In  the  following  we  cannot  say,  Il  in  an  hour  that  I  have  not  dined,  but  we  may  aaj,  R 
U  two  moniha  that  I  have  not  seen  him.    Hence  in  two  of  the  phra3e5  ne  la  used. 

16       1         n 
Mp-peUey  npp^\on». 


an  college  t  24.  J'irai  bientbt  25.  La  ccremonie  doit-elle  aroir 
lieu  aujourd'hui?  26.  Non,  elle  doit  avoir  lieu  demain  soir.  27. 
Charles  et  son  fr6re  ne  sont-ils  pas  ti^s-diffe rents  t  28.  lis  sont 

1.  Do  you  try  the  steel  pen  or  the  gold  one  ?  2.  I  try  the  gold 
one.  3.  At  what  o'clock  is  the  company  to  arrive  ?  4.  It  is  to  ar- 
rive before  ten.  5.  Is  there  to  be  a  ball  at  your  house  to-night  t 
G.  There  is  to  be  one.  7.  Has  your  friend  recovered  {repris)  his 
strength  ?  8.  No,  sir,  he  does  not  walk  much  yet ;  it  is  more  than 
two  weeks  since  he  has  gone  out  of  his  room.  0.  Do  those  lazy 
scholars  try  to  learn  their  lessons  ?  10.  They  do  not  try  much  ;  it 
is  three  days  siuce  they  have  learned  a  lesson  well.  11.  Is  there  to 
be  a  party  of  pleasure  at  your  aunt's  this  evening  ?  12.  There  is 
to  be  one.  13.  How  many  metres  of  this  cloth  do  you  wish  fort 
14.  I  wish  for  four  metres  of  this  cloth,  and  six  of  that.  15.  Is 
this  computation  of  interest  exact  (exact)  ?  16.  No,  that  computa- 
tion is  false  (faux),  but  this  is  exact. 

17.  You  will  not  find  your  friend  at  home,  for  he  has  just  gone 
out.  18.  Has  your  brother  gone  to  college?  19.  He  has  not  gone 
yet,  for  he  is  only  thirteen  years  old.  20.  Are  you  studying  as- 
tronomy? 21.  I  am  studying  astronomy  and  all  the  mathematics. 
22.  Do  you  wish  for  some  chicken  pie  I  23.  No,  sir,  I  thank  you ; 
I  have  just  dined  ;  but  this  little  boy  wishes  for  some,  for  he  is  very 
hungry.  24.  At  what  hour  will  you  have  supped  f  25.  I  shall 
have  supped  at  eight.  26.  Who  has  broken  your  beautiful  mirror  ? 
27.  The  neighbor's  son  broke  it  with  his  ball.  28.  Do  you  like 
to  throw  snow-balls  ?  29.  I  like  sometimes  to  throw  snow-balls  and 
to  run  in  the  snow.  30.  The  metre  *  is  the  element  (element)  of 
all  other  measures  (mesurcs).  31.  Those  men  are  very  diflferent  in 
opinion  (d*opinion) ;  they  are  enemies.  32.  Did  you  write  to  your 
father  yesterday  1  33.  I  wrote  to  him  yesterday,  and  my  sister 
wrote  to  him  Saturday.  34.  Did  the  tailors  sew  your  coat  on 
Thursday!  35.  They  sewed  it  on  Friday,  and  the  seamstress 
sewed  my  pantaloons  on  Saturday. 


1.  Have  you  seen  the  gentleman  of  whom  we  were  speaking 

♦  A  mitre  Is  the  ten  irillionth  part  of  the  arc  of  a  meridian,  extending  from  the  equator 
to  the  pole,  and  ia  the  basis  of  all  other  meaaures  to  the  French.  It  exceeds  the  £ngilah 
yard,  befog  equal  to  89.88  English  inchec 


yesterday  f  2.  I  have  Been  bim,  and  asked  him  the  question  that 
you  desired.  3.  What  says  he  of  it?  4.  He  accepts  the  offer 
which  you  make  him.  5.  Then  it  is  an  affair  settled  (arranpee), 
6.  I  will  go  and  see  him  to-day  or  to-morrow.  7.  You  know  where 
he  dwells?  8.  He  dwells,  I  believe,  in  one  of  the  brick  houses 
which  Mr.  B.  had  built  in  the  spring ;  but  I  do  not  know  in  which. 
9.  It  is  the  Urgest.  10.  That  in  which  Mr.  B.  lived?  11.  Exact- 
ly ;  it  is  the  same.  12.  I  will  go  to  his  house  to-morrow  morning. 
13.  Go  there  early,  for  he  goes  to  his  store  as  soon  as  he  has  break- 
fasted.    14.  I  will  go  there  at  half-past  seven. 

15.  When  I  dwelt  in  the  country,  I  had  always  a  dish  of  frait 
in  the  morning ;  and  I  made  my  breakfast  on  fruit  and  bread.  16. 
There  is  nothing  better ;  but  one  cannot  have  fruit  in  the  city.  17. 
No,  it  is  difficult  to  find  any  good,  and  it  is  very  dear.  18.  I  like 
much  peaches  or  figs  with  milk.  19.  I  prefer  strawberries  with  a 
little  sugar  and  cream.  20.  Have  you  written  to  the  doctor  ?  21. 
Yes,  sir ;  on  Tuesday,  as  soon  as  I  had  read  his  letter,  I  wrote  one 
to  him.  22.  After  the  tailor  had  finished  my  coat  on  Monday,  he 
sewed  my  pantaloons.  23.  Is  the  captain  at  your  house?  24.  No ; 
hardly  had  he  arrived  on  Thursday,  when  he  set  out  again  for  the 



77u  p<ist  dffinite  of  naItre,  to  be  bom,  ia  irreffular;  thus, 

JiBnaquis,   tunaquitj         Unaqfiit,      noMnaquimet^  wfuanaquUe»,  Csnagwirmit 
I  WA8  born,  thott  wtst  born,  he  was  born,  ve  wero  bom,     you  were  born,  tbie j  wen  bora. 

I  was  born  in  January,  1830.  Je  naguU  (or  9ui$  ni)  en  Janvier, 

1830.  • 
Were  you  bom  tbe  same  year?  NaquUes-YOua  {cUm^vous  iUm)  la  mime 

annec  ? 
We  were  bom  the  same  year.  Nous  nagiAmea  {sommea  nia)  la  m^rne 

1.  In  speaking  of  living  persona,  ihapaat  indtfiniU  of  naUra  ia  more  generally  naed ; 
bnt  the  pluper/ed  mast  be  employed  of  those  known  to  bo  doad. 

That  soldier  is  brare,  wbere  was  he     Ce  soldat  est  brave,  oh,  tat-il  ni  t 

Tbe  old  soldier  is  dead,  where  was  he    Le  vieox  soldat  est  mort,  oii  6tait-il  n6  ? 

My  brothers  were  bom  in  America.        Mes  fr6res  atmi  nea  en  Am^rique. 
His  ancestors  were  born  in  England.       Ses  cMcStrea  itaient  nea  en  Angleterre. 

77ie  paat  definite  of  mocrir,  to  die,  ia  irregular  ;  thua, 
Jemourua,    tumourua,    Umourvt,    noua  mourHimea,   voua  numrikUa,    ilamaururent^ 
I  died,  thou  dicdst,  ho  died,        wo  died,  you  died,  they  died. 

1   ia    s      B  It    n 

na-ki«,  an>c6tre«,  mon-roc. 


After  haying  lived  eeventy  years,  that    Apres  avoir  v^cu  soixante-dix  ans,  ce 

great  man  died.  graiid^bommc  mourut. 

His  brothers  died  at  the  same  time.         Ses  fr^rcs  tnoururent  (or  tont  nunia) 

dans  le  mSme  temps. 
To  conquer.  Conqxierir  (as  aequMr,  Lesson  66). 

To  vanquish.  Vaincre, 

2.  Omquirir  applies  to  a  eonntiy;  vainerc^  to  an  opponent  or  a  people. 
Jeraines,        tuTainca,  il  vainer  nous  vainqitont,    vous  f^ainquea, 

I  overcome,     thon  orercomest,        ho  overcomes,     ve  overcome,  you  overcome. 

Us  ffoinquinit  they  overcome. 

TTe  overcome  all  our  enemies.  Nous  vainquons  tons  nos  ennemis. 

He  overcomes  bis  anger.  II  vainc  sa  eolere. 

Alexander  conquered  Asia.  Alexandre  conquit  TAsic. 

5.  The  Irregnbrity  of  vaincre  and  its  compounds  consists  in  changing  e  into  qu  before 
an  vowels  except  u.    So  Tns  past  defikits  is 

JevainquU,     tuvainquU^  Uvainquit,       noite  vainqtcimea^        ffotu  tainquUeSt 

I  overcame,       thoa  overcamest,  be  overcame,     we  overcame,  you  overcame, 

He  vainquirent,  they  overcame 

Cteear  vanquished  the  Britons.  Cesar  vainquit  Ics  Bretons. 

The  Romans  vanquished  the  Gauls.         Les  Romains  vainquirent  les  Gaulois. 
The  shade.    A  difficulty.  Vombrage,  Vombrc.     Unc  difficidte. 

Ombrage  is  the  object  intercepting  the  light ;  ombre^  the  elfiect  of  such  interception.  ' 
Towards.     Hius.  Vers^  envers.     Ainsi. 

4.  Vera  denotes  towards  in  a  physical  sense ;  envers,  in  a  moral  senso. 
He  runs  towards  the  river.  II  court  vers  la  riviferc. 

Ton  are  always  good  towards  me.  Vous  ^tes  toujours  bon  envers  moi. 

On  the  contrary.     A  shop.  Au  eontraire.     Unc  boutique. 

6.  lF3i«f^  Interrogative,  Is  always  ^iMrnd;  otherwise,  2or«gue  and  quand  have  nearly 

When  will  yon  have  your  money  ?  Quand  aurez-vous  votre  argent  ? 

When  I  shall  see  my  partner.  Zorsque  (quand)  jcYemi  mon  associ^. 

Rainfalls.  II  tombe  de  la  pluie  (better  il  pleut). 

Snowfalls.  II  tombe  de  la  neige  (better  il  neige). 

To  trust.     To  oblige.  Faire  credit.     Obligcr. 

€.  ObUger,  to  compel,  takes  d  before  the  infinitive ;  meaning  to  do  a  fiivor,  it  takes  de. 

His  study  obliges  him  to  do  that.  Son  devoir  V oblige  h  faire  cela. 
Ton  will  oblige  me  much  by  doing    Yous  m*o6%ere2  beaucoup  (2e/a2r0  cela 

that  for  me.  pour  moi. 

To  do  well.    To  do  badly.  Bien  faire.    Mai  faire. 

To  do  good.     To  do  evil.  Faire  du  bien.    Faire  du  mal. 

To  foresee.    Foreseen.  Frevoir.    Frevu. 

Generous.  Genereux.     Ginlreuse. 

21         8    W         14  14  )4       51  14        6  14  1     6,      S     ^  '?     ,  I'      " 

con-ke-rlr,  vaincre,  value*,  vain-kon«,  vain-kee,  vaink«n<.  A-lek-sandre,  vain-kla,  om- 

1         Si  IS    19    M      «       7        »         T         14       la    U  7  l8     W       U      »«    «  f       V         1 

brag<%  ombr«,  dl/-fi-cul-t6,  ver»,  en-ver«,  ain-si,  con-trair«,  bou-tike,  ob-li-ger,  pr6-volr,  pr*- 

»      1      »     10^  ^^  •      »     10  «      I  4     n  1»       14  17      » 

vo,  go-n^-reoa!,  g6-n6-rense,  C^-iar,  Bre-ton«,  ro-main,  Oan-lol& 


1.  Ou  es-ta  D^  ?  2.  Je  snis  n6  en  Am^riqae.  3.  Mon  p^re 
etait  n6  en  Angleterre  ;  il  mourut  en  Janvier  1846.  4.  Ses  fr^es 
8ont-ils  morts  ?  5.  Qui,  ils  moururent  la  mcme  ann^e.  6.  Ou 
etaient-ils  nes  1  7.  lis  etaient  n6s  en  Angleterre.  8.  Ou  est  votre 
frere?  9.  II  vient  de  sortir.  10.  Napoleon  vainquit  beanconp 
d'ennemis.  11.  Ces  arbres  font  un  bel  ombrage.  12.  Je  troave 
de  la  difficulte  d  apprendre  cette  legon.  13.  Vous  pensez  que  cet 
ofHcier  reussira  d  la  guerre ;  moi,  je  pense  au  contraire  qu*il  ne 
rcussira  pas.  14.  Ou  est  le  charpentier?  15.  11  est  dans  sa  bou- 
tique. 16.  Cette  chose  est-elle  ainsi?  17.  Elle  est  ainsL  18.  Le 
charpentier  est  alle  vers  sa  boutique.  19.  Cet  homme  est  bon  en- 
vers  tout  le  monde.  20.  Neige-t-il?  21.  II  tombe  de  la  neige  et 
de  la  pluie.  22.  La  pluie  ne  fera-t-elle  pas  du  mal  aux  fruits  I 
23.  Non,  elle  fera  du  bien  aux  fruits  et  aux  fleurs.  24.  Avez-vona 
prevu  cet  accident  ?  25.  Je  ne  Tai  pas  pr6vu.  26.  Votre  voisine 
est  une  femme  obligeante ;  n'est-ce  pas  ?  27.  Oui,  c'est  une  bonne 
femme,  obligeant  toujours  ses  amis  lorsqu*elle  pent  le  faire. 

1.  Do  you  trust  that  mani  2.  I  trust  him,  for  he  is  very  honest. 
3.  Does  your  father  oblige  you  to  study  ?  4.  He  does  not  oblige 
me;  I  study  with  good  will.  5.  Does  the  neighbor  oblige  yon 
when  he  lends  you  books  ?  6.  He  obliges  me  much.  7.  Those 
trees  are  large,  and  they  make  a  fine  shcide.  8.  Yes,  and  I  find 
their  shade  {H'ombre)  very  agreeable  when  it  is  warm.  9.  I  leam 
my  lessons  without  any  difficulty ;  do  you  find  difficulty  in  learning 
your  lessons?  10.  On  the  contrary,  I  leam  them  very  easily.  11. 
Where  is  the  barber  going  t  12.  He  is  going  to  his  shop.  13. 
Where  is  his  shopt  14.  It  is  in  Royal-street.  15.  Look  towards 
the  east,  and  you  will  see  the  moon. 

16.  Docs  the  rain  fall  ?  17.  It  does  not  rain,  but  much  snow 
falls.  18.  Does  your  brother  often  write  thus?  19.  No;  he  never 
writes  thus.  20.  Do  the  wise  foresee  events  (evenements)^,  21. 
No,  not  always  ;  God  alone  foresees  what  is  to  happen.  22.  Did 
you  foresee  your  misfortunes  ?  23.  I  did  not  foresee  them.  24.  Is 
not  that  man  generous?  25.  He  is  very  generous.  26.  Those 
ladies  are  generous  toward  the  poor ;  they  give  them  much  alms. 
27.  The  bad  weather  has  done  harm  to  the  fruit,  but  the  fine 
weather  which  there  is  at  present  will  do  it  good.  28.  When  did 
your  father  die?    29.  He  died  March  4,  1855.     80.  Was  he  born 


in  1800 1  81.  He  was  bom  May  5,  1798.  32.  Was  he  bom  in 
England  ?  33.  He  was  bom  in  England,  and  died  in  the  United 
States  (les  Etats^Unis).  34.  Where  were  you  bom?  35.  We 
were  bom  in  New  York.  36.  My  brothers  died  in  Boston  ;  they 
were  bom  in  London.  37.  Caesar  vanquished  the  Gauls.  38.  Did 
he  OTezcome  all  his  enemies  ?     39.  He  did  not  overcome  them  all. 


1.  Let  us  go  to  the  house ;  it  must  be  time  to  sup  now,  and  I 
am  going  to  put  on  another  coat.  2.  You  can  put  it  on  after  sup- 
per. 3.  I  like  better  to  make  my  toilet  before  supper.  4.  As  you 
please  ;  mine  is  already  made.  5.  We  shall  go  out  as  soon  as  we 
shall  have  supped,  shall  we  not  {n^est-ce pas)l  6.  Yes;  it  is  neces- 
sary to  go  a  little  early  to  the  house  of  those  young  ladies,  if  we 
wish  to  be  certain  to  find  them  at  home,  7.  I  do  not  wish  to  go 
there  too  soon  either  {non  plus).  8.  If  we  arrive  there  at  eight  it 
will  be  soon  enough,  and  not  too  soon.  9.  Well,  it  is  eight  o'clock 
wanting  five  minutes,  and  here  is  the  house  ;  let  us  go  in. 

10.  How  long  (how  much  time)  were  you  in  college?  11. 
About  two  years  and  a  half.  12.  I  was  not  quite  seventeen  years 
old  when  I  entered.  13.  Then  you  came  out  (of  it)  before  the  age 
of  twenty  years.  14.  Yes;  I  finished  my  studies  very  young,  that 
is  to  say  at  college,  for  I  have  always  studied  since.  15.  How  old 
are  you?  16.  I  am  twenty-eight  years  old.  17.  When  have  you 
seen  the  professor?  18.  It  is  eight  years  since  I  have  seen  him. 
19.  He  is  dead.  20.  When  did  he  die  ?  21.  He  died  the  8th  of 
February,  1858 ;  he  was  born  in  Boston,  10th  March,  1801.  22. 
Where  were  you  bom  ?     23.  I  was  bom  in  New  York. 

80.— quatre-vingti£me  lecon. 


1.  The  irregular  past  deflnites,  all  of  which  have  now  been  giyen,  are  the  following,  with 
their  oomponnds. 

Uigi5fnT«.     pjLBTDBP.        vxmnrm.     pastdef.         xnfxnxtivx.    pastdsf. 
Arolr,       eus,       Les.  74.       Faire,       Jls,        Les.  75.       Vaincre,     vainquis,  Les.  79. 
Condre,     e&uHs,     "    7S.       Mourlr,     mourtia^  "    79.       Vcnlr,        tJtn*,  **    77. 

ficrlre,      leHvia^   "    78.       Naitre,      nuquU,  "    79.       Voir,  via,  "    75. 

Irtre,        fM,         "    74.       Tenir,        «n«,         "    77. 
8.  In  English,  any  a^jectlre  preceded  by  the  definite  article  may  bo  nsed  as  a  nonn.  This 
cannot  always  be  done  in  French.    Heoce  adjectives  nsnd  In  this  way  are  very  commonly 
translated  Into  French  by  the  a^jectlTO  with  the  noun  ^sim,  homtM,  or  some  other  general 

The  yoQDg.    The  diligent.  Lea  jeuncs  gens.    Les  gens  diligents. 

The  Btudions.    The  courageous.  Les  hommes  studieux.    Les  gens  cou- 



The  tndoBtrioiiB  become  rich.  Les  gens  industrieax  deTienneitt  tielMB. 

The  8tadiou8  become  learned.  Les  icoliers  studieox  derieiment  tt- 


8.  We  haye  seen  that  the  past  indeflnite  may  generaUy  be  lued  for  the  past  dellnlta. 
When,  therefore,  the  learner  is  in  donbt  which  of  the  two  to  use,  It  will  be  aaib  to  amploj 
the  iNist  indefinite,  exoept  in  narratirea. 

That  event,    Bare-headed.  Get  Svinement.    Nu-t^U  or  UU  mie. 

Barefoot.  Nu-pieds  or  pieda  nus. 

4.  When  the  adjectire  n«  precedes  the  nonn,  and  fonns  with  it  an  adTeibial  eapifa- 
alon,  it  is  invariable ;  bat  when  it  follows  the  noun,  and  does  not  form  an  adTarbial  ezprcf 
sion,  it  agrees  in  gender  and  number. 

He  goes  out  barefoot.  II  sort  nu-pieds  or  piedt  nus. 

The  bare  property  of  an  estate.  La  nue  propriety  d'un  bien. 

To  eutf  cut  off.     To  split.  Couper.    Fendre, 

To  steals  take  ateay  (from).  To  surprise.  Derober  (d).     Swrprendre, 

Surprendre^  a  compound  otprendre^  takes  d  before  the  InflnitiTO. 

A  surgeon.     A  vfing.  Un  ehirurgien.     Une  aile. 

The  beak.    Very  hard.  Le  bee.    Fort  dur. 

Opposite  (to).   Opposite  to  the  church.  Vis-d-vis  (de).    Vis-^-vis  de  T^glise. 

Since^from.    The  most  part ^  majority.  Depuis.     lAplupart. 

From  the  Rhine  to  the  ocean.  Depuis  le  Rliin  jusqu^li  Toc^ao. 

Since  bis  return.  Depuis  son  retour. 

That  noise  gives  me  a  violent  headache.  Ce  bruit  me  fend  la  t^te. 

&  When  any  part  of  a  person  is  the  object  of  the  Tcrb,  the  possessor  is  preceded  bj  4 
and  not  cf«,  and  the  pronoun  is  the  indirect  object 

You  break  your  mother's  heart.  Vous  fendez  lo  coeur  d  TOtre  mkts. 

Tou  break  ber  heart.  Vous  lui  fendez  le  cceur. 

The  surgeon  cut  off  that  man*8  arm.        Le  chirurgien  coupe  le  bras  i  eel 

He  cuts  it  oft  n  lo  lui  coupe. 

€.  In  speaking  of  an  action  or  state  of  past  tlmo,  which  is  still  oontinning,  the  Englfsh 
employ  a  past  tense,  but  the  French  the  present ;  thus, 

Save  you  lived  here  long?  Ta-t-il  longtemps  que  tous  demeurtt 

ici?  oTf  demeurez-TOus  ici  depuis 
longtemps  ? 
I  have  lived  here  a  year.  J^y  demeure  depuis  nn  an ;  or,  Q  y  a 

un  an  que  j*y  demeure. 
I  have  had  your  book  a  month.  H  y  a  un  mois  que  fai  votre  livre ;  or, 

fai  votre  livre  depuis  un  mois. 
7.  The  French  use  the  present  also  to  express  what  is  true  at  the  present  time,  although 
relating  to  a  past  event 
It  was  we  who  opened  the  windows.       Cest  nous  qui  avons  ouvert  les  fenfires. 

If         s       usiiscs  8i56fi       s  nnxsur       S4 

6-v6n«-menf.  no,  nue,  eou-per,  fendr«,  d6-ro-ber,  anr-prendrs,  ehl-ror-gien,  aU«,  bee,  d*- 

BIS        fl    1 

puis,  plft-poil 


He  told  me  that  charity  wu  entirely  a  II  me  disait  que  la  charity  ui  ime  Ter- 

Christiaa  virtue.  tu  toute  cbr^tienne. 
9.  An  immediate  ftitnro  in  Engliah  is  sometimes  best  translated  into  French  hj  aUtr 

and  the  Inflnitive. 

If  you  wish,  I  will  thaw  you  my  copy-  Si  vous  voulcz,  je  vaia  tous  tnarUrer 

book.  mon  cahier. 

If  you  have  no  flowers  I  will  give  you  Si  tous  n*aTez  pas  de  fleurs  je  wsU 

some.  TOUS  en  donner, 

I  will  gofiyr  my  book.  Jc  vaia  chercker  mon  livre. 

1.  Les  sages  pr6yoient-ils  tons  les  eydnements  ?  2.  Non,  lis  ne 
les  prcYoient  pas.  3.  Ges  petits  gardens  sortent-ils  quelqnefois  nu- 
pieds  {(yr  pieds  nus)  ?  4.  lis  sortent  souvent  nn-pieds  (pieds  nus). 
5.  Poarquoi  cet  homme  sort-il  na-t^te  ?  6.  II  sort  nu-t^te  parce 
qa'il  n*a  pas  de  cbapeau.  7.  Que  conpez-vous  ?  8.  Je  coupe  ce 
b4ton.  9.  Que  coupe  le  cbirurgien  ?  10.  II  coupe  le  bras  gauche 
^  cet  homme.  11.  Le  barbier  coupe-t-il  les  cheveux  auz  enfants? 
12.  n  les  leur  coupe.  13.  Ces  enfants  font  trop  de  bruit^  ne  fen- 
den  t-ils  pas  la  tete  a  leur  m^re  ?  14.  Non,  car  elle  vient  de  sortir, 
fort  beureusement  15.  Coupez-vous  le  bee  d  cet  oiseau  ?  16.  Je  lui 
coupe  le  bee  et  les  ailes.  17.  J'ai  lu  la  plQpart  de  ces  livres.  18.  Cet 
oiseau  a  les  ailes  fortes  et  le  bee  dur.  19.  Le  cbirurgien  demeore 
Tis-i^vis  de  P^glise.  20.  Eiites-Yous  de  la  neige  ici  la  semaine  der- 
nifere  ?  21.  Nous  en  eiimes  unpen.  22.  Combien  de  temps  y  a-t-il 
que  Yous  etudiez  I'allemand  ?  23.  II  7  a  six  mois  que  je  I'^tudie. 
24.  Depuis  combien  de  temps  avez-vous  mon  livre  ?  25.  Je  I'ai 
depnis  trois  semaines. 

1.  Are  you  not  cutting  that  child's  hair  ?  2.  I  am  cutting  it  for 
him.  3.  Do  you  know  the  most  part  of  the  words  of  your  lesson  ? 
4.  I  know  them  all.  5.  Were  you  not  delighted  to  see  your  father 
on  Saturday  ?  6.  We  were  all  delighted  to  see  him,  and  he  was 
delighted  to  see  us  also.  7.  Hadst  thou  time  to  arrive  home  yes- 
terday before  the  rain  ?  8.  No ;  my  brother  had  time  to  arrive  at 
his  house,  but  I  had  only  the  time  to  arrive  at  Mr.  B.'s.  9.  Have 
you  been  looking  at  that  picture  long?  10.  I  have  been  looking 
at  it  hardly  ten  minutes.  11.  How  long  has  your  friend  been  look- 
ing at  it  ?  12.  He  has  been  looking  at  it  almost  an  hour.  13.  Do 
yon  split  wood  with  that  ax  ?  14.  I  do  not  split  wood ;  the  serv- 
ant cuts  and  splits  all  the  wood. 

15.  Is  the  surgeon  going  to  cut  off  that  boy's  arm  ?  16.  No,  sir, 
he  is  going  to  cut  oflf  his  finger.     17.  Do  you  surprise  your  father  ? 


18.  I  surprise  him  sometimes.  19.  Does  that  news  surprise  joa? 
20.  It  surprises  me  much.  21.  Do  you  live  opposite  to  your  store  ? 
22.  No,  I  live  opposite  to  the  brick  church.  23.  Have  you  read 
the  most  part  of  those  books  ?  24.  I  have  read  them  all.  25.  Who 
has  stolen  your  cloak  ?  26.  A  thief  stole  it  last  week.  27.  These 
trees  take  away  from  us  the  view  of  the  country.  28.  Is  not  this 
wood  harder  than  that  ?  29.  No,  that  wood  is  as  hard  as  this. 
oO.  Did  you  foresee  these  events  ?  31.  I  did  not  foresee  them. 
32.  How  long  have  you  been  here  ?  33.  I  have  been  here  hardly 
half  an  hour.  34.  It  was  I  who  lighted  the  fire.  35.  I  have  here 
a  letter  from  your  brother ;  if  you  wish,  I  will  show  it  to  yon. 


1.  Grood  evening,  young  ladies^e  are  delighted  to  see  you  so 
gay.  2.  Grood  evening,  sirs ;  we-gre  very  much  surprised  to  see 
you.  3.  We  thought  you  in  ChinsfllVhine),  it  is  so  long  a  {iant) 
time  since  we  have  seen  you.  4.  It  is  not  from  our  fault.  5.  Un- 
doubtedly not  {que  non) ;  but  come  in  ;  take  some  chairs.  6.  We 
have  had  so  much  business  that  we,  pould  only  go  out  late  in  the 
evening.  7.  Very  well ;  there  mustjiave  been  much  business  this 
season,  for  all  the  gentlemen  sing  th^  same  song.  8.  I  see  well 
that  you  are  laughing  at  us.  9.  \\9Bi^iave  no  desire  to  weep  this 
evening ;  but  it  is  very  true  that  al^|he  gentlemen  must  have  been 
(avoir  etc)  very  much  occupied  this  Sg^on. 

10.  By  good  fortune,  business  ig'aifi.t  always  the  same  (de  mhne)^ 
and  we  shall  have  the  pleasure  of  see^*g  you  occasionally.  11.  Yes, 
that  is  (c^est)  to  say,  gentlemen,  tha?^ou  will  come  when  you  have 
nothing  better  (de  mieux)  to  do  ;  will  you  not  ?  we  thank  you  much 
for  your  goodness.  12.  Ah,  truly,  ladies,  you  are  too  severe  (se- 
veres) ;  .but  we  are  charmed  to  see  ^you  in  (de)  so  fine  humor,  for 
you  laugh  at  all  that  we  say.  ^ 



1.  Tux  PRESENT  OP  THE  suBJUiTCTiTB  Is  formod  by  dropping  AKT  final  of  the  prcMOt 
participle,  and  annexing  the  terminating  letters, 

E,  £S,  E,  IONS,  lEZ,  EKT. 

Thus  PABLXB,  to  speak,  present  participle  paklaitt,  makes 
Qu6  Je  parle,  gu'il  parle^  que  toua  parliea^ 

That  I  may  speak,  that  he  may  speak,  that  yon  may  speak, 

Qtu  tu  paries,  que  nous  parliona,  qu^iU  parleni. 

That  thoa  mayest  speak,  that  wo  may  speak,  that  they  may  speak. 

1     U21  I     12S 

par-lions,  par-Iiee. 


SoKTXx,  to  go  oat,  present  participle  sobtaivt,  make« 
iiiteje  aorte^  qu'U  aorie,  que  v<nu  tortieM, 

That  I  may  go  out,  that  be  may  go  out,  that  you  may  go  out, 

^tf«  tu  9ortM^  que  nout  sortions^  qu'iU  9ortent^ 

That  thou  mayest  go  out,  that  we  may  go  out,  that  they  may  go  out 

Yoiz,  to  ace,  present  participle  totuvt,  makes 

Qh^  jt  vote*  qu'a  vote,  gus  vou4  voyim^ 

That  I  may  sec,  that  he  may  see,  that  yon  may  see^ 

Qut  t»  toitBy  que  nou»  voyiont,  qu'Us  eaient. 

That  thou  mayest  see,  that  we  may  see,  that  they  may  Me. 

DzKB,  to  say,  present  participle  disaxt,  makes 

Quejd  dU&,  qu'il  dUe,  qw  voui  dUUa^ 

That  I  may  say,  that  he  may  say,  that  you  may  say, 

Qiu  tu  diie^  qu6  nofwt  dUions,  qu'iU  dUent, 

That  thou  mayest  say,  that  we  may  say,  that  they  may  say. 

L  The  srBJVxcnTK  mood  is  so  called  because  It  la  subjoined  to  some  other  Tcrb  or 
phrase,  on  which  it  depends,  and  to  which  it  is  connected  by  que  or  a  relative  pronoun.  It 
does  not,  like  the  indicative,  affirm  its  meaning  as  a  £ict,  but  only  preunU  U  (u  a  concep- 
tion o/iAe  mind^\  and  all  the  uses  of  this  mood  may  be  reduced  to  this  one  rule,  as  will  be 
seen  hereafter.  For  the  instruction  of  the  learner,  however,  it  will  be  useful  to  give  mi- 
nuter rules. 

L— Verbs  used  interrogatively  or  negatively,  if  followed  by  que  and  s  dependent  verb, 
generally  govern  that  verb  in  the  subjunctive,  provided  the  subject  of  the  dependent  be 
different  firom  that  of  the  governing  verb. 

Do  you  8AJ  that  he  goes  out  ?  Dites-vous  qu^il  torte  f 

I  say  that  he  goes  out.  Je  dis  qu*il  Bort, 

I  do  not  believe  that  he  sees  ub.  Je  ne  crois  pas  qu*il  nous  voi€, 

I  kDOw  that  he  sees  us.  Je  sais  quMl  nous  voit. 

Do  yoa  belieye  that  we  speak  French  ?  Croyez-vous  que  nous/Kir/ions  franfais? 

Xo,  I  believe  that  you  speak  English.  Non,  je  crois  que  vous  parlez  anglais. 

Do  you  think  that  he  says  that  ?  Pensez-vous  quMl  dite  cela  ? 

I  am  sore  that  he  says  it.  Je  suis  certain  quMl  le  dii. 

%  "When  there  is  no  change  of  subject,  the  French  prefer  to  use  the  infinitive  ;  and  la 
all  the  following  rules  for  governing  the  subjunctivo,  it  is  to  be  understood  that  there  most 
be  a  change  of  subject. 

Docs  he  believe  that  he  is  learned?         Croit-il  6tre  savant? 
Do  you  desire  that  you  may  be  rich  ?       Ddsirez-vous  Hre  riches  ? 
By  the  side  of,  next  to.    People,  folks.     A  cote  de.    Des  gens. 

S.  Adjectives  preoeding  ^eiM,  as  seen  in  Lesson  18,  are  generally  fiBmlnlne;  those  fol« 
lowing  it  are  maseulino. 

Wicked  people.  Les  mechantes  gens,  or  les  gens  nU- 


*  We  have  seen  (Lesson  2<n  that  y  in  the  termination  of  verbs  becomes  i  before  e  mute. 

t  leay  that  he  goee  out.  I  know  that  he  goes  out.  Here  that  ho  goes  out  is  affirmed 
as  a  &ct,  and  the  indicative  must  be  used  in  French,  qu'U  sort.  Do  you  eay  that  he  goes 
outt  Ida  not  say  that  he  goes  out  Here  it  is  not  affirmed  as  a  Diet,  and  the  snbJuncUve 
tnast  be  used,  qu^U  sobte. 

16  90       so   1921         so  1212ft      17    6       t 

sorts,  vols,  vo-yiona,  vo-yie«,  o4-te,  gens. 


Some  dangeroaa  people.  De  dangertuau  gens,  or  dca  gens  dsnr 

To  ripen.     Ripening.  Murir.    MurissanL 

A  cigar.    Magnificent.  Un  cigare.     Magnijique. 

Lately.     Precisely.  Demierement.    Au  juste. 

I  will  tell  you  precisely  what  that  costs.    Je  tous  dirai  au  juste  ce  qoe  cela  coftte. 
Topvll^  to  pluck  up.     To  become.  Arracher.     Devenir  (comp.  oivenir), 

4.  Devenir,  as  also  partir  and  eortir,  take  itre  for  their  auxilUrj. 
That  man  has  become  rich.  Get  homme  est  detenu  ricbe. 

My  father  has  departed.  Uon  ^re  est  parti. 

My  sisters  have  gone  out.  Mes  soBurs  sent  sorties. 

Cl  When  the  adverb  tout  (ffuUe)  precedes  a  femintno  objective  or  participle  beginning 
with  a  consonant,  it  Is  made  for  sound's  sake  to  agree  in  gender  and  nomber  with  the  doui. 
In  other  cases  it  is  invariable. 

A  cravat  all  dirty.  Une  cravate  t&ute  sale. 

Some  apples  all  red.  Des  pommes  ioutes  rouges. 

A  napkin  all  worn.  Une  serviette  tout  ME&e, 

1.  Le  maltre  dit-il  que  nous  Studious  bien  ?  2.  II  ne  dit  pas 
que  vous  ^tudiiezbien.  3.  Groyez-yous  que  je  perde  mon  argent  t 
4.  Je  ne  crois  pas  que  tu  le  perdes.  6.  Croyez-voua  que  le  chien 
vole  ces  oiseaux  ?  6.  Je  ne  crois  pas  qu'il  les  vole.  7.  Ce  fruit 
m(irit-il  en  6t6 1  8.  Oui,  il  miirit  en  juin.  9.  Ces  fruits  devien- 
nent^ils  rouges  ?  10.  lis  deviennent  rouges  en  mClrissant  11.  Que 
fait  le  chirurgien  ?  12. 11  arrache  une  dent  4  cet  homme.  13.  Vo- 
ire ami  est-il  parti  ce  matin?  14.  Non,  monsieur,  il  est  parti  hier. 
16.  Voire  ami  est-il  devenu  capitaine  ?  16.  Non,  il  est  devenu  ge- 
neral. 17.  J'ai  envie  d'envoyer  chercher  des  livres  et  des  plumes. 
18.  Cette  maison  est  magnifique ;  est-elle  ^  vous?  19.  Demeurez- 
vous  &  cote  de  votre  magasint  20.  Non,  je  demeure  k  cote  de 
r^glise.  21.  Avez-vous  vu  r^cemment  votre  ami!  22.  Oui,  je 
viens  de  le  voir  dans  la  rue.  23.  Je  demeure  &  cot^  de  Vhotel, 
et  mon  frere  demeure  a  cote  de  chez  moi. 

1.  Do  you  believe  that  we  speak  French  f  2.  No,  I  believe  that 
you  speak  Spanish,  but  not  French.  3.  Do  you  believe  that  I  go 
out  when  it  rains  1  4.  I  do  not  believe  that  thou  goest  out  when  it 
rains.  5.  Do  you  say  that  my  brother  writes  (icrive)  his  exercises 
well  ?  6.  I  say  that  he  writes  them  very  well.  7.  Does  the  mas- 
ter say  that  you  study  well  t  8.  He  says  that  we  study  very  welL 
9.  Do  you  believe  that  the  bird  sees  us  ?     10.  I  am  sure  that  he  i 

tt    »      »    1  1       Hit  T     Ur  t        1        1        6  4         11 

ma-rir,  d-gare,  ma-gni-flka,  der-aidre-meni;  ar»ra-oher,  deve>nir. 


US.  11.  Does  that  fruit  become  red?  12.  It  becomes  red  in  an- 
turnn.  13.  Is  the  sm'geon  going  to  pnll  that  child's  tooth  which 
pains  him  ?  14.  He  is  going  to  pull  it  because  it  has  pained  him 
a  long  time.  15.  Does  he  pull  teeth  well  ?  16.  He  pulls  them 
well ;  he  is  a  skillful  dentist  (dentiste).  17.  Do  you  dwell  next  that 
magnificent  church  t     18.  No,  sir,  I  dwell  next  to  my  brother's. 

19.  Do  you  send  for  cigars  ?  20.  I  send  for  cigars  and  wine. 
21.  Those  handkerchiefs  are  quite  dirty.  22.  That  cap  fits  that 
lady ;  tell  me  precisely  what  it  has  cost  her.  23.  It  has  cost  her 
ten  dollars.  24.  Does  the  master  say  that  we  speak  French  ?  25. 
He  says  that  you  speak  French  and  Spanish.  26.  Did  you  see  any 
one  here  on  Monday  ?  27.  We  saw  nobody.  28.  Did  the  children 
see  yout  29.  They  did  not  see  us,  but  the  daughter  of  the  neigh- 
bor saw  ns.  30.  Did  you  write  your  letters  yesterday?  31.  We 
did  not  write  them  yesterday ;  I  wrote  mine  the  day  before  yester- 
day, and  my  friend  wrote  his  on  Wednesday.  32.  Do  you  think 
that  my  brother  writes  better  than  I  ?  33.  No,  I  think  that  you 
write  as  well  as  he.  34.  Do  you  think  that  we  read  as  well  as  our 
cousins  f  35.  I  think  that  you  read  better  than  they.  36.  I  have 
forgotten  my  book  on  your  table ;  I  will  go  for  it. 


1.  See  those  clouds ;  are  they  not  beautiful !  2.  They  are  su- 
perb, and  they  change  their  (de)  form  and  place  at  each  instant 
{ifiBtant),  3.  There  is  one  which  has  the  form  of  ahorse.  4.  There 
is  another  which  appears  like  a  big  fish.  5.  It  is  long  since  I  have 
seen  clouds  so  beautiful.  6.  I  like  to  look  at  (regarder)  the  clouds ; 
the  sight  of  a  beautiful  sky  always  gives  me  pleasure.  7.  Do  you 
know  astronomy  ?  8.  I  studied  it  when  I  went  to  college ;  but  I 
have  almost  forgotten  the  little  that  I  knew.  9.  What  (comment)  do 
they  call  that  star  which  is  so  beautiful  ?  10.  It  is  the  evening  star 
{retoile  du  soir) ;  they  call  it  ( Venus) ;  do  they  not,  Mr.  A.  ?  11. 
Yes,  it  is  so  {c^est  elle\  and  it  sometimes  takes  the  name  of  the 
morning  star. 

12.  When  Venus  is  the  morning  star,  which  is  the  evening  star  f 
13.  It  is  the  only  one,  I  believe,  to  which  they  give  that  name.  14. 
Astronomy  is  a  beautiful  study.  15.  All  studies  are  so  ;  but  every 
body  has  not  the  same  taste.  16.  Which  study  do  you  prefer,  sir  ? 
I  like  all  those  which  make  part  of  the  mathematics.  17.  You  have 
a  taste  very  strange ;  I  have  never  been  able  to  endure  (souffrir) 
ciphering.  18.  Nevertheless  {cependanC  the  mathematics  are  the 
only  thing  really  certain  in  this  world. 




The  subjunctive  of  etre,  tobe^U  irregvlar  ;  Mm«, 

QuejeaoUf        quetusoi^  qu'UwU^  que  nous  e&yoM,   que  vaus  mifsa. 

That  I  may  be,   that  thoa  rouyest  be,   thathe  maybe,   that  we  may  be,    that  yon  may  be, 

quails  soientf  that  they  may  be. 

Dites-vou3  queje  sots  negligent? 

Je  ne  dis  pas  qtie  tu  sots  negligent. 

Croyez-Toos  que  nous  soyons  makdes? 

Je  ne  crois  pas  que  vow  soyez  maUdes. 

Ditcs-vous  que  cet  homme  soit  an- 
glais ? 

Jc  ne  crois  pas  que  sea  amis  soient  an- 

The  subjunctive  of  atoiRj  to  have^  is  irregular;  ihus^ 

Quefaie^  quetuaUs^  qu^nait^  qu6nousayonSyqusw^usaym, 

That  I  may  hare,  that  thoa  maycst,  etc,   that  he  may,  etc,  that  we,  etc^       that  yon,  etc^ 

qu'tia  aientf  that  they  may  have. 

Do  you  think  tbat  I  have  your  book  ?      Pensez-vous  quejaie  votrc  liTrc? 

Do  you  say  that  I  am  negligent  ? 
I  do  not  say  that  thou  art  negligent. 
Do  you  belieTe  that  we  are  sick  f 
I  do  not  believe  that  you  are  sick. 
Do  you  say  that  that  man  is  English  ? 

I  do  not  believe  that  his  friends  are 

I  do  not  think  that  thou  hast  it. 
I  do  not  believe  that  your  friend  has  it. 
Do  you  say  that  we  have  your  money  ? 
We  do  not  say  that  you  have  it. 
Do  you  believe  that  they  have  it? 
I  know  that  they  have  it. 

Jc  ne  pense  pas  que  tu  Vaits. 

Je  ne  crois  pas  que  votre  ami  VaiL 

Dites-vous  que  nous  ayons  votre  argent? 

Nous  ne  disons  pas  que  vous  Vayez. 

Croyez-vous  quails  Vaient  f 

Je  sais  qu'ils  Font.* 

1.  Interrogative  and  negative  verbs  do  not  govern  the  dependent  verb  in  the  snbjaae* 
tire  If  the  speaker  looks  upon  what  it  expresses  as  an  undoubted  fiict  This  may  be  seen  ia 
the  following. 

Charles  has  come.     Does  his  brother 

know  that  he  is  here  ? 
Charles  is  absent.    Does  his  brother 

think  that  he  is  here  ? 
That  man  is  without  sense;  he  does 

not  believe  that  there  is  a  God. 
He  is  not  superstitious;  he  does  not 

believe  that  there  are  ghosts. 

Charles  est  venu.   Son  fr^re  sait-il  qu^il 

est  ici  ? 
Charles  est  absent.    Son  fr^re  pense-t- 

il  qi^il  soit  ici  ? 
Cet  homme  est  in8ens6 ;  n  ne  croit  pas 

qu^U  y  axm  Dieu. 
n  n'est  pas  superstitieux ;  il  ne  croit 

pas  qt^il  y  ait  des  revenanis. 

IL— The  relatiyes  qui,  que,  lequel,  duquel,  auquel,  dont,  and  o&.  In  like  manner,  when 
they  do  not  refer  to  what  is  known  and  deflnite,t  take  the  following  verb  in  the  sobjanctlve. 

There  is  a  man  who  is  honest.  YoiU  un  homme  qui  est  honuete. 

•  We  see  in  the^e  examples  that  it  is  the  nneertainty  In  the  mind  of  the  speaker  whlck 
determines  the  use  of  the  subjanctirc  mood. 

t  Such  relatives  have  an  antecedent  of  an  indefinite  character,  as  quelqu*un^  quelqus 
choeSf  rieriy  or  a  noun  with  an  indcAoIto  article. 

so       so       so  mi         a0l9«       90  7         7  7      7199       712S      7 

tois,  soi^  so-yon«,  so-ye«,  soleni,  aie,  aUs,  all,  ayon«,  ayes,  aient. 


I  will  seek  a  man  who  is  honest.  Jc  chercherai  nn  homme  qui  toil  hon- 


In  the  former  of  these  phrases  a  particular  Individual  is  referred  to  and  known  to  he 
honest;  in  the  latter  ho  is  yet  to  ho  found.    So  in  the  first  of  the  following,  the  house  is  se- 
lected and  known  to  be  beautiful ;  in  the  second  it  la  yet  to  be  selected. 
I  shall  buy  a  house  which  ia  beautiful.     .Tach&terai  une  maison  qui  eti  belle. 
I  shall  buy  a  house  which  is  beautiful.     J*achdterai  unc  maison  ^i  sait  beUe. 
Is  there  anj  one  who  is  more  studious    T  a-t-il  quclqu'un  qui  toit  plus  studi- 

than  Charles?  cux  que  Charles? 

Do  you  know  any  one  who  has  more     Connalsscz-vous  quelquMn  qui  ait  plus 

money  than  the  merchant  ?  d^argent  que  le  marchand  ? 

TTie  subjunctive  of  poutoir,  to  be  able,  it  irregular  ;  thus, 
Quejeputstte,     que  tn  puinses^     quHlpuUse,      que  nous puisstone,    que  vous puissieti, 
That  I  can,  that  thou  canst,     that  he  can,      that  we  can,  that  you  can, 

quHls  puiMenl,  that  they  can. 

Gire  me  a  book  which  I  can  consult.        Donnez-moi  un  livre  queje  puisse  con- 

Is  there  any  one  who  can  do  that  ?         T  a-t-il  quelqu*un  qui  puisse  faire  cela? 
Let  na  choose  a  place  where  we  can    Choisissons  une  place  ottnotf«|7utMum« 

remain.  rcster. 

Is  there  any  thing  which  you  can  do  ?     Y  a-t-il  quelque  chose  que  vous  puis- 

siez  faire  ? 
Are  there  some  persons  here  who  can    T  a-t-il  quelques  personnes  ici  ^t 
do  that  ?  puissent  faire  ccla. 

2.  When  the  same  part  of  a  person  or  thing  is  spoken  of  in  sereral  indlrldnals,  if  it  b« 
singular  with  each  individual,  it  is  singular  in  French ;  but  if  plural  with  each  individual,  it 
is  plural  in  French. 

He  washes  the  children's  face?.  II  lave  le  visage  aux  enfants. 

He  washes  the  children's  hands.  II  lave  les  mains  aux  enfants. 

He  washes  their  faces  and  hands.  II  leur  lave  le  visage  et  les  maifiM. 

Birds  have  strong  wings  and  hard  Les  oiseaux  ont/ea  at/«<  fortes  et/tf  6ee 

beaks.  dur. 

Their  beaks  are  very  hard.  Us  ont  le  bee  dur. 

1.  Crois-tu  que  j*aie  peur  de  ces  soldats  ?  2.  Jc  ne  crois  pas  que 
tu  aies  peur  d'eux.  3.  Pensez-vous  que  nous  ayons  moins  d'esprit 
que  nos  cousins  1  4.  Je  ne  pense  pas  que  vous  ayez  moins  d'esprit 
qu'eux.  5.  Y  a-t-il  quelqu'un  qui  ait  plus  de  jugement  que  le  doc- 
tcur?  G.  Crojez-vous  que  ces  enfants  aient  mes  papiers?  7.  Je 
dis  qu'ils  les  ont.  8.  Penses-tu  que  je  sois  plus  grand  quo  ton  petit 
cousin  7  9.  Je  ne  dis  pas  que  tu  sois  plus  grand  que  lui.  10.  Con- 
naissez-Tous  quelqu'un  qui  soit  plus  aimable  que  cette  dame?  11. 
Pensez-vous  que  nous  soyons  riches  1     12.  Je  ne  pense  pas  que  vous 

nti       isitisn      Bnn«     «n 
poisM^  pal«-ftloa«,  pui4-aie«,  puissent. 


Boyez  pauvres.  13.  Noas  ne  croyons  pas  qne  ces  hommes  soieni 
riches.  14.  Crois-ta  que  je  paisse  ecrire  ce  theme  ?  15.  Je  ne  crois 
pas  que  tu  puisses  Tecrire.  IC.  Je  ne  crois  pas  que  Touvrier  pai&se 
finir  son  ouvrage  aujourd*huL  17.  Fensez-vous  que  nous  pnissions 
lire  ces  livrest  18.  Je  ne  crois  pas  que  vous  puissiez  les  lire.  19. 
Y  a-t-il  quelques  personnes  ici  qui  puissent  parler  allemandt 

1.  I  wish  for  a  servant  who  is  industrious  and  who  has  no  fault ; 
do  you  know  one  ?  2.  I  know  some  who  are  laborious  ;  but  I  know 
no  one  who  is  without  fault.  3.  Is  there  any  scholar  here  who  can 
write  this  exercise  without  a  fault  ?  4.  There  is  none.  5.  Will 
you  please  lend  this  child  a  book  which  he  can  read  ?  6.1  have  no 
one  which  he  can  read.  7.  Do  you  believe  that  those  workmen  can 
do  their  work  to-day  ?  8.  I  do  not  believe  that  they  can  do  it  to- 
day. 9.  Do  you  believe  that  we  are  afraid  of  those  dogs  ?  10.  I 
do  not  believe  that  you  are  afraid  of  them,  but  I  am  certain  that 
those  children  are  very  much  afraid  of  them.  11.  Do  you  say  that 
we  are  negligent?  12.  I  do  not  say  that  you  are  negligent,  for  I 
know  that  you  are  industrious. 

13.  Do  you  cut  oflf  the  wings  of  those  birds  t  14.  We  cut  them 
oflP.  15.  Do  you  cut  oflf  their  beaks?  16.  We  do  not  cut  them  off 
17.  Does  the  servant  wash  the  children's  faces?  18.  He  washes 
their  faces  and  their  hands.  10.  That  house  is  magnificent ;  does 
it  belong  to  you?  20.  No,  sir,  it  belongs  to  my  brother.  21.  Have 
you  seen  your  friend  lately  ?  22.  No,  sir,  it  is  two  weeks  since  I 
have  seen  him.  23.  Has  your  father  gone  out  ?  24.  Yes,  sir,  he 
has  just  gone  out.  25.  How  long  have  you  studied  French  ?  26, 
I  have  studied  it  abouta  year.  27.  When  does  your  brother  set  out 
for  the  country  ?  28.  He  departed  this  morning  at  half  past  six. 
29.  I  desire  to  buy  a  house  which  is  beautiful,  and  where  I  can  re- 
main aU  the  year. 


1.  What  are  you  studying  now?  2.  I  am  studying  German 
when  I  have  a  little  time,  which  is  not  often.  3.  Have  you  fin- 
ished the  German  grammar  ?  4.  Not  yet ;  I  have  learned  only  the 
half  of  it.  5.  Do  you  read  more  than  two  or  three  pages  of  Ger- 
man a  (par)  day  ?  6.  No,  when  I  find  the  time  to  read  I  translate 
from  two  to  three  pages  a  day ;  but  never  more  than  three.  7. 
That  is  enough  ;  the  German  is  difiScult. 

8.  Did  you  speak  of  this  business  to  any  one  yesterday  ?  9.  I 
spoke  of  it  to  Mr.  C.     10.  What  did  he  say  of  it?     11.  We  went 


to  see  his  brother,  bnt  he  was  not  at  home,  so  we  hare  yet  done 
nothing.  12.  Mr.  C.  and  his  brother  will  be  very  much  pleased 
with  this  business,  and  I  helieve  that  you  will  not  have  any  diffi- 
culty with  them.  13.  I  believe  so  too  (also).  14.  Mr.  C.  says  that 
he  consents  to  undertake  it,  if  his  brother  will  (veut)  undertake  it 
with  him.  15.  I  went  this  morning  to  the  house  of  my  friend 
Francis  (Francis),  and  we  spoke  of  it  together.  16.  Did  he  fore- 
see any  aifficulty  t     17.  No,  he  says  that  it  is  a  very  good  business. 

83.— quatre.vingt-troisi{:me  LEgON. 


HL — ^Bebtttres  preceded  by  a  snperlatlve  or  word  having  the  force  of  a  snperlatlvef  a« 
U  tewl^  runigve,  the  only,  le premier^  U  dernier,  U  meiUeur,  le  moindre^  Upluiy  U  moina^ 
U  vUtmx^  when  they  denote  comparison,  gorem  the  following  verb  in  the  aubjanctire.* 
He  is  the  only  man  to  whom  we  are     C^est  le  uxd  homme  k  qui  nous  puU- 

able  to  entrust  our  business.  tioiis  confier  nos  affaire& 

This  is  the  biggest  apple  that  tbcj  can     Yoici  la  plus   grosse    pomme  quells 

find.  puissent^  trouvcr. 

Ur.  C.  is  the  most  skillful  physician     H.  H.  est  le  plus  habile  mcdecin  quMl 

that  there  is  in  New  York.  y  ait  h,  New  York. 

He  is  the  best  man  that  there  is.  C^est  le  meilleur  homme  quHly  ait, 

France  has  the  happiest  climate  which    La  France  a  le  plus  heureux  clioiat  qui 

exists  in  the  world.  soil  au  monde. 

The  present  subjunctive  of  youlOIs,  to  willy  is  irregular  ;  tkus^ 

QtteJevenOUt       quetuveuilUSf    qu''U  veuiile^     qite  nous  wnUUms^     que  wms  vouUes, 
That  I  may  will,    that  thon,  etc.,     that  he,  eta,      that  we,  etc,  that  yon,  ete^ 

gu'ils  veuiUentf  that  they,  eta 

He  is  the  only  man  to  whom  we  are  C^est  le  seul  homme  &  qui  nous  vow- 
willing  to  trust  our  money.  lions  confier  notre  argent. 

Are  there  any  persons  hero  who  are  Y  a-t-il  quelques  personnes   ici  ^vt 
willing  to  do  that  ?  veuillent  faire  ceU  ? 

Tell  me  the  name  of  a  book  which  you  Dites-moi  le  nom  d^un  livre  que  vous 
are  willing  to  read.  vouliez  lire. 

There  is  nothing  which  he  will  do.  II  n'y  a  rien  qu'il  veuille  faire. 

He  does  not  believe  that  I  am  willing  H  ne  croit  pas  que  je  veuille  4tudier  ? 

to  stttdy?  

*  In  tbeee  three  rales  thns  far  trlren,  it  may  easily  be  seen  that  the  subJanetlTe  is  not 
nsed  when  the  speaker  means  to  affirm  an  nndonbted  fact  When  according  to  Rnlo  I.  we 
OM  an  interrogation  or  ueisation  wo  do  not  usually  mean  to  affirm  any  thing  positively.  The 
same  is  true  'nhcn  acconling  to  Bale  IL  we  use  a  relative  precededf  by  a  general  or  vagne 
expression.  So  here  In  Rule  III.  the  verb  after  a  relative  preceded  by  a  superlative  may 
be  seen  to  express  its  meaning  vaguoly. 

t  The  id  A  here  is,  this  is  the  biggest  apple  of  aU  thai  they  can  Jlnd,  and  the  other 
apples  with  which  this  is  compared  are  referred  to  vaguolv.  So  in  all  other  ca*es,  the  ob- 
jecto  with  which  the  comparison  is  made  are  referred  to  indefinitely,  and  the  subjunctive  is 
therafore  nsed. 

t  IS  im       18  ns       •     ,    ^ 

reniiU,  Tou-lions,  voa-liesi,  TenlUtffifc 



U  ne  dit  pas  qu^  tu  9euiUe»  ^tadier. 

C'est  le  mtUlevr  bomme  que  je  pmism 

Le  gouvemeur.    La  Mgeue. 
Les  ^taU'Unu,    Habiter. 
Informer.     Uoe  intention. 
Umbarraster,     Danter. 
Un  verbe.     Une  excuse. 
Le  mi-rite.    Flatter. 
Vttsoffe.     Certainement. 
Instruit.     Bien  instruit 
The  present  subjunctive  o/"  alleb,  to  go^  is  irregular;  thus. 
Que  faille,       que  tu  ailles^  gu*il  affle,  que  nous  aUions^    que  vous  aUiez^ 

That  I  maj  go,  that  thoa  mafest  go,  that  he  may  go,  that  we  may  go,       that  joa  ouy  g<\ 
qu'ils  aillent^  that  thej  may  go. 

He  does  not  say  that  tbou  art  willmg 

to  study. 
He  is  the  best  man  that  I  can  find. 

The  governor,  tutor,     }Vi8dom. 

The  United  States.    To  live  in^  inherit. 

To  inform.    An  intention. 

To  etnbarrass,  encumber.     To  dance. 

A  verb.    An  excuse^  apology. 

Merit.     To/aiter. 

The  use.     Certainly. 

Instructed^  learned.     Well  instructed. 

Pensez-vous  que  faille  trop  sooTcnt  au 

spectacle  ? 
Jc  ne  pcnsc  pas  que  tu  y  allies  tr^ 

Y  a-t-il  quelquos  pcrsonnea  ici   qui 

aillent  k  la  rividre  ? 
Jc  nc  connais  personne  qui  y  aille. 
Crojez-Tou9    que  nous  alliens   k   la 

campagnc  ? 
Je  nc  crois  pas  que  vous  y  alliez. 

Do  you  think  that  I  go  to  the  theater 

too  often  ? 
I  do  not  think  that  thou  goest  there 

very  often. 
Are  there  any  persons  here  who  are 

going  to  the  river  ? 
I  know  no  one  who  is  going  there. 
Do  you  believe  that  we  are  going  to 

the  country  ? 
I  do  not  believe  that  you  are  going 


1.  Get  homme  est-il  instruit  ?  2.  Qui,  c'est  I'homme  le  plus 
savant  qu*il  y  ait  dans  notre  village.  3.  Qui  est  cct  homme  t  4. 
C'est  le  gouverneur  de  cette  province ;  c'est  un  homme  de  mcrite 
et  de  sagesse.  5.  Votre  ami  habite-t-il  les  £tats-Unis  ?  G.  Oni, 
il  y  habite  depuis  troia  ans.  7.  Informez-vous  votre  p^re  de  tout 
ce  que  vous  faites?  8.  Je  I'informe  de  presque  tout.  9.  dtez 
votre  manteau  ;  ne  vous  embarrasse-t-il  pas  ?  10.  II  ne  m'embar- 
rasse  pas.  11.  Savez-vous  tons  les  verbes  de  votre  legon  ?  12.  Cer- 
tainement je  les  sais  bien,  et  j'en  connais  I'usage.  13.  Les  hommes 
aiment  ceux  qui  les  flatten t.  14.  Avez-vous  I'intention  d'aller  au 
bal  ce  Boirt  15.  Oui,  monsieur;  mais  je  n'ai  pas  I'intention  d*j 
danser.  16.  Croyez-vous  que  je  veuille  faire  du  mal  ?  17.  Non, 
monsieur,  je  ne  le  crois  pas.     18.  Avez-vous  entendu  dire  que  mon 

18     7      11       16         4  1      ma      1    }9  e     )4    IS      6     14     s    1  31    a        i      i     • 
goa-ver-ncur,  8a-ges6«,  £ta^zun{«,  Aa-bi-ter.  io-for-mer,  in-t«n-t)f)n,  cm-bar-rat-ser, 

1        «         7  »        *J  «    I'i         1       •       »     I  «        r  3       14         al:    I  I     Ul.        I 

dui.«er,  Terl>«,  ez-kaz«,  me-rlt^,  fla/-tor,  u-zag«^  cer-taintf-meni;  In-stniiC,  aUI«,  al-Uoni,  st- 

13  6       { 


frere  aille  en  Europe?  19.  Je  Tai  entendu  dire.  20.  Croyez-vous 
qu'il  veaille  y  aller  ?     21.  Je  ne  le  crois  pas. 

1.  Is  your  cousin  the  best  scholar  that  there  is  in  the  school? 
2.  He  is  the  best.  3.  Do  you  believe  that  those  scholars  are  wil- 
ling to  learn  their  lessons  ?  4.  I  do  not  believe  that  they  are  wil- 
ling to  learn  them.  5.  Does  the  master  think  that  we  are  not  wil- 
ling to  study  1  6.  He  does  not  think  that  you  are  willing  to  study 
much.  7.  Do  you  know  any  one  who  is  better  than  the  governor  t 
8.  No ;  the  governor  is  the  best  man  that  there  is  in  this  city ;  his 
brother  is  also  a  man  of  wisdom  and  merit.  9.  Does  the  master 
receive  your  excuse?  10.  No,  sir;  he  receives  no  excuses.  11. 
Why  do  you  not  dance?  12.  I  am  tired;  I  have  danced  almost 
aU  the  evening.  13.  Were  you  born  in  (aux)  the  United  States  ? 
14.  Yes,  sir ;  and  my  uncle  who.  died  last  year  was  born  in  the 
United  States  also. 

15.  Have  you  learned  the  verbs  of  your  lesson?  IG.  Certainly ; 
I  have  learned  them  all.  17.  Have  you  the  intention  to  flatter  that 
man  ?  18.  No  ;  I  do  not  like  to  flatter  any  one.  19.  Is  this  word 
in  {de)  use?  20.  No,  sir;  it  is  now  out  of  use.  21.  Dost  thou 
think  that  I  am  going  to  the  theater  ?  22.  I  do  not  think  that  thou 
art  going  there.  23.  Have  you  heard  that  my  brothers  are  going 
to  Enrope  ?  24.  I  have  not  heard  that  they  are  going  there ;  and  I 
do  not  believe  that  you  are  going  there.  25.  Are  you  going  to  buy 
that  house  ?  26.  No,  it  is  too  small ;  I  desire  to  find  one  which  is 
large.  27.  Is  it  not  beautiful  ?  28.  Yes ;  it  is  the  most  beautiful 
house  that  there  is  in  this  street.  29.  Do  you  like  this  city  ?  30. 
No ;  we  wish  to  find  a  place  where  we  can  live  more  contented. 

31.  Do  you  know  any  one  who  can  speak  better  than  that  orator? 

32.  No ;  he  is  the  best  orator  that  there  is  in  our  city 


1.  Much  rain  has  fallen  this  winter.  2.  Yes ;  and  the  winter 
past,  on  the  contrary,  hardly  (presgue  pas)  any  fell.  3.  I  have  re- 
ceived a  letter  from  my  cousin,  and  he  tells  me  that  snow  fell  last 
Friday  in  New  Orleans.  4.  It  is  extraordinary  ;  they  do  not  often 
see  any  there.  5.  Since  I  have  been  here  I  have  seen  snow  only 
once.  6.  When  I  was  a  little  boy  I  used  to  make  (I  made)  snow- 
balls in  winter.  7.  Where  were  you  then?  8.  At  St.  Louis.  9. 
There  a  great  deal  falls. 

10.  Have  you  been  here  long?  11.  I  have  been  waiting  for 
you  nearly  a  quarter  of  an  hour.     12.  I  did  not  know  it.     13.  They 


told  me  that  70a  were  in  the  garden,  and  I  did  not  beliere  it  proper 
(convenahle)  to  let  you  be  called  {appeler).  14.  You  were  wrong. 
15.  Not  at  all ;  I  have  not  come  to  depart  forthwith.  16.  I  am 
delighted  at  it ;  I  have  been  expecting  you  since  day  before  yester- 
day. 17.  Where  is  your  horse  t  18.  I  told  the  boy  to  put  him  in 
the  stable. 

19.  It  is  very  fine  weather  this  evening.  20.  The  nights  are 
cool,  but  it  is  too  warm  in  the  day.  21.  I  have  suffered  much 
{beaucoup  souffert)  from  the  heat  (la  chaleur)  to-day.  22.  And  I 
{mot)  also ;  I  suffered  much  from  it.  23.  I  believe  that  it  was  still 
warmer  yesterday  than  to-day.  24.  I  do  not  know ;  it  has  been 
very  warm  all  day.  25.  We  have  much  need  {bien  besoin)  of  rain. 
26.  We  shall  have  some  before  long  (pen). 

27.  Have  you  seen  Madam  C.  to-day  ?  28.  No,  sir ;  she  came 
here  this  morning,  but  I  had  gone  to  my  sister's.  29.  She  told  me 
that  she  was  to  come  and  see  you.  30.  When  I  knew  that  she  had 
come,  I  was  very  sorry  for  having  (cTelre)  gone  out  81.  She  was 
sick  a  long  time.  82.  Yes ;  when  I  saw  her  the  past  week  she 
coughed  still.     83.  She  coughs  scarcely  any  now. 


1.  The  use  of  the  verb  vauloir  before  noans  and  verbs  ha»  been  spoken  of  In  ] 
IS  and  2&    It  is  often  equivalent  to  ehall.    Its  use  may  bo  farther  seen  In  the  IbUoiriag 

I  wish  for  my  papers.  Je  desire  mes  papiers. 

I  wiU  have  my  papers.  Je  veux  avoir  mes  papiers. 

He  wishes  for  that  book.  II  desire  ce  livre. 

He  will  (is  determined  to)  have  that    H  veut  avoir  ce  livre. 

I  do  not  wish  to  stay  here.  Je  ne  desire  pas  rester  icL 

C  Je  ne  veuz  pas  rester  ici. 

(11  n 

I  am  not  willing  to  stay  here.  -^  Je  ne  consens  pas  &  rester  ici. 

i  ne  me  plait  pas  dc  rester  icL 

I  will  not  stay  here.  Je  oe  veux  pas  rester  ici. 

I  am  willing  to  stay  here.  Je  veux  bien  rester  ici. 

Charles  wishes  much  to  go  to  the  conn-    Charles   desire   beaucoup  aller  k  k 
try,  and  his  father  consents.     He  campagne,  et  son  pdre  y  consent. 

will  certainly  go,  for  his  mother  II  ira  certaincment,  car  sa  mdre 

is  willing  also.  le  veut  bien  aussL 

George  will  by  all  means  go  to  France.     Georges  veut    absolument   aller    en 


I  learn  Italian  because  my  father  will    J^apprends  Titalien    parce  que  mon 
have  it  so.    I  am  willing  to  study  p^re  le  veut.    Moi,  je  veux  bien 

it,  and  my  brother  will  by  all  T^tudier ;  mon  frfere  yeut  absoln- 

means  learn  it.  ment  Fapprendre. 



ir.—Tertas  wbtch  do  not  affirm  ft  fket  poAtLreHj^  but  only  axpreat  wUl^  dsHn,  douH, 
ftctr^  command,  approbation^  and  the  like,  if  followed  bj  qtu  and  a  dependent  Terb,  goT- 
ern  that  verb  in  the  snbjQnctiTo.* 

He  desires  me  to  go  out. 
He  consents  that  wc  read. 
I  order  him  to  tell  us  his  name. 
I  will  have  you  study  better,  and  be 
more  attentive  to  your  lessons. 

No  reply,  dr;  you  shall  go  to  school 

I  am  detemuned  that  you  shall  obey 

your  masters,  and  always  speak 

to  them  with  politeness. 

8.  The  following  are  some  of  the  rerbs  which  govern  the  sabjonctlve  according  to  th« 
above  rule : 

n  desire  queje  torte. 
n  consent  que  nous  lisions, 
J^ordonne  qit*il  nous  dise  son  nom. 
Je  veux  que  vous  etudiiez  mieux,  et  que 

vous   soyez    plus    attentif  k  vos 

Pas  d^observation,  monsieur;  je  veux 

que  vouM  alliez  k  Y6co\e  dte  demain. 
Je  veux  que  vous  obeissiez  k  vos  maitres, 

et  que  vous  leur  parliez  toujours 

avec  politesse. 

Aimer.  Consentlr. 

Aimer  mienz.  Craindre. 

Avoir  besoin.  Dcairer. 

Avoir  envie.  Donter. 

Avoir  pear.  £tre  content 

To  forbid^  to  defend  (de  bef.  inf.). 

To  order. 

To  command.     To  beware  of. 

To  approve.     To  disapprove. 

To  apprehend^  fear. 

To  prevent f  hinder. 

To  tremble.     To  fear. 

J%  eratMSf     tu  crains,       U  eraUU, 

I  fear,  thon  fearest,    he  fears. 

He  likes  us  to  study  much. 

We  have  a  desire  that  you  write  to  us. 

Miriter.  S'Honner. 

Permettre.  BonlMr. 

Pr^forir.  Sonhaiter. 

Prendre  garde.  Yonloir. 

Prier.  Exlger. 



Commander,    Prendre  garde. 

Trouver  bon.    IVouver  mauvaii, 



Trembler,     Craindre. 
nous  eraignonSt    vous  craigneM,    its  eraiffneni^ 
we  fear,  yon  fear,  they  fear. 

n  aime  que  nous  itudiions  beaucoup. 

Nous  avons  envie  que  vous  nous  Scri- 

Je  souhaite  qu^Us  me  disent  leurs  af- 

H  a  peur  queje  ne  perde  mon  argent. 

I  wish  them  to  tell  me  their  business. 

He  is  afraid  that  I  may  lose  my  money, 

SL  Avoir  peur^  craindre,  trembler,  apprihender,  empichsr,  prendre  garde  qite,  and 
verba  of  fear  and  apprehension  generally,  when  alBrmative,  take  ne  before  a  following  snb- 
Junctive.    They  alao  take  de  bolbre  the  inflniUre. 

They  fear  that  we  may  deceive  them.      lis  craignent  que  nous  ne  Ustronynons, 
Beware  lest  he  lose  your  money.  Prenez   garde  quHl  ne  perde   votre 


*  Hero  a^In  we  perceive  the  same  character  of  the  Babjanctive.  To  ezprem  a  wiU, 
desire, /ear,  command,  etc,  that  a  thing  be  done,  is  by  no  means  affirming  that  it  is  actual- 
ly <• 

ft  n  •     •  u 

m^ri-ter,  6-to»-ner,  per-mettre,  prendre,  d^-fendre,  or-doi>-ner,  com-mon-der,  ^p-pi^ 
sssssM  14  14  rsi  7«r 

Aen-de/*,  em-p6-€her,  craindre,  cralnsv  eralnt;  orai-gnona,  cnU-gnoe,  oraignenl. 


The  present  eubjunetive  0/ fairs,  to  do,  is  irregtdar;  thus, 

Qusje/asse,       qustu/as8M,       gtt'UfaM«,         que  nous /atsions,     que  rous/assiea, 
That  I  may  do,    that  thoa,  et<x,     that  he,  eta,       that  we,  etc  that  you,  ete^ 

quails /assent,  that  thej,  eta 

I  approve  of  your  doing  good.  Je  trouve  bon  qtu  vcusf  assist  da  bien. 

He  disapproves  of  our  doing  evil  H  trouve  mauvais  que  nousfassions  da 


He  commands  me  to  do  my  duty,  and  II  commande  que  je  fosse  mon  devoir, 

thee  to  do  thine.  et  que  tu  fosses  le  tien. 

The  master  desires  Charles  to  do  this  Le  maStre  ddsire  que  Charles  fasm  ce 

exercise,  and  his  brothers  to  do  th^me-ci,  et  que  ses  freres/ouen^ 

those.  ceux-I^ 

Re  forbids  our  doing  that  H  defend  que  nousfassions  cela. 

1.  Defendez-Yous  que  nous  fassions  cela?  2.  Je  ne  defends 
pas  que  vous  le  fassiez.  3.  Desirez-vous  que  je  fasse  du  feu  t  4. 
J'aime  mieux  que  le  gar^on  en  fasse.  5.  Je  veuz  que  ta  fasses  ton 
devoir,  et  que  les  enfants  fassent  le  leur.  6.  Votre  pere  ordonne 
que  le  domestique  ait  soin  des  chevaux.  7.  Trouvez-vous  bon  que 
je  sois  ici  t  8.  Je  trouve  mauvais  que  tu  y  sois.  9.  Votre  mere 
a-t-elle  peur  que  vous  ne  sojez  malades  ?  10.  EUe  a  peur  que  nous 
ne  soyons  malades.     11.  Voulez-vous  que  mon  fr^re  soit  ici  demain  ? 

12.  Je  veux  que  votre  fr6re  et  que  votre  cousin  y  soient  demain. 

13.  Voulez-vous  bien  que  j'aie  vos  livres?  14.  Je  veux  bien  que 
tu  les  aies.  15.  Ordonnez-vous  que  nous  ayons  soin  de  vos  affaires  f 
16.  Non,  monsieur,  je  prefere  que  mes  frferes  en  aient  soin.  17. 
Trouvez-vous  bon  que  je  vende  mes  livres  t  18.  Non,  je  tronve 
mauvais  que  tu  les  vendes. 

1.  Is  your  brother  afraid  that  I  am  angry?  2.  He  is  afraid 
that  thou  art  angry,  and  that  thy  brother  is  angry  also.  3.  Do 
you  wish  us  to  be  here  early  ?  4.  Yes ;  and  I  wish  your  cousins  lo 
be  here  early  also.  5.  Dost  thou  consent  that  I  have  those  fruit 
trees  (arhres  fruitier s)'\  6.  I  consent  to  thy  having  them.  7.  Do 
you  approve  of  our  having  much  money  ?  8.  I  disapprove  of  your 
having  more  than  your  brother.  9.  What  will  you  have  me  do! 
10.  I  will  have  you  do  your  duty  well.  11.  What  will  you  have 
this  boy  do?  12.  I  will  have  him  make  some  fire.  13.  Are  you 
afraid  that  those  children  may  be  lazy  ?  14.  No  ;  I  am  afraid  that 
they  are  doing  harm.  15.  The  master  forbids  us  to  go  out  at 
present.  16.  Do  you  approve  of  the  children's  having  your  gold 
pen?     17.  No ;  I  forbid  their  having  it. 


18.  Do  you  wish  us  to  buy  that  bouse  1  19. 1  wish  you  to  buy 
it.  20.  Are  you  afraid  that  the  master  may  see  your  writing  ? 
21.  No ;  I  desire  him  to  see  it  22.  Have  you  a  desire  that  we 
study  French  1  23.  Yes  ;  I  will  have  you  speak  French,  and  your 
brothers  speak  German.  24.  Beware  lest  that  child  be  sick.  25. 
Charles  the  Fifth  (  Quint)  who  spoke  several  European  {enropiennes) 
languages  fluently  {couramment),  used  to  say  that  it  was  necessary 
{/allaU)  to  speak  Spanish  to  the  gods,  Italian  to  the  ladies,  French 
to  our  friends,  German  to  soldiers,  English  to  geese  {oies)j  Hunga- 
rian {kongrois)  to  horses,  and  Bohemian  {bokemien)  to  the  devil  {Ig 


1.  Do  you  think  of  traveling  this  summer  ?  2.  I  think  of  going 
to  Europe  in  a  month  or  six  weeks.  3.  Is  Mr.  A.  going  there  also  t 
4.  No,  miss ;  I  shall  stay  here  all  summer.  5.  You  do  not  often 
travel.  6.  The  year  past  I  made  a  journey  to  Paris.  7.  Are  you 
not  the  cousin  of  Mr.  J.  whom  I  saw  at  Madam  V.'o  last  winter  f 
8.  Yes,  miss,  I  am.  9.  Is  it  not  he  {lui)  who  stays  at  present  at 
Mr.  D.'s?  10.  Yes,  it  is  he.  11.  Does  he  think  of  staying  here 
this  summer?  12.  No,  miss;  he  thinks  of  setting  out  soon  for 
Paris.  13.  Bring  him  to  our  house.  14.  He  will  be  delighted  to 
come  and  pay  you  (voua  presenter)  his  respects  {ses  respects), 

15.  Does  the  sick  woman  cough  still  t  16.  She  coughs  scarce- 
ly any  now  ;  she  is  out  of  danger,  but  it  is  necessary  to  tell  her  to 
avoid  going  out  in  the  evening,  or  when  the  weather  is  damp.  17. 
She  goes  out  only  when  it  is  very  fine  weather.  18.  Has  Mr.  V. 
arrived  from  the  country?  19.  He  had  not  yet  arrived  when  I  was 
at  his  house  to^ay.  20.  Has  he  gone  for  his  sister  ?  21.  Yes,  it 
is  for  that  that  he  has  gone. 

22.  Lewis,  is  your  exercise  corrected?  23.  Yes,  sir;  do  you 
wish  to  see  it  ?  24.  If  you  do  your  exercises  well  you  wiU  be  re- 
warded ;  but  those  who  play  instead  of  studying  will  be  always 
ignorant  and  despised.  25.  Do  you  like  to  study  ?  26.  Some- 
times, sir  ;  when  I  succeed  in  knowing  my  lessons  well,  I  find  much 
pleasure  in  study.  27.  It  is  necessary,  then,  to  be  always  diligent 
and  studious.  28.  There  are  two  trees  opposite  to  my  window. 
29.  The  surgeon  is  going  to  cut  off  the  sick  man*s  arm. 




2b  take  care  of.    The' bay,  Soigner.    La  hate. 

An  ordtard.    To  obey,  Un  verger.     ObHr  (d). 

On  the  other  side  of  or  over  the  hay,  De  Vautre  cdti  de  la  baie, 

A  fruit-tree.    To  be  worth  more.  Un  arbre  fruitier.    Valoir  nueax. 

General  Lafayette  commanded  the  na-  Le  g6n6ral  Lafayette  commandait  lea 

tional  guards.  gardes  nationales. 

1.  Ordonner  and  commander  tnko  d  befiira  a  person,  and  de  befbre  the  inflnitire. 

Order  the  servant  to  come.  Ordonnez  au  domesUque  de  venir. 

Order  him  to  do  that.  Ordonnez-/«t  de  faire  cela. 

He  desires  us  to  have  the  money.  II  ddmre  que  nous  ayona  Targent. 

We  are  determined  that  you   shall  Nous  voulons  que  tous  Tayez. 

have  it. 

I  fear  that  you  may  be  sick.  Je  crains  que  tous  ne  soyez  maladc. 

v.— Impersonal  verbs,  and  U  est  with  an  attrlbata,  followed  by  gue^  govern  «  foUowios 
verb  In  the  subjunctive,  when  the  action  is  not  ofllnned  positively.  The  foUowing  ore  of 
this  kind. 

It  is  necessary.  XifatU,    II  est  neeessaire. 

It  is  suitable.     It  is  important.  II  convient.    H  imported 

It  is  sufficient.     It  is  better.  H  suffit.    H  vaui  miettx. 

It  is  to  be  desired,  H  est  d  disirer^  or  ^  souhttiter. 

It  is  doubtful.    It  is  possible.  II  est  doutevx.    H  est  possible. 

It  is  just.    It  is  proper.  II  est  juste.     II  est  d  propos. 

It  is  time  for  me  to  go  home.  1  est  temps  que  i^aille  chez  moi. 

It  is  necessary  that  thou  write  a  letter.  Ilfaut  que  tu  krives  une  lettre. 

It  is  suflScient  that  he  have  his  due.  R  tuffit  qu'il  ait  son  dik. 

It  is  important  that  we  go  to  the  mar-    B  vnporte  que  nous  allions  au  m^yriUL^ 


It  is  better  that  you  go.  H  vaut  mieuz  que  tous  y  edliez. 

It  is  surprising  that  they  do  that  I^  «<<  surprenant  ^Viaf assent  cela. 

The  subjunctive  present  o^tiloir  is  irregular;  thus^ 
QueJeffatUe,       quetuvaiUet,        gu'Uvaitte,  que  nous  vaUone,  que  wnu  wUUsi 

That  I  be  worth,  that  tliou  be,  eto^   that  he  be,  etc.,    that  we  be,  etcJ,     that  yoa  be,  ete^ 

qu'ils  vaiUent,  that  they  be  worth. 
Do  you  say  that  I  am  worth  more  than    Dites-vous  que  je  vaille  mienx  que  mon 

my  brother?  frSre? 

It  is  sufficient  that  thou  be  worth  as    II  suffit  que  tu  vailles  autant  que  ton 
much  as  thy  brother.  fr^re. 

«^*  ♦*  "^Si^y  ,*J***  *f,f  ^^^nf. «  is  swUabie,  U  U  important,  etc,  that  a  thing  be  done,  la 
not  to  affirm  It  poeitive ;  hence,  as  in  the  other  rules,  the  subjunctive  is  used.  ^^ 

*{      *     ^7       •      s    u    en     9919191       s    s     7        n     nu    h      m        »    n      u 
T  yi-gnor.  hale,  ver^r,  o-b^-ir,  frui-tier.  n6^ceeH«UM.^  con-vienl.  Im-port-.  sn/yjt,  soo. 

*ai-ter,  dou-tena\  po«-»lbl«,  pro-po«,  vallle,  va-lions,  va-lies,  vaillent 


II  18  doubtful  if  he  be  worth  aa  much    JX  est  donteox  qu^il  vaille  antant  qae 

as  thou.  toi. 

It  is  possible  that  we  are  worth  more    II  est  possible  que  nous  valiona  mienx 

than  thej.  qu^eux. 

I  do  not  think  that  you  are  worth  more    Je  ne  crois  pas  que  vous  valiez  mieux 

than  they.  qu^eux. 

Do  you  say  that  these  glores  are  worth    Croyez-rous  que  ces  gants  vaUlewt  une 

a  doUar  ?  piastre  ? 

I  say  that  they  are  worth  more  than  a    Je  dis  quUls  valcnt  plus  d*une  piastre. 

I  fear  that  ho  may  do  you  harm.  Je  crains  quHl  ne  vous  fasse  du  mal. 

She  Is  afraid  of  thy  going  on  the  lake.     Elle  a  peur  que  tu  n*aillps  sur  le  lac. 

r  L^avant-demidre  nuit. 
Tke  night  heftrre  kui.  )  La  nuit  d^avant-hier. 

(  Ayant-hier  soir. 
2.  Soir  Is  before  bed-time;  n«i/,  the  rest  of  the  night 
I  supped  with  my  father  night  before    J^ai  soupd  chcz  mon  pdre  avant-hier 

last.  soir. 

I  stayed  at  home  very  late  in  the  even-    Je  suis  restd  chcz  moi  trds-tard  dans 

ing ;  it  was  eleyen  o^dock.  la  soiree,  il  ^tait  onze  heures. 

I  passed  at  the  ball  the  night  before  last.     J^ai  pass6  au  bal  la  noit  d*ayant-hier. 

1.  Diea  nous  commande  de  Taimer,  il  noas  commande  ansa! 
d'aimer  tout  le  monde.  2.  Get  bomme  soigne  bien  sa  sant6.  3.  Le 
jardinier  a-t-il  des  arbres  fniitiersi  4.  II  en  a  quelques-uns.  5. 
Le  domestique  a-t-il  soin  de  votre  verger  1  6.  II  en  a  soin.  7. 
Nous  devons  ob6ir  a  Dieu.  8.  Le  domestique  obeit  h  son  maitre. 
9.  Ou  serez-voos  demain  ?  10.  Je  serai  de  Tantre  cot^  de.  la  baie. 
11.  Croyez-YOUB  que  je  vaille  mieux  que  mon  frere  t  12.  Je  dis  que 
ta  Tanx  autant  que  ton  fr^re.  13.  Fensez-vous  que  nous  valions 
moins  que  nos  cousins  ?  14.  Je  pense  que  vous  valez  autant  qu*eux. 
15.  Crojez-vous  que  ce  livre-ci  vaille  mieux  que  ceux-la  t  16.  Non, 
je  CTois  que  ceux-U  valent  mieux  que  celui-ci.  17.  Est-il  juste  que 
nous  fassions  cet  ouvrage  ?  18.  Non,  il  est  juste  que  les  Aleves  le 
fassent.  19.  Est-il  k  propos  que  je  dise  k  quelqu'un  ce  que  je  viens 
d^entendre  I  20.  II  est  k  propos  que  vous  le  disiez  k  votre  p6re  et 
a  votre  frere. 

1.  Tbe  master  orders  tbe  scholars  to  make  no  noise.  2.  Gen- 
eral Washington  commanded  tbe  army  (arm^e)  of  the  United  States. 
8.  God  orders  us  above  all  to  love  him.  4.  Who  has  taken  care  of 
the  stranger  during  his  sickness  {sa  maladie)  1  5.  The  doctor  has 
taken  good  care  of  him.  6.  Do  you  live  over  the  bay  1  7.  No, 
but  I  go  over  the  bay  every  evening  in  summer.     8.  The  gardener 


is  in  his  orchard.  9.  Has  be  many  frnit-trees  in  his  orchard  t 
He  has  many.  10.  The  dog  always  obeys  the  voice  (la  voix)  of  bis 
master.  11.  Is  it  suitable  that  you  go  to  the  physician's?  12.  No, 
it  is  better  that  our  friends  go.  13.  That  man  is  not  industrious  ; 
it  is  surprising  that  he  is  rich.  14.  Is  it  necessary  that  you  do 
your  task  to-day?     15.  It  is  sufficient  that  I  do  it  this  week. 

16.  Is  it  important  that  the  workman  finish  his  work  this  week  ? 
17.  Yes,  it  is  necessary  that  he  finish  it  to-morrow.  18.  Has  that 
scholar  written  his  exercise  ?  19.  No,  sir,  it  is  doubtM  whether  he 
writes  it  20.  Does  the  master  say  that  you  are  worth  more  than 
we?  21.  He  says  that  we  are  worth  more  than  you.  22.  Do  yon 
say  that  this  horse  is  worth  two  hundred  dollars?  23.  Yes,  and  I 
say  that  those  are  worth  five  hundred  dollars.  24.  The  night  be- 
fore last  was  very  stormy  {orageuse) ;  the  thunder  {la  foudtrt)  fell 
several  times  between  two  and  three  in  the  {du)  morning.  25.  Is 
it  possible  for  you  to  finish  your  task  at  six  o'clock  ?  26.  No,  sir, 
it  is  impossible  {impossible)  for  me  to  finish  it  before  eight. 


1.  Is  it  just  that  my  brother  have  my  money  ?  2.  It  is  just  that 
he  have  his,  and  that  you  have  yours.  3.  Is  it  necessary  that  the 
physician  go  to  your  house  twice  a  {par)  day  ?  4.  It  is  sufficient 
that  he  go  there  once  a  day.  5.  Is  it  surprising  that  I  make  mis- 
takes ?  6.  It  is  not  surprising  that  you  make  some ;  but  it  is  very 
surprising  that  those  children  do  not  make  any.  7.  Is  it  important 
that  we  study  French  ?  8.  It  is  important  that  you  study  French 
and  Spanish.  9.  Is  it  necessary  for  us  to  buy  a  horse  ?  10.  It  is 
necessary  for  you  to  buy  a  horse  and  some  cows.  11.  Have  you 
been  to  the  theater  this  week  ?     12.  I  went  there  night  before  last 

13.  Have  you  finished  translating  the  work  which  I  carried  you 
last  week  ?  14.  Not  yet ;  it  is  a  little  difficult,  and  I  have  hardly 
any  time  to  {pour)  read  it  15.  How  do  you  like  (find)  it?  16. 
It  is  very  interesting  and  very  well  written ;  how  many  volumes 
are  there?  17.  There  are  three;  when  you  wish  for  the  second, 
let  me  know.  18.  Thank  you  ;  I  shall  not  need  it  under  {avani) 
seven  or  eight  days.  19.  How  much  of  it  do  you  translate  each 
day  ?  20.  I  read  from  fifteen  to  twenty  pages,  and  I  do  not  think 
of  doing  more  {en  /aire  davantage)  at  present.  21.  You  are  very 
diligent ;  it  is  enough.  22.  Do  you  look  for  the  words  in  the  dic- 
tionary ?  23.  Sometimes,  but  I  know  them  almost  all.  24.  The 
second  volume  will  be  easier.  25.  Without  doubt ;  I  do  not  find 
the  first  volume  so  difficult  to  translate  now  as  when  I  began  it. 



YL— Some  eoDjunctlons  govern  the  siibjimctive.    The  following  «re  of  thia  kind. 
Tn  order  that.  Unless, 

Before,  Though. 

Jf or  fear  that,  leei. 
Provided  that. 
If,  in  case  that. 

A  Jin  que.  A  moins  que, 

Avant  que,  Bien  que. 

De  peur  que,  de  erainte  que. 
Fourvu  que.  JusqtCdk  ce  que, 

Quoique.  Four  que. 

Au  cos  que,  en  cos  que. 
For  more  coi^anctlons  of  this  kind,  see  Synopsis,  page  476. 
1.  A  motne  que  takes  ne  \>efnn  the  following  subjanctlve ;  also  de  peur  que  and  de 
eraimte  que  when  not  negative. 


That,  in  order  that. 

Unless  yoa  give  bim  money. 

TTnless  they  be  here. 

Although  he  knows  his  lesson,  he  does 

not  recite  it  well. 
FroTided  that  I  be  there. 
In  order  that  he  may  do  that. 
For  fear  that  they  may  surprise  us. 
I  will  go  before  you  finish. 
Lest  we  surprise  them. 
Although  he  cannot  read. 
It  is  necessary  to  stay  until  he  finishes. 
In  order  that  thou  mayest  know  thy 

In  case  I  know  my  lesson. 
In  case  we  know  ours. 
Unless  you  know  yours. 

WL—Que  used  for  any  eoqjanction  goyeming  the  subjanctlve,  or  for  a  second  ei,  takea 
the  sabjunctive  after  it 

A  moins  que  tous  ne  lui  donniez  do 

A  moins  qu'ila  ne  eoient  ici. 

Quoiqu\l  sache  *  sa  legon,  il  ne  la  re- 
cite pas  bicn. 

Pourvu  queje  sois  Ik. 

A  Jin  qu^'d  fosse  cela. 

J)e  peur  qu'ils  ne  nous  surprennetU, 

•Tirai  avant  que  yqub  Jinissiez, 

De  erainte  que  nous  ne  les  surprenions. 

Bien  ^f/il  ne  puisse  pas  lire. 

II  faut  restcr  JiM^tf'd  ee  qvCMJinMte. 

Pour  que  tu  saches  ta  le^on. 

Au  cas  queje  sache  ma  Icgon. 

^n  cas  que  nous  saehions  les  ndtres. 

A  moins  que  tous  ne  saehiex  la  Tdtre. 

Be  good,  in  order  that  you  may  have 
friends,  and  that  you  may  be  happy. 

If  you  are  good,  and  if  you  know  your 
lesson,  you  will  be  praised. 

So  that,  in  such  a  manner  that, 

la  such  a  way  that. 

Soyez  bon,  afin  que  vous  ayez  des  amis, 

ct  que  Youspuissiez  etre  heureux. 

Si  TOUS  ^tes  bon,  et  que  tous  saehiez 

Totrc  Ic^on,  tous  serez  lou6. 
Defa^on  que,  de  sorte  que,  de  maniire 

De  telle  sorte  (or  maniere)  que. 
Till.— After  expressions  like  the  above,  the  verb  Is  In  the  Indicative  mood  when  It 
afflrms  its  meaning  positively,  and  In  the  subjanetive  when  it  indicates  its  meaning  po- 

•  The  verbs  following  such  coi^onctinn  either  express  their  meaning  under  a  condi- 
tion of  nnccrtoin^,  or  they  belong  t<>  a  sabordinate  clause  which  the  speaker  passes  over 
ragnely ;  hence  too  sabjunctive  is  used. 

114  14  M        n        90       4       S       I      91       1<  1    M/ 

a-fln,  cralnttf,  poar*va,  quol-ke,  cat,  fii-von,  sorte,  mamldrA 


You  fulfill  your  duties  so  that  you  are  Vous  remplissez  rotre  devoir  dafcftm 

esteemed.  que  tous  He*  estim6. 

Fulfill  your  duty  in  such  a  manner  that  Remplissez  votre  deroir  dt  tncoiCere  qms 

you  may  be  esteemed.  vous  sor/ez  estim6. 

Although  it  rain,  he  will  come.  Quoiqu^'d  pleuve,  il  Tiendra. 

He  lives  in  such  a  manner  that  he  does  II  vit  de  telle  maniere  qu^il  ne/aii  mal 

harm  to  no  one.  k  personne. 

Live  in  such  a  way  that  you  may  do  Yivez  de  telle  sorte  que  vous  ne  fastUt 

harm  to  no  one.  dc  mal  h  personne. 

This  respect.     To  present,  introduce.  Co  respect.    Presenter^  ifUrodmre» 

2.  Prisenier^  la  introdadng  to  a  person ;  introdulre,  into  a  plaoo. 

I  introduced  him  to  my  friend.  Je  Tai  presents  k  mon  ami. 

I  introduced  him  into  the  society.  Je  Tai  introduit  dans  la  soddt^. 

To  accompany.    80  soon.  Accompagner.    SiioU 

Gallant.     On  purpose.  Oalant.     Expres. 

To  prove.     To  permit^  allow.  Prouver.  Permettrc  (as  mettrej  Les.  89)i 

To  seem.    It  seems,  Semhler.    II  semble. 

8.  Jl  sembU^  without  on  object  pronoun,  govema  the  BabJoncUye ;  with  one,  it  does  not 

It  seems  that  that  child  is  sick.  H  semble  que  cet  enfant  soit  mslade. 

it  seems  to  me  that  he  is  sick.  //  me  semhle  qu^il  est  malade. 

1.  Notre  cousin  est  vena  ici  pour  que  nous  allions  au  spectacle 
avec  lui.  2.  Get  6colier  restera  ici  jusqu'a  ce  qu'il  sache  sa  le^on. 
8.  Quoiqu'il  soit  un  peu  paresseux,  il  me  semble  qn'il  apprend  bien 
sa  le^on.  4.  Je  veux  toujours  faire  en  sorte  que  le  maitre  soit  can- 
tent.  5.  Si  vous  voyez  monsieur  A.  aujourd'hui,  presentez-lui  mes 
respects.  6.  Accompagnez-vous  le  maitre  it I'ecolet  7.  Oui,  mon- 
sieur, je  Taccompagne  tous  les  matins.  8.  Voire  p^re  sera-t-il  ici 
demain  !  9.  Non,  monsieur,  il  ne  viendra  pas  sitot  10.  Je  viens 
I  de  la  campagne  expres  pour  vous  accompagner  au  bal.     11.  Yoos 

I  6tes  fort  galant.     12.  Ce  que  vous  dites  prouve  que  cet  bomme  est 

I  ricbe.     13.  Oui,  mais  quoique  il  soit  ricbe,  il  n'est  pas  bonnete. 

'  14.  Le  medecin  ne  me  permet  pas  do  boire  do  cafe.     15.  11  semble 

'  qu'il  pleuve.     16.  11  me  semble  qu'il  pleut     17.  Non,  je  ne  crois 

I  pas  qu'il  pleuve. 

I  1.  Although  I  know  my  lessons  perfectly,  I  cannot  always  re- 

i  cite  tbem  well.     2.  Is  your  cousin  tbe  best  scholar  that  there  is  in 

I  tbe  scbool  ?     3.  He  is  not  tbe  best ;  for  altbougb  be  can  learn  fast, 

'  he  does  not  study  much.     4.  Do  you  wisb  us  to  know  the  Latin 

and  tbe  Greek  ?     5.  I  will  have  you  know  the  Latin,  the  Greek, 

#.  •  5        A  5     S       C      14       IS   2=13      I       »  1        0         ]<>  17        1    S        <  7  11 

pleaT«,  rcs-pecf,  pr^-zen-ter,  in-tro^air«,  oo-com-pa-gner,  si-i:f,  ga-lAiit,  cx-pria,  pcoa- 
T0r,  per-meftr«,  Min>blor,  sombla. 


and  the  modern  (modernes)  languages.  6.  Are  you  willing  to  lend 
us  a  book  which  we  can  read  t  7.  Certainly ;  I  am  willing  to  lend 
yon  one  provided  that  you  can  read  French.  8.  In  case  that  those 
young  boys  have  money,  will  they  go  to  the  city  I  9.  They  will 
go  if  they  are  docile  (doeiles),  and  if  they  know  their  lessons.  10. 
Fulfill  thy  duties  in  such  away  that  thou  mayest  be  esteemed.  11. 
Yon  learn  your  lessons  in  such  a  manner  that  your  masters  are  al- 
ways satisfied  {aaiisfaits).  12.  Charles  has  not  come,  lest  we 
should  blame  him. 

13.  Present  my  respects  to  the  doctor.  14.  I  will  present  them 
to  him  in  case  that  I  see  him.  15.  I  am  going  to  his  house  on  pur- 
pose to  see  his  son.  16.  Who  has  introduced  the  stranger  into  our 
society  T  17.  Your  friend  the  German  has  introduced  him.  18. 
Does  the  physician  permit  you  to  go  out  at  night  t  19.  He  does 
not  permit  it  20.  "  Has  your  sister  who  lives  in  the  United  States 
a  son  or  a  daughter,"  said  a  person  to  an  Irishman  {irlandais)^  his 
friend.  21.  "  To  tell  you  the  whole  truth,"  answered  the  Irishman, 
embarrassed,  "  I  do  not  yet  know  whether  I  am  an  uncle  or  an  aunt ; 
but  I  wiU  write  to  my  sister  to  pray  her  to  inform  me  in  regard  to 
it  (en),  as  soon  as  {le  plus  tdt)  possible." 


1.  Did  you  go  to  Mrs.  C.'s  ball  last  Thursday  ?  2.  Yes,  I  went 
there  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  G. ;  you  were  not  there.  8.  No,  I  had 
been  to  the  country  Thursday  morning,  and  I  came  to  the  city  too 
late  for  the  ball.  4.  Were  there  many  people  there  ?  5.  There  were 
enough,  and  every  body  looked  very  joyous.  6.  The  ball  season  is 
ended  {finie),     7.  It  is  too  hot  now,  and  the  nights  are  too  short. 

8.  Let  us  go  and  take  a  walk  (/aire  une  promenade)  this  even* 
ing,  if  it  be  pleasant  weather.  9.  Where  shall  we  go  ?  10.  Let  us 
go  to  the  garden  of  Mr.  T.  11.  Very  willingly  ;  it  wiU  be  moon- 
light, and  that  (ce)  will  be  very  agreeable.  12.  Have  you  been 
there  lately  t  13.  I  went  there  the  other  day  ;  his  garden  is  mag- 
nificent ;  there  are  roses  of  all  colors.  14.  There  must  be  also  other 
flowers.  15.  There  are  many.  16.  Mr.  C.  came  near  here  the 
other  day,  but  I  did  not  see  him.  17.  I  wished  to  tell  him  to  bring 
me  a  few  beautiful  flowers  to  (pour)  put  in  my  garden.  18.  You 
will  be  able  to  tell  it  to  him  to-morrow,  and  to  choose  those  which 
you  wish. 

19.  What  o'clock  is  it  ?  20.  I  do  not  know  precisely,  but  it  is 
not  late.  21.  I  am  going  to  send  for  a  few  cigars.  22.  Have  you 
a  desire  to  smoke  t     23. 1  smoke  a  little  every  evening.     24.  It  is 


not  more  than  ei<!fht  o'clock ;  you  can  send  for  some.  25.  Has  the 
servant  returned  1  26.  Yes,  he  is  in  his  room.  27.  I  will  tell  him 
to  go  for  some  for  me.  28.  Have  you  some  change  ?  29.  I  have  a 
half  dollar ;  it  is  the  smallest  coin  that  I  have.  30.  There  are  two 
quarters  of  a  dollar  (de  gourde)  if  you  wish  for  them.  31.  Thank 


1.  Qudqiie  followed  by  que  hns  the  following  meanings. 
Whatever  (adj.).     However  (adv.).  Qttel  que  ,  .  que.     Quelque  .  .  que. 

2.  Quelque  followed  by  a  verb  ia  written  quel  que^  as  two  words,  and  agrees  with  the 
sabject  of  the  yerb. 

Whatever  may  be  the  engagement.  Quel  que  soit  TeDgagement. 

Whatever  may  be  your  intention.  Quelle  que  soit  votre  intention. 

Whatever  may  be  your  designs.  Quels  que  soient  vos  desseins. 

Whatever  may  be  your  views.  Quellee  que  soient  vos  vues. 

8.  Quelque  belonging  to  a  substantive,  with  or  without  another  adjective,  is  written  as 
one  word,  agreeing  with  the  sabstantlve. 

Whatever  reason.     Whatever  efforts.  Quelque  raison.     Quelques  efforts. 

Whatever  fine  books  you  may  have.  Quelques  beaux  tivres  que  vous  ayex. 

Whatever  riches  he  may  have.  Quelques  richesses  ^Ul  ait. 

4.  Belonging  to  an  adverb  or  a^ective,  it  is  itself  an  adverb,  and  never  varied. 

However  beautiful  she  may  be,  etc.  Quelque  belle  qu^elle  soit. 

However  rich  they  may  be,  etc  Quelque  riches  quails  puissent  6tre. 

However  well  trritten  may  be  your  Quelque   bien    dcrit    que    soit  Totro 

exercise.  tb^me. 

IX-^Quelque^  quel  giM,  whatever ;  quelque^  however ;  qui  que  or  qui  que  ee  soit  qui^ 
whoever ;  qui  que  ee  soit  que^  whomsooTer ;  quoi  que  or  quoi  que  ee  soit  que^  whateTer ; 
and  si.,,  que,  however  (as  conj.  Rule  6X  govern  the  subjunctive. 

Whatever  riches  he  may  have,  ho  will  Quelques  richesses  qu^ll  ait,*  il  sera 

always  be  unhappy.  toujours  malheurenx. 

Whatever  may  be  his  misfortunes,  he  Quels  que  soient  ses  malhcurs,  il  les 

supports  them  with  conrage.  supporte  avec  courage. 

However  wrong  you  may  be,  he  will  Quelque  tort  que  vous  ayez,  il  tous 

pardon  you.  pardonnera. 

However  rich  he  may  be,  he  will  bo  Quelque  riche  ^'il  soit,  il  sera  mal- 

unhappy.  heureux. 

Whoever  you  may  be,  you  wiU  come  Qui  que  vous  soyez,  vous  entrerex. 


Whoever  he  may  be  that  knocks  at  Qui  que  ce  soit  qui  frappe  h  la  porte, 

the  door,  he  shall  not  come  in.  je  no  veux  pas  qu^il  entre. 

*  The  subjunctive  in  these  sentences,  it  will  be  readily  seen,  has  the  same  eharaeter  of 
vagaenesa  as  in  the  preceding  rnlea 


Whoerer  it  may  be  that  you  meet  in  Qui  que  ee  ioit  qae  rons  renoontries 

that  houae,  do  not  speak  to  any  dans  cette  maison,  ne  parlez  h 

one.  personne. 

Whaterer  he  may  do,  he  will  be  blamed.  Quoi  gu'il  fassc,  11  sera  bUlm6. 

AMiaterer  you  may  see,  do  not  speak  Quoi  que  ce  soit  que  tous  voyiez,  n^en 

of  it.  parlez  pas. 

HowoTer  tall  he  may  be,  he  does  not  Si  grand  qu'U  soit,  il  ne  me  fidt  pas 

frighten  me.  peur. 

To  yield.     To  gueae.     To  deny.  Ceder.    Deviner.    Nier, 

To  despair.     To  dieoicn^  deny.  Deeesperer.      Diaeonvenir  (comp.   of 


ft.  These  two  verbs  take  de  before  s  nouD  and  an  Inflnitlre. 

X.— Verbs  which  contain  in  themselves  the/orce  of  a  negative,  as  nier,  dimtp^er^  and 
dieconvenir,  when  oaed  afflrmatirdy  govern  the  subjanctive  in  the  same  way  ea  othe-s 
used  negatively. 

I  deny  that  be  is  here.  Je  nie  qWW  eoit  ici. 

I  despair  of  his  doing  his  work.  Je  desespere  quM1/<uM  son  ouvrage. 

He  denies  that  they  know  that.  II  dieconvient  qulls  UKheni  cela. 

ft.  Diaeepirer,  dUeontenir^  d&uter,  and  nUr^  generally  when  negative,  and  sometlmea 
when  interrogative,  take  fie  before  the  following  snbjanotive. 

I  do  not  deny  that  that  may  be.  Je  ne  nie  pas  que  ceU  ne  soit. 

I  deny  that  that  is  true.  Je  nie  que  cela  soit  vrai. 

Do  you  doubt  his  being  here  ?  Doutez-vous  qu^il  soit  (ne  soit)  ici  f 

7.  The  present  snbjnnctivo  otJtilMr^  impersonal,  is  qu^UfaUle. 
Do  yon  think  it  necessary  to  do  that  ?    Pensez-Tous  qu^U faille  faire  cela? 

1.  Qaels  que  soient  vos  desseins  vous  me  faites  tort.  2.  Ces 
hoznmes  vous  font-ils  da  bien  ?  3.  Non,  monsieur,  quelles  que  soient 
leors  intentions  lis  me  font  du  mal.  4.  Peuvent-ils  etre  vos  amis  ? 
5.  Non,  monsieur,  quels  qu'ils  soient  ils  ne  peuvent  pas  dtre  mes 
amis.  6.  Faut-il  que  cet  homme  cMe  a  ses  ennemis  *?  7.  Oui^^  quel 
que  soit  son  courage  il  faut  qu*il  c5de  h,  la  force.  8.  Cet  homme 
est  tr^malade,  et  quelque  remede  qu'on  lui  donne  il  mourra.  9. 
Qnelque  belle  que  soit  cette  dame  elle  n*est  pas  aimable.  10.  Quoi 
que  (quoi  que  ce  soit  que)  vous  fassiez,  vous  ne  pouvez  pas  plaire  k 
cet  bomme.  11.  Notre  ami  peut-il  faire  ce  qu'il  a  entrepris?  12. 
Nod,  si  habile  qu'il  soit,  il  ne  pent  pas  faire  cela.  13.  Ne  d^ses- 
perez-vous  pas  que  cet  ^colier  ne  fasse  son  th^me*?  14.  Je  deses- 
p6re  de  lui,  il  n*apprendra  jamais  rien.  15.  Disconvenez-vous  de 
ce  faitt  16.  Je  n'en  disconviens  pas.  17.  Je  ne  desespere  pas 
que  cet  homme  ne  fasse  son  ouvrage. 

e6-der,  de-vi-ner,  ni-er,  dee-es-p6-rer,  dis-con-ve-nir,  &iu& 



1.  Is  that  man  happy  ?  2.  No,  Bir,  for  he  is  not  Tirtaons ;  and 
however  rich  and  learned  one  may  be,  he  cannot  be  happy  if  he  is 
not  rirtuous.  8.  Will  those  poor  people  have  friends  t  4.  Yes,  sir  ; 
however  poor  they  may  be,  they  will  always  have  friends.  5.  Can 
that  man  keep  his  riches  long?  6.  No,  sir ;  whatever  riches  he  may 
have,  he  can  not  keep  them  long.  7.  Is  your  companion  (camarade) 
in  good  health  ?  8.  No,  he  is  sick  ;  and  whatever  remedy  he  may 
*  take  (prenne),  he  will  be  sick  a  long  time.  9.  Whatever  may  be 
the  intention  of  your  companion,  has  he  not  committed  a  &alt  ? 
10.  He  has  committed  several.  11.  Whatever  that  yonng  boy  may 
do,  he  will  not  be  blamed.  12.  Do  yon  deny  that  he  sometimes 
makes  mistakes  ?  13.  I  do  not  deny  that  he  sometimes  makes  many.  ■ 
14.  Ouess  how  much  that  cloak  cost  me.  15.  I  guess  that  it 
cost  you  twenty  dollars.  16.  To  whom  do  you  yield  your  place  ? 
17.  I  yield  it  to  that  lady.  18.  Guess  what  I  have  done  to-day. 
19.  That  is  not  difficult  to  guess ;  you  have  been  to  school.  20. 
Whatever  remedy  that  sick  man  may  take,  he  will  never  get  well 
(ffuerira).  21.  Whatever  you  may  say,  they  will  not  believe  yon. 
22.  Whoever  you  may  bcj  sir,  respect  my  dwelling  {respectez  ma 
demeure),  23.  Whoever  I  may  be,  fear  nothing,  sir,  your  dwelling 
shall  be  respected.  24.  Do  those  scholars  speak  Crerman  t  25. 
Yes,  however  difficult  may  be  the  phrases  (phrases)  that  one  says  to 
them  in  that  language,  they  always  know  how  to  translate  them  cor- 
rectly {correctement),  26.  That  child,  young  as  he  is  {sijeune  qu*il 
8oii),  knows  already  how  to  read  and  count.  27.  That  man,  badly 
clothed  as  he  is,  is  no  less  for  that  a  millionaire  {millionaire), 


1.  I  have  just  bought  a  new  coat ;  how  does  it  fit  me  T  2.  It 
fits  you  very  well ;  how  much  did  you  pay  for  it  t    (Lesson  68,  4.) 

8.  It  costs  me  twenty-five  dollars.  4.  It  is  not  dear ;  the  cloth  is 
very  fine.  5.  I  sought  in  several  stores  before  finding  one  suitable 
{convenable),  6.  Finally  (enfin)  yon  have  succeeded  in  finding  one. 
7.  I  am  so  big  that  I  do  not  easily  find  coats  ready  made  (taut 
fails),     8.  It  is  necessary  to  get  some  made  ( f aire  f aire)  for  you. 

9.  Yes,  when  I  cannot  find  any,  I  go  to  my  tailor's. 

10.  Here  is  a  pair  of  spectacles  which  I  have  just  bought ;  how 
do  you  like  (find)  them  ?  11.  They  look  good ;  but  what  wOl  yon 
(voulez)  do  with  spectacles  t  You  are  too  young  to  (pour)  wear  any. 
12.  My  sight  is  weak  ;  it  is  necessary  for  me  to  read  and  write  sJl 
day,  and  even  sometimes  at  night     13.  To  read  or  write  at  night 


is  not  good  for  the  eyes.  14.  That  tires  my  sight  macL  15.  Then 
yon  are  not  doing  wrong  to  wear  spectacles ;  but  pnt  them  on  only 
*when  you  read.  16.  It  is  what  I  intend  to  do.  17.  If  yoor  sight 
is  weak  yon  do  wrong  to  read  at  night ;  nothing  does  more  harm 
to  the  eyes  than  that.  18.  I  do  not  do  it  with  good  will,  bat  often 
I  cannot  do  differently.  19.  Last  year  I  read  much  at  night,  bat 
I  perceived  that  my  sight  was  suffering  from  it,  and  since  I  read 
only  in  the  day.  20.  I  have  so  much  to  write  that  I  am  obliged 
sometimes  to  write  all  the  evening.  21.  I  also  read  much  in  the 
evening  a  year  ago  {il  y  a  un  an)^  but  I  do  it  no  more.  22.  My 
sight  is  too  precious  to  (pour)  lose  it  thus ;  I  prefer  to  take  care 
of  it 



XL— Conditional  claoMfl  beginning  with  «<,  and  followod  by  que  or  a  relatlTS  pronona, 
and  a  a«cond  verb,  take  that  verb  in  tho  sabJonctiTe,  if  the  speaker  look  apon  what  it  ex* 
Iffeasea  aa  &1m  or  donbtftil,  and  in  tho  indicatiTe  if  there  be  no  donbt. 

If  you  ny  that  that  is  true,  you  are  Si  vous  dites  que  cela  »oit  vrai,  toos 

wrong.  avez  tort. 

If  you  say  that  that  is  true,  you  are  Si  tous  dites  que  cela  est  vral,  vous 

right  avez  raison. 

If  you  think  that  he  is  honest,  you  do  Si  tous  pensez  quUl  soU  honn^te,  rous 

not  know  him.  ne  le  connaissez  pas. 

If  he  thinks  that  you  are  honest,  he  is  S*il  pense  que  tous  6tes  honnftte,  il  m 

right.  raison. 

1.  When  expressions,  which  with  que  govern  the  subjanctire,  take  de  oe  que  after  then, 
they  goTem  the  indicative. 

^  ,      ,      ,        .  ( Je  suisf&ch6  avHl/a«M  cela. 

I  «n  wrry  that  he  does  that.  |  j,  ^  j^^^^  ^  ^  ^r^j.^^  ^^, 

8.  The  sal;} anctive  expressing  desire  sometimes  begins  a  sentence. 
May  you  Utc  happy.  Pwmea-Tous  TiTre  heureux.f 

May  be  arriTe  soon.  Fmese^'il  arrivcr  bientot 

HeaTen  grant  that  it  may  happen.  F<use  le  Ciel  qu^il  arriTe. 

&  The  sabjonctlve  present  first  person  singular  of  acteair^  with  a  negative,  has  the  pe* 
enltarlty  of  being  need  like  the  indicative,  without  any  governing  phrase. 

I  know  no  one  who  can  do  it  like  him.    Je  ne  eaehe  personne  qui  puisse  le 

faire  comme  lui. 
4  The  present  of  the  sntijanctive  otpleuvoir,  impenonal,  is  qu'U  ple/uve. 
I  do  not  go  out  for  fear  that  it  may  rain.    Je  ne  sors  pas  de  peur  qu^U  ne  pUuve. 

*  It  is  evident  that  the  ilnni  clause  after  de  ee  que  Is  stated  as  a  tkct, 
t  Soch  phrases  may  be  explolned  by  suppoelng^e  veuao  que^Je  deeire  que,  or  something 
aUnt  understood  Dofore  them. 


300  1*1^^  EiGHTT-EIGHTH  LESSON. 

He  carries  hifi  ambrella  for  fear  that  it    II  porte  son  parapluio  de  eraMe  qu^U 

may  rain,  ne  pleuve. 

In  that  manner.     In  such  a  manner.      .De  cette  manidre.    De  teUe  manidie. 
In  what  way.  De  quelle  manierc. 

6.  /n,  tn  such  oxpresslonA,  is  rendered  by  ds  in  French. 

The  stove.    The  stove-door.  Le  poele.    La  porte  dn  poele. 

The  duck.     To  tripe^  also  to  experience,  Le  canard.     Eemyer, 

The  turkey,  Le  dindon.     La  dinde. 

The  rest.     The  crop^  harvest  Le  reste.     La  reeolte. 

Obliged,     Differently,  ObligL     Differeinment. 

To  tear.     To  astonish,  Decfiirer,     JBtonner  {de  bef.  infl). 

To  conceive.     A  phrase.  Concevoir.     Une  phrase. 

There  is  the  rest  of  my  money.  Voil&  le  reste  de  mon  argent. 

0.  L^ft^  in  the  sense  ot  remaining,  at  the  end  of  a  claose.  Is  tnnsUted  de  resU. 

I  have  nothing  left.  «l£JE^ai  rien  de  reste. 

He  has  some  ducks  left.  IV#des  canards  de  reste. 

There  are  none  left.  ^^w  ®°  ^  P*^  ^  reste, 

A  few  more  apples  left.  ^x^^  quelques  pomroes  de  reste. 

7.  To  gei  or  have  something  done,  is  express^  in  French  by  the  verb  /aire  with  an 
Influitlve;  as,  "^ 

To  get  mended.     To  get  washed.  Faire  raccommoder.     Faire  lavtr. 

To  have  made.     To  have  swept.  F^e  faire.     Faire  balayer. 

Are  you  getting  your  coat  mended  ?        jfoifej-vous  raccommoder  votre  habit  ? 
I  am  getting  it  mended.  Zq\q  fais  raccommoder. 

8w  Faire  thus  osod  is  not  to  bo  separated  from  the  dependent  infinitive. 
Did  you  get  a  coat  made  ?  .^^-vous  fait  faire  un  habit  ? 

I  got  one  made.  J^^td  fait  faire  un. 

Did  you  have  those  trees  pulled  up  ?       A^-vous  fait  arraeher  ces  arbres  ? 
I  had  them  pulled  up.  "^^s  nifait  arraeher.* 

9.  Fait  followed  by  an  infinitive,  as  here,  is  never  varied  to  agree  with  a  preceding  noon 
or  pronoan,  becanse  the  infinitive  b  its  object.     -'^ 

I.  Si  voas  pensez  que  nous  valon?  mieox  que  ces  dcoliers  vous 
avez  raisoQ.  2.  Si  vous  dites  quails  valUent  mieuz  que  nous,  tous 
avez  tort.  3.  Ferez-vous  laver  votre  linge  f  4.  Je  le  ferai  laver. 
5.  Ce  petit  gar^on  n'a-t-il  pas  fait  rire  ces  hommes  1  6.  II  les  a 
fait  rire.  7.  Get  homme  a-t-il  quelque  chose  de  reste?  8.  II  n'a 
rien  de  reste.  9.  Mettez-vous  du  bois  dans  le  po^le  ?  10.  J'y  mets 
du  charbon.  11.  La  pluie  a  fait  du  mal  a  la  reeolte,  12.  Le  do- 
mestique  essuie  la  table.     13.  Concevez-vous  bien  ce  que  je  vous 

*  Les  In  this  sentence  is  the  object  of  arraeher  ;  literally,  I  have  made  poll  them  np. 

141  »       »  ,    S       931St         U      n         M  ,  8  S     U         U      13    S       II     «     1  S  C 

poela,  ca-nard,  e«-5u-yer,  din-don,  dind«,  rest^  r6-ooIt«,  ob-ll-ge,  dl/-f«i-rem-men^  dc- 
chi-ror,  6-ton*ner,  con-ce-voir,  phraz«,  ba-la-ycr. 


disf  14.  Je  le  consols  bien  et  mes  freres  le  con^oivent  anssL  16. 
Get  ^colier  etonne  tout  le  monde.  16.  D6chirez-vou8  votre  line  ? 
17.  Je  ne  le  dechire  jamais.  18:  Ltes-vous  oblig6  de  faire  voire 
tAche  de  cette  mani^re  ?  19.  Qui,  je  ne  puis  pas  la  faire  differem- 

1.  Why  does  that  boy  tear  his  book  1  2.  He  tears  it  because 
he  has  no  mind  to  learn  his  lesson.  3.  Why  are  you  astonished? 
4.  That  news  has  astonished  me ;  I  have  never  conceived  of  such 
an  (une  telle)  affair.  5.  Have  you  torn  your  cloak  t  6.  I  have 
torn  it,  and  I  wish  to  get  it  mended.  7.  Have  you  written  all  the 
Latin  phrases  of  your  lesson?  8.  I  have  written  all  the  Latin 
phrases  and  all  the  Greek  phrases.  9.  Does  the  maid-servant  wipe 
often  the  mouths  of  those  children  ?  10.  She  wipes  their  mouths 
and  their  hands  very  often.  11.  Why  do  the  scholars  wipe  their 
slates?  12.  They  wipe  them  because  they  are  wet.  13.  Has  the 
rain  done  harm  to  the  crop  ?  14.  It  has  done  it  good  15.  Have 
yon  some  ducks  left  ?  16.  I  have  some  ducks  and  some  turkeys 
left.  17.  Has  that  countryman  some  turkeys?  18.  He  has  no 
turkeys ;  he  has  a  few  ducks  left. 

19.  If  the  master  says  that  you  are  worth  more  than  we,  he 
is  wrong.  20.  If  he  says  that  we  are  worth  less  than  our  cousins, 
he  is  wrong.  21.  If  you  think  that  I  can  teach  you  French  in 
three  months,  you  are  deceived.  22.  My  father  died  in  eighteen 
hundred  and  fifty.  23.  He  was  bom  the  fourth  of  March,  eighteen 
hundred  and  one.  24.  Were  you  bom  in  eighteen  hundred  and 
thirty?  25.  I  was  bom  in  eighteen  hundred  and  twenty-eight. 
26.  Is  there  some  wood  left  ?  27.  No,  sir,  I  have  put  it  aU  in  the 
stove.  28.  You  do  not  write  well;  can  you  not  write  differ- 
ently? 29.  No,  sir,  we  are  obliged  to  write  in  this  manner.  30. 
Have  you  some  turkeys  left  ?     31.1  have  a  few  more  left. 


1.  That  scholar  reads  while  eating,  and  he  studies  also  while 
walking  (en  marckani).  2.  When  did  you  find  your  pencil  ?  3. 
Yesterday  ;  in  looking  for  my  pen,  I  found  my  pencil.  4.  Put  some 
wood  in  the  stove.  5.  Whatever  may  be  your  fortune,  you  ought 
not  for  that  to  believe  yourself  (vous)  better.  6.  Whatever  may  be 
the  books  that  you  read,  you  do  not  appear  to  profit  {prqfi(i)  much 
by  your  reading.  7.  Whoever  may  wish  to  do  me  wrong,  shall  pay 
dear  (for)  his  audacity  {audace).     8.  Whomsoever  I  shelter  {abrUe) 


has  to  fear  no  danger.     9.  Whatever  yon  do,  do  it  always  with 
good  will. 

10.  I  have  a  cold  in  the  head  which  gives  me  the  headache.  IL 
It  is  very  disagreeable  ;  it  is  necessary  to  take  a  little  hot  tea  this 
evening.  12.  It  is  nothing  dangerous.  13.  You  went  out  in  (par) 
the  rain ;  is  not  your  linen  wet  t  14.  No ;  my  coat  is  perhaps  a 
little  damp.  15.  Go  and  change  it.  16.  No,  it  is  not  necessary ; 
it  is  not  very  damp.  17.  Change  it,  if  it  is  not  quite  dry ;  you 
have  already  a  cold  in  the  head,  and  if  you  remain  with  your  coat 
wet,  you  will  have  a  cold  in  the  breast,  and  you  will  be  perhaps  ve^ 
sick.  18.  Well,  I  am  going  to  change  my  \de)  coat.  19.  Here  is 
one ;  take  off  yours,  and  put  on  this.  20.  No,  thank  you,  I  am 
going  to  my  room ;  I  wish  to  put  on  also  a  pair  of  dry  stockiDgs. 
21.  You  had  better  (vousferez  bien). 



1.  The  mode  of  foiming  the  present  snbjanctlye  has  been  given  (Lesson  81);  the  Ibl* 
lowing  Is  still  more  comprehensive.  The  first  and  second  persons  plural  are,  in  most  Tertw^ 
the  same  as  those  of  the  imperlbet  indicative,  and  the  three  persons  singular  and  third  per- 
son plural  may  be  had  by  dropping  srt  of  the  third  person  plural  indicative  present,  and 
adding  the  terminating  letters,  b,  ns,  x,  xrt. 

8l  All  verbs  in  xvoin,  as  Dwtdr^  also  Acquirir^  Botrt^  Mourir,  Venir^  Tentr,  and 
Prendre,  form  the  present  subjunctive  according  to  the  above  rule,  as  exoepttona  to  tlM 
general  rule  (Lesson  81),  thus: 

Qtte  Je  doite^      que  iu  doivee,  qu^U  doive,  que  noue  deviant^  que  f>oue  dstiem^ 

That  I  may  owe,  that  thou  mayest  owe,  that  he  may  owe,  that  we,  eta,        that  you,  etc., 

qu^ile  doivenlt  that  they  may  owe. 
Queje  boive,        -iu  hoivee,        M  boive,       -noiM  bwvUme^  -Wfus  buviea^  -ib  Ifdoent, 
That  I  may  drink,  that  thou,  etc.,  that  he,  etc.,  that  we,  etc.,     that  you,  etc.,  that  they,  eta 
Qtteje  meure,    -iu  meuree^       -U  mewe,     -nouemfntrUma^  -vous  nwuiA^  -ib  mumrmiit 
That  I  may  die,  that  thou,  eta,  that  he,  eta,  that  wo,  eta,       that  yon,  eta,  that  they,  et& 
Queje  vienne,       -iu  viennea,      -U  vienne,     -naue  venUme^  -wua  eenteR,  -He  HemmetUt 
That  I  may  come,  that  thou,  eta,  that  he,  etc,  that  we,  eta,     that  you,  eta,  that  they,  eta 
Queje  Uenne,       -tutietmea^       -UUenne,      -none  tenione,    -voueUtiieB^  •Oftfefmen^ 
That  I  may  hold,  that  thou,  eta,  that  he,  eta,  that  we,  eta,     that  you,  eta,  that  they,  eta 
Queje  prenne,      -tuprennee,      Mprenne,   -nouapreniotUf-wnupremdee^Mepremmemi, 
ThatlmayUke,  that  thou,  eta,  that  he,  eta,  that  we,  eta,     that  yon,  eta,  that  they,  eta 
Quefaequiiret      que  tu  aequierea,  ete.^  que  noua  ticquiriana,  que  voua  aequMm^  ete.. 
That  I  may  acquire,  that  thou,  eta,  that  we  may  acquire,    that  you  may  acquire^  etei 

8L  Besides  the  above,  the  irregnUr  subjunctives,  previously  given,  are  these : 

SB  4    M«  4    MB        S9  SO  M    un         SB    MS        SO  U  M     M» 

dolve,  de-vion«,  de-vlee,  dolven/,  bolvd,  bu-vlont,  bu-vlee,  boi veni,  menre,  mon-xlona 

"    ?;•  "  ..      "■  ♦     «'  *      •        M»  M»  4      «  4       «        M» 

nion-rle%  i>umr«"<»  V*ia»**  '^"®°*»  '^••n*^  Tienneni,  tienne^  te-non«,  te-nei^  tlemMni; 
preni»#,  pre-nion«,  pre-nies^  prennent 




Aller,  ailU,  Leason  88. 

Avoir,  ais,         *^     82, 

fitRS  mU,        "     82. 


Falre,  /bM«,  LeaBon  81 
Fallolr,  yb<0e,  »  87. 
PoaTolr,  pui8$e,    **     83. 

nrr.         sirv. 
Yaloir,     vaiUtf,*  Lesson  8& 
^oalolr,  ««uiaa,       **     8& 
and  their  eompoonds.* 

I  wish  jon  to  drink  thiB. 
He  is  afraid  that  I  owe  mach. 
I  fear  that  thou  mayest  die  soon. 
It  is  necessary  for  him  to  come. 
Do  you  wish  us  to  hold  the  horses  ? 

Do  yon  think  that  they  uke  your  fruit  ? 
I  wish  you  to  acquire  riches. 

A  master-work.     Without,  out  of  it. 

Prudent.     Formerly, 

Such,    Such  a  fact 

An  cbetaeU.    A  wedding. 

The  Britons.    The  OauU, 

A  professor. 

An  Irishman,    His  arrival. 

To  injurs.     Injured. 

That  aifiur  has  injured  his  reputation. 

To  subdue.    The  end 

Sad,  vexing,    I  believe  so. 

4.  In  snch  ezpreflsions  as  I  think  «o,  /  heHsve  not,  etc,  meaning,  /  think  thai  it  is  so,  1 
hstievs  that  it  is  not  «&,  etc,  the  out,  the  si,  and  the  non,  mnst  be  preceded  by  que  in  French. 

I  believe  not.    I  think  so.  Je  crois  que  non,  Je  pense  que  ouiy  or  n. 

Tou  had  better,  Vousferez  bien,  vous  feres  mieux, 

&  JfZewB  is  thos  used  with  the  fUtnre  otJMre  when  comparison  Is  expressed;  bien, 
when  it  is  not.    Fairs  Iden  tskes  ds  before  the  inflnltiTo. 

Tou  had  better 

Je  ddsire  que  tous  huviez  ceci. 

II  a  peur  que  je  ne  doive  beaucoup. 

Je  crains  que  tu  ne  meures  bientdt. 

II  faut  qu'il  vienne. 

Voulez-vous  quo  nous  tenions  les  chc- 

Fensez-vous  quails />ren9ien<  votre  fruit  ? 

Je  desire  que  tous  acqutries  des  rich- 

Un  ehef-d^oeuvre.    Dehors. 

Prudent,    Autrefois, 

Tel,    Un  tel  fait 

Un  obstacle.    Une  noee. 

Les  Bretons,     Les  Gatdois. 

Un  professeur. 

Un  irlandais.    Son  arrivee, 

Nuire  (d  bef.  n.).    Nui  (past  part). 

Get  affaire  a  nui  li  sa  reputation. 

Soumettre  (comp.  of  mettre),    L&Jin, 

Fdeheux.    Je  crois  gtte  oui,  or  si. 

study  French  than 
Now  you  had  better  pUy. 
Such  an  a£Bur. 
Let  us  go  to  meet  our  friends. 

Perhaps  your  brother  will  come  soon. ' 

Yoxiaferez  fnieux\  d^^tudier  le  fran^ais 

que  Tespagnol. 
A  present  vous/er«»  bien  f  de  jouer. 
Une  telle  ai&ire. 
Allons  au-devant  (&  la  rencontre)  de 

nos  amis. 
Peut4tre  voire  frire  vicndra  bientdt. 
Feut-4tre  que  votre  frdre  viendra  bien- 

Peut4tre  votre  frdre  viendra-t-il  bien- 


^  Pripaloir^  a  eomnonnd  of  wUoir.  makes  the  snbjnnctire  private,  renilar. 
t  In  the  former  of  tnese  sentences  there  is  comparison  between  the  study  of  French  and 
Bpaaish,  and  mieum  is  nsed;  in  the  latter  there  is  no  comparison,  and  bien  is  used. 

f  4    10         tt    S        IT        »       •     IS       I  u  w  •       "     ?  ,■     j't 

che/^'oBUvrSt  do-hort,  pm-dent  sntrs-tols,  tel,  ob-stacls,  noc«,  pTO-fe*«enr,  ir-lan-dai^ 

1       19    9        ntB        BIS    U         5  3  •         14 

ai^ri-v6e,  nn-lrsi,  nnl,  son-mettre,  flk-chens,  fin. 


1.  J'admire  beaucoup  ce  tableau ;  c'est  nn  chef-d*oeuTie.  2.  Les 
hommes  n'etaient-ils  pas  bien  forts  autrefois  t  3.  Es  n'etaient  pas 
plus  forts  autrefois  qu'aujourd'huL  4.  Get  homme  a  garde  un  si- 
lence prudent.  5.  C'est  une  action  bien  prudente.  6.  J'irai  a  la 
noce  ce  soir.  7.  Est-il  n^cessaire  de  rester  ici  longtemps  t  8.  II 
est  n^cessaire  d'y  rester  jusqu'^  la  fin  du  mois.  9.  Get  accident  est 
bien  f&cheuz.  10.  Le  professeur  a  beaucoup  de  courage ;  il  a  Tain- 
cu  tous  les  obstacles.  11.  Votre  professeur  est-il  arrive  f  12.  Qui, 
et  son  arrivoe  m'a  fait  grand  plaisir.  13.  Est-il  allemand  ?  14. 
Non,  c'est  un  irlandais  qui  a  un  bonne  reputation.  15.  Est-il  alle 
dehors?  16.  Qui,  il  vient  de  sortir.  17.  Gcsar  conquit  I'Espagne 
et  la  Gaule,  soumit  I'^gypte  et  vainquit  Pompee.  18.  Dis-tu  que 
je  regoive  ton  argent?     19.  Je  ne  dis  pas  que  tu  le  resolves. 

1.  Do  you  believe  that  I  owe  you  money?  2.  I  do  not  believe 
that  you  owe  me  much.  3.  Do  you  think  that  the  merchants  re- 
ceive our  letters  ?  4.  I  do  not  think  that  they  receive  them.  5. 
Is  the  doctor  afraid  that  we  may  die  ?  6.  He  is  afraid  that  you 
may  die.  7.  Does  the  physician  permit  you  to  drink  coffee?  8, 
He  permits  me  to  drink  coffee  and  tea.  9.  It  is  time  for  the  master 
to  come ;  do  you  believe  that  he  is  coming  ?  10.  I  do  not  believe 
that  he  is  coming  before  ten  o'clock.  11.  Do  you  wish  us  to  hold 
your  books  ?  12.  I  wish  you  to  hold  my  books  and  my  papers.  13. 
Do  you  wish  me  to  take  your  horse?  14.  I  do  not  wish  you  to  take 
him ;  I  wish  the  boy  to  take  him.  15.  Do  you  say  that  the  doctor 
acquires  reputation  ?     16.  I  say  that  he  acquires  mucL 

17.  Is  the  professor  a  prudent  man  ?  18.  He  is  very  prudent. 
19.  Gaesar  conquered  the  Gauls  and  subdued  the  Britons.  20.  Do 
such  affairs  astonish  you?  21.  Such  affairs  do  not  astonish  me. 
22.  Does  the  servant  put  the  horse  in  the  stable,  or  does  he  leave 
him  out  ?  23.  He  leaves  him  out.  24.  Were  men  stronger  for- 
merly than  at  present  ?  25.  My  friend  thinks  so ;  but  I  {moi^  je) 
think  not.  26.  Your  sister  will  not  go  to  the  wedding ;  will  she  t 
27.  I  think  sa  28.  Do  yon  admire  my  father's  new  work?  29. 
Yes,  sir ;  it  is  a  master-piece.  30.  Had  I  better  buy  that  horse  ? 
31.  You  had  better  buy  him.  32.  My  brother  wishes  to  study  Ital- 
ian ;  had  he  not  better  study  German  ?  33.  He  had  better  study 
German.  34.  The  royal  palace  (palait  royal)  is  magnificent;  it 
is  a  master-piece. 



1.  Wni  yon  pay  the  countryman  for  his  horse  at  the  end  of  the 
week  ?  2.  No,  I  shall  pay  him  for  it  at  the  end  of  the  month.  3. 
Is  there  a  wedding  at  your  neighbor's  this  evening  t  4.  I  think  so. 
5.  Has  not  the  physician  injured  his  reputation  t  6.  He  has  in- 
jured it  much.  7.  Have  you  heard  the  news  f  8.  Yes,  sir ;  it  is 
very  sad.  9.  Are  you  waiting  for  your  brother  to  come  1  10.  I  am 
waiting  for  my  brother  and  sister  to  come.  11.  Do  you  consent  that 
I  take  these  books  ?  12.  I  consent  that  you  take  them.  13.  Are 
yon  afraid  that  we  may  drink  too  much  wine?  14.  I  am  not 
afiraid  that  you  may  drink  too  much ;  but  I  am  afraid  that  the  son 
of  our  neighbor  may  drink  too  much.  15.  Are  you  afraid  that  that 
sick  man  may  die  ?     16.  I  am  afraid  that  he  may  die  soon. 

17.  Do  you  approve  of  my  learning  German  t  18.  Yes ;  I  will 
have  thee  learn  German  and  Spanish.  19.  Is  it  necessary  that  I 
bold  these  horses?  20.  No;  I  will  have  the  servant  hold  them.  21. 
Do  yon  know  any  one  who  receives  more  letters  than  I  ?  22.  I  do 
not  believe  that  you  receive  so  many  as  our  neighbor.  23.  Does 
the  master  approve  of  my  coming  here  at  nine  o'clock  ?  24.  Yes  ; 
but  he  likes  better  that  you  come  at  eight.  25.  An  Irishman  went 
to  see  a  professor  of  music,  and  asked  him  what  was  the  price  of 
his  lessons.  26.  The  professor  replied :  *'  Six  dollars  for  the  first 
month,  and  three  for  the  second."  27.  "  Then,"  said  the  Irish- 
man, ^^  I  will  come  the  second  month." 



1.  PBOHOimrAL  TxsBfl  are  thoee  which  hare  a  pronoan  for  object,  of  the  same  person 
as  the  anbject  They  are  either  r^/UcUva  or  reciprocal;  as,  I  warm  mytelf,  he  toarms 
him§el/^  theyJlaUcr  each  other.  These  yerbe  are  much  more  namerons  in  French  than  in 
Eagllah,  and  require  the  especial  attention  of  the  learner.    And  first, 

I. — ^Yerbs  which  are  reflective  or  reciprocal  in  English  are  the  same  in  French. 

IHftuelf,  herself^  itself^  one's  selfj  theirU'  Se^  before  the  verb.     {8e  becomes  «* 

selves,  before  a  Towel  or  a  silent  k,) 

To  uHuh  one's  self.     To  hurt  on^a  self,  8e  laver.    Se  fairs  maL 

To  shave.    To  shave  onc^s  selfL  Riuer,    Se  raser. 

To  warm.    To  warm  one's  self.  Chauffer,    Se  chauffer. 

To  flatter  each  other.  Se  flatter. 

To  dress.    To  dress  one's  self.  Habiller,    S'habiller. 

To  undress.    To  undress  one's  Beit  Deshabiller,    Se  d^shabiller. 

To  behave^  to  behave  one's  self  Se  comporter^  se  condtUre, 

To  behave  well     To  behave  badly.  Se  bien  comporter.   Se  mal  comporter. 

IS        17     •      ins       s     1   u    s     n      IS     e      n     «is 
ra-zer,  chat^-fer,  ha-bil-ler,  dea-Aa-bil-ler,  com-por-ter,  eon-dolre. 



Dost  thou  ahaye  thyself?     I  shave    2%rasee-ta?    Je  me  rase. 

Does  he  shave  himself?    He  shaves    J&rase-t-il?    11  «e  rase. 

Do  you  shave  yourselves?    We  shave     Vaus  rasez-vous?    Nous  nout 

Do  they  shave   themselves?      They    iSe  raaent-ils  ?    DsMrasent. 

shave  themselves. 

2.  The  pronoun  in  Italics  ia  the  object  of  the  verb. 
Do  you  flatter  yourselves  (or  each     FcnM  flattez-vous  ? 

We  do  not  flatter  ourselves  (or  each    Nous  ne  notu  flattons  paa. 
»         other). 

Do  they  not  flatter  each  other? 
They  flatter  each  other. 
Do  I  not  shave  myself? 

Thou  dost  not  shave  thyselfl 

Did  you  shave  yourself?    I  shaved 

Wilt  thou  not  shave  thyself? 
I  shall  not  shave  myself. 
Do  you  permit  us  to  warm  ourselves  ? 

I  permit  you  to  warm  yourselves. 
I  am  under  many  obligations  to  you. 
To  lower  J  east  down.    To  raUe. 
To  blush,  become  red.    To  reduce. 
To  construct.    A  voice. 
An  amusement.    Dancing. 
A  vaii.    Infinitely. 
Light.    The  guard. 

Ne  se  flattent-ils  pas? 

lis  se  flattent 

Ne  me  ras6-je  pas  ?  or,  £st-oe  que  je 

ne  me  rase  pas  ? 
Tu  ne  te  rase  pas. 
Vous  rasiez-vous  ?  '  Je  am  raniflL 

Ne  te  raseras-tu  pas? 
Je  ne  me  raserai  pas. 
Permettez-vous  que  nous  nous  chauf- 

Je  permets  que  vous  vous  chauffies. 
Je  vous  ai  beaucoup  d^obligataons. 
Baisser.    Lever, 
Rcfugir.    Reduire  (d  bef.  inf.). 
Construire.    Une  voix, 
tin  amusement.    La  danse, 
Un  voile.    Infiniment. 
Leger.     La  garde. 

S.  Prendre  garde,  to  beware  ot,  takes  d  before  a  noun  and  de  before  the  InflnltiveL 

Beware  of  that  man. 

Beware  of  him. 

It  is  necessary  to  guard  against  robbers. 

Take  care  not  to  fall. 

Beware  of  losing  your  money. 

Prends  garde  k  cet  homme. 

Prends  garde  &  lul 

n  faut  prendre  garde  aux  voleurs. 

Prenez  garde  de  tomber. 

Prenez  garde  de  perdro  votre  argent. 

4  Autre  and  autremeni,  like  comparatives  of  enperiorlty  or  Inferiority,  when  not  ]|fig« 
ative,  take  ns  before  the  following  verb. 

She  is  quite  different  from  what  she  was.    Elle  est  tout  autre  qu^elle  n^^tait. 
He  thinks  quite  otherwise  than  you    II  pense  tout  autrement  que  vous  ne 
believe.  croyez. 

bal«-eer,  le-ver,  roa-gir,  r^-daire,  oon-etroire,  voifls^  a-moM-menC,  danse,  to11«i  ia-fl*Bl* 

meai;  1^-ger,  garde. 


1.  Frenez  garde  k  cet  homme ;  il  pent  rons  nnire  dans  vos  af- 
fiures.  2.  La  semaine  demidre  quand  cette  dame  etait  en  danger, 
la  d6fendite8-vous  f  3.  Je  la  d^fendis.  4.  Pourquoi  ce  petit  gar- 
gon  baisse-t-il  les  yeux  I  5.  II  les  baisse  parce  qu'H  a  honte,  mais 
il  les  leve  quand  on  Ini  parle.  6.  Cette  jeune  fille  rougit-elle  sou- 
Tent?  7.  Elle  rougit  lorsqu'on  lui  parle.  8.  Le  ma^on  construit-il 
one  maiflon  de  brique  ?  9.  Non,  il  en  construit  une  de  pierre.  10. 
Aimeat^Yous  la  danse  t  11.  Oui,  c'est  un  amusement  tres-agr^able. 
12.  tPentends  nne  voix  qui  m'appelle.  18.  Cette  dame  l6ve  son 
▼oile  parce  qu'elle  veut  parler  k  son  amie ;  c'est  une  femme  infini- 
ment  aimable.  14.  Let  barbier  vous  rase-t-il  ?  15.  II  me  rase  qua- ' 
tre  foia  par  semaine.  16.  Ce  bois-ci  est-il  plus  I6ger  que  Teau  t  17. 
H  est  un  pen  plus  leger.  18.  J'ai  reduit  le  nombre  de  mes  domes- 
tiques.  19.  Ne  te  comportes-tu  pas  bien  1  20.  Je  me  condnis  bien. 
21.  Ce  petit  garden  se  comporte-t-il  bien  ?  22.  II  se  conduit  maL 
23.  Ke  Yous  rasez-vous  pas  ?  24.  Nous  nous  rasons  tons  les  ma- 
tins. 25.  Les  enfants  se  cbauffent-ils  ?  26.  lis  se  chauffent.  27. 
Cet  enfant  s'habille-t-il  ?  28.  II  s'habille  et  il  se  desbabille  tous 
les  jours.  29.  Ne  yous  rasiez-Yous  pas  quand  yous  ^tiez  k  la  cam- 
pagne?  30.  Je  me  rasais  tous  les  matins.  31.  Ne  yous  chauffe- 
rez-Yons  pas  quand  yous  arriYerez  chez  yous  t  32.  Je  ne  me  chauf- 
fend  pas  ;  je  n'ai  pas  froid. 

1.  Why  does  that  young  girl  cast  down  her  eyes  t  2.  She  casts 
them  down  because  they  are  looking  at  her.  3.*  Why  does  she 
raise  her  Yail  ?  4.  8he  raises  it  because  she  wishes  to  speak  to  the 
merchant.  5.  Does  she  always  blush  when  one  speaks  to  hert 
6.  She  often  blushes  when  one  speaks  to  her.  7.  After  having 
(apres  avoir)  lost  my  fortune,  I  reduced  my  expenses.  8.  Did  you 
reduce  the  number  of  your  servants  ?  9.  I  reduced  it  one-half  {de 
moilie).  10.  Did  those  workmen  construct  your  house  ?  11.  They 
constructed  it.  12.  Did  you  have  it  constructed  last  autumn  ?  13. 
Noy  sir,  I  had  it  constructed  last  summer.  14.  The  dog  hears  the 
voice  of  his  master,  15.  Do  the  mountains  defend  your  house  from 
the  wind  ?     16.  They  defend  it  from  the  wind  and  from  the  cold. 

17.  Why  dost  thou  warm  thyself!  18.  I  warm  myself  because 
lam  cold.  19.  Do  you  not  warm  yourselves!  20.  We  do  not 
warm  ourselves ;  it  is  not  cold.  21.  Do  those  travelers  warm  them- 
selves  !     22.  They  do  not  warm  themselves.     23.  Dost  thou  shave 


myself,  or  does  the  barber  shave  theet  24.  I  share  myself  every 
morning.  25.  Does  the  servant  dress  those  children,  or  do  they 
dress  themselves  {eux-m^mes)  ?  26.  They  dress  themselves  evety 
morning,  and  undress  themselves  every  night.  27.  That  sick  man 
cannot  undress  himself.  28.  Do  you  behave  well?  29.  Yes,  sir, 
we  always  behave  well.  30.  Does  that  child  always  behave  well! 
31.  No,  sir,  he  sometimes  behaves  very  badly.  32.  Did  yon  not 
shave  yourself  when  yon  were  in  the  country?  33.  Yes,  I  alw« 
shaved  myself.  34.  Will  you  dress  yourself  early  to-morrow  moTi 
ing  ?     35.  I  shall  dress  myself  at  six  o'clock. 


1.  Did  not  your  cousin  behave  w^ell  when  he  went  to  school! 
2.  He  did  not  behave  weU.  3.  Did  you  not  shave  early  when  yoa 
were  in  the  country  ?  4.  I  always  shaved  early.  5.  Do  you  dress 
yourselves  several  times  a  day  (par  jour)  I  6.  No,  sir,  we  dress 
but  once  a  day.  7.  What  I  desire  is  to  fulfill  my  obligations.  8* 
What  kings  often  like  the  best  is  flattery  (la  flaiterie).  9.  The  mu- 
sic which  I  like  the  best  is  to  hear  the  singing  of  the  birds.  10. 
Will  not  that  child  hurt  himself?  11.  I  fear  that  he  may  hurt 
himself.  12.  Music  is  for  me  an  amusement  and  not  an  occupa- 
tion (occupation).  13.  Do  you  not  hear  the  voice  of  some  one ! 
14.  Yes,  it  is  the  voice  of  Charles  who  is  calling  us.  15.  This  wood 
is  lighter  than  water.  16.  Dancing  fatigues  me ;  I  do  not  like  it 

17.  I  come  for  my  handkerchief  which  I  left  here.  18.  It  is  in 
the  other  room,*on  the  table.  19.  Are  you  going  to  the  wedding 
this  evening?  20.  Yes,  I  am  going  there.  21.  At  what  o'clock 
is  the  ceremony  to  take  place  ?  22.  At  half  past  eight.  23.  Is 
there  to  be  much  (grande)  company?  24.  No,  there  will  not  be 
many  people  (there).  25.  Will  you  return  early  or  late  this  even- 
ing? 26.  I  do  not  know;  but  may  be  I  shall  not  return  before 
midnight.  27.  Is  there  to  be  a  ball  ?  28.  I  believe  not ;  but  there 
will  be  a  wedding  supper  (un  soitper  de  noce),  29.  You  will  not 
stay  until  the  end  ;  will  you?  30.  I  think  so,  if  it  be  not  too  late. 
31.  Glood  morning ;  I  am  going  out.  32. 1  wish  you  much  pleasure 
till  we  see  each  other  again  (au  revoir). 



Wo  love  each  other.  Nona  noos  aimons. 

Thoy  praise  each  other.  Ik  se  lonent  Tun  Tautro. 



They  Bpeak  against  each  other.  Us  parlent  Pun  contre  Taatre. 

He  begijQB  to  studj.  H  se  met  4  6tudier. 

1.  S6  mtttre  followed  by  d  And  an  InflnltiTe  may  meaa  to  besln. 
They  began  to  drink.  lis  se  mirent  h,  boirc. 

Every  body  began  to  laugh.  Toat  le  monde  se  mit  &  rire 

IL — ^Verbs  are  pronominnl  In  French,  thoagh  not  in  English,  which  express  one^s  doing 
aomething  to  any  part  of  himaeiC  The  refleetlTe  pronoun  is  always  placed  before  other 
obJectlTe  pronoona. 

Do8l  thon  wash  thy  hands  ? 

I  wash  them. 

He  washes  his  hands. 

Do  you  wash  your  hands  ? 

We  do  not  wash  them. 

Do  they  not  wash  their  faces  t     • 

They  wash  them. 

Does  that  young  girl  warm  her  feet? 

Does  she  not  warm  them  f 
She  does  not  warm  them. 
Do  they  not  bum  their  feet  f 
They  do  not  burn  them.  • 

7b  rub.     To  pardon. 

Te  layes-tu  les  mains? 

Je  me  les  layc. 

II  se  lave  les  mains. 

Tons  lavez-vous  les  mains? 

Kous  ne  nous  les  lavons  pas. 

Ke  se  lavent-lls  pas  le  visage  ? 

lis  se  le  lavent. 

Cette  jeune  fiUe  se  chaufTe-t-etle  lee 

Ne  se  les  chauffe-t-elle  pas  ? 
Elle  ne  se  les  chauffe  pas. 
Ne  se  briilent-ils  pas  les  pieds  ? 
lis  ne  se  les  brdlent  pas. 
Frotter,    Pardonner. 

2.  PardowMT  takes  d  before  a  person  and  d6  before  an  infinitive. 

Do  you  pardon  that  man^s  faults  ? 

I  pardon  them. 

He  prevents  my  doing  that. 

&  We  have  seen  that  empieher^  craindre^  avoir  peur^  trembler,  and  apprehtnder,  take 
ns  before  the  following  snbjonctive. 

Pardonnez-vous    k  cet   homme   sea 

Je  les  lui  pardonne. 
n  m^emp^che  de  faire  cela. 

We  prevent  that  child  from  doing 

what  he  pleases. 
He  trembles  lest  thou  tcU  his  secret. 
I  apprehend  his  telling  it. 
I  hurt  my  eyes  when  I  rub  them. 

I  hurt  them  when  I  rub  them. 
UieleM,    The  truth. 
A  member,  limb.     The  leg, 
A  mong.     The  frofit  door. 
Behind.    The  back  door. 
Itiaa  pity.     It  is  a  great  pity. 

Noble.    Friendship. 

Nous  emp6ehons  quo  cet  enfant  ne 

fasse  ce  quUl  veut. 
II  tremble  que  tu  ne  dises  son  secret. 
Tapprehende  quUl  ne  le  diee. 
Je  me  fais  mal  aux  yeuz  quand  je  me 

les  frotte. 
Je  m^y  fais  mal  quand  Je  les  frotte.  • 
Inutile.     La  viriie. 
Le  membre.    Ltijambe. 
Farmi.    La  porte  de  devant. 
Derriere,    La  porte  de  derriere. 
H  ett  {cUet)  dommage.     H  eet  {e^est) 

grand  dommage. 
Noble.     Vamitie. 

«       1     IS      •     i«  ssn     s  u  •      t  t  1      >^   .^    ^?7      J*        * 

fWi^ter,  par-don-nei*,  i-nu-til,  v6-rl-ti,  membre,  Jambe,  par-ml,  der-rl6re,  dom-moij*, 

M  1      J9  US 

ttobl«^  a-ml-ti^. 


Othertoi9e.    An  obliffaHon,  AuiremenL    Uiie  chligaHon, 

In  the  mean  time,  CependanL     En  aUendant. 

However^  nevertheless,  Cependant,    Pourtant.    NSanmoinM, 

ffowfarf    Flattery.  JuBqu'oikf    La/atterie. 

Among  them.     Behind  him.  Parmi  euz.    Derri^re  lui. 

Before  the  door.    Behind  the  door.  Devant  la  porte.    Berri^re  la  porte. 

4  Wo  have  seen  (Lmsoii  68)  that  wordB  denoting  qnantity  generallj  take  ds  wlthoot 
the  article  before  a  following  noon.  La  plurpart,  however,  like  bie»^  takca  de  with  the  ar- 
ticle ;  and  the  verbs,  participleSf  and  a4jectives  following  la  plupari  do  not  agree  with  it, 
bat  with  the  noan  which  it  limits;  thoa, 

Most  men  love  flattery.  La  plapart  des  hommes  aiment  la  fiat- 

Most  women  are  not  beantifuL  La  plupart  des  femmes  ne  eomi  pas  heUes. 

The  greatest  part  are  amiable.  La  plupart  eont  aimablee. 

1.  De  qaoi  ces  jeunes  filles  se  couTrent-ellea  le  visage  t  2.  EUes 
Be  le  couvrent  de  voiles.  8.  De  quoi  coavrent-elles  leurs  livres  ?  4. 
EUes  les  couvrent  de  papier.  5.  Ponrquoi  ce  gargon  se  frotte-t-il 
les  mains  ?  6.  II  se  le  frotte  pour  se  les  rechauffer.  7«  Pardonnei- 
voos  ^  cet  homme  de  vous  avoir  offens^  ?  8.  Je  le  Ini  pardonne. 
9.  Ne  vous  faites-vous  pas  mal  aux  yeux  quand  vous  vous  les  frot- 
tezt  10.  Je  ne  m'y  fais  pas  mal.  11.  Appr^hendez-vous  que 
voire  ami  ne  soit  malade  ?  12.  Oui,  je  tremble  qu'il  ne  meure. 
13.  II  7  a  beaucoup  de  cboses  inutiles  dans  cette  maison.  14.  Ce 
malade  n'a-t-il  pas  mal  h,  la  jambe  ?  15.  Si,  tous  les  membres  lui 
font  mal.  16.  Fennez  la  porte  de  devant  et  la  porte  de  deniere. 
17.  Aimez-vous  la  v6rite  ?  18.  Oui,  tout  le  monde  aime  la  v^rit^. 
19.  Cet  homme  n'est-il  pas  de  famille  noble  t  20.  II  est  noble  de 
p&re  et  de  m^re.  21.  Cet  homme  a  promis  de  me  rendre  des  ser- 
vices ;  cependant,  il  en  ^  fait  tout  autrement,  il  ne  remplit  pas  ses 
obligations.  22.  Ces  hommes  vivent  dans  une  grande  amitie.  23. 
Jusqu'oii  allez-vous  1     24.  Je  vais  jusqu'il  la  riviere. 

1.  Do  you  begin  to  study  early  every  day?  2.  I  begin  to  study 
at  five  every  morning.  3.  Does  that  negligent  boy  {petit  negligent) 
bum  his  shoes  \vhen  he  warms  his  feet  ?  4.  He  bums  his  shoes 
and  he  bums  his  feet  also.  5.  Has  the  master  pardoned  that  lazy 
scholar!  6.  He  has  pardoned  him.  7.  Do  those  children  wash 
their  hands  ?  8.  They  wash  their  hands  and  their  faces.  9.  Do 
you  warm  your  feet  ?     10.  I  warm  my  feet  and  my  hands.    11.  Do 

17  1       U       11    1  1391       4SBltS  US  SMS)  t  V% 

aatr#-menl,  ob-li-ga-tioOf  ce-p<;n-diinC,  a^ten-danl^  poar^tant,  iie-«a-inoln8»  fl«tft-ri«L 


yoa  bom  yonr  hands  when  jou  warm  them?  12.  I  do  not  bnm 
them.  13.  Do  you  hurt  your  eyes  when  you  wash  your  facet  14. 
I  do  ndt'^urt  theuL^ '  15.  Does  not  that  learned  man  love  the  truth  f 
16.  He  loves  the  truth,  and  defends  it  with  more  courage  than  yoa 
think.  17.  Do  your  limbs  pain  you  t  18.  Yes,  all  my  limbs  pain 

19.  Is  the  surgeon  going  to  cut  off  that  man's  arm?  20.  No, 
he  is  going  to  cut  off  his  left  leg.  21.  Do  you  find  my  pen  among 
yonr  books  ?  22.  I  find  it  among  my  papers.  23.  Are  you  going 
to  shut  the  front  door  or  the  back  door  ?  24.  I  am  going  to  shut 
neither  the  front  door  nor  the  back  door ;  I  am  going  to  shut  the 
window.  25.  Is  that  man  your  Mend  ?  26.  Yes,  he  renders  me 
much  service  from  friendship.  27.  Does  your  neighbor  fulfill  his 
obligations?  28.  He  fulfills  all  his  obligations.  29.  That  man 
promised  to  be  my  friend ;  nevertheless  he  has  done  quite  other- 
wise. 30.  Bum  those  papers ;  they  are  useless.  31.  That  scholar 
has  wit,  but  he  does  not  study ;  it  is  a  pity.  32.  Why  do  you  rub 
your  hands  ?  33.  I  rub  them  in  order  to  warm  them.  34.  Those 
children  are  washing  their  faces. 


1.  I  come  to  ask  you  a  question.  2.  What  one  ?  3.  It  is  to 
tell  me  where  the  tailor  lives  who  makes  your  clothes  (habits).  4. 
If  you  wish,  I  will  take  you  to  his  shop  {sa  boutique).  5.  I  accept ; 
yoa  do  me  a  service.  6.  Do  you  wish  to  change  your  tailor  ?  7. 
Yes  ;  the  last  clothes  that  mine  made  for  me,  were  very  badly  sewed, 
and  I  have  need  of  a  coat  and  waistcoat  for  the  ball  which  they  are 
to  give  next  Wednesday.  8.  The  royal  palace  is  superb  ;  it  is  a 
master-work.  9.  Have  you  not  injured  that  man  ?  10.  I  think 
not;  I  have  not  intended  (had  the  intention)  to  injure  him.  11. 
That  physician  is  able,  and  nevertheless  he  has  made  a  great  mis- 
take.    12.  He  is  still  very  young,  and  nevertheless  he  is  very  wise. 

13.  We  will  go  to  my  tailor's  this  afternoon,  if  you  wish ;  he 
does  good  work,  but  he  is  a  little  dear.  14.  That  is  (/at/)  noth- 
ing;  I  do  not  look  at  (d)  a  few  franks  (francs)  more  or  less  if  the 
work  is  well  done.  15.  You  are  right ;  those  who  work  too  cheap 
often  do  only  very  bad  work.  16.  How  long  has  that  house 
been  burned?  17.  It  burned  last  Saturday.  18.  It  has  been 
burned  then  seven  days  to-day,  and  I  knew  nothing  of  it  19.  Your 
brother  and  I  (nous)  went  to  the  fire  the  evening  that  it  burned. 
20.  It  was  unknown  to  me.  21.  Were  you  not  in  the  country  at 
your  uncle's  that  evening  ?  22.  It  is  true ;  I  had  forgotten  it ;  it 
is  for  that  reason  (pour  ceh)  that  I  knew  nothing  of  it.     23.  They 


broke  many  tilings ;  some  (les  nns)  carried  (emportaient)  the  car- 
pets oat  of  (par)  the  door,  and  others  threw  the  looking-glasses  oat 
of  the  window.  24.  It  is  always  thus  (comme  cela)  that  they  do 
when  there  is  a  {un  incendie)  fire ;  they  break  abnost  every  tiling 
(tout).     25.  It  is  better  to  let  all  burn. 



IIL^-Pronomliua  rerbs  arc  need  In  French  olso,  when  the  Bobjeet  of  a  genenl  ehane- 
ter,  as  people^  one^  ihty^  «e«,  is  omitted  In  TTwgnah^  and  ita  place  supplied  by  the  object  Ib 
snch  cases  the  verb  is  often  passivo  in  English. 

Cotton  sells  well.  Le  coton  te  vend  bien. 

Glass  breaks  easily.  Le  verre  se  casie  facilenient. 

Stone  does  not  cut  easily.  La  pierre  ne  se  coupe  pas  facilement. 

Dry  wood  burns  fast.*  La  bols  sec  se  brulc  Tite.* 

Meat  is  sometimes  eaten  raw.  La  viande  le  mange  quelqnefois  erne. 

These  books  are  easily  understood.  Ces  livres  »e  eomprennent  facilement 

This  writing  can  be  read.  Cette  Venture  peut  se  lire. 

That  river  is  named  the  Moselle.  Cette  riviere  se  nomme  la  MoseOe. 

lY.— Some  verbs  are  pronominal  in  French,  for  which  no  general  mle  can  be  girea. 
but  which  are  to  be  learned  by  obseryatlon  and  practice ;  as, 

To  take  possesion.     To  abstain,  S^emparer.       S*abstenir     (comp.    of 

To  repent.     To  remember,  8e  repentir,     8e  rappder,  $e  iowenir 

(comp.  of  venir), 
1.  These  verbs,  except  $e  rapptler,  take  de  before  the  infinitive.    Se  repentir  is  raried 
as  eortir  (Lesson  29). 

Dost  thou  abstain  from  wine  ?  Tabstiens-tu  de  Tin? 

I  do  not  abstain  from  it  Je  ne  m^en  absticns  pas. 

We  repent  of  our  conduct.  Nous  nous  repentons  de  notro  ooDdoita 

He  takes  possession  of  the  papers.  II  s^empare  des  papiers. 

2.  /S0sot»ven<r  takes  (f«  before  its  object;  •«  raj>pe2sr  does  not 
^  .      ^         (you6  80uvenez*vous<29  vos  promoeses? 

Do  you  remember  your  promises  i        |  y^^  rappelez-vous  tos  promesscs: 
„,  ...  <  lis  se  souviennent  des  leurs. 

They  remember  their..  j  j^  ^^  rappeUent  lea  kurs. 

8.  Verbs  which  are  always  pronominal,  that  is,  which  are  never  oaed  withoat  the  n- 
flective  pronoun,  are  called  essxntiallt  FROiioinicAL  txsbs  ;  and  those  which  are  ased 
sometimes  with  and  sometimes  without  it,  are  called  accidxstallt  peoxom xhal  vsbbs. 

*  These  phrases  aT«  expressed  with  a  general  snbtoct,  thus :  They  eeU  cotton  %mU;  0»* 
breaks  gkue  eaMy  ;  Ws  do  not  out  ston^  eaeUy  ;  People  bum  dry  wood/aeL 

t  \     9        \  4     IS       4      a        IS      1  6  18 

em-pa-rer.  abs-te^nlr,  re-pen-tir,  rap7>«*Ior,  srmve-nir. 


The  abore,  eseept  rapp^Ur^  are  of  the  fonner  class.    Those  preTfooely  gf  ren  ore  of  the 

4.  All  pronomliml  verbs  take  tire  for  their  aaxUlary,  the  participle  sgreelng  with  the 
direct  object,  when  that  object  prooede^  the  same  as  in  verbs  which  toko  avoir  for  tbeir 

I  have  warmed  myself.  Je  me  suit  chavffBy  or  chauffie. 

Has  he  warmed  himself?  S'etiW  chauffe  f 

She  had  dressed  herself.  Elle  ^^Haii  fiabiliee. 

We  shall  have  sbaYcd.  Nous  dous  serona  rase*. 

Yesterday,  as  Boon  as  yoa  had  shaved,     Hier  dSs  que  vous  tous  futes  rasSs, 

you  went  out.  voas  sortite?. 

They  have  washed  themselves.  lis  se  sont  laves, 

5.  When,  besides  the  reflective  pronoan,  the  verb  has  a  second  object,  the  participle 
agrees  with  it,  according  to  rale.  Lesson  87,  provided  it  can  be  the  direct  object,t  otherwise 
It  agrees  with  the  reflective  pronoan. 

He  has  warmed  his  hands.  II  s'est  chauffi  Ics  mains. 

He  has  warmed  them.  II  se  Ics  est  chauffees. 

Hast  thou  not  burnt  thy  hand  ?  Ne  t^cs-tu  pas  bruli  la  main  ? 

I  have  not  burnt  it.  Jc  nc  me  la  suis  pas  hrdiee. 

She  has  remembered  her  lessons.  Elle  s^est  souvewte  de  scs  leQons. 

She  has  remembered  them.  Elle  s^en  est  souvenuc^ 

They  had  repented  of  their  conduct.       Elles  s'etaient  repentics  do  leur  con- 


A  worm.     To  enjoy.  tin  ver,    Jouir  {de  bef.  noun). 

To  gnaw.    To  gnaw  a  hone,  Ronger,    Ronger  un  os, 

Earlg  in  the  morning,  De  bon  mcUin,  de  grand  matin. 

He  enjoys  good  health.  II  jouit  d'unc  bonne  santo. 

Worms  gnaw  wood.  Les  vers  rongent  le  bois. 

1.  Get  onvrage  se  finit  sans  peine.  2.  Ce  verre-ci  se  casse-t-il 
anssi  fiacilement  que  celui-la  ?  3.  Celoi-ci  so  casse  plus  facilement 
que  celui-1^.  4.  La  pluie  nous  empechera  dialler  au  spectacle  ce 
Boir«  5.  Les  enfants  se  sont-ils  Iav6  la  figure  ?  6.  II  se  la  sont 
laree.  7.  Vous  etiez-Tous  rase  ce  matin  quand  vous  etes  alle  & 
la  boutique  1  8.  Je  m'ctais  ras6.  9.  Gonnaissez-vous  la  famille  de 
monsieur  C.  ?  10.  Qui,  je  viens  de  passer  quelques  jours  dans  sa 
famille.     11.  Vous  abstenez-vous  de  the?     12.  Je  m'abstiens  de 

•  This  is  acoordtns  to  the  general  rule  for  the  agreement  of  participles,  tire  being  used 
idiomatically  for  avoir. 

t  Verbs  which  take  a  preposition  before  the  follotring  noon  govern  the  indirect  objeet, 
those  that  take  no  preijobition  before  it  govern  the  direct  object  Thus  wo  say  :  Jl  nuii  d 
tonroUin;  n«<r«  governs  the  indirect  object  //  AtibiUs  I'en^fant;  habUU  governs  the 
direct  object  The  reflective  pronoun  is  always  tho  direct  object  of  all  essentially  pronominal 
Verbs,  except  iarroger.,  to  arrogate. 

X  In  the  first  four  o:'the  above  phrases,  the  second  object  of  tbo  verb  is  tho  direct  ane, 
and  ehayifft,  hrvU^  are  not  varied  vehen  the  object  ftdlowa,  but  agree  when  it  precedes.  In 
the  la^t  three,  the  second  object  beinj;  preceded  by  c/<«.  Is  not  the  direct  object,  and  the 
participle  therefore  agrees  with  the  reciprocal  pronoun  which  precedes. 


r      IS  la    si      «     17         '6 
▼er,  jou-lr,  ron-ger,  6«  and  oe. 


th6  et  de  caf6.  13.  Cet  homme  8*est  repenti  de  ses  &nte8.  14. 
Voos  sonvenez  de  notre  lecture  ?     15.  Je  m'en  souviens  bien. 

1.  Does  coal  sell  dear  this  winter?  2.  No;  coal  sells  cheap, 
and  wood  sells  cheap  also.  3.  This  bread  is  not  good;  bat  it  can 
be  eaten.  4.  Who  has  taken  possession  of  that  hoose  ?  5.  The 
merchant  has  taken  possession  of  it.  6.  Does  that  writing  read 
easily?  7.  It  reads  very  easily.  8.  Pine  {pin)  wood  cuts  easier 
than  oak.  9.  For  £bw  much  does  grain  sell  this  winter  ?  10.  It 
sells  cheap.  11.  Does  flour  sell  at  five  dollars  a  barrel?  12.  It 
sells  at  six  dollars  a  barrel  13.  Is  fish  sometimes  eaten  raw?  14. 
They  are  eaten  raw  in  some  countries.  15.  Is  the  Spanish  lan- 
guage learned  in  a  little  time?  16.  It  is  not  learned  perfectly  in 
a  little  time. 

17.  Is  not  this  wood  subject  to  worms?  18.  It  is  not  subject 
to  worms.  19.  That  man  enjoys  ((Tune)  perfect  health.  20.  Our 
neighbor  knows  (how)  to  enjoy  his  fortune.  21.  Are  you  acquaint- 
ed ^th  his  family  ?  22.  Yes ;  it  is  a  family  very  amiable.  23. 
Do  you  go  out  early  in  the  morning  ?  24.  I  go  out  at  five  o'clock. 
25.  What  is  that  dog  gnawing?  26.  He  is  gnawing  a  bone.  27. 
How  long  have  you  abstained  from  wine  ?  28.  I  have  abstained 
from  it  six  months.  29.  Have  you  not  hurt  your  foot  ?  30.  I  have 
hurt  it.  31.  Will  you  have  shaved  when  I  shall  come  to  your  hoose 
to-morrow  morning?  32.  I  shall  have  shaved.  33.  Yesterday, 
as  soon  as  you  had  dressed,  did  you  not  go  to  the  shop  ?  34.  I 
went  there.  35.  Did  you  wash  your  £ace  before  shavings  this  morn- 
ing ?     36.  No,  sir ;  I  shaved  before  washing  my  face. 


1.  Do  you  sometimes  go  to  the  theater?  2.  I  go  there  occa- 
sionally. 3.  I  have  a  desire  to  go  there  this  evening ;  what  say 
you  ?  shall  we  go  together  ?  4.  I  consent  to  go  there,  for  I  have 
nothing  to  do.  5.  What  do  they  play  this  evening?  6.  I  do  not 
know  what  they  play ;  I  wish  to  go  there  in  order  to  hear  Madam 
S.  sing.  7.  Have  you  never  heard  her  sing?  8.  No,  never;  she 
has  a  great  reputation.  9.  When  I  dwelt  in  New  Orleans  I  went 
often  to  hear  her.  10.  How  do  you  find  that  she  sings  ?  11.  Very 
well ;  she  has  an  excellent  voice,  and  she  sings  with  much  taste. 
12.  We  have  no  opera  here ;  it  is  a  pity ;  of  all  amusements,  the 
opera  is  the  one  to  which  I  am  most  inclined  (parte).  13.  Do  you 
not  like  dancing  ?     14.  Not  at  all ;  I  see  nothing  in  it  to  adnure. 


15.  You  mean  {voulez  dire)  the  dancing  of  the  theater?     16.  Cer- 
tainly {sans  doute)  ;  I  like  the  ball  well  enoagh. 

17.  Have  you  taken  possession  of  the  new  house?  18.  Yes ;  I 
took  possession  of  it  last.  week.  19.  Has  that  man  repented  of  his 
bad  conduct  (conduite)  ?  20.  He  has  repented  of  it  21.  Did  your 
friend  remember  his  promise  (promesse)  ?  22.  He  remember^  it. 
23.  Does  your  father  enjoy  good  health  ?  24.  He  enjoys  perfect 
health.  25.  The  tailor  goes  to  his  shop  early  in  the  morning ;  does 
he  not  ?  26.  He  goes  there  at  half-past  five.  27.  1  always  shave 
early  in  the  morning. 


To  sit  down,  to  seat  one's  self.  S^asseoir  (irregular). 

Js  fn^avUdA,  tu  CastUd^  U  tCasiied,      nous  nous  asseyons^  tons  tons  asstiyeB, 

I  sit  down,      thoa  Blttest  down,   he  sits  down,   we  sit  down,  '  yon  sit  down, 

ilss'asseysntf  thej  sit  down. 

Also  Je  nCassoUt  tu  Cassois,  U  s'assoiif  nous  nous  assoyons,  vans  rous  assoyts^  Us 

L  As  the  Imperstlye  mood  when  afflrmative  takes  the  objectire  pronoun  after  It,  joined 
by  a  hyphen,  it  takes  the  reflectiTe  pronoun  in  the  same  way. 

&t  down  iQ  this  chair.  Asseyez-vous  but  cette  chaise. 

Sit  down  in  it  Asseyez-vous-y. 

Let  us  sit  down.    Seat  thyself  here.  Asseyons-nous.    Assieds-toi  ici. 

Do  not  sit  down  on  the  bench.  Ne  tous  asseyez  pas  but  le  bAc. 

Seat  thyself  on  it.  Assieds-y-tci. 

Let  ns  not  sit  down  on  these  chairs.  Ke  nous  asseyons  pas  sur  ces  chaisee. 

Wash  your  hands.    Wash  them.  Larez-vous  les  mains.   Lavez-Ies-Tous. 

Remember  thy  promises.  Souviens-toi  de  tes  promesses. 

Remember  them.  Souriens-t^en. 

He  has  sat  down,  and  I  will  sit  down.  II  s'est  assis,  et  je  m^assiSrai. 

I  hare  been  here  these  two  years.  Je  suis  ici  depuis  deux  ans. 

We  have  known  him  these  six  months.  Nous  le  connaissons  depuis  six  mois. 

To  he  or  do  (in  regard  to  health).  Se  porter. 

How  do  you  do  f  Commeni^ous  portez-vous  f 

I  am  very  well.  Je  me  porte  trte-bien. 

How  does  your  father  do  f        ^  Comment  se  porte  TOtre  pire  ? 

He  is  well.  II  se  porto  bien. 

Is  your  mother  well?  Votre  mfere  se  porte-t-elle  bien? 

She  has  taken  a  slight  cold.  Elle  s^est  un  peu  enrhum6e. 

How  do  your  mother  and  sisters  do  ?  Comment  sc  portent  votre  m^ro  et 

vos  soBurs  ? 

1    ns      1     snn      i     s  isfl    i     su 
ws-A%ds^  as-se-yon«,  ss-se-yesi,  st-seyent 



L  Tm  coKDinoxAL  nasKn  oorresponds  to  thovid  or  fccnid  wlUi  the  Teri>  fa  Ebs^ 
llsh.  It  is  Tery  oommonly  piveeded  or  followed  by  if  with  a  Terb  in  tb«  imperfrct  Veum\ 
thuB,  ^Jhisdmontyt  I  wovld  travel,  SifavaU  d€  rarffetU^je  totagkeais  ;  or,  /  would 
travel  if  I  had  montff,  Jt  totaoebais  Hfavait  de  TargenL 

S.  The  present  oooditionol  is  formed  by  chafiging  ai  fins),  of  the  first  person  rfngnii'  «f 
the  ftatnre,  into  ab,  au»  ait,  xoks,  iez,  aixnt. 

Conditional  of  etRT^  future  serai. 

Je  uraU^      tu  teraU,  41  Mrait,         nou»  urionM,  rous  Mritn,       Ct  aeraUnt^ 

I  should  be,  thoa  wooldst  be,  he  woold  be,  wo  should  be,  yoa  wonld  be,  thcj  would  bci 

Conditional  of  atoir,  future  aurai. 

jr^auraUf  tuauraUt  Uaurait,  nAU9auri4me,      TcmeauHm^ 

I  should  hATe,     thou  wouldst  have,     he  would  hnre,    we  should  liAve,    yoa  would  hsT» 
iU  auraUnt,  they  would  hAve. 

Conditional  of  aimer,  future  aimerai. 

J^aimeraUt         tuaimsraUf  ilaimerait^         nouM  oimeHotu,  rouealmsrtm, 

I  should  love,       thou  wouldst  lore,     he  would  lore,     we  should  love,     you  would  lore^ 

Ue  aimeraitwt^  they  would  love. 

If  thou  hadst  the  time  wouldst  thou  8i  tu  avaie  le  temps  lirait-iu  f 


I  would  read  if  I  had  the  time.  Je  liraia  ei  yavaiM  le  temps. 

Would  you  drink  if  you  had  water?  J^otrtez-vous  H  tous  aviez  de  PcRii? 

We  would  driuk  if  we  had  water.  Nous  boirions  n  nous  aviom  de  I^eau. 

He  could  if  ho  would.  II  pourrait  «*il  vaulait. 

They  would  if  they  could.  lis  voudraient  s*i]B  pouvaient. 

To  dye.     Since.  Telndre^    Puiaque. 

Progreae.    Great  progress.  Du  and  des  proves.    De  grands  pro- 

8.  Sinee,  an  adverb  or  preposition  of  time,  la  depute  ;  einee,  meaning  ^ecauee  tktrt^  la 

It  has  rained  einee  yesterday  morning ;     H  pleut  depuie  hier  matin ;  et  puieqme 
and  aince  the  weather  is  so  bad,  I  il  fait  si  maurais  temps,  Je   ne 

shall  not  go  out  sortirai  pas. 

4.  Teindre  takes  en  before  the  name  of  the  color. 

He  dyes  his  coat  black ;  I  get  mine     II  teint  son  habit  en  nair;  je  iaia  tcia- 
dyed  blue.  dre  le  mien  en  bUui, 

1.  Teignez-vous  ce  drap  en  vert  ?  2.  Nous  teignons  ce  drap-ci 
en  vert  et  celui-la  en  bleu.  8.  Ges  homines  teignent  lenra  gants  en 
noir.  4.  Je  veuz  bien  apprendre  Tespagnol,  puisqne  tous  le  Tonlec 
5.  Si  tu  avals  le  temps  lirais-tu  ce  livre  ?  6.  Je  le  lirais.  7.  Si 
cet  6colier  paresseux  ^tndiait,  ne  ferait-il  pas  des  progrte  dans  sea 
etudes?  8.  n  y  ferait  de  grands  progr^s.  9.  Si  vous  aviez  de 
I'argent  acheteriez-vous  cette  maison?      10.   Nous  Tacheterions. 

4    r        r      itu      13C       r        is     r     r         r      u  ts  s    «      ts     r 

ie-rali^  -nii^  -liooi^  -*!«•»  -nleni;  aa-rata,  aime-rali^  telndr«i  pula-ke,  pn-V^ 


11.  Si  ces  homines  araient  ce  drap  ne  le  teindraient-ils  pas  en  vert? 

12.  Non,  madame,  il  le  teindraient  en  noir.  13.  Votre  voisin 
ctadierait-il  mieux  s'il  avait  moins  d*argent?  14.  11  ^tudierait 
xnieux*  15.  Comment  se  porte  monsieur  votre  fr^re?  16.  11  se 
port6  bien. 

1.  If  yon  drank  all  that  vine,  would  yon  not  be  sick?  2.  I 
should  be  sick.  3.  If  thou  hadst  some  paper,  wouldst  thou  write 
some  letters  ?  4.  I  would  write  one  to  my  father.  5.  K  you  told 
your  secret  to  those  men,  would  they  keep  it?  6.  They  would  not 
keep  it.  7.  If  that  lazy  scholar  studied,  would  he  learn  well  ?  8. 
Yes,  sir,  he  would  become  very  learned.  9.  If  you  had  money, 
would  you  not  buy  a  horse  ?  10.  No,  sir ;  I  should  buy  a  fine  house. 
11.  If  thou  couldst  see  the  future  {ravenir)y  wouldst  thou  be  more 
happy?  12.  No,  sir,  I  should  be  less  happy.  13.  If  those  coun- 
try-women had  this  cloth,  would  they  dye  it  blue  ?  14.  No,  miss, 
they  would  dye  it  brown  {brun),  15.  If  you  had  the  time,  would 
you  study  languages?  16.  I  would  study  the  French  and  the 

17.  What  didst  thou  do  yesterday?  18.  Yesterday,  after  I  had 
breakfasted,  I  read ;  and  after  I  had  dined,  I  wrote  some  letters. 
19.  Where  did  those  strangers  go  on  Sunday?  20.  In  the  morn- 
ing, as  soon  as  they  had  shaved  and  dressed,  they  went  to  church. 
21.  Are  you  acquainted  with  the  family  of  the  general  ?  22.  No, 
madam ;  I  know  no  member  of  his  family.  23.  Do  you  enjoy  good 
health  ?  24.  Yes,  madam ;  we  have  enjoyed  excellent  health  since 
we  have  lived  in  the  country.  25.  Since  your  health  is  so  good, 
you  will  soon  be  able  to  return  to  the  city.  26.  How  far  will  you 
go  this  summer  ?  27.  I  shall  go  as  far  as  Boston.  28.  Sit  down 
in  this  chair.  29.  Wash  thy  hands  and  face.  30.  How  do  your 
father  and  mother  do  ?     31.  They  are  very  well. 


1.  Is  not  that  gentleman  a  surgeon  ?  2.  Yes,  he  is  so ;  he 
lives  opposite  to  our  house ;  they  say  that  he  is  very  skillful.  3. 
Arc  you  acquainted  with  him  ?  4.  Yes ;  last  summer  we  made  a 
journey  together  to  New  York  by  sea.  5.  Has  he  been  here  long  ? 
6.  He  came  here  two  years  ago,  but  he  did  not  stay  long ;  he  went 
to  New  York,  and  returned  three  or  four  months  a^o.  7.  When 
you  were  in  New  York  did  you  see  George  C.  ?  8.  Yes,  I  saw  him 
almost  every  day  ;  he  came  to  find  me  the  first  day  of  my  arrival 
9.  You  knew  hardly  any  people  in  New  York?     10.  No,  I  knew 


but  very  few ;  but  I  made  some  acquaintance  while  I  was  there, 
11.  Do  you  intend  to  go  there  again  t  12.  I  shall  go  there  per* 
haps  this  summer.  18.  If  you  wish,  I  will  give  you  letters  to  {pour) 
some  of  my  iiiends,  of  whom  you  will  not  be  sorry  to  make  the  ac- 
quaintance.    14.  I  shall  be  intinitely  obliged  to  you  for  it. 

15.  Did  you  go  to  the  baker's  shop  yesterday?  16.  YeSy  air; 
as  soon  as  I  had  dressed  I  went  there.  17.  Have  you  enjoyed  good 
health  since  you  have  been  beret  18.  Yes,  sir;  I  always  enjoy 
good  health.  19.  The  worms  have  gnawed  the  door  of  that  shop. 
20.  If  your  cousin  went  to  school,  would  he  study  much  T  21.  He 
would  not  study  much.  22.  Do  you  often  go  out  early  in  the  morn- 
ing t  23.  I  hardly  ever  go  out  very  early  in  the  morning.  24. 1 
wUl  sell  you  this  book  since  you  desire  it. 

25.  An  Irishman  who  had  a  looking-glass  in  (d)  his  hand,  fihut 
his  eyes,  and  placed  (plagait)  it  before  his  face.  26.  Another 
asked  him  why  he  did  that  27.  "My  faith,"  replied  he,  "it  is 
to  see  how  I  am  when  I  sleep." 


IL— Sometimes  the  conditional  is  used  when  the  condition  (the  4/  and  Um  Impaftei) 
may  be  looked  upon  ns  understood ;  as, 

I  Bhould  like  to  bo  wise.*  J^aimerais  &  dtre  sage. 

He  would  like  to  be  rich.  II  aimerait  a  fttre  riche. 

We  should  wish  to  be  good.  Nous  voudruma  hire  bons. 

They  ought  to  do  their  duty.  lis  devraient  fairc  leur  devoir. 

1.  Can^  used  negBtirely,  is  rery  commonly  rendered  in  French  by  the  condltlaiial  of 
•atoir  with  ne,  and  without  pa«.    With  p<u  it  means  not  to  Imow. 

I  ean  (could)  not  do  that.  Je  ne  aaurau  faire  cela. 

Can  (could)  you  not  go  that  farf  iV«  tauriez-voiia  allcr  jnsquc  U? 

That  can  not  be.  Ccla  ne  saurait  6trc. 

We  can  not  endure  that.  Nous  ne  sauriona  soufirir  cela. 

I  should  not  know  how  to  do  it ;  it  is  Je  ne  aauraie  pae  le  faire ;  c*C8t  trap 
too  difficult  for  me.  difficile  pour  moL 

2.  Poutoir,  o$er,  an.1  eeeaer,  also,  when  negatiyc,  often  omit  pae  (espedallj  httan  the 
infinltlyc).    With  these  the  omission  is  elegant,  but  optional 

I  cannot  do  it.  Je  ne  puis  (pae)  le  faire. 

She  dare  not  say  it.  Elle  n''o8e  (pa*)  le  dire. 

She  does  not  cease  to  speak.  Ellc  ne  cene  (pas)  dc  parler. 

III.— When  a  past  tense  or  present  participle  connected  with  past  time,  not  goreniiag 
the  subjanctlrc,  is  followed  by  a  verb  having  ehould  or  would  with  it  in  Fnglish,  sach  Tcib 
is  in  tha  conditional  in  French. 

*  The  condition  micht  be  supplied  thns,  I  would  lUce  to  hn  wUe^  if  I  eould,  ete. 
this  form  the  sentences  oecome  similar  to  those  ip  the  preceding  lenson. 

i«     T 


I  foresaw  that  thej  would  do  iL  Je  privayais  qa'ils  le/eraienL 

I  believed  that  he  would  come.  Je  croyaia  qu't/  viendraiL 

He  thought  that  I  should  believe  him.  U  peruaii  que  je  le  croiraU. 

We  said  that  you  would  do  it.  Nous  avons  dit  que  vous  le/mez. 

They  hoped  that  we  should  be  there.  lU  ttpiraient  que  nous  atrioru  UL 

Believing  that  it  would  raiu.  Crcyant  qu'il  pUuvrait. 

&  The  oondltioniil  of  vovMr  expreasea  «  modiflcation  of  the  meaning  of  the  rob  often 
wrrmpoadiag  to  tcioA  or  will  in  Kngliah. 

I   wish  (would  wish)  to  borrow  this  Je  voudraU  emprunter  cc  livre. 


He  wishes  (would  wish)  to  study  Span-  II  wmdrait  dtudier  TespagnoL 


Will  you  go  to  the  theater?  Voudriez-voua  aller  au  spectacle f 

We  wish  to  go  there.  Nous  voudrions  y  aller. 

4.  Cbllectivs  or  approximate  numbers  are  expressed  in  French  by  nouns  formed  from 
tho  numeral  adjeetires,  by  making  them  end  in  aitie.    Bach  noans  are  feminine. 

About  ten.     Twenty  (or  so).  Une  dixaine.     Une  vingtaine. 

Thirty  (or  so).     Forty  (or  so).  Une  irentaine.     Une  guarantaine. 

Fifty  (or  so).     A  hundred  (or  so).  Une  cinquantaine,     Une  eentaine. 

01.  Douzaine  (a  dozen)  Is  a  deilnite  nnmbcr.  Quinzaine  is  nsed  fur  two  weeks;  huit 
Joure  for  one  week ;  an  moin^  for  four  weeks.  Three  weeks,  five  weeks,  six  weeks,  are 
intU  temaitus,  cinq  eemainea,  etc 

I  shall  pass  a  fortnight  with  him.  Je  passerai  une  quinzaine  chcz  lui. 

I  have  been  here  a  week.  Je  suis  ici  depuis  huit  jours. 

He  owes  me  some  twenty  franks.  II  me  doit  une  vingtaine  de  francs. 

Tj  intend  to  do.     To  mean^  to  signify,      Vbtdoir /aire.     VotUoir  dire. 
What  does  that  signify  ?  Que  veut  dire  cela  ? 

Thai  signifies  nothing.  Cela  nc  veut  rien  dire. 

What  does  that  word  mean?  Que  veut  dire  ce  mot? 

I  do  not  know  what  it  means.  Je  nc  sais  pas  ce  qu^il  veut  dire. 

Seri&us.     To  descend,  Serieux,     Desccndre, 

6.  De»eendre  and  sereral  other  verbs  sometimes  take  avoir  and  sometimes  Ur^  tat 
their  aoziliary.    All  these  will  bo  expkined  hereafter. 

He  has  descended  from  the  mountain.     II  est  deeeendu  de  la  montagne. 
There  were  some  thirty  of  us  at  that    Nous  6tions  une  trcntainc  k  ce  diner, 

1.  Combien  d'assiettes  avez-voas  achet^es  ?  2.  J'en  ai  acbet6 
une  donzaine.  3.  Je  passerai  une  quinzaine  de  jours  a  la  cam- 
pagne.  4.  II  y  a  une  cinquantaine  d'^coliers  dans  T^cole.  5.  Me 
devez-TOUS  quelque  chose  ?  6.  Oni,  je  vous  dois  une  eentaine  de 
francs.  7.  Resterez-vous  longtemps  i  la  campagne  t  8.  J'y  pas- 
serai trois  semaines.     9.  Avez-vous  quelque  chose  t     10.  J'ai  mal  & 

doa-saind,  rlnj- Jine,  tnn-tain^  ka-iin-taln«,  cin-kan-talne,  cen-talna,  kln-ialne,  •6-rt. 
t»       ft      s  t     s      a 

euB,  dca-eendre,  des<en-do. 


la  t^te,  mais  ce  n^est  rien  de  serienx.  11.  Le  maitre  descend-il 
sonvent  de  sa  chambrc  t  12.  II  en  descend  souyent.  13.  Est-il 
descehdu  ce  matin  ?  14.  II  n'est  pas  descendu.  15.  Voudriez-voiu 
apprendre  le  frangais  ?  16.  Je  voudrais  apprendre  le  fran^ais  et 
Tallemand.  17.  Je  pensais  qa*il  ne  pleuvrait  pas  aajoord'hiii,  el 
je  suis  Venn  sans  paraplaie. 

1.  Wouldst  thou  like  to  travel  in  Europe  ?  2.  I  should  like  to 
travel  there  very  much.  3.  I  am  very  thirsty ;  I  should  wish  to 
drink  a  glass  of  water.  4.  Would  you  not  like  to  be  rich  ?  5.  Yea^ 
I  should  like  to  be  rich ;  but  I  should  like  better  to  be  wiae  and 
good.  6.  Is  your  boy  here  ?  7.  Yes ;  he  knew  that  we  should 
have  need  of  him,  and  he  came.  8.  Have  you  brought  your  um- 
brella ?  9.  Yes ;  I  thought  that  it  would  rain,  and  I  brought  it ; 
I  believed  also  that  you  would  be  here,  and  I  have  brought  yonrs. 
10.  If  it  were  fine  weather,  would  you  go  into  the  country  t  11.  I 
would  go.  12.  Can  you  not  succeed  in  doing  that  t  13.  We  can 
not  succeed  in  it  without  money.  14.  What  does  that  word  meant 
15.  I  do  not  know  what  it  means. 

16.  We  can  not  learn  that  lesson ;  it  is  too  difficult.  17.  How 
many  apples  have  you  bought  ?  18.  I  have  bought  some  twenty. 
19.  How  many  persons  are  there  in  that  room  f  20.  There  are 
some  thirty.  21.  We  owe  the  countryman  some  forty  franks.  22. 
There  are  some  fifty  children  in  the  street.  23.  How  many  fruit- 
trees  are  there  in  that  orchard?  24.  There  are  some  sixty.  25. 
How  long  will  you  stay  in  Boston  1  26.  I  shall  stay  there  one  or 
two  weeks.  27.  That  stranger  looks  serious.  28.  Yes,  he  is  a  very 
serious  man.  29.  Permit  me  to  disturb  you  {vous  deranger)  a  mo- 
ment ;  it  is  necessary  for  me  to  go  to  that  table.  30.  Do  you  wish 
to  know  the  French  perfectly  ?  31.  I  wish  much  {hien)  to  know  it 
perfectly.  32.  That  scholar  wishes  to  be  the  first  of  his  class  {cUus^) ; 
but  he  does  not  wish  to  study  enough  to  become  so  {j>our  y  arriver). 


1.  Do  you  know  where  I  can  find  a  sail-boat  (bateau  d  voile) 
next  Friday!  2.  What  do  you  wish  to  do  with  itt  3.  I  wish  to 
go  ]  twenty  miles  from  here  on  Friday  or  Saturday.  4.  When  do 
you  intend  to  return  t  5.  I  shall  return  Sunday  evening  if  I  can, 
6.  Mr.  G.  has  a  boat  very  light ;  if  he  has  no  need  of  it  on  Satur- 
day, he  will  lend  it  to  you.  7.  I  do  not  think  that  I  can  (pouvoir) 
have  it ;  he  has  need  of  it  every  Saturday.  8. 1  know  another  gen- 
tleman who  has  one ;  it  is  Mr.  L.     9.  He  has  one  T  I  did  not  know 


it  10.  Yes,  his  is  yery  good,  bat  a  little  large.  11.  Are  yon 
going  all  alone  ?  12.  No ;  I  shall  go  with  one  of  mj  friends.  13. 
Then  this  boat  is  suitable  for  jou  {vous  convient),  14.  Oo  and  see 
Mr.  L. ;  he  will  lend  it  to  you,  I  doubt  not.  15.  I  will  go  and  see 
him  at  his  house  to-morrow  morning.  16.  A  king  of  France  asked 
{demandaii\  a  bishop  one  day  if  he  was  noble.  17.  ^<  Sire"  {nre)^ 
answered  the  bishop,  ^'  in  Noah's  ark  (Parche  de  Noe)  there  were 
three  brothers ;  I  cannot  say  from  which  I  am  descended." 

18.  Where  do  you  wish  me  to  conduct  those  children!  19.  I 
will  have  you  conduct  them  home.  20.  Is  it  possible  for  you  to 
descend  that  mountain?  21.  It  is  not  possible  for  me  to  descend 
it  without  falling.  22.  Is  that  boy  lame  ?  23.  Yes  ;  he  has  cut 
his  foot  24.  A  child  of  ten  years  astonished  every  body  by  the 
correctness  (la  jusiease)  of  his  replies  (reponses).  25.  One  day,  a 
bishop,  who  thought  to  puzzle  (embarrasser)  him,  said  to  him,  ^'  My 
firiend,  I  promise  to  give  you  an  apple  if  you  will  tell  me  where  is 
God?  "  26.  "  My  lord"  (monseiffneur)^  iqiswered  the  child  to  him, 
^  I  promise  to  give  you  two  if  you  can  tell  me  where  he  is  not" 



1.  Tn  PAST  coiTDxnoirAL  is  formed  bj  Joining  th«  put  participle  to  the  pT«MBt  eoa- 
ditifmal  of  the  auxiliary ;  thus, 

Past  con^tioned  of  avoiii. 
J^aurai*  «tc,  U  auraii  eu,  vous  aurim  etk, 

I  thoold  have  had,  he  would  have  hod,  yon  would  have  had, 

Ta  auraU  eu^  nous  aurions  eu.  Us  auraieiU  eu^ 

Thoa  woaldst  hare  had,  we  should  have  had,  they  would  hare  had. 

Pant  eondiiumal  of  kiRK. 

J^aurais  HI,  it  aurait  iU^  vous  auries  H^ 

I  ihoald  have  been,  he  would  have  been,  you  would  have  been, 

T»  aurais  Hi,  nous  aurions  Hi,  us  auraisnt  Hi, 

Thoa  wooldfit  hare  been,  we  should  have  been,  they  would  have  been. 

Past  eofidiiional  of  rESiTi. 

Je  serais  venu^  U  serait  tenu,  vous  ssrisa  vsnuSy 

I  should  have  come,  he  would  have  come,  you  would  have  come, 

Tu  serais  v«nu,  nous  ssrions  vsnus,  lis  ssraient  vsnus. 

Thou  wouldst  have  come,  we  should  have  come,  they  would  have  come. 

This  tense  Is  used  when  the  verb  following  ^is  In  the  pluperfect,  and  when  should  ha^fs 
or i0OM2(fAaee  is  used  in  English;  thus, 

If  I  had  bad  the  time,  I  sltould  have    Si  j^araia  en  le  temps, /atiraM/u. 

2.  Besides  the  above  compound  tense,  there  is  in  all  French  verbs  a  Second  Post  Con* 
ditlonal,  which  is  formed  by  Joining  the  post  participle  to  the  subjunctive  imperfect  of  the 
auxiliary;  thus, 

Second  past  eondUiontd  o/ avoir. 
J^eusse  ««,  U  eitt  eu,  vous  eussiea  «». 

Tu  susses  €«,  nous  eussions  en,  Us  eusssnt  su, 




Si  tu  eusses  (or  avais)  6tudi^,  ta  < 

its  sarant. 
S*il  eut  (or  arait)  pn,  il  oMrmt  bu* 

Auriez-'VOUM   W^  si  tous   eiimef  (or 

ariez)  eu  do  Teau  ? 
Nous  aurioM  bu, 
SMls  iefuMent  (or  s^^taient)  bien  eom- 

port^,  Us  Qwraieni  He  louU, 
Si  Tous  ftutiez  (or  6tiez)  aU6  IjL,  j^y  m- 

raitf  o/^  ausai. 
Quand  menu,  Quand  mdme  il  serait  ici. 

Second  p<t8t  eonditumal  of  Atre. 

7\$  6UU69  iU,  nous  euaHons  4U,  iU  euueni  HL 

Second  past  condiiiorktU  of  tskib. 
Je/Mae  venu,  U/id  renw,  tow  fuavi^  ^entu, 

Tu/uMes  v«nu,  nouafusaions  vanua,  ilafuaaent  mum. 

This  tense  (or  the  pluperfect  of  the  iadieatlTe)  ought  to  bo  used  after  if^  insiaad  U  tb« 
JkrH  past  condiUoual. 

If  thou  hadst  studied,  thou  wotddst 

have  been  learned. 
If  he  had  been  able,  he  tcould  have  been 

Would  you  have  drunks  if  JOQ  had  had 

water  ? 
We  should  have  drunk. 
If  they  had  behaved  well,  they  would 

haTo  been  praised. 
If  yon  had  gone  there,  I  8]\puld  have 

gone  also. 
JSven  if.    Even  if  he  were  here. 

8.  Id  conditional  phrases,  when  ecen  (^  is  expressed,  or  can  be  supplied  before  the  sab- 
Ject,  qvand  mhna  is  to  be  used,  and  the  rerb  put  in  the  conditional 

Even  if  he    studied,   he  would  not  Quand  mhne  il  itudieraU,  U.  n'appreo- 

learn.  droit  pas. 

Even  if  he  had  said  it  to  me,  I  should  Quatid  mime  il  me  Yaurait  dit,  je  ne 

pot  have  believed  it.  Taurais  pas  cm. 

Should  you  try  it  again,  you  would  Quand  mime  vous  Tessueriez  encore, 

succeed  no  better.  vous  ne  r^ussiriez  pas  mieux. 

To  conclude.    He  has  concluded,  Conclure  {de  bef.  inf.).    Ha  eonclu„ 

Ja  eonelita,  tu  conclua,         il  eondut^      n&ua  concluona,  voua  conduaM,    Ua  oonckiemi^ 
I  conclude,  thou  conclndest,  he  concludes,  we  condude,       70a  eondade,     they « 

The  medicine.    The  physic. 

To  employ.    To  support. 

To  govern.    We  have  concluded  the 

A  present.    A  sum. 
To  insist  upon.     To  demand. 
-  Virtuous.    At  home. 
To  affirm.     To  assure,  ^ 
To  declare,    Nearly, 
He  insists  on  that  point. 

1.  Si  VOUS  evssiez  (oraviez)  eu  ce  medicament  quand  vous  etiez 

si^annsia        nn  aae       ss  »i3is         «       iss        » 

con-clar^  con-du,  con-dus,  -du-on«,  -cla-ea,  -cluefU,  m6-dl-ka-men<l,  iD(^d«-dn«,  em-plo- 
6     1     sua      18      7      «        ft   s        1     17     SI  14    13   e     ft    IS   •       4     s      c      T 

yer,  ap-pu  yer,  gou-ver-ner,  prS-senI,  ea-deau,  somme,  tn-sis-ter,  eg*zl-ger,  de-man-der,ver- 

tu-euz,  i/-flr-mer,  a«-8U-rer,  d^-da-rer. 

Le  medicament.    La  medecins, 

Employer.     Appuyer. 

Gouvemer.     Nous    avons    conclii 

Un  present^  un  cadeau.     Une  i 
Insister.     Exiger^  demander. 
Vertucux.    A  la  maison, 
Affirmer.    Assurer. 
Declarer.    A  peu  pres. 
TL  insiste  sur  ce  point. 


malade,  I'aariez-Tous  employ^  T  2.  Je  raorais  emploj6.  8.  Si  voire 
p^re  cut  (or  avait)  vu  rhomme  qui  voolait  acheter  sa  maison  aarait-il 
concln  le  marche  Y  4.  U  Taarait  bient6t  concla.  5.  Si  vous  eussiez 
(or  aviez)  6te  boiteox  vous  seriez-vous  appuye  sur  un  Mtont  6.  Non, 
monsieur,  je  me  serais  appuye  sur  le  bras  de  mon  fr^re.  7.  Si  le 
general  eitt  (or  avait)  6t^  gonverneur  de  cet  etat  Taurait-il  bien  gou- 
veme  t  8.  Non,  monsieur,  il  I'aurait  tr^s-mal  gouverne.  9.  Si  tu 
etuses  (or  avals)  garde  ton  argent,  n'en  aurais-tu  pas  eu  beaucoup  ? 
10.  J'aurais  eu  une  grosse  somme.  11.  Si  vous  fussiez  (or  etiez) 
alles  k  Londres  Teto  passe,  auriez-vous  vu  la  reine?  12.  Nous 
Taurions  vue.  13.  Si  ces  ndgociants  eussent  (or  avaient)  vendu 
lenr  coton  bier,  anraient-ils  gagn6  plus  d'argentt  14.  lis  en  au- 
raient  gagne  davantage. 

1.  If  the  merchants  had  written  their  letters  last  night,  would 
they  have  given  them  to  you  t  2.  They  would  have  given  them  to 
me.  8.  If  we  had  gone  to  the  neighbor's  last  evening,  should  we 
have  seen  the  general  ?  4.  We  should  have  seen  him.  5.  If  thou 
hadst  bought  those  beautiful  birds  which  we  saw  at  the  market,  to 
whom  wouldst  thou  have  given  them  1  6.  I  should  have  sent  them 
as  a  (en)  present  to  my  sister.  7.  When  will  the  orator  conclude 
his  discourse  {discours)  ^.  8.  He  will  conclude  it  at  half  past 
eleven.  9.  Even  if  that  man  should