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w ■ . . 

and M. Rycroft 



Edited by c 

G. Has] 



Springer-Science+Business Meilia.B.V 







INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION: 
THE NEXT SPACE MARKETPLACE 




SPACE STUDIES 



VOLUME 4 



Editor 

Prof. MICHAEL RYCROFT 



International Space University 
Excellence in space education for a changing world 

The International Space University (ISU) is dedicated to the development of 
outer space for peaceful purposes through international and interdisciplinary 
education and research. ISU works in association with a number of Affiliates 
(universities, research institutes, consortia ...) around the world and in 
partnership with space agencies and industry. 

For young professionals and postgraduate students, ISU offers an annual 
two-month Summer Session in different countries and an eleven-month Master 
of Space Studies (MSS) program based at its Central Campus in Strasbourg, 
France. ISU also offers short courses and workshops to professionals working in 
space-related industry, government and academic organizations. 

Independent of specific national and commercial interests, ISU is an ideal 
forum for discussion of issues relating to space and its applications. The network 
of alumni, faculty, guest lecturers. Affiliate representatives and professional 
contacts which characterizes the ISU Community makes it possible to bring 
together leading international specialists in an academic environment conducive 
to the exchange of views and to the creation of innovative ideas. ISU aims to 
promote productive dialogue between space-users and providers. In addition to 
the Annual Symposium, ISU supports smaller forum activities, such as 
workshops and roundtables, for constructive discussions which may help to 
chart the way forward to the rational international utilization of space. 




INTERNATIONAL 
SPACE STATION: 
THE NEXT SPACE 
MARKETPLACE 

Proceedings of 
International Symposium 
26-28 May 1999, Strasbourg, France 



Edited by 
G. HASKELL 

International Space University 

and 

M. RYCROFT 

International Space University 




SPRINGER-SCIENCE+BUSINESS MEDIA, B.V. 




A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. 



ISBN 978-94-010-5846-9 ISBN 978-94-01 1-4259-5 (eBook) 
DOI 10.1007/978-94-011-4259-5 



Printed on acid-free paper 



All Rights Reserved 

© 2000 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 
Originally published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 2000 
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 2000 
No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or 
utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, 
including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and 
retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. 




ISU gratefully acknowledges the financial sponsorship provided by 



The Boeing Company (Proceedings Sponsor) 
DaimlerChrysIer Aerospace AG, Space Infrastructure 
European Space Agency 
United Nations, Office for Outer Space Affairs 




vu 

Table Of Contents 

Acknowledgements xiii 

Foreword xv 

Keynote Address 

ISS: From Political to Scientific and Economic Preeminence 

(W. Kroll, H. W. Ripken) 1 

Session 1 

Management of the Research and Development Process 

Session Chair: J. G. Vaz 7 

Brazilian Participation in the International Space Station, with an Emphasis on 
Microgravity Research (J. G. Vaz, J. A. Guimaraes) 9 

BEOS - A New Approach to Promote and Organize Industrial ISS Utilization 

(B Bratke, H. Buchholz, H. Luttmann, H.-J. Dittus, D. Hiiser) 17 

Protein Crystallography Services on the International Space Station 
(M. Harrington, T. Bray, W. Crysel, L. DeLucas, J. Lewis, T. Gester, 

T. Taylor) 23 

Commercial Protein Crystallisation Facility: Experiences from the STS 95 Mission 

(W. Lork, G. Smolik, J. Stapelmann) 31 

The ISS, an Opportunity for Technology in Space (J. Tailhades, D. Routier) 41 

ISS: Management of the Commercial Research and Development Process 

(R. Moslener) 51 

Report on Panel Discussion 1 

Management of the Research & Development Process 

(O. Gurtuna, C. Rousseau) 59 



Session 2 

Entrepreneurial Initiatives to Use ISS for Profit 
Session Chair: J. K. von der Lippe 



61 




viii 



Entrepreneurial Initiatives to Use the ISS for Profit (J. K. von der Lippe) 63 

From Space Station to Space Tourism: The Role of ISS in Public Access to Space 
(E. Dahlstrom, E. Paat-Dahlstrom) 69 

International Space Station Commercialization: Can Canada Blaze the Trail 
Forward? (A. Eddy, A. Poirier) 79 

Transitioning to Commercial Exploitation of Space (D. Hamill, M. Kearney) 83 

International Space Station Commercialization Study (J. J. Richardson) 91 

Report on Panel Discussion 2 

Entrepreneurial Initiatives to Use the ISS for Profit 

(I. Gracnar, A. Lindskold) 97 

Session 3 

ISS for Education and Public Awareness 

Session Chair: N. Ochanda 101 

Searching for New Opportunities from the International Space Station, and 
Using Them in Eastern Africa (N. Ochanda) 103 

International Space Station: New Uses in a Marketplace of Ideas (J. D. Burke) 111 

ISS — The First International Space Classroom: International Cooperation in 
Hands-on Space Education (V. A. Cassanto, D. C. Lobao) 119 

Art Module "MICHELANGELO": A Possibility for Non-Scientific ISS Utilization 
(C. Wilp, B. Bratke) 127 

Space Education and Space-Based Education: The Russian Experience 
(O. Zhdanovich, D. Pieson) 131 

Report on Panel Discussion 3 
Education and Public Awareness 
(L. Higgs, C. P. Karunaharan) 



137 




ix 



Session 4 

Innovative Approaches to Legal and Regulatory Issues 

Session Chair: A. Farand 139 

Legal Environment for Exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) 

(A. Farand) 141 

Promotion of Industrial ISS Utilization by the German Space Agency 

(F. Claasen, P. Weber, H. Ripken. B. Sobick) 155 

Commercial Management for the Space Station: Making the ISS More Accessible 
to All (G. Inoue, J. Maroothynaden) 163 

A United Nations Module on ISS: A Study (V. Lappas) 175 

Report on Panel Discussion 4 

Innovative Approaches to Legal and Regulatory Issues 

O. Tomofumi, R. Mittal 181 

Session 5 

Technical and Management Innovations for ISS 

Session Chair: M. Uhran 183 

Commercial Development of the International Space Station (M. L. Uhran) 185 

Enabling Better Science: A Commercial Communications Payload for the 
International Space Station (D. Beering) 195 

Commercialization of Management Know-How Generated by the ISS Program 
(M. Bosch) 203 

An Initial Strategy for Commercial Industry Awareness of the International 
Space Station (C. Jorgensen) 211 

Market Potential for the International Space Station (ISS) Service Sector 

(R. Nakagawa, R. Askew) 219 



ISS: Overview of Where Station is at and a Concept for Commercial Utilization 
(J. Worley) 227 




X 



Report on Panel Discussion 5 

Technical and Management Innovations for ISS 

(R. Alexander, E. Benzi) 233 

Session 6 
Concluding Panel 

Session Chair: K. Doetsch 237 

Report on the Concluding Panel 

(P. Messina, T. Brisibe) 239 

Poster Papers 243 

The International Space Station: Expanding our Knowledge of Reactions to 
Microgravity and Methods to Compensate the Effects of Gravity in Relation to 
Certain Species of Birds (L. Higgs) 245 

Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA): Intelligent System Monitoring, 

Management, Analysis, and Administration (C. Holland) 249 

Measurements of Raised Intra-Cranial Pressure, a Cause of Space Motion 
Sickness (C. P. Karunaharan, O. Atkov) 251 

Recording Sprites, Blue Jets and ELVES from the ISS 

(A. Larisma, M. Rycroft) 255 

Gene Therapy as a Possible Counter-measure for Long Duration Space Flight 
Q. Maule) 259 

Some Ideas for a Global ISU Educational Program Centered on the International 
Space Station (O. Zhdanovich, M. Rycroft) 261 

Epilogue 263 

Epilogue to the ISU Symposium on "ISS: The Next Space Marketplace" 

(H. Ripken, G. Haskell, M. Rycroft) 265 



Annex 

Utilization of the ISS, A User's Overview 



269 




Utilization of the International Space Station: A User's Overview — Executive 
Summary (E. Benzi, B. Boardman, T. Brisibe, R. Gao, L. Higgs, C. Maredza, J. 
Maule, P. Messina, 

R. Mittal, M. Rezazad) 271 



Utilization of the International Space Station: A User's Overview (E. Benzi, 

B. Boardman, T. Brisibe, R. Gao, L. Higgs, C. Maredza, J. Maule, P. Messina, 

R. Mittal, M. Rezazad) 275 




xiii 



Acknowledgements 

ISU acknowledges with thanks the advice and support given by the 
following people as members of the Program Committee: 

B. Agrawal, Dept, of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Naval Postgraduate School, 
USA 

O. Atkov, Faculty, International Space University 

F. Becker, Dean & Vice-President for Academic Programs, International Space 
University 

J.-P. Bombled, Space Utilisation Direction, Space Business Unit, Aerospatiale, 
France 

J. M. Cassanto, President, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., USA 

P. Cohendet, BETA, Universite Louis Pasteur, France 

A. Eddy, Manager, ISS Commercialization, Canadian Space Agency, Canada 
Y. Fujimori, Special Advisor, NASD A, Japan 

S. Gazey, Vice-President Strategy & Business Development, DaimlerChrysler 
Aerospace AG, Germany 

B. Harris, Vice-President Science & Health Services, and Chief Scientist, 
SPACEHAB, USA 

R. Jakhu, Institute of Air and Space Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University, 
Canada 

K. Knott, Head of Microgravity and Space Station Utilization Department, 
European Space Agency 

S. V. Kulik, Senior Expert, Department of International Cooperation, Russian 
Space Agency, Russia 



T. Kuroda, Corporate Chief Engineer, NEC Corporation, Japan 




xiv 

A. Nicogossian, Associate Administrator for Life and Microgravity Sciences and 
Applications, NASA, USA 

H. Ripken, Coordinator for Space Station Utilization Preparation, German 
Aerospace Center, DLR, Germany 

G. Rum, Italian Space Agency, Italy 

N. Tolyarenko, Director, Master of Space Studies Program, International Space 
University 

J. von der Lippe, Managing Director, INTOSPACE GmbH, Germany 
J. Vaz, President, BRAZSAT, Brazil 

G. Haskell, Vice President for Programme Development, ISU 

Symposium Programme Committee Chair: G. Haskell, ISU 
Symposium Convenor: P. French, ISU 
Symposium Co-ordinators: L. Chestnutt, E. Vossius, ISU 
Proceedings Editors: G. Haskell and M. Rycroft, ISU 



Editorial Assistant: L. Chestnutt, ISU 




XV 



Foreword 

G. Haskell, Symposium Programme Committee Chair, Vice President, Administration 
and Programme Development, International Space University 

e-mail: Haskell@isu.isunet.edu 

M. Rycroft, Faculty Member, International Space University 
e-mail: Rycroft@isu.isunet.edu 

The theme of the fourth annual symposium arranged by the International 
Space University (ISU) was "International Space Station: The Next Space 
Marketplace". The Symposium covered this topic from the unique — 
interdisciplinary, international and intercultural — perspectives of ISU. It 
focussed on significant issues related to policy, innovative management, 
commerce, regulation, education and outreach rather than concentrating on 
engineering and scientific issues. 

Although admirable progress has already been made in defining the 
utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS) in its early operational phases, 
what does the future hold? What important new applications will arise? What 
commercial opportunities may emerge? And how will the political, legal and 
financial hurdles be overcome, not to mention the technical challenges? The aim 
of the Symposium was to discuss such questions and draw out new ways of 
using the Space Station in the future. 

Among the 120 attendees were members of the fourth Master of Space 
Studies class, young professionals and postgraduate students who are 
developing the Symposium's theme in their Team Project. Their comprehensive 
overview of the subject is presented as an Annex here. Their final report on the 
Team Project will be completed at the end of July 1999, and published separately. 

To sum up, these proceedings of the Symposium are essential reading for all 
who may wish to use the International Space Station, and all those who plan to 
attend the ISS Forum 2000 in Berlin, Germany, in June 2000 — see 
http: / /www.estec.esa.int/ISSForum2000 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



1 



Keynote Address 

ISS: From Political to Scientific and Economic 
Preeminence 



W. Kroll, H. W. Ripken, German Aerospace Center, 51147 Koln-Porz, Germany 



e-mail: Walter.Kroell@dlr.de, Hartmut.Ripken@dlr.de 



Abstract 

The ESA Ministerial Conference of May 1999 made a great step forward in 
guaranteeing the European elements of ISS exploitation and utilization. Emphasis in this 
area has been put on public-private-partnerships and on industrializing the ISS 
exploitation. A strongly emerging industrial interest in ISS utilization is evident which 
not only reflects activities to promote the involvement of non-space industry in 
Germany, and by ESA, but also generally within the countries of the global ISS 
partnership. 

The characteristics of industrialized space utilization in the future are reduced 
government involvement, and the acceptance of responsibility and risk by the private 
sector. The successful opening of a "space marketplace" depends on certain key elements 
— the identification and implementation of a well-defined set of utilization prerequisites, 
and the systematic development of new ISS business and research areas. 

The ISU Syrriposium can help to foster the "Next Space Marketplace"; the results of 
the Symposium need to be forwarded effectively and must be introduced into the global 
space dialogue. 

1. Introduction 

The decision to build the International Space Station was primarily 
politically motivated. It is well known that scientists never requested a Space 
Station, and science alone does not provide a justification for the ISS. It is, 
however, equally clear that politics — as well as the space agencies involved in 
the construction of the ISS — firmly and determinedly require that the best 
possible use be made of the new space infrastructure. Within this frame, a 
perspective for the ISS must be drawn that encompasses multipurpose 
utilization, both by science and by industry. The course of action necessary to 
reach this goal is at present not very obvious; the ISU Symposium 1999 was 
conceived and implemented to help shed some light on this issue. 

There is no automatic generation of a new marketplace. The goal needs to be 
actively pursued by all partners — by academia, industry and government. It 
must be an internationally coordinated effort that eventually will lead to a global 
marketplace without regional boundaries and without demotivating obstacles for 
the users. 



1 



G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 1 - 6 . 
© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




2 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



2. A Vision of the ISS 

Space infrastructure such as Spacelab or SpaceHab have offered the space 
community large payload resources (such as power and mass), combined with 
irregular and infrequent access for users. The Mir Space Station offered regular 
and frequent access, combined with very small payload resources. The 
International Space Station will offer researchers a fundamentally new capability 
— large resources and frequent access — enabling researchers to use the ISS as a 
powerful new "tool" for scientific purposes and, especially, for industrial 
utilization. 

The ISS is to become an integral part of the infrastructure for research and 
technology development, by expanding, supplementing and enriching the 
classical ground-based facilities for research. Embedding ISS research in such a 
way ensures a higher acceptance in the science community and offers, through 
established mechanisms of peer review or merit evaluation, the prospect of 
maintaining a high standard of science or technology. 

2.1 Utilization and Business Areas 

As a goal, Germany and ESA aim at a "balanced utilization" of the ISS, 
allowing approximately equal shares for fundamental sciences, for applied 
research, and for industrial utilization. While high standards in science and an 
adequate number of proposals for scientific experiments already appear to be 
ensured in the early utilization phases, the quantity of good industrial proposals 
needs to be enhanced by special measures. 

For such proposals, three main areas can be identified: (1) the "classical" 
area of the space industry (infrastructure, building of facilities and instruments); 
(2) an emerging area in the field of operations and logistics, and (3) the new area 
of utilization by the space industry and by non-space industry (mainly research 
and technology development for terrestrial and space applications). 

2.2 Result of the ESA Ministerial Conference 

The Ministerial Conference in Brussels (May 1999) provided important 
decisions on ISS and related issues, stabilizing the ISS utilization, exploitation 
and operation, while emphasizing the three business areas mentioned above. In 
general, the ESA Member States decided to develop a coherent European Space 
Strategy, and to build up a network of European "Centers of Competence". 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



3 



Furthermore, an increased engagement of the private sector was called for, 
implying extended public-private-partnerships (PPP). PPP in this context is more 
than merely a co-financing: the partners commit themselves to common goals, 
concentrate each on their specific strengths, and mutually rely on each other. A 
PPP can only function if advantage and profitability are evident for each partner. 
An emerging public-private-partnership in the ISS area is visible in the 
operations and logistics of the Space Station. 

Specific ISS-related results of the Ministerial Conference include continuing 
microgravity research and the new program element of a CRV (Crew Rescue 
Vehicle). As a measure directly impacting the ISS as a "space marketplace", the 
ESA Director General was requested to propose a concept for industrializing the 
ISS exploitation, to be delivered by March 2000. 

3. ISS Utilization and Industrial Engagement 

Keeping in mind recent developments in ISS partner countries, and 
especially the ESA Ministerial Conference, two general goals of ISS utilization 
can be identified: excellence in science, and utilization with commercial 
perspectives. 

These are longterm goals; however, already in the current early utilization 
phase encouraging results are to be noted in Europe. In the scientific area, 
excellent proposals have been submitted, oversubscribing the available resources 
in Europe by a factor of more than 2. In particular, the researchers already 
include two Nobel laureates. In the industrial area, the emerging interest in ISS 
research is evident in numerous areas, ranging from metallurgy and robotics to 
cell biology and pharmaceutical drug design. The first commercial ventures with 
substantial investments by the private sector will be in signal transmission 
services and in high temperature superconducting telecommunications 
equipment. With these proposals already having been submitted today, a 
balanced participation of science and industry appears not to be impossible in the 
exploitation phase, after 2004. 

3.2 German Efforts in Industrial Promotion 

Increasing participation of non-space industry in ISS utilization implies 
"winning" paying customers and investors. This will not happen automatically, 
but requires active marketing of the ISS utilization opportunities. To this end, the 




4 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



German Space Agency (German Aerospace Center, DLR), has initiated a project 
for the promotion of industrial users of the ISS. 

Its prime objectives are (1) stimulating a wide-spread interest within the 
non-space industry by means of an "Information Service ISS", addressing not the 
general public but potential users and decision-makers, (2) establishing close 
contacts with National Associations of Industry and initiating concrete 
cooperations with these "mediators" to their member companies, and (3) 
establishing a system of "user coaching", providing a single point-of-contact for 
new users. Task (3) is emerging at present as a further example of PPP, bringing 
together, e.g., the industrial user service center, BEOS, and the German 
Aerospace Center, DLR. Existing User Centers in Germany, such as MUSC in 
Cologne and ZARM in Bremen, are integrated into these activities, as well. 

3.2 ESA Efforts in Industrial Promotion 

ESA is focussing its efforts on "Topical Teams". Currently there are 24 teams 
consisting generally of groups of people from academia and industry. Selected 
teams can continue their work in specific fields until flight-ready experiments are 
developed. While the German approach relies on wide-spread "marketing", ESA 
chooses to select a few, especially promising teams. 

In the area of applied microgravity experimentation, the recent MAP 
(Microgravity Application Promotion) Announcements of Opportunity yielded 
an overwhelming response. Of 144 proposals, 61 were with the involvement of 
industry, with a total number of 163 companies being named. 

In June 1999, the ESA User Information Center on ISS Utilization, located in 
ESTEC/Noordwijk, will be inaugurated, providing numerous information 
services to European experimenters including industrial users. 

3.3 Towards Industrial Engagements 

Both approaches, the selective ESA method and the broader German 
method, have already resulted in the first successful activities, where industrial 
companies are committing substantial funding. Clearly the status of ISS 
utilization is in a "Phase 1" stage, where experiment costs are paid partly by the 
private sector, while mission costs (transport, logistics, system operations) are 
paid by the public sector. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



5 





Experiment Costs 


Mission Costs 


Phase 1 


partly private 


fully public 


Phase 2 


fully private 


fully public 


Phase 3 


fully private 


partly public 



Table 1. Utilization Phases 



The three phases of ISS utilization are indicated in Table 1; the goal is to 
reach Phase 3. Parallel with this development, the governments need to step 
back, need to reduce subsidies and hand over the initiative in the area of 
industrial utilization to the private sector. Companies wishing to participate in 
and to exploit the ISS utilization opportunities need to accept responsibility and 
risk, while aiming at making a profit and stabilizing — or even increasing — 
their market position. 

A general principle emerges here: it is that there should be as much private 
activity as possible, and as little public activity as necessary. Examples of 
necessary government functions include legal, regulatory and supervisory 
functions. 

3.4 The Task: Open the " Space Marketplace" 

Current efforts and trends have been described. It is vital here and now to 
state the necessary boundary conditions for reaching the goal of a "Space 
Marketplace". The key elements can be formulated as follows: 

• Frameworks for proprietary research by industry and for commercial services need to 
be established by the ISS partners 

• Legal and regulatory aspects must be covered; they should be absolutely transparent 
to the users 

• The potential ISS business areas need to be identified; they must be actively and 
systematically developed. Six areas can be named currently: 

- Technology testbed 

- Research, both public and private 

- Observational activities, e.g. Earth observations 

- Operations, logistics and commercial services 

- Education and outreach 

- Free market elements, such as advertising 

• Prerequisites for ISS utilization by industry need to be identified and must be secured 
by the ISS partners: 




6 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



- Regular and frequent access to ISS 

- Transparent selection criteria; no standard (scientific!) peer reviews; industrial 

access also possible via national selection processes 

- User-friendly access conditions and procedures 

- Assured confidentiality and proprietary rights for industry 

- Reliable schedules and costs. 

All of these key elements are essential for risk and profit evaluation by 
industry; thus they constitute clear "go - no go" criteria for industrial 
involvement, and for the opening of a "Space Marketplace". 

4. Conclusions and Outlook 

It has been stated before, and it has become manifest in almost all elements 
of the industrial and commercial development of ISS utilization: "There is no 
automatic generation of a new space marketplace". It needs to be rigorously 
worked for by all the parties involved; programmatic and policy constraints need 
to be minimized. All "players" are asked to coordinate, cooperate and pool their 
resources — the private sector, national agencies, the European Space Agency, 
the international ISS partners, the European Union, and the United Nations. 

The results arising from this Symposium must be collected, analyzed, 
processed and adequately disseminated. The Symposium will not be complete 
until the results and recommendations are introduced into the global ISS 
dialogue. One opportunity for this will be at the UN conference UNISPACE 3 in 
Vienna, in July 1999. Others include workshops of the space agencies, strategic 
and tactical discussions on a bilateral or multilateral basis, and the next Global 
ISS Utilization Conference to be held in Berlin, in June 2000. 

In accepting their respective tasks, individual "players", the agencies, and 
industry can foster the necessary private sector engagement and thus help to 
make the International Space Station become the next space marketplace. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Session 1 

Management of the Research and Development 

Process 

Session Chair: 



J. G. Vaz, BRAZSAT, Brazil 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



9 



Brazilian Participation in the International Space 
Station, with an Emphasis on Microgravity Research 

J.G. Vaz, Brazsat - Brazilian Commercial Space Services, Av. Dr. Joao Guilhermino, 261 
suite 133, Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. 12227, Brazil 

e-mail: brazsat@aol.com 

J.A. Guimaraes, University of Rio Grande do Sul, Centro de Biotecnologia - UFRGS, 
Av. Bento Goncalves 9500 C.P. 15005, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil 

e-mail: Guimar@conex.com.br 



Abstract 

Brazil has various vigorous and well-established national programs, which are 
government supported, and which underpin future Brazilian utilization of the 
International Space Station (ISS). The particular opportunity for Brazilian participation 
in the ISS is for staff at government research centers and private companies to use its 
research and development facilities to develop a productive enterprise initiative 
including both the private and public sectors. Of particular importance is the 
opportunity offered for projects in the field of pharmaceutical products, an area that 
Brazil and the entire South American market is now developing and already one of the 
largest markets in the world. 

Brazilian research agencies are excited about using the ISS and also upcoming 
Space Shuttle flight opportunities that are linked closely with ground research as a new 
way of doing research. Projects can be designed to develop new drugs, vaccines, 
protein pharmaceuticals, diagnosis kits and other products for the treatment, control 
and prevention of tropical and parasitic diseases, involving both government centers 
and the private sector. 

1. Overview of the Brazilian Academic Network 

The Brazilian Universities and the nation's science and technology 
activities are relatively recent. The University of Sao Paulo (USP), the largest 
and most scientifically oriented Brazilian University, was created only in 1934. 
Much of the country is still in an underdeveloped condition, due to the delay in 
establishing a strong academic sector. It was only in the last four decades that 
the need for changes in this situation became a matter of governmental concern. 

A national program for graduate studies was officially organized at the 
end of the 1960s. This program was primarily designed and conceived as a 
route for increasing the qualified personnel capable of improving the quality of 
teaching and strengthening the research activities at universities and other 
national institutions. At the same time it was expected that the program would 
contribute to the technological development of the country by supplying it with 
well-trained scientists and technologists dedicated to research and 

9 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 9 - 16 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




10 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



development, and meeting the needs of both public and private industrial 
sectors [Reference 1]. 

The Ministry of Education continuously supervises the program as a whole 
and its scientific output is evaluated biennially by special ad hoc peer review 
committees. During the last three decades this program has been consolidated 
and is functioning in several universities and research centers that are officially 
accredited to offer degrees at Master's and/or Ph.D. levels. 

The scientific output of Brazil has increased continuously in both quality 
and quantity. Publication of scientific articles in the most acknowledged 
international journals and periodicals, as catalogued by the Science Citation 
Index, the Philadelphia-based Institute for Scientific Information [Reference 2], 
increased progressively in the period 1973-1998 as shown in Fig. 1. 




□ 1973 

□ 1978 

□ 1986 

□ 1991 
■ 1993 

□ 1996 

□ 1998 



Figure 1. Number of Brazilian Papers Published [Reference 2] 



Furthermore, in this period the growth rate of publications was twice the 
average rate. Highlights of these advances have been pointed out recently 
[References 3, 4, 6]. 






International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



11 



2. Key Areas of Research Successes in Brazil 

As a consequence of this training program, Brazil has made an impressive 
impact in several technological areas [Reference 1]. Some key achievements 
include: 

• technology for exploring petroleum resources in deep sea water 

• cellulose and paper-mill industries, and woodland recovery 

• design and construction of alcohol-propelled motor vehicles 

• soil technology to develop large areas of once infertile land known as 
"cerrados" and "caatingas" 

• advances in electronics and telecommunications systems 

• computer science, especially software development and robotics 

• sophisticated automation for the nationally-expanded network of Brazilian 
banks 

• aircraft design and production 

• launching of scientific satellites 

• satellite-supported systems, including data collection platforms and 
remote sensing stations for monitoring forest fires, Atlantic rain forest 
climate, and agricultural and environmental forecasts 

• advances in medicine, especially cardiac surgery 

• scientific knowledge of insect-borne tropical diseases 

• agribusiness, covering plant, animal and food technology, production and 
industrialization of soybeans, coffee, sugar cane, citrus juice and tropical 
fruits. 

3. Characteristics of the Brazilian Industrial Sector 

Despite these achievements, Brazil still lacks a strong technological and 
industrial sector capable of competing at the international level. There are 
several reasons for this. The national industrial sector neither invests in science 
and technology nor does it require research support. On the other hand, 
international companies located in the region usually prefer to transfer their 
own technology to their foreign branches. Nevertheless, some industrial sectors 
seem to be moving in the direction of a more cooperative effort to explore 
Brazilian opportunities from both economic and scientific viewpoints. 




12 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



3.1 The Pharmaceutical Sector in Brazil 

At present, a great opportunity exists for the pharmaceutical industry to be 
engaged in R&D in Brazil. The sector benefits from several attractive 
advantages: 

• Brazil is becoming a significant producer of pharmaceutical products; 
from 1992 to 1995, the annual rate of growth was approximately 30% 

• Investments have reached a level of US $600 million 

• The motivation for this boom is the size of the Brazilian market, the sixth 
largest market in the world, and capable of further growth 

• The existence of the largest biodiversity environment in the world 

• Several laws which stimulate the application of industrial funds for 
research 

• A law which regulates the production and commercialization of 
biotechnological and other products 

• A beneficial patent law. 

4. Microgravity Research Opportunities for Drug Development 

Projects for drug developments based on target proteins are now facilitated 
by microgravity facilities for growing pure protein crystals of uniform size in 
space. Proteins are important, complex biochemicals that serve a variety of 
purposes in living organisms. Metabolic processes involving proteins play an 
essential role in our lives, from providing nourishment to fighting disease. In 
the past decade, rapid growth in protein pharmaceutical use has resulted in the 
successful application of proteins to insulin, interferon, human growth 
hormone, and tissue plasminogen activator. 

Other potential applications include agricultural products and bioprocesses 
for use in manufacturing and waste management. Such research has attracted 
firms in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and chemical industries. 

In response to these opportunities, Brazsat has teamed-up with the Center 
for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in 
Birmingham (CMC-UAB), USA. This is one of the NASA Centers for the 
Commercial Development of Space (CDS) that form a bridge between NASA 
and private industry; it is developing methods for the crystallization of 
macromolecules in microgravity. The CMC-UAB has formed affiliations with 
companies that are investing substantial amounts of time, research, and money 
to develop protein samples for use in evaluating the benefits of microgravity. 
Protein structural information leads to the discovery and synthesis of 
complementary compounds that can become potent drugs specifically directed 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



13 



against the disease target. Structure-based drug design is a productive and 
cost-effective targeted drug development strategy. 

The commercial applications developed using protein crystal growth have 
phenomenal potential, and the number of proteins that need to be studied is in 
the tens of thousands. Current research, with the aid of pharmaceutical 
companies, may lead to a whole new generation of drugs, which could help 
treat diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontic disease, 
influenza, septic shock, emphysema, aging, AIDS and tropical diseases. 

5. Role of Brazsat in ISS 

Being the only Brazilian Company working in the field of commercial 
space applications and utilization of microgravity, Brazsat was responsible for 
the major achievements that led to the Brazilian participation in the ISS; in 1998 
Brazil became a partner in the ISS program. Brazsat is recognized by the United 
Nations Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as an example of a 
space company working for the benefit of developing nations. In April 1997 
Brazsat coordinated the first Brazilian Biotechnology experiment to fly in space, 
introducing to Brazil the concept of using the microgravity environment to 
enhance research. 

One of the main justifications for Brazil's participation in the ISS program 
was the research benefit to be achieved from carrying out protein crystal growth 
experiments in the microgravity environment. Several diseases such as chagas, 
dengue and malaria affects millions of Brazilians and cost the government 
several billion dollars. 

As a member of the International Space Station Program, Brazil will be 
contributing by supplying NASA with important hardware; NASA will allow 
Brazil to use the US segment of the ISS (0.25% utilization). Looking ahead to 
2005, Brazsat is working to assist Brazilian scientists and industries to begin to 
use microgravity in order to gain the necessary expertise for when the Space 
Station utilization time is available. The key areas for research for the Brazilian 
scientific community are in protein crystal growth and agriculture research 
(plant growth). This type of research cannot be done using sounding rockets, 
since it requires a reliable access to space and long duration flights with very 
sophisticated hardware and scientific preparations. 

Brazsat has already coordinated the first series of Brazilian experiments 
aboard the NASA Space Shuttle on the missions STS 83, 94, 84, 91 and 95. These 
flights in less than two years clearly demonstrate the continuation of services 
and also the excellent support to the Brazilian research community. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



In October 1998, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso wrote an 
important letter to President Bill Clinton stating that the research being carried 
out by the Brazilian scientific community on the Space Shuttle was extremely 
important to Brazilians, being an important advance in the researches for both 
new drugs and agriculture research. 

Brazsat has partnerships with other Brazilian aerospace industries and 
research agencies to develop hardware that would be used by Brazilian 
researchers aboard the ISS. Initial contracts have already been signed for the 
development, on a commercial basis, of several pieces of hardware tailored to 
support the scientific needs. As a result, they will generate fantastic 
opportunities to small Brazilian aerospace firms to design, build and test 
manned space flight hardware. 

Brazsat's next initiative is to open, in October 2000, a Commercial Space 
Utilization and Education Center to serve the Brazilian and South American 
markets. Initial funding is already allocated and the construction of the center 
and implementation of the first phase should soon start. This center will 
include the direct involvement of several key players in the area of microgravity 
research, also Brazilian pharmaceutical and agriculture-related companies, and 
venture capital groups. The center will be called South American Microgravity 
Utilization and Integration Center - SAMUIC - and it will support the growing 
market in space research on a commercial basis without bureaucracy. The 
center will be strongly supported by existing partnerships with leading research 
centers in Brazil and in other countries, and it will coordinate any type of 
microgravity experiment ranging from sounding rockets to the ISS. 

Some of the other important initiatives that Brazsat is actively participating 
in to move forward the space business in Brazil and to also promote the ISS 
program are: 

• Building the necessary political support for microgravity services at 
different levels in the political system. Politics are important and related 
to space, and vice-versa. In Brazil funding for space research must be 
directly related to benefits gained by Brazilian society 

• Building coalition support for space research to create funding for 
Brazilian research institutions and scientists to fund their microgravity 
research needs. Brazsat is working closely with several government 
agencies to create a well-defined funding structure for microgravity 
research, and also to support the ground segment of research both before 
and after the experiments are flown in space. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



15 



Brazsat has already organized two commercial space workshops. The 

third will be held in Rio de Janeiro in August 1999. 

6. Other Key Players in Brazilian Microgravity Research 

• AEB (Brazilian Space Agency) is the official space-related agency in Brazil, 
with the mandate to organize Brazilian space activities. It is newly created 
(1994) and has very limited budget. It created, in 1998, a microgravity 
program based on the utilization of Brazilian sounding rockets and the 
Brazilian allocation aboard the ISS 

• BIO- AMAZONIA is a biotechnology center to be created by the Brazilian 
government as part of the Brazilian Government official Plan of Social 
Action. Brazsat has a Memorandum of Understanding to cooperate with 
this center in promoting the use of space as a resource for research 

• EMBRAPA, the leading agriculture research agency in Brazil, will be 
flying proteins to target some of the most important agriculture related 
research that will have direct benefit to Brazilian agricultural production 

• FAPESP (Sao Paulo State Research Foundation) funds researchers, 
universities and industries located in the State of Sao Paulo to perform 
microgravity research aboard several Space Shuttle missions 

• FINEP, the funding agency for studies and projects closely tied to the 
Ministry of Science and Technology in Brazil, will be a key player in future 
microgravity research projects in Brazil 

• FIOCRUZ, the leading research agency of the Ministry of Health and a 
center of excellence for research on tropical diseases and AIDS 

• INPE (National Institute of Space Research) was responsible for the 
coordination of the first series of Brazilian microgravity experiments. 
INPE is a key player and its engineers are already fully trained by CMC- 
UAB to integrate manned space flight hardware aboard the Space Shuttle. 
The next step is jointly to develop science-related microgravity hardware 
in close cooperation with Brazilian industry 

• LNLS (National Synchrotron Laboratory), located in Campinas (West of 
Sao Paulo), is the only synchrotron source in Latin America. Several 
Brazilian experiments that were aboard the Space Shuttle were analyzed 
here 

• USP (University of Sao Paulo), participated already in several 
microgravity experiments in the area of protein crystal growth and 
obtained excellent results. 

References 

1. Guimaraes, J. A and Humannn, M. C.: Scientometrics 34, pp.101-119, 1995 

2. Science Citation Index Institute for Scientific Information, 1999 

3. Science Watch 267 : pp. 807-828, 1995 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



4. Pulling together in Latin America, Nature 398: p. 353, 1999 

5. Science 267: 807-828, 1995 

6. Pulling together in Latin America, Nature 398: p. 353, 1999 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



17 



BEOS - A New Approach to Promote and Organize 
Industrial ISS Utilization 



B. Bratke, H. Buchholz, H. Luttmann, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG, BEOS, Postfach 
286156, 28361 Bremen, Germany 

e-mail: burkhard.bratke@ri.dasa.de, henning.buchholz@ri.dasa.de, 

helmut.luttmann@ri.dasa.de 

H.-J. Dittus, Universitat Bremen, ZARM, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen, Germany 
e-mail: dittus@zarm.uni-bremen.de 



D. Hiiser, OHB-System GmbH, Universitatsallee 27-29, 28359 Bremen, Germany 
e-mail: hueser@ohb-system.de 



Abstract 

In order to develop and to market innovative services and products for the 
operation of the ISS ana its utilization, three players have teamed up together and 
established an entity called BEOS (Bremen Engineering Operations Science). The team 
is made up of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, OHB-System and ZARM, the Center of 
Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen. 

It is the aim of BEOS to represent a competent industrial interface to potential ISS 
users from the space and non-space industries. In this effort BEOS is supporting and 
supplementing the activities of the space agencies, especially in the field of industrial 
and/or commercial ISS utilization. With this approach BEOS is creating new business 
opportunities not only for its team members but also for its customers from industry. 
Besides the fostering of industrial research in space, non-technical fields of space 
utilization like entertainment, advertisement, education and space travel represent 
further key sectors for the marketing efforts of BEOS. 

1. Introduction 

During the last decade several sectors of the space industry have changed 
from pure receivers of public support into high growth business fields. 
Especially in the satellite telecommunications segment this transformation is 
visible, and navigation and Earth observations are following closely behind. In 
this context the utilization and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) 
are discussed with respect to their business potential. In general there are three 
major areas for the creation of business revenues: 

• Carrying out ISS operations 

• Industrial research 

• Entertainment, advertising and education. 

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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



In order to develop and to market innovative services and products for the 
operation of the ISS and its utilization, three organizations, whose home 
locations are Bremen, Germany, have set up an entity called BEOS (Bremen 
Engineering Operations Science). The three players comprise DaimlerChrysler 
Aerospace, OHB System and ZARM, the Center for Applied Space Technology 
and Microgravity at the University of Bremen (see Fig. 1). The combination of a 
major international corporation, a medium sized enterprise and a research 
institute is expected to provide an excellent base for the development and 
service of the ISS operations and utilization market. 




Bremen Engineering Operations Science 



Figure 1. The relative involvement of each of the three partners in BEOS 
2. The BEOS Partners 

In this section the founding members of BEOS and their experiences in the 
development, operation and utilization of microgravity research facilities are 
briefly summarized. 

2.1 DaimlerChrysler Aerospace 

The first BEOS partner, with a share of 80% and the main shareholder, is 
the space infrastructure department of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA). 






International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



19 



DASA Space Infrastructure in 1997 had annual sales of the order of US $ 600 
million and a work force in Bremen of around 1200 employees. Under its former 
name ERNO Raumfahrttechnik this department developed and operated the 
TEXUS sounding rocket program for microgravity research in the 1970's. As 
prime contractor the development of Spacelab was the next milestone; its first 
flight took place in November 1983. In the following years until the retirement 
of Spacelab in 1998, ERNO/DASA built facilities and research equipment for 
several missions, e.g., the German missions D1 and D2. In addition support was 
given to the space agencies and researchers before, during and after the 
missions with respect to facility operations, astronaut training and experiment 
logistics. Further examples of the involvement of ERNO/DASA in the space 
infrastructure segment for microgravity research was through the development 
and operation of the space pallet satellite (SPAS, flights in 1983, 1993 and 1994) 
and the free flyer platform EURECA (flight in 1992/93). In 1996 DASA was 
selected as the prime contractor for the development and integration of the 
European ISS module Columbus. Additional participation of DASA in the ISS 
program is in the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the European Robotic 
Arm (ERA), the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), the Data Management System 
(DMS), the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) and a maintenance unit called 
Inspector. 

2.2 OHB-System GmbH 

The second BEOS partner is OHB-System GmbH, the core company of the 
Fuchs Gruppe, a medium size company which has a share of 12% in BEOS. In 
1997 OHB-System had an annual turnover of about US $ 20 million and 125 
employees. Its activities in the space sector are widespread: they range from 
small satellites, re-entry technology, sensors for environment observation and 
mobile satellite communications terminals to microgravity systems and 
experiment facilities, space subsystems and ground support equipment. 

In the field of microgravity research payloads, OHB-System participated in 
6 Space Shuttle missions and 2 Mir missions. OHB-System is contributing to the 
ISS program by designing, manufacturing and testing the Pre-Integrated 
Columbus APM (PICA) system harness and Mechanical Test Support 
Equipment (MTSE). For Node 2 and 3 of the ISS it is responsible for the 
secondary structure and the harness complex. It has already delivered 16 
International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) ground models to ESA/ESTEC. 
OHB-System is also involved in the development of the Automated Transfer 
Vehicle (ATV). In the ISS payload segment OHB participates in the 
development of the BIOLAB, the Modular Cultivation System (MCS), the Fluid 
Science Lab (FSL); it is prime contractor for the European Drawer Rack (EDR) 
and the European Physiology Module (EPM). 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



2.3 ZARM Drop Tower Operation Business Unit 

ZARM is the third partner of BEOS, with a share of 8%. ZARM is a 
research institute of the University of Bremen with about 80 researchers, 
scientists and engineers working there. The main areas of research are space 
technology, aerodynamics, gravitational physics, combustion, hydrodynamic 
stability, rotational fluids, interface phenomena and ferrofluids. ZARM is world 
renowned for being the operator of a drop tower with a height of 140 m, which 
provides 4.74 s in microgravity conditions. 

The role of ZARM with respect to the ISS program is in scientific research 
in the fields of combustion, fluid science and ferrofluids. In these areas ZARM is 
participating in ESA topical teams, which are the core elements of the ESA 
Microgravity application program. These teams have been set up in order to 
identify and develop links between basic research and industrial applications in 
the different fields of microgravity research. 

2.4 Partner Summary 

Summarizing the BEOS partners' experiences and know-how in the field of 
space infrastructure operations and utilization, the following commonalities and 
supplementary assets can be identified. What the three partners have in 
common are experience in manned space flight, participation in the ISS 
program and the same location in the city of Bremen. They complement each 
other in their size and corresponding assets. DASA as a major international 
corporation gives power and stability, OHB-System as a medium sized 
enterprise offers flexibility and innovation, while ZARM stands for very well 
recognized scientific research and expertise. Looking at this combination it is 
clear that BEOS has the right starting conditions for performing a successful job. 

3. BEOS Objectives 

It is the aim of BEOS to make use of synergistic effects of the partners' 
competences in the operation and utilization of space infrastructure. Based on 
this a major effort will be spent on an innovative opening up of new markets for 
manned space flight. Here BEOS wants to represent a competent industrial 
interface to potential ISS users from the space and non-space industries. In 
parallel, the institutional side will be addressed in order to shape future space 
programs through discussions between science and industry. In this field BEOS 
is supporting and supplementing the activities of the space agencies, especially 
in the field of industrial and/or commercial ISS utilization. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



21 



A BEOS objective with a geographic background is to promote Bremen as a 
center for manned space flight and microgravity research. This goal will be 
achieved not only for the business sector but also it is hoped that the ISS 
activities will be integrated into the PR and tourist program of the city of 
Bremen. 

Becoming more specific, a set of tasks for BEOS will be to: 

• Trigger a general willingness within non-space industry segments to think 
seriously about ISS utilization 

• Develop products and services to increase the attraction for industrial ISS 
operations and utilization 

• Develop procedures and sequences to optimize ISS operations and 
utilization, especially for users from non-space industries 

• Prepare adequate administrative boundary conditions for industrial ISS 
users in cooperation with the space agencies 

• Attract industries to use already existing space infrastructure (drop tower, 
parabolic flights, MIKROBA, TEXUS system, Spacehab). 

Besides the fostering of industrial research in space, non-technical fields of 
space utilization such as entertainment, advertisement, education and space 
travel represent further key sectors for the BEOS marketing efforts. As an 
example for this sector, cooperation with Charles Wilp in the conception of the 
art module MICHELANGELO is mentioned. 

4. BEOS Products and Services 

The anticipated products and services of BEOS are derived from the 
partners' business segments and the aforementioned objectives and goals. The 
products in general consist of: 

• Facilities, systems and/or instrumentation for ISS operations, utilization 
and maintenance (space segment) 

• Communications and data link between user and project 

• Test facilities 

• Ground facilities 

• Software for data processing, display and evaluation 

• Simulation and virtual reality tools. 

As for the services which BEOS will offer, these include: 

• Consultancy and support preparing, carrying out and financing projects 

• Handling project logistics 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



• Providing communications services 

• Supporting crew training 

• Support operations and maintenance for the Columbus Orbital Facility 
(COF). 

It is our understanding that these products and services will enable BEOS 
to provide an end-to-end service for any customer who is planning a project on 
or with the International Space Station. 

5. Outlook 

With this approach, BEOS is creating new business opportunities not only 
for its team members but also for its customers from industry. Therefore it is the 
vision of the BEOS team that the operation and utilization of the ISS have a 
similar business potential as the space industry sectors mentioned at the 
beginning. This vision includes the ISS or its successor being operated and 
utilized completely by the private sector. Essential for this vision is a more 
efficient and cheaper space transportation system that provides access to space 
on a regular "train-like" basis, e.g. one flight per week for cargo as well as for 
astronauts/researchers/tourists. At the same time the space agencies will need 
all their manpower to make sure that the first manned mission to Mars is a 
success. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



23 



Protein Crystallography Services on the International 

Space Station 

M. Harrington, T. Bray, W. Crysel, L. DeLucas, J. Lewis, University of Alabama at 
Birmingham/Center for Macromolecular Crystallography, MCLM 262, Birmingham, 
AL 35294-0005, USA, 



e-mail: harringt@cmc.uab.edu, bray@cmc.uab.edu, crysel@cmc.uab.edu, 

delucas@cmc.uab.edu, lewis@cmc.uab.edu 

T. Gester, T. Taylor, Diversified Scientific, Inc., 2800 Milan Court, Suite 381, 
Birmingham, AL 35211, USA 



e-mail: tgester@dsitech.com, taylor@cmc.uab.edu 

Abstract 

The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) has performed protein 
crystal growth experiments on more than 30 U.S. Space Shuttle missions. Results from 
these experiments have clearly demonstrated that the microgravity environment is 
beneficial in that a number of proteins crystallized were larger or of higher quality than 
their Earth-grown counterparts. These microgravity results plus data from a variety of 
other investigators have stimulated various space agencies to support fundamental 
studies on macromolecular crystal growth processes. The CMC has devoted substantial 
effort toward the development of dynamically controlled crystal growth systems, which 
allow scientists to optimize crystallization parameters on Earth or in space. This 
capability plus the CMC's experience in protein structure determination and structure- 
guided drug development have attracted partnerships with a number of 
pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. The CMC is currently designing a 
complete crystallographic laboratory for the International Space Station. This facility 
will support a variety of crystallization hardware systems, an X-ray diffraction rack for 
crystal characterization or complete X-ray data set collection, and a robotically 
controlled crystal mounting system with cryo-preservation capabilities. The X-ray 
diffraction rack and crystal harvesting/ cryo-preservation systems can be operated with 
minimal crew time via telerobotic and/or robotic procedures. The CMC, in conjunction 
with its spin-off company. Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), is currently marketing 
crystallography services, which include crystal growth, structure determinations and 
structure-guided drug development. 

1. Introduction 



X-ray crystallography is a tool used by scientists to determine the three- 
dimensional structure of proteins or other macromolecules. From a basic 
research perspective, the structural information obtained enables researchers to 
see the mechanisms by which enzymes, receptors, hormones, and other 
macromolecules function in biological systems. From a commercial standpoint, 
this information has become invaluable in the development of new 
pharmaceuticals. Using a technique known as structure-based drug design, the 
protein structural information allows for new pharmaceutical agents to be 
designed that interact with specific sites on the protein molecule of interest. This 

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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



technique is being applied to the search for new drugs to combat both chronic 
and infectious diseases. The growth of large, well ordered protein crystals is a 
critical part of the application of X-ray crystallography for molecular structure 
determinations. The quality of the crystal has a direct impact on the quality of 
the diffraction pattern produced by an X-ray diffraction system and ultimately 
on the atomic resolution that can be determined from these diffraction images. 
Thus, the quality of the protein crystal is critical to the successful determination 
of a protein structure. 

2. Protein Crystal Growth in Microgravity: Research and Benefits 

2.2 Early History 

Protein crystal growth is a relatively new science that often relies on 
understanding unique relationships of crystal growth parameters for each 
particular protein. There are many variables that affect the quality and 
repeatability of experimental results. In 1985 the Center for Macromolecular 
Crystallography (CMC) proposed to NASA flying protein crystal growth 
experiments on board the Space Shuttle with the goal of gaining a better 
understanding of the molecular events involved in macromolecular crystal 
growth. The hypothesis proposed was that removing the influence of gravity 
would affect crystal growth in three ways. First, the minimization of buoyancy 
induced convective flows would lead to a slower, more consistent crystal 
growth and diminish the inclusion of impurities. Secondly, the use of semi- 
containerless crystal growth would minimize potential nucleation sites, thereby 
leading to fewer, but larger, crystals. Finally, crystal sedimentation, which 
invariably occurs as protein crystals form, would be eliminated [Reference 1]. In 
that same year, the first of four flights occurred using simple proof-of-concept 
hardware developed in conjunction with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). 

2.2 Commercial Space Centers 

The Commercial Space Center program was created by NASA to establish 
a consortium of universities and industrial partners to conduct focused research 
that would foster space commerce. NASA's concept was to do so by advancing 
broad domains of research endeavors, removing many of the practical 
impediments previously associated with space access, and developing a 
technology database. Based on promising results from the first proof-of-concept 
flights, the CMC was approved by NASA and established in 1985 as a 
Commercial Space Center. The focus of the CMC is to understand the structure 
and function of macromolecules, especially as they apply to biological processes 
and drug design. With support from industry, NASA, and other governmental 
agencies, the CMC has developed a multifaceted program that covers an entire 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



25 



spectrum from protein isolation and purification, crystal growth, structure 
determination, lead compound design and drug development (medicinal and 
structure-guided combinatorial chemistry). As part of this program, the Center 
relies on both ground- and space-based crystal growth experiments to achieve 
its mission goals. The benefits realized from the Commercial Space Center 
funding which NASA provides can be seen in the form of advances in research 
and development, as well as improvements in industrial competitiveness 
through education, commercialization, and economic return. The CMC to date 
has solved over 35 new protein structures, published over 400 papers, and 
received /applied for 19 patents. In 1998 the Center had active collaborations 
with 15 industrial partners, 37 academic institutions, and 5 government 
agencies. The CMC has continued to attract non-NASA funding from a number 
of other sources including industry foundations and other governmental 
agencies. For FY 98, the CMC's cash leverage ratio for the NASA Center Grant 
Funding was 1:17. For cash plus "in-kind" support, the ratio was 1:26. In 
addition, the CMC has created three successful spin-off companies; the most 
mature is Biocryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a publicly traded pharmaceutical 
company with a valuation of US $ 115 million (as of 26 April 1999). 

2.3 Summary of Results from Microgravity 

With the STS-95 mission, the CMC has flown 52 experiment systems on 34 
Space Shuttle flights. Twenty-two of the experiment systems were flown under 
NASA's science code (Code UG), 29 were flown under NASA's commercial 
code (Code UX), and one was flown by SPACEHAB, Inc. (SHI) by leasing the 
experiment hardware from the CMC. A large co-investigator group consisting 
of scientists from the academic, government and commercial communities 
utilized these NASA /CMC flight opportunities. The CMC acts as an interface 
for each co-investigator to provide the scientist with a simplified and less 
intimidating process for accessing space. A large body of data has been 
collected from these experiments and the beneficial effects of microgravity have 
been summarized in a recent paper [Reference 2]. In addition, other NASA- 
sponsored flight investigators have conducted extensive microgravity crystal 
growth research, using his/her own unique hardware systems to obtain 
successful results. Two independent research groups have recently confirmed 
that protein crystals grown in microgravity are more perfectly arranged and 
produce better X-ray diffraction data than similar crystals grown on the ground 
[References 3 and 4]. The commercial implications of protein crystal growth in 
microgravity are not hypothetical, as crystals grown in space have played a role 
in new drug development for several diseases [Reference 2]. Examples include 
a new treatment for complications resulting from open-heart surgery, a broad- 
spectrum antibiotic, and new long-acting formulations of insulin. There are two 
primary concerns that exist when performing research or commercial activities 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



relating to protein crystal growth on board the Space Shuttle. The first relates to 
the crystal growth time available. Protein crystals appear to grow more slowly 
in a microgravity environment [Reference 4]. For a large number of proteins, 
typical Space Shuttle missions are not of sufficient duration to allow sufficient 
time for crystals to reach a usable size. The other concern relates to the 
frequency of Shuttle flight opportunities. Typically, in a ground-based 
laboratory, an investigator must perform iterative experiments to optimize the 
crystallization conditions. The limited flight opportunities hinder this iterative 
process when performing microgravity research. Limitations such as these have 
prevented the commercialization of protein crystal growth services in 
microgravity. Investigators have long recognized these deficiencies; this is why 
they support the development of the International Space Station (ISS). 

3. Protein Crystal Growth Microgravity Hardware Systems 

3.2 Hardware Overview 

The evolution of protein crystal growth systems has paralleled the increase 
in our understanding of fundamental crystal growth processes. The CMC's two 
primary areas of emphasis in each successive design involved increasing the 
density of experiment chambers and/or improving the probability of success in 
a given chamber via control of important crystallization parameters. While 
these improvements are important for the advancement of the science, they are 
an imperative for protein crystal growth to be commercially viable on ISS. The 
CMC realized this critical need early and in 1990 began to develop an in-house 
engineering capability to support the design, analysis, fabrication, assembly, 
testing, and mission operations for the experiment systems. Since that time the 
staff has grown to 48 engineers and technicians drawn from a variety of NASA 
contractors, including Boeing, Fairchild, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, 
Teledyne Brown, TRW, and Wyle Laboratories. The 1650 m 2 facility operated 
by the Engineering Group includes 280 m 2 of laboratory space and a clean room. 
It operates under a NASA certified quality program. Since 1990, the Group has 
developed over 11 experiment systems and has supported 30 of the 34 CMC 
protein crystal growth Space Shuttle flights. 

3.2 Existing Experiment Systems 

Following the four proof-of-concept flights, MSFC contracted the 
development of a system more suited for the performance of formal science 
experiments. The system designated the Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA) 
flew for the first time on STS-26. Since then, the CMC has developed a number 
of experiment systems under grants or contracts for both NASA Codes UX and 
UG, respectively. Each system has capitalized on experiences from its 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



27 



predecessor in the areas of performance and experiment density. The number 
of individual experiment chambers has grown from 60 in the original VDA 
system to 128 in the present Commercial Vapor Diffusion Apparatus system. 
The Protein Crystallization Facility, first flown on STS-37, is a temperature- 
gradient system that has also undergone several upgrades on successive 
missions. The Protein Crystallization Facility with Light Scattering was the first 
CMC-developed system that included experiment diagnostics which allowed 
for real-time adjustments of experiment conditions by a crewman. 

3.3 Dynamically Controlled Protein Crystal Growth System 

The Dynamically Controlled Protein Crystal Growth (DCPCG) system is a 
new device under development at the CMC for use on the ISS as well as in 
research and commercial labs on the ground. The system can be configured to 
dynamically control either solution concentration or temperature. Using 
information from non-invasive diagnostics, active control of these parameters 
can, in real time, affect the supersaturation condition of the protein solution (for 
both pre- and post-nucleation phases). This novel technology is a departure 
from crystal growth methods normally used in laboratories. Traditionally, 
investigators force a protein solution into supersaturation by use of a 
precipitating agent. The vapor diffusion rate and final protein concentration is 
predetermined, thereby preventing intermediate control based on diagnostic 
information. Experiments using temperature control were similar in that a 
predetermined temperature profile was run for a given experiment. Iterative 
experiments are required for both of the conventional systems. Using 
diagnostic data, the DCPCG system adjusts the experimental conditions in real 
time to optimize crystal growth, thereby reducing the quantity of often-precious 
protein required. More importantly, the laser diagnostic capability provides 
pre- and post-nucleation control, which can significantly improve the 
experimental results. The initial reaction from crystallographers in both 
commercial and research labs has been extremely positive and the technology 
has been licensed to Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), a CMC spin-off company. 

3.4 High Density Protein Crystal Growth System 

The High Density Protein Crystal Growth (HDPCG) system is being 
developed at the CMC for commercialization activities planned for the ISS. The 
system has 1008 experiment chambers designed to be removable from the 
growth system and placed in an appropriate facility for on-orbit sample 
removal and analysis. SHI has recently leased this system along with the 
technical support team for an upcoming SPACEHAB mission planned for STS- 
107. It is felt that the experiment density is approaching a point where the costs 
associated with flying a single locker equivalent can be offset with service 




28 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



charges that the market is willing to bear. SHI has established a team of 
international marketing representatives to market this system. 

4. X-ray Analysis of Protein Crystals on ISS 

4.1 Rationale 

Macromolecular crystallographers are anticipating the opportunity to 
perform experiments on ISS because of the benefits provided by more flight 
opportunities and longer durations for crystal growth. However, these new 
opportunities are also creating several concerns. The time duration between 
flights to ISS is one issue. Most protein crystals are labile and will eventually 
begin to degrade. Also, commercial users will not rely on ISS as a resource if 
long time delays are experienced before crystals are returned. Another concern 
relates to the fragility of many protein crystals. The CMC has occasionally 
observed crystals that appear to have been damaged by loads associated with 
the return of the Shuttle to Earth and/or with post mission transport and 
handling. It is an unavoidable risk associated with protein crystal growth on 
the Shuttle. A method of performing crystal cryopreservation and/or X-ray 
analysis (for crystal quality determination and complete data set collection) on 
board ISS would eliminate these concerns. 

4.2 X-ray Crystallography Facility 

In 1996, the CMC completed a study for NASA Code UX regarding the 
feasibility of developing a facility for performing X-ray crystallography on- 
board ISS [Reference 5]. The study found the concept feasible with the 
exception of three technologies that would require advancement. The first was 
the X-ray source, which would require a reduction in mass, volume, and power 
to operate on ISS. A typical system in a laboratory weighs over 1800 kg and 
uses up to 10,000 W of electric power. The second was the need to select, 
harvest, mount, and snap freeze protein crystals robotically. Due to the 
structural complexity and fragility of the crystals, the only viable method relies 
on the dexterity of the human hand. The third was the X-ray detector system, 
which must not rely on hazardous coolants. By focusing resources on certain 
emerging technologies, the study indicated that the state of the art could be 
advanced such that the development of a facility for the ISS could be considered 
feasible. NASA funded the CMC to progress the identified technologies and 
develop a proof-of-concept laboratory system. The CMC, along with the firms 
in possession of the technologies identified in Ihe feasibility study, have 
developed and demonstrated an operational laboratory version of the system, 
designated the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF). The planned facility can 
be integrated into one International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) and be 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



29 



operated either by the crew or tele-robotically from the ground. The crystal 
mounting system is designed to harvest crystals robotically from the HDPCG 
(or equivalent) chamber blocks and mount crystals (selected by scientists on the 
ground) for cryo-preservation or X-ray analysis. The power and weight 
requirements of the X-ray source were reduced to 30 W and 23 kg. 

5. Commercialization of Protein Crystallographic Services on ISS 

5.1 Market surveys 

There have been three market surveys performed to assess the demand for 
XCF services. The first was commissioned by the CMC and SHI to look at the 
potential market for the XCF among pharmaceutical companies and other 
potential users. Although specific information is still considered proprietary, 
general results indicated that an initial shakedown period of the system and 
creative pricing concepts would be necessary to "incentivize" early use of the 
system until it develops a performance track record. After proof of operation, 
firms would be willing to pay for protein structures not resolvable on the 
ground. The price that a given customer would be willing to pay varied widely 
depending on the size of the firm and the relative criticality of the protein in 
question. The second, a survey of NASA's protein crystal growth Principal 
Investigators, was performed by NASA's science code. Code UG. A majority of 
respondents ranked the need for the ability to perform X-ray diffraction on ISS 
as "desired" or "highly desired". Also, a majority of respondents ranked the 
need for cryopreservation of macromolecular crystals on ISS as "highly desired" 
or "mandatory". The final survey was performed by the CMC and focused on 
the international science user community. Of the 27 respondents surveyed 
(from academic and industrial sectors), 10 stated "definitely" and 10 "probably" 
that they would use the capabilities of the XCF. When asked if they would pay 
to use the capabilities of the XCF, 16 said "yes" and 11 said "no". 

5.2 First Committed Customer 

Diversified Scientific, Inc. is basing its future on the ability to utilize both 
ground and space laboratories to solve protein structures for its customers. It is 
this combination of ground and space services that is attractive to industry, as it 
maximizes the chance of providing the customer with high quality crystals. For 
the ground activities, DSI has licensed CMC technology to build and operate 
Dynamically Controlled Protein Crystal Growth systems. For proteins where 
these systems do not yield the data needed by the customer, DSI will use 
microgravity, the HDPCG system, and the XCF. Based on this plan, DSI 
considers itself an XCF customer and will use a combination of ground and 
microgravity services to achieve its business goals. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



6. Conclusion 

Market data and the experience of the CMC clearly indicate that a market 
for commercial protein crystal growth and utilization of the XCF exists. Based 
on this information, NASA requested the CMC to perform a business analysis of 
the XCF as a privately funded business. Cash flow analysis indicated that 
revenue streams would be large enough to cover operating costs, but would not 
allow recovery of the capital investment to build the XCF. Thus, a potential 
investor would have to desire a return other than revenue on its capital 
investment. Pharmaceutical companies have been approached, as they would 
be considered a primary benefactor of the facility. Although they have shown 
interest in paying a fee to use the XCF, it was evident that they are in the 
business of developing new pharmaceuticals, not machines and facilities. The 
remaining investor with the potential to meet the previously defined criteria is a 
government agency. NASA is working with the CMC to explore commercial 
and government options for funding the flight article. The XCF is manifested 
on UF-5, currently scheduled for launch in 2003. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors would like to acknowledge the crystallographers who have used 
microgravity to leverage their research for the betterment of humankind; the engineers 
and scientists at Bede Scientific Instruments Ltd., Bruker AXS, Inc., Oceaneering Space 
Systems of Oceaneering International, Inc., and the UAB/CMC as the technical 
advancements made in their respective fields have allowed for the removal of all 
technical barriers to placing an X-ray crystallography facility aboard the ISS; and to 
NASA for its vision and funding in support of these endeavors. 

References 

1. DeLucas, L. J., Smith, C. D., Smith, H. W., Senadhi, V-K., Senadhi, S. E., Ealick, S. 
E., Carter, D. C., Snyder, R. S., Weber, P. C., Salemme, F. R., Ohlendorf, D. H., 
Einspahr, H. M., Clancy, L. L., Navia, M. A., McKeever, B. M., Nagabhusan T. L., 
Nelson, G., McPherson, A., Koszelak, S., Taylor, G., Stammers, D., Powell, K., 
Darby, G. and Bugg, C. E.: Protein Crystal Growth in Mirogravity, Science , Vol. 246 , 
pp. 651-654, 1989 

2. Moore, K. M., Long, M. M. and DeLucas, L. J.: Protein Crystal Growth in 
Microgravity: Status and Commercial Implications, CP458, Space Technology and 
Applications International Forum-1999, edited by M. S. El-Genk, pp. 217-224. The 
American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999 

3. Ferrer, J-L., Hirschler, J., Roth, M. and Fontecilla-Camps, J. C.: ESRF Newsletter, pp. 
27-29, 1996 

4. Snell, E. H., Weissgerber, S., Helliwell, J. R., Weckert, E., Hoelzer, K. and Schroer, 
K.: Acta Crystallographica, pp. 1099-1102, 1995 

5. The University of Alabama at Birmingham-Center for Macromolecular 
Crystallography: X-ray Crystallography Facility Phase A Executive Summary Report, 
Document Number PCG-D-0030, March 31, 1996 




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31 



Commercial Protein Crystallisation Facility: 
Experiences from the STS 95 Mission 

W. Lork, G. Smolik, J. Stapelmann, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA), Dornier 
GmbH Space Infrastructure, 88662 Friedrichshafen, Germany 

e-mail: wolfram.lork@ri.dasa.de, georg.smolik@ri.dasa.de, 

juergen.stapelmann@ri.dasa.de 



Abstract 

In order to contribute to paving the way for the commercial utilisation of space in 
the area of protein crystallisation, DASA took the initiative, invested its own money 
and built a small crystallisation facility (CPCF) with support from the German 
Aerospace Center DLR, which financed the first mission. CPCF was integrated in an 
incubator, provided by the US company ITA. 

The main features of the CPCF programme are presented; special emphasis is 
placed on procedural aspects, with particular respect being paid to the needs of 
industrial users. Special topics, i.e. confidentiality, the acceptance of procedures for 
toxic materials on the one hand and the typical basic requirements of commercial users 
on the other hand are addressed on the basis of this experience. 

1. Introduction 

Protein crystallisation and the subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis of the 
crystals are the standard analysis method in today's biochemical laboratories in 
universities and in industry. But more than 50% of the attempts to create 
crystals of sufficient size and quality have failed, and it is then not possible to 
determine the spatial structure of the protein. 

Crystallisation of proteins in space has delivered crystals of higher quality 
and of larger size than in ground-based laboratories in many cases, as the 
crystallisation process is not disturbed by gravity-driven effects in the protein 
solution. The details of the crystallisation process and its laws are still topics of 
fundamental basic research. The investigation of crystal growth processes is one 
objective for such research in space, the other being the hope of achieving 
larger and better crystals for structural analysis, if this cannot be achieved on 
the ground. 

As this kind of research is of importance not only for academic research but 
also for the pharmaceutical industry, protein crystallisation is one example of 
the commercial use of space. While, up to now, most of the research done in 
space was funded by public money and was judged by the excellence of the 
science, it is planned in the future to consider more application-oriented 
research, with the perspective of partial private funding of the space 
programmes. However, for these types of experiments it is no longer the 
excellence of the science, but the commercial interest of the company, which has 

31 



G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 3 1 - 39 . 
© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



to determine the character of these research projects. As this has not been the 
case very often in the past, it is necessary to perform pilot, or pathfinder, 
projects in order to determine the new rules. Such a pilot project was performed 
in November 1998 by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA) with support from 
the German Aerospace Center DLR. Pharmaceutical companies performed 
protein crystallisation experiments in a new environment, which was especially 
tailored to the needs of commercial companies. Some major experiences are 
outlined in this paper. 

2. Protein Crystal Growth: Commercial World versus Academia World 

2.1 Protein Crystallisation 

Proteins are essential for life. The main functions of proteins in living 
organisms are structural support tasks and catalytic functions (enzymes). 
Especially for the functional understanding of the enzymatic functions, it is 
necessary to know the chemical and spatial structure of the protein molecules, 
which are different for each of the many thousands of enzymes controlling the 
biochemical functions in the human body. 

An understanding of the enzyme function is a helpful prerequisite to 
developing new drugs. While in the past most drugs were identified by trial- 
and-error methods, including big screening programmes, the trend is now 
moving towards "smart" drugs, tailored to a specific purpose and with 
minimum side effects. This kind of "drug" engineering requires even more 
knowledge of the exact protein structure in order to design a drug properly 
fitting into the respective sites of the target protein. 

The primary structure of proteins is determined by the sequence of amino 
acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. This sequence can be identified 
by chemical analysis methods, which are fully automated. The secondary 
structure of proteins (e.g. a helix) is given more or less by the primary structure, 
as it is known (from the amino acids' properties), how the chain will order itself. 
The tertiary structure describes how the chains form a three-dimensional 
structure. Although the basic laws of these structure formations are known, it is 
not possible to calculate them to a sufficient level of detail. The structure is 
determined experimentally by investigating the X-ray diffraction patterns of 
protein crystals. It is interesting to know that it is possible to derive the in-vivo 
structure of a protein in the living cell from the structural analysis of this 
protein in its crystalline form. 

Although protein crystallisation and the subsequent X-ray or synchrotron 
beam diffraction pattern analysis is routine work, more than half of the attempts 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



33 



fail. The reason for this is that, for many proteins, it was not possible to 
crystallise them at all or the crystallisation ended in crystals which were too 
small or of insufficient quality for analysis. In those cases, the protein structures 
are still unknown. 

2.2 Protein Crystallisation in Space 

About 15 years ago, the first attempts at protein crystallisation in space 
were made; it was shown that crystals grown under microgravity conditions are 
larger and of better quality than those grown under similar conditions on the 
ground. Since these early days of experimentation under pg-conditions, 
numerous experiments have been performed in space, worldwide. All typical 
growth methods have been tested, many growth facilities developed and these 
are still being improved. Today we can state that the benefit of crystal growth in 
space is scientifically accepted; however, there are still a number of open 
scientific questions which need further investigations of the growth processes. 

Industry is also carrying out protein crystallisation in space, often in teams 
with academic researchers for more general research topics. The other topic is in 
the competitive area, when the goal is to crystallise a particular protein of 
commercial relevance. In those cases industry is very reluctant to disclose 
information, but especially in those cases the benefits of using space may be 
very high. Therefore it is necessary to differentiate between the two application 
fields. 

2.3 Academic and Pre-competitive Commercial Research 

Both academic and pre-competitive research can be discussed together, as 
they are quite similar. Emphasis in this field is on elucidating the crystal growth 
process of proteins. For academic researchers it is important to understand the 
growth processes to extend knowledge. For the commercial world this research 
is of importance, as so many crystallisation attempts are failing, which has a 
significant impact on success. 

This academic and pre-competitive type of research is therefore 
characterised by: 

• Analysis of crystal growth mechanisms 

• Optimisation of crystal growth (on the ground) 

• Use of diagnostics in the experiments (observation, interferometers, stray- 
light) 

• Use of well-known proteins for comparison of results 

• Scientific excellence, with peer review evaluation 




34 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



• Multi-national research teams 

• Open communication, publications 

• Long period from experiment definition until mission 

• Public funding. 

A number of facilities were developed for this type of research. In Europe, 
ESA's APCF, the Advanced Protein Crystallisation Facility, is the facility in 
which this type of research is done. It was also successfully used by American 
scientists, who had access to this facility via a bilateral agreement between ESA 
and NASA. The APCF has been flown five times so far and is planned to be 
flown again about once a year until the Space Station is available, where the 
APCF will be the first European payload. It offers video observation and all 
standard growth methods, allows customisation of growth reactors to specific 
needs, and offers an interferometer to detect early crystallisation and investigate 
the growth zones. 

Another instrument for the Space Station is currently under development; 
this offers additional sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as a Mach-Zehnder 
interferometer with phase shift technology, and a light scattering device. 

2.4 Competitive Commercial Research 

The competitive field is quite different. The main emphasis is on the 
structural analysis of specific target proteins, which are of importance for the 
industrial research group of one company, normally an "innovative" protein. In 
such cases, confidentiality plays an important role, peer reviews are not 
accepted (and also are not helpful, as they use other criteria!), and analysis or 
diagnostic tools are not required. On the ground the research is privately 
funded and, also for space research, the industry effort is not supported by 
public money. 

The competitive type of research is characterised by: 

• Growth of large high-quality crystals (in space) 

• Growth methods compliant with ground laboratory standards 

• No diagnostics, but as many samples as possible 

• Investigation of structurally unknown, hard-to-crystallise proteins 

• Commercial value, market potential 

• Single corporate research team 

• Confidentiality, no publications, intellectual property rights 

• Ad-hoc access to space in a few months 

• Private funding, complemented by public funding. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



35 



As a consequence, the space research facilities look different; they have no 
diagnostics, the main goal being to accommodate as many growth reactors as 
possible into a given volume to allow the maximum number of experiments. 

However, not all such designs are successful. Some facilities had too tiny 
reactors for really large crystals. Low-cost facilities could provide lower access 
costs, but the experimental results may then be poorer, as the advantages of 
microgravity are compensated by the disadvantages of the lower quality of 
equipment. 

3. The Commercial Protein Crystal Growth Facility (CPCF) 




Figure 1. The CPCF shown here has dimensions 400mm by mm by 100mm by 
93mm. It contains 20 APCF-type crystal growth reactors, which are 
activated/ deactivated by turning the front-mounted knob. 



36 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



The CPCF is a 4 kg derivative of ESA's 26 kg APCF (Advanced Protein 
Crystal Growth Facility) and uses the same type of reactors which have been 
described in detail [Reference 1]. The secret of this successful APCF reaction 
chamber relies on many demanding design and manufacturing details. A 
modified version for use inside the ISS is under construction. 

The small CPCF (Figure 1) does not provide any thermal control, which 
means that it has to be accommodated inside a thermal enclosure. As many 
space proven incubators exist and fly on every mission, it is possible and easy to 
fly the CPCF "piggy-back" inside such an incubator. As the CPCF also does not 
include any electronics, the interfaces to the spacecraft are very simple. The 
facility will be filled on the ground, inserted in the incubator, launched and then 
— in orbit — started (and later stopped) by manually turning the knob (clearly 
seen in Figure 1). 

The CPCF has 20 experiment reactor sites, suitable for each of the standard 
growth methods and individually adaptable over a certain range to specific 
protein volume needs: 

• Hanging drop (i.e. vapour diffusion) 

• Free interface diffusion 

• Dialysis. 

The CPCF provides double containment of the experiment fluids to meet 
NASA's safety requirements. 

4. The First CPCF Mission 

The mission STS-95 in October and November 1998 was the first mission 
with the CPCF. The project was started in May 1998, with the design and 
manufacturing of the hardware, and the customers from German 
pharmaceutical companies were approached at the same time. 

The hardware was developed under DASA's responsibility and mainly 
with its own funds. The CPCF mission organisation (flight procurement, 
negotiations with NASA safety) was under DASA's responsibility as well, but 
the mission-related costs were financed by DLR. In this way this project was a 
pilot project to test the feasibility of a new approach, giving space industry the 
full responsibility in order to respect the requirements of commercial customers. 

The industrial partner in the US for this mission was the company ITA, in 
Philadelphia, which organised the Space Shuttle mission, provided the 
incubator and took over the interface to NASA. This cooperation was very 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



37 



effective and led to good results. However, it would also be possible to use 
other flight opportunities, such as Spacehab or the Russian part of the ISS. 

The mission schedule was as follows: 

• 22 nd October: support filling of reactors at customers' premises 

• 22 nd October: transport to launch site in thermally controlled environment 

• 22 nd October: finalise experiment material verification 

• 29 th October: launch of STS-95 

• 29 th October: activation of CPCF 

• PROCESSING OF CRYSTAL GROWTH FOR 8 DAYS 

• 6 th November: deactivation of experiments 

• 7 th November: landing at KSC 

• 8 th November: retrieval of CPCF 

• 12 th November: transport to Europe in thermally controlled environment 

• 12 th November: distribution of reactors to customers' premises. 

The mission was highly successful from technical and organisational points 
of view. It has been demonstrated that a mission can be organised on a 
commercial/industrial basis, respecting the main requirements of the user 
industry. 

5. Lessons Learnt 

Some major aspects of the CPCF mission which are briefly discussed 
include: 

• Fast access and ad hoc participation 

• Success 

• Confidentiality 

• Cost effectiveness 

• Effort for the customers. 

5.2 Fast Access and Ad hoc Participation 

The development for this mission was realised in less than six months. One 
of the six experimenters changed his protein three months before the mission; 
two experimenters changed their experimental protocol and chemicals used. 
This shows the typical requirements of industrial users, which have to be 
respected. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Ad hoc participation means that the program has to be started without firm 
commitments from the customers. Waiting at the initiation of a programme 
until there is a sufficient number of firm commitments from the customers is not 
realistic. All customers have indicated that they would continue using the 
CPCF. 

5.2 Success 

The mission was a success regarding the organisational, operational and 
technical aspects. The harvest of crystals showed small crystals only. According 
to current investigations this might be due mainly to the short mission duration. 
Further evaluations of the activities are being performed. 

5.3 Confidentiality 

The customers had far reaching requirements on confidentiality: 

• Substance to be crystallised had to remain confidential 

• Experiment protocol 

• Composition of chemical compounds 

• Name of pharmaceutical company. 

On the other hand, NASA has to guarantee mission safety, and the 
government has to respect the justification issue of public funding. 

In the CPCF mission the following approach was realised to cope with 
these conditions: DASA took the role of Principal Investigator, not disclosing 
the names of the participating industrial companies but answering to DLR for 
the soundness of the industrial experiments. 

Details of experiment protocols limited to chemical and toxicological 
aspects were related in a way fully meeting NASA's respected requirements, 
but not revealing any proprietary information. 

5.4 Cost Effectiveness 

As the facility was developed as the derivative of an existing design, the 
development costs were low. The mission costs were also minimised, as the 
CPCF does not ask for any resources except thermal enclosure. The mass and 
hence the corresponding launch ticket prices are low. The CPCF will be further 
improved by modification of the reactor geometry, which will allow a higher 
number of reactors in the same volume and mass limits. The existing design 
also kept the interface costs to NASA down to a reasonable level. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



39 



5.5 Effort for the Customers 

The approach for space experiments necessarily differs from everyday 
screening ground trials. Some special proteins of high commercial importance 
might even, in an industrial laboratory, be the subject of a more sophisticated 
growth trial procedure. Nevertheless, the special efforts for space experiments 
should be as effective as possible to make pg-experimentation become a 
"standard-industrial" tool. The CPCF pilot project took a path to reach this 
major goal, keeping the typical "space work" (e.g. paperwork, special testing) 
to a minimum acceptable to the industrial customer. 

It was not necessary for our customers to move from their laboratory. The 
customers received laboratory models of our reactors for ground preparation 
and filled the flight units in their laboratories a few days prior to the launch. 
They received the material shortly after landing. Such an approach is very 
attractive, especially for workers in industrial laboratories. 

6. The Malaria Experiment 

More than 200 million people are suffering from malaria worldwide and 
more than two million persons, mainly children, die every year from this 
disease. Available treatments are beyond the reach of Third World countries 
and of low effectiveness because of the poor general physical condition of the 
population in these countries. A medicine derived from a known substance and 
specifically developed for this parasite could be a most worthwhile remedy. 

In addition to the confidential projects of our customers, we were also 
involved with a university group with similar objectives to those of our 
industrial customers. The malaria experiment is a project of public nature, and 
the results can be distributed to the public. Protein crystal growth experiments 
are performed on one enzyme of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. If 
structural analysis of this enzyme or enzyme pharmacon complex is possible 
using one of the crystals grown, there will be a good chance of developing an 
effective medicine for curing malaria. This drug will be a modification of the 
chemical substance methylene blue. 

References 

1. Bosch, R. et al /.Journal of Crystal Growth , Vol. 122, pp. 310-316, 1992 




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41 



The ISS, an Opportunity for Technology in Space 

J.Tailhades, Matra Marconi Space, 31 Av. des Cosmonautes, 31402 Toulouse Cedex 4, 
France 

e-mail : jacques.tailhades@mms.tls.fr 
D.Routier, Matra Marconi Space 
e-mail : daniel.routier@mms.tls.fr 



Abstract 

Within 5 years, the International Space Station will become a permanently 
inhabited space system, which will provide an easy access to the Space Environment. 

Up to now, the early utilisation of the ISS has been planned for different classes of 
activities mainly led by scientific objectives. Due to ISS utilisation costs, a significant 
part of available resources will oe made accessible to non-scientific and non 
institutional users, thus allowing to shape a real commercial utilisation of the Space 
Station. 

This commercial utilisation will address Space industry as well as non-Space 
industry for various types of utilization which may be classified as : 

applications using the ISS external environment (thermal, radiative, vacuum, ...) 
micro gravity applications, 
media applications. 

MMS, deeply involved in the development of the COF (European module of the 
ISS), has started, beside the scientific facility (BIOLAB, MELFI,...) development and the 
integration of External Payload on the ISS truss, commercialisation study of these 
facilities. The objective is really to identify the possible markets through non- 
institutional users, which are ready to invest in Space utilisation for their own needs. 

Then, the scope of the paper will be to present a preliminary review of the 
commercial applications of the ISS available to Space industry and what conditions 
have to be made available for enabling the development of such market. 

It will be completed by a review of non-space applications and the identification of 
possible supports to be offered by Space Industry to non-space one for accessing the 

Through several examples, the paper shows how ISS derived markets may be 
shaped. The focus is on typical technological applications and their benefits to 
industrial users. 

1. Introduction 



Within a few years, the International Space Station will be available for 
science and technology as a permanent laboratory providing full access to the 
Space environment through internal facilities and external payload 
accommodation sites. 

In the same time, reducing costs and improving the performances of future 
missions will require permanent engineering research and technology 
development to develop new classes of products for Space applications, which 
may also benefit to non-space applications. 

41 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station , 41-49. 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Up to now. Space technologies are always tested and validated on-earth 
using complex test facilities and modelisation of Space environment constraints 
to contain as much as possible the inherent risk due to later Space utilisation. 

Using the ISS as a testbed for improving technology will be a key issue of 
the future technology development programme which needs to be evaluated 
now for preparing its real utilisation. 

2. The ISS, a tool for Space Application 

The ISS has been developed to provide a permanent laboratory in Space 
allowing to develop various scientific programs all along its twelve years 
lifetime. In a preliminary approach, fundamental science has been targeted 
through the definition of the Microgravity facilities for Columbus located in the 
pressurised area of the ISS: 

• the BIOLAB, a laboratory for life sciences and micro-biology 

• the MSL, a laboratory for Material sciences 

• the FSL, a laboratory for Fluid Sciences. 

Besides these large facilities, the ISS provides a set of generic devices : 

• the European Drawer Rack (ESA) 

• the Express Rack (NASA) 

• the Cold Laboratory Support equipment in charge of providing cold 
storage area to scientific samples : MELFI (up to -80°C), CRYOSYSTEM 
(80K), Refrigerator Freezer (-20°C). 

Naturally the NASA and NASDA modules are also filled with large 
scientific facilities providing tools for science in Space. 

In the same way, the ISS truss is equipped with external adapters allowing 
to accommodate on Express Pallet Adapter scientific payloads to benefit from 
the Space environment outside the ISS. These ExPA are located both on the 
Earth and Deep Space directions providing a wide variety of places to 
accommodate P/Ls. The Columbus module as the Japanese one has been fitted 
with locations to accommodate Express Pallet. In the current definition of the 
Express Pallet programme, a multi-user facility, EuTEF (European Technology 
Exposure Facility), is presently under development by ESA to provide any class 
of user with a cheap and performant access to Space environment for 
technology reasearch in any domain. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



43 



Still under investigation. Free Flyer Micro Operators have been defined as 
being a third class of devices. Such micro satellite are able to accommodate 
payloads in the vicinity of the ISS which allows to benefit from its servicing 
capabilities and to offer a high level of microgravity and a full independence to 
the payload during its utilisation in a free flying mode. 

Then, in a synthetic way, ISS can provide three types of Space access and 
resources : 

• internal microgravity payloads 

• external Express Pallet 

• autonomous Free Flyer providing the same interface capability as the 
ExPA. 

From a schedule point of view, the two first classes will be made available 
as soon as the ISS will be assembled (about 2004) while the third one will be 
available in the second part of the ISS utilisation (about 2007). 

3. Technology in Space 

3.2 Classification 

Technology in Space may be classified according to its utilisation : 

• low level technology, mainly covering the basic components which will be 
used in equipment. Such component address as well mechanical, as 
thermal, as electronic parts which may be necessary to be demonstrated in 
Space before any utilisation. As a simple example, one can think to the 
EEE parts of which tolerance to the Single Event upset, and capacity 
towards cumulated ray dose have to be established and demonstrated 
prior any utilisation. New material providing shape memory need to be 
demonstrated before their selection for Space project and always require 
complex test facilities 

• medium level technology, mainly addressing Space Equipment. They 
cover the full range of application used in all the different parts of a Space 
System as the sensors, the processor, payload devices or support 
equipment as the fluid loop for thermal devices. In most of the cases earth 
proofs are sufficient to qualify them, however in some cases the Space 
environment cannot be modelled on-ground and complex test devices, 
including parabolic flights are necessary with inherent limitations tas the 
microgravity duration 

• High level technology, mainl addressing new instrument or system 
component which have to be agregated to provide the Space system with 




44 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



some functions. As an example such kind of technology may be 
considered in the development of new classes of Instruments as the new 
programme of Space Lidar which cannot be fully tested on earth with 
existing facilities. 

3.2 What conditions for validating the Technologies? 

In any case mechanical, thermal, electrical parts have to be verified 

requiring various tests facilities: 

• thermal environment, aiming at simulating solar flow under vacuum 
conditions 

• thermo-mechanical environment, aiming at simulating the constraints 
generated by the permanent modification of lighting conditions in Space 
according to the motion of the carrier 

• radiative environment, aiming at modelling the impact of particles on 
components (materials, EEE parts, ...) exposed to Space flow 

• deep space vacuum, aiming at studying the impact of off-gassing on 
structures and the impact on their physical properties (stability, ageing, 
...) 



It remains obvious that Space Industry is now able to set up test facilities 
for most of the technology validation needs. However, the main constraints 
come from the definition and preparation of adequate facilities, the duration of 
the tests to be run in order to obtain representative and reproducible results, the 
cost of such test devices and the sharing of these tests devices with several users 
to reduce the utilisation cost. 

Furthermore, the Space market is becoming more and more commercial 
which imposes to reduce the technology qualification time in order to increase 
the competitive advantage when owning a particular technology. 

3 . 3 Who are the users ? 

The analysis of potential needs in technology shows two different classes: 

• Space Industry, comprising as well companies developing equipment and 
systems as companies using Space systems. In any case the development 
and the utilisation of technology, which may improve their market share 
and the associated profit, interest them 

• Non Space industry, developing products and systems for earth 
applications which may be interested by accessing Space environment to 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



45 



benefit from representative and severe environmental constraints allowing 
to assess the applicability and the performances of the tested technologies. 

In the current Space programme development, new technologies appear 
which cannot be fully tested and demonstrated on-ground and are requiring 
innovative approaches to be set up in the future. For example fluid loops are 
under investigations to solve the thermal control of spacecrafts by providing 
easy to accommodate solutions. Unfortunately their behaviour is fully 
dependent on gravity conditions and results obtained on-ground cannot be 
translated as such under Space conditions. Effective in-orbit demonstration 
seems to be the only acceptable proof-of-concept. 

4. Why ISS may be Considered as an Opportunity 

4.1 ISS opportunity 

Reducing time-to-results is directly linked to the competitiveness of new 
technologies to increase the return on investment of investing company. 

Then, ISS is a real opportunity because it provides users with a permanent, 
easy to access and easy to retrieve Space environment: 

• permanent : during its 12 years lifetime, the ISS will be regularly services 
by the shuttle and the ATV allowing a regular payloads upgrade and/or 
changes on-board the ISS. 

• Tools designed for users : a set of equipments, facilities have been defined 
in the ISS program on NASA and ESA sides to ease the ISS utilisation : 

Development of SPOE devices which may be used as building blocks of Space 
experiments devices, 

Development of EuTEF providing a technology test environment facility for 
exposing “devices” to Space environment in a fully controlled way, 

Express Pallet Adapter, providing a interface plate and associated system 
components to install payloads outside the ISS, 

Multiuser facilities providing users with standardised containers for 
accommodating test devices' under controlled and adapted tests sequences. 

• Turn over ISS is the unique Space System which guarantees long time 
Space conditions and capability to retrieve on-ground the payloads. This 
means that it becomes possible to prepare an experimental device for 
flying on-board the ISS, to use it on-board during several months and then 
to retrieve on-ground for analysing the Space environment impact. 




46 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



As such, the ISS combines all the test environment needs plus the 
capability to access an existing command/control environment which allows 
the user to focus on the technology accommodation and not on the surrounding 
components required to operate it. 

The ISS is in competing: 

• Small satellites, which offer an access to Space environment with no 
capability to retrieve it. However fully dedicated to the device under tests, 
they allow to simulate in a complete way the working conditions 

• Ground facilities, which allows limited simulations of Space environment 
but provide an easy access and easy utilisation. 

The market is moving from the utilisation of Ground facilities to the 
utilisation of Small satellites or Shuttle (SpaceHab) on a case-to-case basis, 
which has to be reviewed with the hypothesis of ISS utilisation. 

4.2 ISS needs 

To be used by industry as a opportunity for Technology, the following 
issues have to be fixed in the coming years to support private users: 

• Time to results, i.e. the duration between the moment where a company 
has a need for Space demonstration and the moment the results become 
available. Up to now this time is quite long due to the limited number of 
opportunities, the selection methods and it is really a major issue to 
guarantee the time to get results in order to get the ISS competitivity 
versus the other methods 

• Confidentiality, which covers as well the privacy of the produced data in 
order to remain only known by the sponsoring user as the identity of the 
sponsor which, in most of the case, does not want to be known in order to 
get a competitive advantage towards its competitor on the commercial 
market. In particular, when a company is aiming at demonstrating a new 
technology, it may be of the utmost importance to maintain it unknown to 
avoid disseminating its own ideas 

• Intellectual property rights : the ISS is an international area governed by a 
set of MOU between the different partners. Then, it is not known what is 
the applicable law to each module of the ISS according to its owner. This 
problem needs to be clarified in order to get the right confidence to the 
users in the fact that the results are fully protected and, by the way, the 
intellectual property is guaranteed in Space as on Earth 

• Allocation of resources : as the ISS is providing a limited set of resources, 
any user needs to really know in advance what level of resources will be 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



47 



made available to its experiment in order to manage correctly its technical 
and scientific plans whatever the ISS utilisation conditions are. This 
means, in other terms, that the planning of the ISS resources profile 
allocation should have to be prepared and agreed with the user and 
maintained on-board 

• Definition of a charging policy, i.e. the precise definition of the ISS 
utilisation cost allocation to the user. In fact, using the ISS requires taking 
into account the different components of a mission: launch cost, operation 
preparation and execution cost on-board resources utilisation costs... In 
order to give confidence to potential users of the Space station the Agency 
has to clearly propose a cost policy according to the level of funding share 
between the Agency and the users. The Spacehab example is, today, a first 
attempt to reach that cost transparency, which is the only way, to ensure 
the success of the ISS utilisation by non funded users. An identified 
approach consisting in allocating launch cost to Agency and Payload 
definition one to the user is not fully satisfactory because it does not take 
into account the wide variety of potential applications and potential 
sharing between the users and the Agency 

• Selection : the selection of the payloads to be flown is handled by a pier 
group at ESA gathering scientific objectives as well as programmatic ones 
which need to be reviewed in order to establish a new approach for 
selecting the flight rights of the industrial users. This choice will have to 
take into account the interest of the Space utilisation as well as the 
potential benefit for business. This issue is a challenging one to guarantee 
the access to the ISS under competitive and commercial conditions 

5. An Example of Space Industry Role for ISS Utilisation 

In the ISS field, MMS besides its important contribution to ATV and COF 
programme is responsible for : 

• the development of the MELFI, -80°C freezer of the ISS to be considered as 
a support for biological research 

• the development of the BIOLAB 

• the integration of the Express Pallet Adapter under responsibility of ESA 
to be located on the ISS truss and later on the COLUMBUS node. 

By these projects, MMS gained the complete knowledge of the ISS access 
and rules for Payloads design, development and accommodation, as well a 
consistent involvement in the ISS utilisation plan through MAP projects. 

Today, it is important to define and work on the conditions, which will 
allow industry to use the ISS as a simple test facility for its own technology. 




48 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Although, in the future it will be required to propose to users set of tools and 
devices making easy the access to the ISS. 

For instance the EPI programme has defined a generic system layer which 
provides any grouping integrator (of instruments on an Express Pallet) all the 
interfaces with the ISS. This first step will allow to propose to user (space and 
non space industry) services for accommodating their P/Ls if required in a fully 
confidential way although fulfilling all the ESA/NASA safety constraints. 

In the same way, MMS and the other prime contractors of the MFC are 
initiating a promotion activity to support the utilisation of internal Columbus 
facilities to private users. This effort needs to be a very long and continuous one 
to get ready by 2004 but is mandatory to benefit from the ISS opportunity. MMS 
as such is also interested in the utilisation of ISS as technology testbed which 
may be accessed for: 

• verification of thermal behaviour of fluid loops under microgravity 

• verification of a new concept of cryogenic link between a cooler and a 
dewar under microgravity conditions 

• verification of materials ageing under Space environment conditions 

• assessment of Space components (EEE parts, ..). 

This approach is emerging for the next ten years with the reality of the ISS 
which may be used for such kind of activity. Up to now the selection of Space 
demonstration was slowed by the lack of opportunities and the difficulty to be 
phased with these opportunities which has also to be improved in the ISS 
utilisation planning to establish a effective commitment between users and ISS 
responsible. 

6. Conclusion 

Using the ISS for improving technologies will be a key of the success of the 
ISS by installing a permanent tool to the service of technological research. 

The applications field is very large and rely on existing facility developed 
for such purpose as the EuTEF, but also on generic approach (ExPA, FFMO, 
MFC, ...) which will be accessible to users as soon as Space company as MMS 
will offer the services for preparing, installing and verifying the experimental 
device before the flight. 

Then using ISS in such way will create new markets: 

• technology accommodation 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



49 



• exploitation and operations 

• support to mission preparation. 



This commercial approach will become only if ISS access rules are applied 
to that objective providing industry with all the necessary guarantees and if 
companies are preparing through early opportunities missions the necessary 
services and support devices to be offered later on. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



51 



ISS: Management of the Commercial Research and 
Development Process 

R. Moslener, The Boeing Company, MC HS-32, 2100 Space Park Drive, Houston, TX 
77058, USA 

e-mail: ralph.n.moslener@boeing.com 

Abstract 

The paper discusses ways in which the many different experimental facilities 
aboard the ISS can be managed and used in a commercial context which is both 
customer-friendly and service-orientated. 

1. Introduction 

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space laboratory, whose purpose 
is the expansion of knowledge to benefit all people of all nations. When 
completed in 2004, it will be vast, as illustrated in the central panel of Figure 1. 
Surrounding this panel are images of various modules in the construction phase 
and, at the bottom, pictures of the Integrated Equipment Assembly (left) and the 
photovoltaic array, or solar cells (right). 




52 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



The capabilities of the ISS are numerous. As shown in Figure 2, the 
research planned for the US laboratory (shown in the center) ranges from life 
science to space science, microgravity science and remote sensing for Earth 
science, plus engineering research and technological studies, and investigations 
leading to developing new products in space. 




Space Product 



Development 

Improving lire on esrt h and 
in space 



Figure 2. Diagram illustrating the many and varied capabilities of the ISS for research 

General market surveys indicate that scientific investment in ISS utilization 
will start slowly and grow over time (Figure 3). As the ISS capability grows, 
industrial acceptance of the comparative advantage of using the Space Station 
should grow proportionally. On the other hand, interest in and the value of 
sponsorships will start quickly and diminish over time unless demand curves 
shift in relationship to successful scientific utilization. 






ISS Construction 



iady Research 



Research 



Advertising, Entertainment; Sponsorship 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Sponsorship & 

Advertising 



Research arid 
Product Development 



Costs 



2* Details 



Description/Pu rpose 

The basic goals of the Biotechnology Science Plan are to: 

* Understand the fundamental roles of gravity and the 
space environment in biotechnology processes 

* Use low gravity experiments for insight into the physical 
and biochemical behavior of biotechnology processes 

* Apply the scientific knowledge needed to analyze, 
quantify and improve these processes 

* Contribute to Earth-based biotechnologies that enhance 
our health and quality of life 

* Develop biotechnology to specifically support 
space exploration 



Figure 4: Equipment for, and goals of, biotechnology research 



Similarly, Figure 5 shows a diagram of the ISS equipment for research on a 
range of biological specimens. A centrifuge will be available to produce a 



■Jsrs-r. 

fa 7 ^ 


■ ■ v 
-♦¥ 


ET* 


J3S 


1 * + 4*4 






1“ 










ft 




K^TTr^ 






54 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



gravitational acceleration up to 2g, twice the value experienced at the Earth's 
surface. 



D e s cri p ti on/Pu rp ose 



* Supports the Gravitation Biology & Ecology 
Research Program on Space Station 

* Promotes understanding of the role 
and influence of gravity on non-human 
living systems 

* This facility will be used to determine the effects of 
the space environment (e,g,, from radiation and 
microgravity), on biological specimens from cells 
and tissues to whole plants and rodents 

* The centrifuge rotor will produce a gravity 
environment from 0 to 2 g's. These facilities will 
support the study of the levels and duration of 
gravitational force necessary to offset the 
deleterious effect of microgravity 




Figure 5, Diagram of equipment aboard the ISS for research in biology, and the 
purposes of such investigations 



Figure 6 illustrates two different racks of equipment to study the behavior 
of fluids in the microgravity environment (left), and combustion phenomena 
under microgravity conditions (right). 



D es crip ti on/Purp os c 

* Supports Human Exploration and 
Development of Space fHEDS) objectives 
by facilitating sustained, systematic 
microgravity fluid physics and 
microgravity combustion science 

• Will be a permanent multi-discipline 
research facility occupying three 

E ay load racks in the United States 
aboratory Module 

* The on-orbit facility consists of a 
Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), a 
Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Shared 
Accommodations Rack (SAR), supporting 
12 typical microgravity experiments each 
year throughout its 10-year design life 




Figure 6. Mockup of equipment racks for studies of fluids and of combustion under the 
microgravity conditions experienced in Earth orbit 






International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



55 



To stimulate new, small experiments aboard the ISS, a general purpose 
rack to Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station (EXPRESS) 
has been developed. It is shown in Figure 7, where its features are described 
briefly. The Active Rack Isolation system mentioned is a system to improve the 
microgravity environment which is disturbed by the activities of the astronauts. 
It is a complex mounting system which can be operated in all six degrees of 
freedom simultaneously. 



Description/Purpose 




• The EXPRESS Rack concept was developed to 
support small payloads 
on orbit with a shortened ground integration 
period 




• It accommodates multiple payload disciplines 
and supports the simultaneous and independent 
operation of multiple payloads within the rack 




• It is launched with initial payload complement 
and remains on-orbit allowing payloads to be 
changed out as required. Four of eight EXPRESS 
racks will include the Active Rack Isolation 
System 






i 




EXPRESS Flight Rack with secondary 
structural members installed 



Figure 7. The EXPRESS rack 

Another facility developed with many different users in mind is the 
Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) shown in Figure 8. Small scale 
experiments on effects due to microgravity can be carried out with chemical and 
biological containment by ISS crew members. 




56 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



D esc ri p ti on/Pu rpose 


i . , % 








• A multi-user facility that enables users to conduct 






small science and technology investigations. , 


II - “ 'v If 




An enclosed work volume which provides 
resources necessary to conduct a wide range of \ 


m 




microgravity research 




* Investigations are expected to include: 


^ il 




* Fluid Physics 


jam 1 




* Combustion Science 


III,:.' KKTTS 




* Materials Science 


1“ "i* j 




* Biotechnology 


Vv-:. > 1 




(Cell Culturing and Protein Crystal Growth) 






• Space Processing 

• Fundamental Physics 




» •— i 




• Technology Demonstrations 





Figure 8. The Microgravity Science Glovebox 

There are other facilities aboard the US laboratory on the ISS, such as the 
Materials Science Research Facility, a facility based on the EXPRESS rack for 
mounting instruments to view through a high quality window, and a facility for 
evaluating the physiological, behavioral and chemical changes which occur in 
astronauts during their space travel. 

3. Discussion 

Use of these facilities by the government, academia, and industries requires 
cooperative research and development to utilize the ISS fully. A better 
appreciation of how space-based markets will open up will lower associated 
risks and give a return on investments. It will take some years for new 
commercial markets to be developed and fully utilized. This is not only because 
of the time needed to construct the ISS to its complete specification but also 
because of the challenges of creating new businesses when the costs differ 
greatly for those currently being experienced in the industry. However, it is 
anticipated that the attraction of the dramatic possibilities for solving problems 
aboard the ISS will accelerate its acceptance by industries around the world 
who wish to gain a competitive edge. As is always so, they will need to make 
compelling cases to invest in costly studies such as those to be performed 
aboard the ISS. 

Currently the Boeing organization worldwide is actively involved in the 
ISS program — its implementation, operation, and the reliable support of both 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



57 



payloads and products. Aspects of these can be combined to bring substantial 
benefits to commercial users. Boeing is aiming to provide a customer-friendly, 
" service-oriented" environment to the users, which is on-line and interactive, 
thereby facilitating users of the ISS. Payload, product and data security and 
integrity are essential from the users' viewpoint, and Boeing will assure these. 
Boeing will reach out to potential users, and educate them in the capabilities of 
the ISS and the available resources. But Boeing and the users must each have 
well defined roles and responsibilities, with detailed costs and adhered to 
schedules. 

4. Summary 

Managing the ISS commercial research and development process requires 
Boeing to understand: 

• ISS capabilities for research 

• market developments 

• potential sources of commercial support 

• implementation models of ISS utilization 

• the needs of the users. 

Thus Boeing's role is a complex one — as facilitator, integrator and value- 
added partner for many users of the ISS 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



59 



Report on Panel Discussion 1: 

Management of the Research & Development Process 

O. Gurtuna, C. Rousseau, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc dTnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: gurtuna@mss.isunet.edu, rousseau@mss.isunet.edu 

Panel Chair : M. Uhran, NASA, USA 
Panel Members: 

O. Atkov, Cosmonaut, International Space University 

K. Knott, ESA 

T. Kuroda, NEC Corporation, Japan 
R. Moslener, The Boeing Company, USA 
J. Vaz, BRAZSAT, Brazil 

The panel discussion, involving participants from both the public and 
private sectors, focused on the needs of the private sector for using ISS as an 
R&D facility and the role of the government for providing the necessary 
infrastructure for its commercial utilisation. 

During his introductory remarks, M. Uhran asserted that the pricing policy 
and the schedule of access, together with the competitive advantage of using the 
ISS for commercial purposes, should all be well defined before one can talk 
about creating a space marketplace. J. Vaz commented on the importance of 
getting the know-how and personnel training for developing nations; he stated 
that for such countries buying access to space does not necessarily enable the 
transfer of crucial expertise. 

Some of the speakers cited promoting ISS utilisation to the non-space sector 
as one of the responsibilities of the sellers in such a marketplace. This 
represents a shift in the strategy of the sellers, which, up to now, had focused 
primarily on the space sector as users of the ISS. 

O. Atkov presented two important lessons that were learned during the 
Mir program. Good advertisement of the capabilities of the Space Station and 
exhaustive ground planning and testing for R&D projects before operating them 
in space are two keys to success. 

59 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station, 59 - 60 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




60 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



The need for potential users of the ISS to have better information was 
raised by some of the participants. It was argued that explaining the pros and 
cons of the Space Station to the users was an essential step. The users need to be 
informed even if the content of the information might be negative, as in the case 
of the microgravity environment being adversely affected by crew activity. 

To define the unique features and the core competencies of the ISS was 
identified as another essential step. R. Moslener stated that the ISS crew, from 
several nations, will be the most precious asset in orbit. It was agreed that 
studying the long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology will be an 
important aspect of utilisation of the ISS. 

Some participants emphasised the importance of a sound regulatory 
framework for commercialisation. Protection of intellectual property rights and 
the provision of tax incentives for commercial users were the main topics of this 
discussion. The "zero gravity, zero tax" approach proposed by The Honorable 
Dana Rohrabacher, Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Space and 
Aeronautics Subcommittee, in his live video address to the Symposium, was 
examined. The general agreement was that any public initiative to support ISS 
commercialisation will help the private sector. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



61 



Session 2 

Entrepreneurial Initiatives to Use ISS for Profit 

Session Chair: 

J. K. von der Lippe, INTOSPACE GmbH, Germany 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



63 



Entrepreneurial Initiatives to Use the ISS for Profit 

J. K. von der Lippe, INTOSPACE GmbH, Sophienstr. 6, D-30159 Hannover, Germany 



e-mail: lippe@intospace.de 

Abstract 

In the previous years of space station development the focus for utilization has 
been on research under Space Conditions, primarily basic research. Considerations for 
commercial utilization were mostly regarded as getting the non-space industry to use 
the station for application-oriented research or even manufacturing. Now as the ISS has 
made its first step of assembly the plans being drawn up for ISS utilization will 
acknowledge even business beyond any yet accepted commercial activity in manned 
space systems of the Western world. This is a great chance to make real progress in the 
commercialization of manned systems which has been discussed for a long time. Future 
commercial initiatives will have to reflect the specialties of the ISS, which are: 

It is a manned system with an exceptional international character 
It is a highly sophisticated research centre 
It will have very high public attention every day 

It is a low Earth orbiting platform with ample resources and regular manned 
access 

It has the capability to grow. 

This paper reviews the various potential opportunities to use the exceptional 
conditions of the ISS which make it an ideal place for new business opportunities 
beyond those presently planned. These will be in the domain of public services 
(entertainment, advertisement, product placement, tourism, etc.) which will attract new 
entrepreneurs, without being in conflict with the research centre core activities. 

1. Introduction 

Through all the years of Space Station development the focus for utilization 
has been on research under space conditions, primarily basic research making 
use of microgravity conditions, the unique feature provided by the ISS and not 
available on Earth to that extent. The aspect of commercial utilization, however, 
became a topic at periodic intervals whenever the budget discussions required 
that. The first commercial initiatives concentrated on using the results of basic 
research for application on the ground, performing application-oriented 
research with industrial involvement or even considering the production of 
high value material in space. Now, as the International Space Station has begun 
its assembly the perspectives for commercial activities are expanding and 
business so far unthinkable (because of governmental rules) are becoming part 
of the ongoing planning of its utilization. 

This is a great chance to make progress in commercial business using the 
Space Station, even in areas beyond the classic fields such as applied research 
and technology development for industry. 

63 

G. Haskell and M. Ry croft (eds.), International Space Station, 63 - 68 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




64 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



2. Commercial Industrial Utilization Fields 

The research programmes sponsored by space agencies around the world 
have provided enough information to judge the value-adding potential of this 
new research tool for application-oriented research for use by industry. 

The utilization of the space environment, particularly the microgravity 
condition, has developed to be a research tool used for the optimization of 
processing and improvement of products on Earth, and so providing benefits to 
industry. The International Space Station with its capability for regular access 
and continuous utilization potential provides for the first time an ideal test bed 
for industry. The fast growing commercial space market for communications, 
navigation and Earth observation requires industry to enter into an increasing 
competition with newly developed satellite technology. The ISS will provide the 
involved space industry with the opportunity to test and qualify their advanced 
technology in order to gain better market chances. The availability of the ISS for 
European industry provides a competitive advantage in fields of advanced 
technologies. 

Besides the utilization of the ISS for industry, a considerable commercial 
business can be developed by industry providing operational and logistic 
services, either for government or private customers. 

The permanent human presence in space requires a continuous supply of 
food, critical maintenance systems, and scientific equipment and samples. These 
demands are expected to produce an annual requirement of more than 50,000 
kg of cargo. The performance of the related service to provide this logistic 
resupply depends considerably on the utilization of transport means such as 
foreseen with the NASA Space Shuttle system, the Russian Soyuz/ Progress 
transporter or the European Automatic Transport Vehicle (ATV). However, the 
preparation and organization of this logistic effort and installation into 
containers will be an extensive operation which can be provided by experienced 
private companies. 

This type of business has been demonstrated by the recent Mir missions, 
with the NASA shuttle system making use of the privately owned and operated 
SPACEHAB as a logistic container. 

Further commercial business is expected to develop related to services 
required by users in the field of research and technology development with 
payload design and development, data transfers, etc.. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



65 



Such potential industrial utilization — application-oriented research, 
technology development and testing, and the logistic support and related 
business — can be considered as the classical commercial and industrial 
opportunities. They are not the subject of this paper which discusses 
entrepreneurial initiatives. 

3. Entrepreneurial Opportunities 

In order to review the potential of the International Space Station for a 
business development, the uniqueness and specialties of the station have to be 
defined since they provide the possibility of added value. 

The International Space Station (ISS) is: 

• A manned system in low Earth orbit, with an exceptional international 
operation 

• A highly sophisticated and professional research centre on the ground and 
in space 

• A low Earth orbiting platform with ample resources and regular manned 
access 

• Considerable potential for growth 

• Very high public visibility. 

The continuous high public attention of the ISS, influenced by the image 
and the admiration related to the profession of astronauts and the dreams of 
people derived from their vision of space travel to distant worlds, is an 
attractive environment for business in the field of promotion, public relations, 
advertisement, marketing, etc.. 

In summary it can be stated that the business platform which provides the 
basis for a creative entrepreneur is the international global outpost, a stepping 
stone to go to Mars, a scientific research centre of such high interest to the 
public that they never tire of reading about or seeing it on television and do not 
lose interest. Therefore it can be used in the following entrepreneurial examples. 

3.2 Product Placement 

Some commercial equipment will be regularly used by astronauts for the 
daily life or as tools or instruments for their work. These commercial products 
(e. g. laptop computers) can be qualified for space use and are therefore "space 
proved", and can be shown to the public during regular television 
transmissions or on special advertisements. Business can be developed in 
organising, promoting and implementing such product placements. 




66 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



3.2 Education , Long Distance Learning 

The ISS brings a new dimension to the education and know-how of the 
general public. The uniqueness of this global outpost can be used for education 
in schools, museums, public events, etc., through long distance learning, e. g. an 
astronaut teaching from the ISS via the Internet into selected classrooms. 
Commercial business is related to general management, sponsoring 
management, selling recordings and related educational material. 

3.3 Advertisements 

Since the International Space Station will command high public attention 
and any media event with the ISS will attract the general public, it can be used 
in various ways for the advertisement of products, either simple labels and 
products used on the station or as a secondary indirect utilization in print and 
video media. Again the profit making business is in development of innovative 
applications, marketing, coordination, management and — certainly — 
implementation. 

3.4 Entertainment and Tourism 

After several years into the programme of the ISS, with routine operations 
in research and industrial utilization, applications might become acceptable 
which are presently not considered realistic such as space tourism and 
entertainment. 

The International Space Station, as a global research centre, can be 
compared to terrestrial large research centres, such as CERN or ESTEC, or the 
Kennedy Space Center, regarding its public attention and resulting in a 
considerable number of visitors. The assigned utilization of the ISS is therefore 
not necessarily in conflict with using the Space Station for public services. The 
concept for a first step in space tourism making use of the Space Station could 
be as follows: 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



67 



• Target date: 2008 

• Infrastructure: One living quarter (module) attached to the station. 

One transport module (bus module) 



• Transportation: Mixed cargo mode in the shuttle results in reduced 
costs (MPLM, SPACEHAB, etc., + bus module) 



• Clients: 



VIPs, rich people who dive today to the Titanic for US $ 
50,000 



• Travel price: The US $ 10 million charged to a Japanese journalist for 

a Mir mission needs to be reduced to less than US $ 1 
million 



• Entertainment: Experience microgravity, make observations of the 

Earth from the cupola, have dinner with the 
commander, visit the research facilities, etc.. 



The business potential behind these utilization possibilities of the ISS is 
seen to be in the addressing of mass markets, where revenues can be generated 
by huge numbers of customers, each paying a small fee, instead of by single 
customers, who have to invest a lot. The attraction of the ISS to the 
corresponding entertainment (advertisement and tourism) industry is expected 
to be in the representation of real space activities which mean a so far 
unreachable new product alternative. The provision of "real access" to a space- 
based human-tended infrastructure for the first time would be given not only to 
selected individuals but also to (almost) everybody. "Real access" in this context 
does not mean only tourism; it includes as well access via commercials or 
movie/TV productions. 

While the topic "entertainment on the ISS" appears to space engineers and 
technicians to be somewhat far-fetched and not fitting in context with a publicly 
financed technical masterpiece like the ISS, it must be said that the purpose of 
the Space Station (besides being a scientific laboratory in space) is to promote 
and demonstrate international cooperation. And it is widely recognized today 
that successful international cooperation is based more on intercultural 
understanding than on the technical expertise of the partners. Now this strong 
link between technology and culture should be established with respect to the 
Space Station utilization as well. And it should not be limited to the cooperation 
between astronauts and space agencies; it should include the financiers, i.e. the 
tax payers, of the contributing partner states. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



4. Prerequisites for Commercial Utilization 

A successful commercial utilization of the International Space Station can 
only be built up in the areas briefly described above if the legal and economic 
environment is acceptable and business-friendly. Two basic cornerstones are 
essential: 

• The general acceptance of the International Space Station as a world class 
research laboratory 

• Implementation of the legal and commercial policies which allow non- 
scientific and non-technical business development on the ISS. 

Most of the described potential commercial business has so far not been 
possible on the orbital infrastructure available in the Western world, e.g. Space 
Shuttle/Spacelab, and even the commercially operated SPACEHAB, because of 
legal restrictions imposed by NASA on the only available manned transport 
system, the Space Shuttle. The first steps in doing business with advertisements 
and product placements in orbit have been done on Mir. 

A key issue of ISS commercial utilization for public services is the question 
of proprietary rights. That means who has the right: 

• to allow a talk master to visit the ISS? 

• to allow a TV station to broadcast directly from the ISS? 

• to allow a company that would like to place its product with an astronaut? 

• to receive money for allowing all this and selling these rights and the 
resources for transportation and utilization? 

In order to enable the entertainment industry to include the ISS into their 
product lines and thereby to open new resources for financing the ISS 
operations, the corresponding framework conditions have to be established. 

5. Conclusion 

The business opportunities of the ISS as a global outpost are of very high 
potential for industrial users in the classical domain of industrial research and 
technology development. The short term profit making opportunities seem to be 
even more encouraging in the public service field; however, this business needs 
to be formally accepted as part of the ISS utilization programme. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



69 



From Space Station to Space Tourism: The Role of ISS 
in Public Access to Space 

E. Dahlstrom, InternationalSpace.com, PO Box 60606, Washington, DC 20039, USA 



e-mail: Eric.Dahlstrom@InternationalSpace.com 



E. Paat-Dahlstrom, Space Adventures, PO Box 7584, Arlington, VA 22207, USA 



e-mail: Emeline@SpaceAdventures.com 



Abstract 

Space stations have long been touted as the first step toward opening space for 
humanity. Visions of the future, such as in the 1968 movie "2001: A Space Odyssey," 
have shown space stations functioning as space hotels. And yet there always seemed to 
be a missing step between this vision of the future and the current space programs. 
How do we make the transition from the current government-funded space facilities, 
such as the International Space Station (ISS), to the private space hotels of the future? 

There is a growing perception that the space tourism market could be large 
enough to drive the development of cheap access to space and private orbital facilities. 
Companies such as Space Adventures are already selling reservations for sub-orbital 
flights on vehicles under development. Large-scale space tourism could provide the 
market to support fleets of space vehicles offering cheap access to space, wnich in turn 
would benefit all other space activities. It is difficult to predict the schedule, but 
significant numbers of tourists going to orbit should be expected within the time of ISS 
operations. The ISS can play several roles to encourage space tourism, both technical 
and programmatic. 

- Biomedical research aims should be conducted within the context of future 
public access to space, similar to the current context of Mars exploration. Research aims 
include improving space habitability, the medical implications of flying a broader 
spectrum of humanity (age, physiology, medical conditions, etc.), and on-orbit health 
monitoring and health care systems. 

- The ISS can be used to evaluate and certify equipment or operations for future 
space hotels. Companies that develop ISS components should be able to apply their 
expertise toward the development of private space facilities, without undue restrictions 
nor unfair advantage. New companies, beyond existing contractors, should be 
encouraged to develop equipment for use on-orbit, initially for ISS and later for space 
hotels. 

- ISS operations could be developed into an initial market for companies seeking 
to provide space equipment and services to future hotels and other facilities. This wifi 
require new roles for the government, and will threaten the monopoly of certain 
government offices. 

Finally, the organizations that built ISS should not resist the next generation of 
space facilities. The builders of ISS have expressed the hope that ISS will eventually 
lead to the opening of space to humanity. When that time comes, they should accept 
that they have succeeded. 

1. Introduction 

The International Space Station (ISS) is now under construction, and plans 
are being made to encourage commercial activities on the station during its 15 
year operational lifetime. Over the past 15 years of development, the ISS 

69 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station, 69 - 78 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



program has dominated government human space programs. Commercial 
activities have transformed other areas of space, and human commercial space 
activities are now being considered. 

The commercial space tourism industry exists today on a small scale, with 
dreams of large-scale activities in the future. Space tourism does not require the 
ISS - it needs low cost access to space. But, within the new promotion of 
commercial space station activities, some have proposed putting tourists on the 
ISS. The concept of such a tourist confronts all of the challenges faced by 
commercial ISS activities, and magnifies them with added symbolism. This 
paper does not propose placing tourists onboard ISS; the vision of space tourism 
is much larger than that. 

The primary role of the ISS in public access to space will be in the transition 
from the traditional government space programs of the past decades to a future 
where space is an arena open to all the human activities which we accept on 
Earth. The ISS has, at least unofficially, been seen as a step toward enabling 
public access to space. But the traditional pressures of a government program 
ensure that public access will always be postponed. The ISS must be operated 
with the assumption that there will be a future for humanity in space. This 
paper proposes a variety of ways in which the ISS can enable the development 
of large-scale public access to space, and encourage the expansion of space 
industry. 

2. Space Activities Today 

2.1 Government and Commercial Space 

Over the fifteen years of the Space Station program, much of the U.S. 
government infrastructure has remained the same, including the roles of the 
NASA Centers. There have been incremental improvements in the Shuttle's 
performance and reliability, but the system remains essentially the same. With 
the exception of Russia (due to the collapse of the Soviet Union), global 
government spending on space has not changed much in the last 15 years. The 
changes may seem significant to an industry so tightly coupled to government 
spending, but the scale of the changes has been modest compared to other 
industries. In contrast, commercial space activities have grown by large 
amounts over the last 15 years. Global commercial spending on space passed 
government space spending in 1996, and is growing at roughly 18 percent per 
year [Reference 1]. Launch vehicle contracts have gradually been shifting to 
government purchases of launch services. Commercial satellite production now 
dominates government satellite production. Today's global space industry has 
revenues of US $ 98 billion, and employs roughly a million people [Reference 1]. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



71 



New communications satellite constellations have encouraged commercial 
ventures aimed at developing reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The 
transformation toward commercial space activities has not yet affected human 
space flight, but this may soon change. 

2.2 Space Tourism Today 

Space tourism has the ultimate objective of placing tourists in space. 
Currently, we are at the beginning of space tourism, and the activities offered 
do not include space flights. Today there are a handful of space tourism 
companies, including Space Adventures [Reference 2]. Currently, Space 
Adventures offers customers tours, aircraft flights, and simulations as part of its 
"Steps to Space" program. Space Adventures is taking reservations for sub- 
orbital flights, and has agreements with several of the new RLV companies to 
arrange flights when passenger carrying vehicles become available. Currently, 
Space Adventures has roughly 70 people with reservations for US $ 90,000 sub- 
orbital flights. Other space tourism activities include parabolic ('zero-g') flights 
and high altitude flights in jet aircraft such as the MIG-25. Space Adventures, 
along with its partners in Russia, have flown roughly 150 people on zero-g 
flights (which currently cost about US $ 5,000), and thousands of flights on high 
performance jets (with prices ranging from US $ 3,000 to US $ 12,000 depending 
on the aircraft). Space Adventures is also beginning to offer tours to space- 
related sites around the world, similar to existing solar eclipse tours. Other 
evidence for the public's interest in space comes from the popularity of space 
mission simulations for children and the millions of visitors to space museums. 
A more direct measure of interest is the approximately US $ 2.5 billion earned 
by the movies in the "Star Wars" series, even without counting their spin-off 
products [Reference 3]. 

The development of RLVs for sub-orbital flights has been encouraged by 
the X-Prize Foundation, of St. Louis, Missouri. A prize is offered for the first 
company to build and fly a 3-person vehicle to 100 km altitude, and repeat the 
flight within two weeks. After such an experimental flight, the RLV company 
will need to develop a passenger carrying version of the vehicle, involving 
government certifications now being defined. Space Adventures has 
agreements with some of the sixteen X-Prize contestants. Space Adventures 
seeks to arrange flights for its list of customers, and these RLV companies want 
to demonstrate to investors that there exists a market for this service. 

In recent months there have been renewed discussions of space hotel 
concepts and new entrants in the world of space tourism. Japan's Shimizu 
corporation has continued to showcase their vision of a future space hotel 
[Reference 4]. Hilton is now described as a partner in a concept using converted 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Shuttle External Tanks [Reference 5]. Daimler Chrysler has announced plans 
for a 'Hotel Galactic' [Reference 6]. Robert Bigelow, of the Budget Suites hotel 
chain, has formed a division to design space hotels [Reference 7]. And Richard 
Branson has formed 'Virgin Galactic Airways' [Reference 6]. 

3. The Vision of Public Access to Space 

What space activities do we want in the new century? What is our vision? 
Let us recall the vision presented in the 1968 movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" 
[Reference 8]. A commercial space plane docks at a future space station - 
designed as a transportation hub, with commercial restaurants and hotels. 
Flights to the Moon are as common as scheduled airline flights. Just from the 
perspective of space science, this low cost, routine access to space is a 
tremendous benefit. An essential part of that vision was the assumption of 
large-scale public access to space. 

The involvement of the government transformed the public's view of 
space. World War II transformed research and development - tremendous 
projects could be achieved through centralized government sponsorship. It 
was, of course, the political and military competition of the Cold War that 
eventually took humanity into space. Ballistic missile capabilities were 
demonstrated with civilian government space programs, and the race to the 
Moon was used as a symbol of the conflict. In half a century we became 
accustomed to the government role in space. We have accepted the argument 
that it is such a difficult enterprise that only governments can make progress. 
But even on government space projects, private contractors perform the 
majority of the work. Within space, the example of communications satellites 
demonstrates what can be done after a transition from government research to 
private development. We need to step back from the world of space to see that 
this transition, from government to private, is the norm. 

The history of technology presents many examples of difficult problems 
solved, at great expense, and then evolving into common consumer products 
(e.g., computers, television, video cameras, lasers, GPS, microwaves, the 
Internet). These products are first available for the wealthy, and then for the 
general public. In some cases, progress began with small, privately financed, 
research and development projects. In other cases, large government efforts 
developed the critical technologies. At some point, government control of these 
technologies has to be released, to spur new developments and innovations. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



73 



3.1 Global Tourism 

What could support a future of large-scale public space travel? While the 
specific size of the space tourism market is difficult to quantify, the overall size 
of the global tourism market is very large - above US $3 trillion per year 
[Reference 9]. This number is growing, and may expand greatly with the 
addition of new tourists from China and other countries. The space community 
must think about serving markets on this scale, and not just the government 
space market. Consider the rate of spending of all tourists around the world - 
they will spend more than the annual budget for the ISS in just a few hours. 
During the course of this three-day conference, tourists around the world will 
spend more than the sum of all the annual government space budgets. 
Adventure tourists are now on the slopes of Mount Everest (despite a survival 
rate on the summit of only 80%), and thousands go to Antarctica each year. The 
hardships which these tourists endure far exceed what will be required of the 
early space tourists. 

How much of this future tourism market might be spent on space tourism? 
In Japan, 70 percent have said they want to travel in space at a cost of three 
months' salary. In the U.S., surveys have found 42 percent would want to go 
[Reference 10]. These surveys indicate the pent-up demand for space tourism is 
on the order of US $ 1 trillion. Space transportation systems cannot yet offer a 
trip to orbit at the prices that would attract hundreds of millions of people. But 
we should expect space tourism to follow the pattern of other industries (cruise 
ships, air travel, etc.). Initially high prices would make the service available as a 
luxury for the rich. These early markets would encourage the entry of new 
service providers, and support cost reductions from economies of scale. 
Eventually, millions might share the experience. Air travel has expanded to 
providing a service for millions of people in less than 40 years. Today, the 
system is a US $ 250 billion industry, with roughly a million people in the air at 
any given time. But there are only a few astronauts in space at any one time. 

4. The International Space Station Program 

What effect does a government funded Space Station have on the future in 
space? The government is investing large amounts of money into Space Station 
technologies, components, life support systems, etc.. These directly apply 
toward future space hotels and facilities. But the non-commercial way in which 
these technologies are developed strongly affects the transfer of these 
technologies to private projects. Either the company does not have full rights to 
the intellectual property, or the information is disclosed to competitors. 
Technical solutions are selected with a consideration of political factors rather 
than of cost or performance. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Building a Space Station for political reasons, and then presenting it to the 
public as solely a research facility, causes the government to slide into circular 
arguments. The government presents the Space Station as the answer to 
research needs, and then sponsors research - as long as that requires the Space 
Station. The lucky researchers whose interests match the government's receive 
government support and access to the costly facilities. They do not see this 
money, they do not control it, and no alternative Space Station or other facility 
can be rewarded with their business. Scientific users cannot act as Space Station 
customers. ISS systems are built to satisfy the true customers of ISS - the 
politicians - who are often more concerned about where the work is performed 
than about performance or cost. 

For the developers and operators of the government's Space Station, what 
is the natural reaction toward the vision of public access to space? Yes, this will 
be possible - some day. We all say that we want to see low cost access to space 
- but do we? How would public officials react if a second Space Station were 
built at a fraction of the cost of the ISS? Many people have devoted their careers 
to explaining why the ISS is so expensive - it is so difficult that it can only be 
done by the combined efforts of many governments. If a low cost option 
appeared tomorrow, who among the current space industry would benefit? 
Could ISS suppliers sell their next set of modules at a small fraction of today's 
cost without upsetting their billion-dollar government customer? Both 
government and industry are strongly motivated to maintain the status quo. 
When the ISS is described as a step toward a future of public space travel, it is 
with the built-in assumption that this dream will fail. 

5. Changes to the ISS Philosophy 

Space tourism does not require the ISS program. But the ISS has an 
opportunity to encourage the development of the future of large-scale public 
access to space. The objective of the current ISS should remain as a research 
facility, but the way in which the facility is operated will have a strong effect on 
the future of humans in space. The central change required in the program is a 
change in perspective. The ISS must be operated with the assumption that there 
will be a future for humanity in space. The long range perspective should not 
be a 'dozen astronauts in space', but hundreds, thousands, and eventually 
millions of people in space. After a hard struggle for the current ISS, it is 
difficult to imagine this kind of future. But it is essential to guide human space 
activities today. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



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5 . 1 Scientific Research 

The biggest concern for any changes to the ISS program is the risk of 
disturbing the primary research missions of the facility. This paper does not 
propose distorting the process of selecting scientific experiments on the ISS. 
The proposal is to incorporate a vision of future public access to space as part of 
the context of setting the research priorities. 

The current view is that ISS human research is needed to prepare for 
sending humans to Mars, which provides a context for the evaluation of 
proposals. In the same sense, the acceptance of a future with public access to 
space would not re-orient ISS research, but could provide a context to 
encourage related research. Many objectives overlap those for sending humans 
to Mars, including a more complete understanding of the effects of 
microgravity, animal studies at intermediate g levels in centrifuges, radiation 
effects, long term habitability factors, noise levels, etc.. Continued development 
of medical care in space also relates to both visions of the future. A basic factor 
in human research on the ISS should be the assumption there will be a future 
with more people in space. 

Preparation for public space access must also include the study of space 
effects on a broader cross-section of humanity. John Glenn's space flight at age 
77 illustrates an expansion of the age distribution. Public access to space will 
test many other limits beyond the composition of the current astronaut corps. 
Medical constraints on astronauts are based on the need to perform mission- 
critical activities. Is there some way that research on the ISS can extend the 
database of health effects, without increasing risks to others, or reducing ISS 
effectiveness? Perhaps there will be opportunities for guests on re-supply 
flights, or other mechanisms for flying a wider range of individuals. Perhaps 
there are animal analog experiments to address these questions. Without the 
ISS, these questions could be addressed on future private facilities. The ISS 
simply offers an opportunity to advance the schedule. 

5.2 Technology Development 

Future space hotels will benefit from the development of many Space 
Station technologies. Future facilities will need to have a similar mix of 
subsystems and hardware. Hardware and tools developed for life support and 
to enable the crew to work will be important for new facilities. Many of the ISS 
design goals match the needs of future facilities - routine operation, high 
reliability, on-orbit maintainability, low levels of maintenance crew time, and 
simple interfaces. Future space facilities need to apply the lessons learned from 
the current design, and increase the emphasis on low operational costs. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



The current program will continue to require new equipment for 
replacements and additional capability. To encourage space industry 
development toward a larger future, the new equipment should be purchased 
commercially to the greatest extent possible. The government should identify 
its needs and (simplified) space qualification requirements, but not specify the 
design solution. Companies should be able to sell their equipment and retain 
ownership (and proprietary information) about their designs. 

5.3 Policy and Programmatic Issues 

The ISS program has struggled for a clear identity and role. The needs of 
many users were considered in the compromise design. Among many potential 
users, no one wanted to be labeled as the primary reason for the ISS. Eventually 
the main role was identified as a microgravity research facility, and as the next 
step in a continuing, but undefined, plan for government exploration of the 
solar system. Meanwhile, the public wonders when they will be able to 
participate in space. Impatience in the U.S. Congress led to policy statements 
that ISS should have, as its objective, the stimulation of commercial activity in 
space. NASA policy now includes similar language [Reference 11]. What are 
the policy and programmatic implications of these new objectives? The ISS can 
support commercial space activity by providing facilities for commercial users. 
But the ISS can also operate and evolve the facility using commercial suppliers. 

The encouragement of commercial space activities aboard the ISS 
necessarily involves some release of governmental control. If an ISS support 
service is to be acquired in a commercial fashion, the government will not have 
the access and oversight to which they are accustomed. The government will 
need to return to a role of the customer which it plays in many other areas. It 
communicates needs and standards, and selects among commercial solutions. 
Can the ISS operate like this? In some sense, this program has been learning to 
live in this kind of environment. The ISS has many international partners, 
which has forced NASA to operate in an environment where they do not have 
complete control. The introduction of purely commercial suppliers would not 
be that much of a change. The program needs to learn how to define standards 
and accept solutions based on those standards. Businesses cannot invest in 
innovative solutions, if there is a risk that the government can change the rules 
to pick a winner. 

5.4 Space Economics 

The current ISS program, and future space facilities, will benefit from the 
introduction of commercial practices into space operations. The actual costs of 
conducting current space operations must be made more visible if we are to 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



77 



develop improved, lower cost systems. Resource allocation between 
government supported users on the ISS could follow other examples (e.g., Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory spacecraft), and apply an 'internal market' to barter 
excess resources. As ISS operations shift toward commercial operations, price 
labels could be applied to this barter system, providing a competitive standard 
for ISS service providers to develop lower cost options. The ISS could stimulate 
the creation of new industries - if the government gets out of operations, 
purchases commercial services, and allows private ownership of assets on the 
ISS. 

6. Summary 

The development of space tourism does not depend on the ISS. Space 
tourism is proceeding with its own momentum toward a future far larger than a 
single research facility. But the larger future for humanity in space could be 
enhanced by changes in the ISS program. The research and technical changes 
are minimal; there is no need for a significant impact on the primary mission of 
the ISS. The ISS must simply be operated and evolve with the assumption that 
there will be a future for people in space. It must operate in a new model of 
purchasing Space Station support services and capabilities from private 
commercial suppliers. The government facility can then be the stimulus for an 
emerging industry, instead of a force preserving the status quo. These changes 
offer near term enhancements for the ISS facility, as well as long term benefits. 

References 

1. Space Publications: State of the Space Industry 1999, www.spacebusiness.com, 
Bethesda, Maryland, May 1999 

2. Space Adventures: 1999/2000 Program Catalog, www.spaceadventures.com, 
Arlington, Virginia, March 1999 

3. Wright, J.W. (editor): The New York Times 1999 Almanac. Penguin, New York, 1998 

4. Space Tourism - The Story So Far, www.spacefuture.com/tourism/timeline.shtml. 
May 1999 

5. Whitehouse, D.: Hilton to back space hotel, BBC News Online, 
news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_293000/293366.stm, London, March 
9, 1999 

6. Nuttall, N.: Space odyssey becomes reality. The Sunday Times, www.sunday- 
times.co.uk/ news/pages/tim/99/05/01/, London, May 1, 1999 

7. Berger, B.: U.S. Developer Sets Sights on Space Tourism, Space News, Vol. 10, No. 
20, www.spacenews.com, Springfield, Virginia, May 24, 1999 

8. Clarke, A.C.: 2001, A Space Odyssey, Signet Books, New York, 1968 

9. World Travel Tourism Council, cited in: Coniglio, S. M., Practical Tourism in Space, 
www .magicnet.net / ~saml 23 / spacetou.html, 1996 

10. Collins, P., Stockmans, R., and Maita, M.: Demand for Space Tourism in America and 
Japan, and its Implications for Future Space Activities (1995), 
www.spacetourism.com/ tourism/timeline.shtml, May 1999 




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11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Commercial Development Plan for 
the International Space Station , <www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codez/policy.html>. 
Washington, DC, November 1998 




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79 



International Space Station Commercialization: Can 
Canada Blaze the Trail Forward ? 1 

A. Eddy, A. Poirier, Canadian Space Agency, 6767 Route de TAeroport, St. Hubert, 
Quebec J3Y 8Y9, Canada 

e-mail: andrew.eddy@space.gc.ca, alain.poirier@space.gc.ca 

Abstract 

All of the partners involved in the utilization planning for the International Space 
Station (ISS) have announced their desire, in some form or another, to "commercialize” 
a portion of their ISS utilization rights. Although commercialization may mean many 
different things, the ISS partners are confronted with common problems that block the 
path towards commercialization. This paper addresses what Canada plans to do to 
move forward with its commercial program. 

1. Introduction 

The first point to be addressed by anyone meaning to discuss 
commercialization is what commercialization is. In Canada, the ISS 
Commercialization (CZ) program does not aim to transfer technologies 
developed for space to other sectors or to facilitate access for new user 
communities to the ISS. The ISS Commercialization Office has a mandate to 
identify new partners to co-finance the utilization of the ISS. These partners are 
from both private and public sectors. 

It is widely recognized that the ISS utilization "market" is at best embryonic 
and volatile. While completing the assembly of the ISS will undoubtedly 
improve this situation, most in the utlization community agree that other 
hurdles make ISS commercialization difficult to envisage in any near future. 

The most common hurdle cited is the exorbitant cost of access to space. 
While we would readily agree that a substantial reduction to the cost of access 
to space would serve as a substantial impetus for commercial activities on the 
ISS, in our view, the principal barriers to the commercialization of ISS are of a 
different nature. They are awareness, culture and partnership philosophy. 
While little can be done to address the high cost of access to space, it is possible 
to act in relation to the three barriers identified above. 



1 This paper is the sole responsibility of its authors and does not necessarily reflect the 
views of the Canadian Space Agency or the ISS partner nations and agencies. 

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© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



2. Barriers to ISS Commercialization 

2.1 Awareness 

One of the most surprising facts that one discovers in discussing ISS 
Commercialization with potential user communities is an astonishing lack of 
awareness with regard to what the ISS, and microgravity research in general, 
have accomplished and may offer in future. For over ten years, the 
international spacefaring community has touted the commercial potential of 
research undertaken on the US Space Shuttle, on the Mir space station, and on 
free flying platforms. Around the world, many nations have drop towers and 
fly parabolic flights on dedicated aircraft to prepare for research in space. Sub- 
orbital rockets offer minutes of research ; returnable capsules offer weeks or 
sometimes months. Yet despite this impressive infrastructure and the resources 
dedicated to commercial success, space managers are hardpressed to identify 
any specific breakthrough attributed directly to space research. 

2.2 Culture 

The problem of awareness in fact hides another, more serious challenge — 
a culture gap between the private and public sectors. Whatever the intrinsic 
value of space research, because of the governmental infrastructure involved 
and the implication of agencies from around the world, space research remains 
focussed on long-term applications. Its very structure cannot adapt to short 
product development cycles and the need for regular, timely results. Space 
research remains focussed on public sector and academic needs ; it does not 
adequately address the needs of the private sector. 

2.3 Partnership Philosophy 

Finally, diverging partnership philosophy is a real hurdle to success for ISS 
CZ. Every solid partnership is characterized by its win-win outcome. Different 
partners bring different strengths to the partnership, and take from it different 
things. Typically, the public sector has broad goals affecting the public good, 
and specific scientific and technological objectives. The private sector has a 
simple, specific goal, exacted by shareholders — profit. Both partners must 
recognize their differences, and accept each others' different needs. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



81 



3. Overcoming the Barriers 

3.1 Awareness: Spreading the Good News 

Awareness is in many ways the easiest barrier to overcome. The 
excitement generated during the launch of the ISS's first elements and during 
the subsequent assembly sequence has already improved knowledge of what 
the ISS is and will continue to do so. Space agencies around the world have 
begun to organize awareness and education activities that will build on this 
excitement. With the first research on the ISS scheduled to begin by late 2000, 
much of the initial awareness work will be accomplished. 

It is crucial, however, to ensure that the work does not stop there. First, 
space agencies must ensure that the news which they bring to the world is good 
news, not news of delays, of difficult research conditions or of science in search 
of applications. These points we will address shortly. 

Secondly, it is essential that the detailed message of the specific relevance 
of space research to specific communities be brought to them in a targeted 
fashion. This entails leaving the traditional spacefaring community and 
speaking to new users. This is something that space agencies have traditionally 
found difficult to do, and to which they must dedicate particular attention. 

3.2 Culture: Doing Business Differently 

The differences between government and the private sector, and the ways 
in which they conduct their business, are perhaps the most important barriers to 
ISS commercialization. In fact, to refer to the business of government is an 
oxymoron. Government is not actively conducting business, at least in the sense 
meant by industry. Consequently, government cannot understand quarterly 
outlooks, or the important impact which flight delays and program overruns 
can have on stock value or financing arrangements. 

If space is ever really to become business, government must accept that it 
has to step out of the way and let business take the lead. In the case of ISS 
commercialization, however, until greater success is demonstrated, industry is 
unwilling to assume all the risks. Yet if government assumes the risks, and 
industry the benefits, this is essentially a government subsidy of shareholder 
profit. It is of course unacceptable to government and to the public at large. 

In order to overcome this hurdle, government must create the conditions of 
a market in which free enterprise is able to take hold. For space 
commercialization, this means regular, timely, affordable access to space. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Regular access is currently planned for the ISS. The three month 
increment, while far from perfect, probably offers sufficient regularity to meet 
early industrial needs. Furthermore, several private sector companies are 
considering more regular access both to and from the ISS. 

Timely access involves rethinking what must be done before a payload 
goes into space. This will be one of Canada's priorities in the coming months. 
In order to meet commercial needs, we believe that the payload manifest cycle 
should not exceed 12 months. 

Finally, affordable access can be possible, even within current constraints. 
While little can be done to reduce the cost per kilogram to orbit, much can be 
done to decrease the size and weight of payloads to make the absolute cost of 
private investment reasonable to serious entrepreneurial consortia. 

4. Conclusion 

For the limited purposes of this paper, it is useful to conclude with what 
Canada aims to do to bring ISS Commercialization closer to reality. 

The Canadian Space Agency has decided notionally to allot 50% of its 
utilization rights to the commercial program. Different approaches have been 
adopted for internal and external space, given their different natures. The 
Canadian Space Agency has also decided to continue pursuing non-traditional 
commercial applications such as entertainment and advertizing. These 
programs will be open to international industry, in partnership with Canadian 
companies. 

If the Canadian Space Agency is successful in creating an environment 
conducive to commercial activity within its limited allocation, other partners 
may choose to make portions of their allocations available under similar 
conditions, ultimately leading to fully-fledged commercial activity on the ISS. 




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83 



Transitioning to Commercial Exploitation of Space 

D. Hamill, M. Kearney, SPACEHAB, Inc., 1331 Gemini Avenue, Houston, TX 77058, 
USA 

e-mail: dhamill@spacehab.com, kearney@spacehab.com 



Abstract 

In the 1960s and 70s, humanity entered space to explore its novel environment. In 
the '80s and '90s, human presence in space focused on experiments which probe larger 
scientific boundaries. The decades ahead should see manned space exploited for 
economic benefit. But the structures that served the space program well for exploration 
and experimentation may not meet the needs of commercial exploitation. Commercial 
users of ISS will demand low cost, short timelines, and assured access for the services 
which they purchase. Space activities must be integrated into the normal flow of 
international commerce. This paper discusses what potential commercial customers 
expect from their use of space. It highlights the differences between what exists and 
what is needed, and outlines an approach to transitioning to a system which can mesh 
with the established mechanism of industrial capitalism. Commercial manned space 
will be considered successful only when sending work to laboratory based in space is 
as unremarkable as sending it to a laboratory in another city. 

1. Introduction 

Although the space program still strikes most of us as esoteric and novel, 
people have been in space now for almost four decades. Nor is space the first 
new environment to be opened to humanity in the Twentieth Century. Without 
particularly planning it, the opening of space is following roughly the same 
pattern of development as its two major predecessors, the atmosphere and the 
subsea. We can therefore lean on these models to move with confidence into 
the next logical step in the opening of space — its exploitation for economic 
benefit. 



This paper argues that the transition to commercial exploitation can be 
accomplished most easily by allowing established commercial mechanisms to 
come into play. Space is not so inherently different that it demands inventing 
new structures for commercial operations. Market forces promote the best 
practices and weed out the worst ideas by their very nature. Once the 
environment for commerce has been established, efficient mechanisms will 
drive the details of commercial space operations down paths that no one can 
foresee at this time. 

2. Looking Back to See Ahead 

When humanity undertakes to conquer a new environment, whether it is 
the atmosphere, the sea bottoms, or outer space, the first decade or two are 
characterized as exploration. During the exploration phase, both the 

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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



environment itself and the technology that open that environment are largely 
unknown and therefore dangerous. Operational procedures are improvised, 
and revised as problems occur. Early aviators died from structural failures and 
aerodynamic effects that were not anticipated; early divers were killed or 
injured by depth effects and equipment failures. The space program, though no 
less bold, had fewer casualties in part because it applied lessons of caution from 
the past. Nonetheless, dangerous near-misses and even tragedy marked the 
first decades of manned space flight as clearly as the exploration of the air and 
subsea. 

By the end of the exploration phase, design fundamentals are established 
and critical hazards conquered. Procedures, though still immature, support 
routine operation; a rudimentary infrastructure is emerging. The next two 
decades or so may be characterized as the experimentation phase, during which 
the capabilities and limitations of the new environment are probed. Technical 
advances, a growing understanding of the environment, and evolving 
operational procedures reduce the personal danger to a point that is tolerable by 
most people. Experimentation identifies and evolves, though it does not 
optimize, the hardware that supports the best applications of this environment. 
The infrastructure, also not optimized, is robust and capable. 

The space program today stands at the end of the experimentation phase. 
If history and the stated intention of our space leaders prove true, the next 
phase of opening the space environment will be exploitation of space for its 
economic benefits. This phase is already underway for non-manned space. The 
exploitation phase is characterized by refining and optimizing those 
opportunities that have been identified and developing new activities enabled 
by these efficiencies. The reliability and cost reductions demanded by customers 
evolve new hardware and modes of operating. The next twenty years, and on 
to the indefinite future, should see space routinely used for economic purposes 
until it becomes as integrated into the world economic structure as the airlines 
and off-shore oil extraction. 

3. Economic Activity in Space 

3.1 Early Opportunities 

The experimentation phase of the space program has uncovered potential 
commercial uses for manned space. In general, these have a very high value per 
unit mass. Protein crystal growth is the archetypal example. Proteins 
crystallized in microgravity have a high value to the pharmaceutical industry if 
they cannot be satisfactorily grown on Earth yet provide key insights on the 
road to developing valuable drugs. The raw materials for protein crystal growth 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



85 



are extremely light, and the mass of the support equipment, the growth cells 
and refrigerated incubator, is modest and can be shared by a large number of 
customers. Protein crystal growth is the only application that has proven its 
cost-effectiveness to commercial users in the cost environment of the American 
Space Shuttle. 

The International Space Station will improve the cost-effectiveness of 
applications with a low sample mass but a high equipment mass. Furnace 
applications, for example, have modest sample and container masses but high 
equipment masses. Significant commercial markets for inorganic crystal growth 
and data on the thermophysical properties of metals will emerge only when the 
launch mass of the furnace can be shared by more users than can be 
accommodated by a single Shuttle sortie. Once the equipment is on orbit, only 
the samples will have to be lifted. 

Behind these applications stand several more whose commercial viability 
waits for reductions in either the equipment mass to orbit or the cost of mass to 
orbit. Mass reduction will require the discovery of a market potential that will 
propel interested capital to invest in new equipment generations. Reductions in 
the cost to orbit will require patient evolution of new approaches to space 
operations. Transgenic manipulation of plants serves as an example of a 
potentially lucrative commercial area that still requires significant recurring 
launch mass. 

3.2 Generic customer requirements 

Although cost reduction is the sine qua non of commercial viability, other 
factors must also change on the road to space exploitation. Commercial 
customers will demand faster service and more schedule certainty from their 
suppliers than the space program is currently capable of providing. The 
authors have held extensive discussions with the commercial user community 
about their needs. Table 1 summarizes the difference between what exists 
today in the STS-ISS infrastructure and what commercial users will demand 
from the providers of space services. 

Besides these quantifiable improvements, commercial users will insist 
upon absolute protection for proprietary information. Furthermore, they will 
not tolerate documentation overhead greater than they develop for comparable 
testing at a terrestrial laboratory. Commercial users will not go to space to say 
that their product came from space but because it makes cold business sense to 
do so: space per se adds no value to the product. In short, commercial users of 
space wish to treat activity in space as though it were at any other laboratory 
with some unique capability. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Cost 

Timelines 

Schedule 

uncertainty 



Where we are today 


Where we need to be 


* $20 y 000 / kg to orbit 

• Certification paperwork adds 
5x to cost [Reference 1] 


* < $10,000 / kg to orbit 

* Nominal additional cost to 
operate in space 


* 2-3 years from commitment 
to flight 

* > 24 month flight integration 
template 


* 0.5 year from commitment to 
flight 

* - 1 month turn-around 


* ± 3 months at date of 
commitment 


* ± 1 week at date of 
commitment 



Table L Customer demands for commercialization 



4. The Coming Paradigm Inversion 

We should expect that the structures - hardware and operations - that will 
grow out of the exploitation phase will be as different from those developed in 
the experimentation phase as its structures were from its predecessor. Each 
phase responds to its own imperatives, so the structures that served the 
experimentation phase must be modified to serve exploitation's imperatives: 
cost sensitivity, timeliness, assured access, process simplicity, and protection of 
proprietary data. At this juncture, we must resist the temptation to try to 
predict what those structures will be or should be. The structures to support 
space exploitation must evolve over time as their predecessors did. 
Transitioning to commercial exploitation, then, is not a question of putting new 
structure in place but establishing the environment in which the structures can 
evolve. An environment that fosters commercial activity will inherently take 
advantage of existing commercial structures when possible, and invent new 
ones only when required. 

In the right environment, 
commercial markets grow by their 
own dynamic (Figure 1). The price 
point for products and services will 
attract a certain customer interest. 

Vendors will seek ways to better serve 
their customers and reduce costs. 

These improvements permit them to 
expand their markets. This resets the 
price point and moves the process into 
the next cycle 





r 


Price 

Point 


Market 


Market 


Expansion 


Interest 


> 


k Service J 

Enhancements^ ^ 1 
l Cost ^ J 

^ Reductions ^ ^ 



Figure 1. The Capitalist Dynamic 





International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



87 



In the current structure, the price point is set by the costs, namely the 
supplier costs, profitability, and the costs of infrastructure. The price point then 
dictates the value of the scientific work done. Despite the very high cost of 
space operations, this structure has worked because the customer, the 
governments, place intangible value on developing space, and that value 
supplements the tangible value of the research to make it worth the cost. 

In the commercial environment, the value is established by the competitive 
market. Value, not cost, establishes the price point. The vendor must trade his 
supplier and infrastructure costs against profitability at that price point when 
deciding whether and how to serve the market. The vendor, rather than the 
customer, drives this paradigm. 

5. Priming the Capitalist Dynamic 

Because profitability, supplier costs, and infrastructure costs are key to 
priming the capitalist dynamic, we examine each separately and recommend 
how to establish a conducive environment for it. 

5. 1 The Profit Motive 

The century-long competition between capitalism and communism showed 
that, whatever its shortcomings, capitalism is unequalled for creating wealth. 
The desire for personal aggrandizement provides the capital that develops new 
products and services to the benefit of the whole economy. In a competitive 
environment, profit motivates efficiency and innovation in a way that good 
intentions alone cannot match. It also propels companies to improve and 
expand existing business lines, identify and develop untapped markets, grow 
demand for its products, invest in areas that have good prospects, and 
withdraw support from unproductive areas. 

The profit motive functions poorly or not at all on a fixed-fee, cost- 
reimbursed contract. During the experimentation phase, while the government 
bore the risks, a profit capped at a percentage of cost did not discourage 
suppliers. However, in a normal commercial environment, the vendor must 
bear the financial risk and therefore cannot be artificially limited in profit. 

To create the proper environment for commercial exploitation, the authors 
suggest that the following maxim be adopted throughout the space program: 
"anything that can be done commercially should be". Certain Space Station 
functions, like the selection and prioritization of non-commercial research, must 
necessarily be done by disinterested parties. Most other functions could be 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



commercialized. Under this maxim, approval for commercial proposals would 
be presumptive, depending only on meeting three tests: 

• the customer receives equivalent or higher value for the product or 
service, 

• the fixed price for that value is equivalent to or lower than the non- 
commercial baseline, and 

• the product or service is based on a significant amount of private capital 
invested at risk. 

To implement such a major change, commercialization must have powerful 
advocates inside the space agencies. Commercial proposals often cut across the 
interests of different departments within an agency and occasionally put those 
interests in conflict. The advocate must be in a position to reconcile such 
conflicts. Although most commercialization proposals should come from 
private initiative, the advocate should also proactively identify functions that 
are ripe for commercialization, but these should be based on technical maturity 
and profit potential, not funding shortfall. The sounding rocket programs, for 
example, would be an excellent target for commercialization. 

5.2 The Cost Structure 

Today's cost structure and operational procedures for space result from 40 
years of public management. Spending the public's money brings special 
considerations, such as procurement regulation, national boundaries, and 
politically mandated set-asides, that do not apply to private spending. 
Moreover, the government insures itself by a significant documentation burden 
that multiplies the costs of hardware five-fold [Reference 1]. The cost-based 
pricing necessary during exploration and experimentation does not inherently 
control costs. 

Making a profit in a competitive commercial environment is inseparable 
from improving efficiency. Cost reductions improve profitability, which 
generates capital to reinvest in new products and services, and permit price 
reductions that increase demand. Shortened timelines open the market to more 
customers. The first step, then, in reducing the cost and timelines of work in 
space is to implement the maxim above: "anything that can be done 
commercially should be". 

For example, commercial practice includes mechanisms and models that 
could reduce the documentation burden that adds so much cost and time to 
space flight. In a commercial environment, insurance and partnership with 
insurers reduce hazards and underwrite any damage that results from 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



89 



negligence. Commercial organizations like Underwriters Laboratory make a 
customer-friendly business of certifying that hardware complies with 
established standards. Workman's compensation, backed up by tort law, 
enforces safety without the need for massive documentation. Other ideas would 
surely arise in an environment that encourages commercial take-over of the 
routine activities of space. 

5.3 Infrastructure 

Infrastructure supplies the foundation for commercial activity. The Space 
Transportation System, with its associated launch and mission control facilities 
and communications network, along with the International Space Station and its 
resources, constitute the existing infrastructure for manned space. Soon the 
HTV, ATV, and their launch and support facilities will join it. Establishing and 
maintaining infrastructure is traditionally a government responsibility. It can 
be very expensive and, though it contributes broadly to economic well being, 
may not have a tangible return. Generally the government does not try to 
recoup the cost of building the infrastructure but may charge a "user fee", such 
as a toll or a gas tax for highways, to support operation and maintenance. Such 
a fee offsets but does not ordinarily recover all operating costs. Because these 
fees are an expense that affects a vendor's profitability, they may be set low or 
waived entirely to encourage a struggling new industry. 

The value of the infrastructure cannot be assessed while its supply exceeds 
the commercial demand for it, as will probably be the case for the first several 
years of ISS operation. Assigning a value based on cost - the old paradigm - 
will distort the whole valuation process, especially while the costs are a vestige 
of the experimentation phase. Only commercial competition will establish a 
market value for infrastructure. Vendors must have time to build market 
demand to a point that equals or exceeds supply before competition for scarce 
resources can establish an appropriate value for infrastructure. This valuation, 
then, can serve as the starting point for vendors to determine whether and how 
to provide commercial infrastructure. 

The government will have to bear the responsibility for infrastructure until 
the market valuation approaches the current costs, though it may expect to 
offset some of its marginal costs. Once the profit potential of infrastructure 
becomes realistic, the "whatever can be done commercially should be" maxim 
will mandate its commercialization. If history is a guide, the transition to 
commercial operation might begin as a regulated utility with a single supplier 
permitted to make a reasonable commercial profit under oversight that prevents 
price gouging. Once the market demand is large enough that other competitors 
can capitalize a competing infrastructure, as has happened in the last decade in 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



telecommunications, the government may deregulate and leave the business 
entirely. 

History gives us every reason to believe that this evolution will happen 
spontaneously. Trying to hurry it artificially in order to recover costs for other 
space exploration can only stifle commercialization by adding costs above those 
that the market can bear. The way to accelerate the handing over of 
infrastructure responsibility is to encourage market building by 
commercialization as much as possible as soon as possible. 

6. Handing-over between Paradigms 

The old and the new paradigms can coexist as long as they are not forced 
to interact. The commercial allocation of ISS must be allowed to evolve value- 
sensitive, vendor-driven structures outside the structures and contractual 
arrangements that support cost-based, customer-driven scientific utilization. 
However, we foresee a day when the scientific community may wish to take 
advantage of the efficiencies developed by the commercial side. This should be 
done in a way that encourages commercialization. For example, once an 
infrastructure value has been established, research grants could include funding 
to cover that cost, funding shifted from the operations to the utilization budget. 
This would allow researchers to choose between the non-commercial and 
commercial access to space, providing a larger market for the commercial 
vendors while giving researchers use of the facilities and processes available on 
the commercial side. 

Ultimately, the governments' role in microgravity research may be reduced 
to providing grant money that researchers budget for commercial services in 
space in the same way that recipients of other government grants budget for 
terrestrial laboratory services. 

7. Conclusion 

Once it is agreed that "everything that can be commercialized should be", 
obstacles will fall, markets will develop, and economic benefit will begin to flow 
from space. The only genuine barrier to manned space commercialization is 
failure - even by its proponents - to choose commercial alternatives over 
familiar ones. 

References 

1. Reducing the Cost of Space Infrastructure and Operations, NISTR 5255. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



91 



International Space Station Commercialization Study 

J. J. Richardson, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 1600 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1200, 
Arlington, VA 22209, USA. 



e-mail: jrichardson@potomacinstitute.org 



Abstract 

In 1996 the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies performed a study on 
commercializing the International Space Station (ISS). The work was principally 
funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Institute 
collected and analyzed publications and sought extensive counsel across industry and 
government. Beginning with our panel, chaired by Mr. James Beggs, a former 
Administrator of NASA, we interviewed over 200 people, representing approximately 
50 companies, universities, and government agencies. We also conducted 12 case 
studies to look at the potential utilization of piloted space flights in Earth orbit. 

The study suggests that commercialization of human orbital space flights could 
yield considerable benefits. Although there are some plausible commercial space-based 
ventures, we found no corporations that could access space without government help. 
The amount of help needed from NASA is considerable; we found that successful IbS 
commercialization demanded a broader context than the station itself, involving space 
access and other orbital resources. In the face of this, we found that NASA had 
articulated considerable support for commercialization, but had failed to commit the 
attention and resources needed to make it happen. 

1. Purpose of Study 

The International Space Station Commercialization (ISSC) Study was 
performed by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies (the Institute), principally 
under a grant from NASA [Reference l]. 1 The Institute and other companies 
also provided financial support. Views expressed are those of the Institute and 
are not necessarily endorsed by NASA or the other contributors. 



The objectives of the study were to present independent, informed and 
updated perspectives on three questions pertaining to the commercialization of 
human orbital space flight, and in particular the ISS [Reference 2]. Its findings 
rest upon the assumption that NASA will deploy the ISS within the next six 
years. The questions asked were as follows: 



• Are there compelling potential benefits from the commercialization of 
human orbital space flight? 

• Are there viable areas of opportunity and plausible commercial ventures? 

• What, if any, should be the government's role in fostering 
commercialization? 



1 This report is also accessible on the Institute's website, www.potomacinstitute.org. 

91 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 91 - 96 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



During the course of the study we contacted over 200 people, representing 
approximately 50 companies, universities, and government agencies. We 
convened the Space Commercialization Experts Panel, the members of which 
are given in Table 1: 



Member 


Selected Experience 


Mr. James Beggs, Chairman 


President, MAKAT, Inc. 

Former NASA Administrator 

Former Executive Vice President, General Dynamics 

Former Deputy Secretary of Transportation 


Dr. John McLucas 


Former Chairman, NASA Advisory Council 
Former President, COMSAT General 
Former Secretary of Air Force 
Former Administrator, FAA 


Mr. James Rose 


Former Assistant Administrator for NASA's Commercial 
Programs 


Mr. Howard Schue 


Partner, Technology Strategies and Alliances Corporation 




President and Chief Executive Officer, GDE Systems, Inc. 



Table 1. Members of Space Commercialization Experts Panel 
We also conducted the twelve case studies listed below. 

• Case Study 1. Space Hardware Optimization Technology (SHOT) 

• Case Study 2. Boeing: Mir Experience 

• Case Study 3. Microencapsulation (Vanderbilt University) 

• Case Study 4. Macromolecular Crystallography (University of Alabama in 
Birmingham) 

• Case Study 5. NASA Space Sciences Laboratory (Marshall Space Flight 
Center) 

• Case Study 6. Centers for Casting and Power and Advanced Electronics 
(Auburn University) 

• Case Study 7. New York City Economic Development Corporation 

• Case Study 8. Zeolites (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) 

• Case Study 9. Virtual Presence (LunaCorp) 

• Case Study 10. Gallium Arsenide (Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center and 
Space Industries, Inc.) 

• Case Study 11. X-Ray Device (University of Alabama in Birmingham) 

• Case Study 12. Education Programming (Walt Disney Imagineering 

2. Summary of Conclusions 



The results of the study convinced us that commercialization of human 
orbital space flight could offer significant benefits to NASA and the nation. 











International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



93 



Benefits to NASA's mission include: 

• Better and more affordable space assets 

• Increased utilization of the Space Shuttle, ISS and Reusable Launch 
Vehicles 

• Release of NASA resources for application to new science frontiers 

• Leveraged private investment 

• Improved innovation and importation of commercial technology to space 
endeavors 

• Increased public support for space operations. 

Three national benefits identified were: 

• Enhancement of U.S. industry competitiveness 

• Spin-offs of new technologies to non-space industries 

• National prestige. 

We also found interesting and plausible space-based commercial 
ventures. 

• The most viable opportunities lie in the privatization of government 
functions, such as resupply and operation of the ISS 

• Emerging privatization opportunities encourage industries to develop 
better and more affordable operations, services, support, and space 
equipment. Importantly, this also enables industry to better serve 
commercial space ventures 

• Commercial research ventures, in biomedicine and materials, provide 
important insights into Earth-based processes 

• Near-term commercial opportunities exist in education, entertainment, 
and advertisement. 

However, no commercial venture was able to get into space without help 
from the government. Major problems cited included high launch and 
operation costs, low flight frequency and reliability, long launch lead times, and 
expensive indemnification against flight failure. Government help in situations 
like this is consistent with historical precedents set during the initiation of U.S. 
transportation systems, such as canals, rail, air, and interstate highways. 

NASA had indicated a desire to transfer ISS and other human orbital 
space flight activities to the private sector [References 3 and 4]. They had also 
agreed with the concept of offsetting NASA's expenses through a healthy 
commercial market. Even so, NASA's efforts to foster commercialization were 
declining. NASA's superb accomplishments in space science continued, despite 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



diminishing manning levels and budgets. But, in the inevitable tradeoffs 
between mission areas, commercialization seemed to be losing. For example: 

• The percentage of NASA's budget dedicated to commercialization has 
declined steadily since 1993. At its highest, this portion was still less than 
one percent 

• Reorganizations left NASA without an institutional center to 
accommodate commercial participants 

• NASA lacked a coherent outreach program to commercial business 

• Many publicly-stated promises went unfulfilled 

• Although procurement and procedural inflexibilities have been reduced, 
they are still too typical of NASA's operation. 

Under these circumstances, the corporations contacted tended to assume 
that space access would remain too risky and subject to bureaucratic 
processes. This has stifled creative thought about space utilization in corporate 
boardrooms around the country, and posed a serious detriment to 
commercialization. 

3. Recommendations 

We suggested a strategy of privatization-to-commercialization of human 
orbital space as a logical means of achieving NASA's aims. Such a strategy 
will not be an easy undertaking. It will demand enthusiastic follow-through, 
with active support from the highest echelons of NASA. Many components of 
our recommended strategy are reflected in NASA's recent ISS 
commercialization plans. 

There must also be an implementation arm to create a more innovative and 
productive link between NASA and the private sector, and to develop and 
husband supporting policies, directives, and strategies. Some characteristics of 
the proposed strategy are: 

• Clearly stated commercialization goals, with a focal point within NASA to 
pursue them effectively 

• Private sector representation in formulating plans, strategies, and policies, 
which should include an outreach program to convince commercial 
industry of the viability of operating in space, from both a technological 
and business perspective 

• Compelling incentives for NASA management and personnel to support 
and accomplish commercialization goals 

• A "Privatization-to-Commercialization" approach, with sufficient NASA 
investment to support it. This approach must mandate the use of 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



95 



privately developed infrastructure by outsourcing and discouraging in- 
house competition with the private sector. It must support the use of 
privatized facilities for commercial ventures and a realistic return on 
equity for the private sector, considering risks. Where appropriate, NASA 
should accept the role of anchor tenant 

• A policy of providing support, encouragement, advice, and space access to 
diverse commercial sectors 

• Added emphasis on reducing impediments to more frequent and 
affordable space access. 

It was suggested that a Commercial Development Office (CDO) and a 

Space Economic Development Corporation (SEDC) should be established by 

NASA. Some key points are as follows: 

• The need for commercial advocacy within NASA is sufficiently compelling 
to warrant changes in organizational structure. First, the CDO should 
serve as a focal point and advocate commercialization within NASA. The 
CDO should then organize a public /private partnership SEDC, which 
would take over some of the functions of commercialization and, 
eventually, most of the commercialization effort 

• The CDO would begin this process by refining NASA's strategy, 
developing contacts within the private sector, consulting with NASA 
Offices and Field Centers, recommending some early policies, and 
developing innovative approaches to privatization. The CDO should 
contain sufficient governmental expertise to coordinate actions and obtain 
support from within NASA. The major thrust of the CDO, however, 
would be business; therefore, it must include personnel with extensive 
experience in the business world. Venture capitalism, business and legal 
processes, as well as technology and product development must be 
represented. The staffing for the business side of the CDO should be 
found from outside the government. Such people would also help to form 
the SEDC 

• The SEDC would represent the link with the private sector, providing a 
business environment to those industries seeking access to space for 
commercial purposes, or to those interested in privatization of space 
assets. It would begin as a quasi-government corporation. Its mission 
should include forming consortia, negotiating business agreements, 
formulating venture plans and strategies, and performing other functions 
that government cannot accomplish. The SEDC could accept funds from 
government or the aerospace industry. Large space assets ventures, such 
as the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), could form their own development 
corporation, or rely on the SEDC. This organization would eventually 
lead the commercialization effort, acting in the role of a true development 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



corporation. Until this "spin-off" occurs, they would support the CDO in 
conducting a series of outreach programs, encouraging industry to 
consider human orbital space flight, reaching a better understanding of the 
special problems of the private sector, and exploring the benefits of space 
to the commercial marketplace. The SEDC would also help NASA to 
become more appreciative of private sector values and approaches. 

References 

1. Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, The International Space Station 
Commercialization Study (PIPS-97-1), March 1997 

2. Richardson, J.: Study Plan for the International Space Station Commercialization Study , 
PIP 96-5, 8 August 1996 

3. General Accounting Office, NASA Infrastructure : Challenges to Achieving Reductions 
and Efficiencies , September 1996 

4. Congressional Budget Office Memorandum, Budgetary Treatment of NASA's 
Advance Commitments to Purchase Launch Services, June 1995 

Selected Bibliography 

1. NASA Commercial Programs Advisory Committee, Charting the Course: U.S. Space 
Enterprise and Space Industrial Competitiveness , 1989. NASA Advisory Council Task 
Force on International Relations in Space, International Space Policy for the 1990s 
and Beyond, 12 October 1987 

2. National Research Council, Engineering Research and Technology Development on the 
Space Station, 1996 

3. Boeing, Martin Marietta, General Dynamics, McDonnell Douglas, Lockheed, and 
Rockwell, Commercial Space Transport Study Final Report, April 1994 

4. Report of Aerospace Research and Development Policy Committee, Institute of 
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, What the United States Must do to Realize the 
Economic Promise of Space: Who Would Build a Second Space Station?, 1993 

5. Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Microgravity Research 
Opportunities for the 1990s, 1995 

6. Handberg, R., The Future of the Space Industry, Quorum Books, 1995 

7. Boeing / Peat Marwick Commercial Space Group Report to NASA, Services to 
Support the Commercial Use of Space, 1988. 

8. Harr, M., et al.,: Commercial Utilization of Space, Battelle Press, 1990 

9. Rogers, T.: Fullest Commercial Use of Space: How the United States Should Go About 
Achieving it, 1995 

10. National Academy of Public Administration, Findings: Commercial Space Processing 
and Requirements Forum, March 1996 

11. U.S. Congress, National Aeronautics and Space Act, 1958 (amended in 1984) 

12. White House, National Space Policy, 1996 

13. NASA, Implementation of the Agenda for Change, May 1996 

14. Congressional Budget Office memorandum. Budgetary Treatment of NASA's Advance 
Commitments to Purchase Launch Services, June 1995 




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Report on Panel Discussion 2: 
Entrepreneurial Initiatives to Use the ISS for Profit 

I. Gracnar, A. Lindskold, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc dTnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: gracnar@mss.isunet.edu, lindskold@mss.isunet.edu 

Panel Chair: J. M. Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., 
USA 

Panel Members: 

A. Eddy, Canadian Space Agency, Canada 

B. Harris, SPACEHAB, USA 

W. Lork, DaimlerChyrsler Aerospace, Germany 

J. Manber, Energia Ltd., USA 

J. Richardson, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, USA 
J. von der Lippe, INTOSPACE GmbH, Germany 

J. M. Cassanto guided the second panel discussion, which centered on 
commercialization issues for the ISS. The discussion dealt with how to promote 
space travel to the public, going around competition barriers put up by the 
partners, and forming a working group from different nations. The panel also 
commented on keeping Mir operational to learn about commercialization issues 
at an early stage, and on whether completely private ownership of the ISS was a 
good idea or not. 

A member of the audience began by stating that most space companies 
today were either government contractors or in other fields of business as well. 
He was interested in advice on how he, as a businessman, could raise the 
public's awareness of space and promote space travel to the public. J. von der 
Lippe suggested that business people should request more flexible operations 
of the ISS. J. Richardson wanted to encourage business competitors to go into 
space. W. Lork was of the opinion that space operations should be privatized as 
much as possible; when the "government rules" there are problems. B. Harris 
acknowledged the problem of profitability. The space business today is looking 
for a "magic bullet", the first product from space that will be profitable and act 
as a pathfinder for other products. No such "bullet" has been found yet; protein 
crystallization is the most promising one at the moment. J. Manber urged that 
the public should be better educated about what we are doing in space, and that 

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we have to be realistic about what we are doing there. A. Eddy conveyed the 
opinion that businessmen should talk to other businessmen about the benefits of 
space, thereby convincing the industry that space is an area in which to do 
business. Finally, J. M. Cassanto re-emphasized the need for competition. He 
gave an example of a "magic bullet" in the form of the encapsulation of drugs, 
and the use of the technique in other fields. He also saw further education on 
space, and why microgravity is important, as being necessary. 

The next question concerned competition on the ISS and going around the 
barriers to that are put up by the partners of the ISS, e.g. by using hatches of 
different sizes. But named hatches could be used for advertizing. J. Manber said 
that the ISS was planned to be more commercial from the beginning. J. von der 
Lippe pointed out that NASA is the majority owner of the ISS and that we 
should be realistic about who has the "power" on the ISS. J. M. Cassanto was of 
the opinion that, since the ISS is international, it should be run like the UN, but 
without the bureaucracy; NASA does not know everything and should not 
dictate to ISS Partners. A UN type commission is needed to handle the 
commercialization aspects. 

The panel was then asked how they felt about creating a working group, of 
different nations, on ISS commercialization. A. Eddy said that there has to be a 
balance between competition and cooperation. ISS is not a competition between 
governments, but a competition between private sector companies. We need 
cooperation between the governments so that the industries can work 
competitively. J. M. Cassanto referred to NASA's commercialization plan for 
the ISS as a "good start". The NGO must be an international consortium, 
containing governments, large industries and innovative small businesses. 

A member of the audience was of the opinion that, if Mir were kept 
operating for a few more years on a commercial basis, then all the questions on 
ISS pricing policies would have to be solved in a very short time. B. Harris 
pointed out that, though the idea was certainly viable, the future of Mir is 
highly uncertain. However, if there is a private alternative to the ISS, it will 
force a lot of changes. J. Manber was very clear in stating that the 
commercialization of the ISS is "killing" Mir — an irony. Serious financial 
institutes have looked at Mir, but since they have felt that NASA would be a 
competitor they have decided to stay out of investing in the Russian Space 
Station. So, the fact that the ISS will be commercial stops investors from coming 
to Mir. J. von der Lippe urged everyone to be realistic. There is no market for 
the Mir; no industry is waiting to get aboard. J. M. Cassanto concluded by 
saying that, because Mir works, it should not be deorbited; it could be a 
"backup" for the ISS. NASA should speed up its commercialization plan. Users 
do not want to wait for 2-3 years to get their experiments into space. Since 




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medical people cannot get a flight every 6 months they can lose interest 
altogether in going to space. 

The final question concerned the concept of privatizing the ownership of 
the entire ISS. Boeing could, for instance, own the US component. Would such a 
scheme work? W. Lork replied that the main customer of the ISS is still the 
government. Experience with the Eureka platform showed that, once it had 
passed into private ownership, ESA was not interested in using it again because 
it was not "theirs". If the ISS is owned by the private sector, the space agencies 
will no longer be interested in supporting it any more. The problem is, in other 
words, that there is an insufficient number of customers. B. Harris thought it 
would be great if the governments only had a regulatory role on the ISS. Then 
the industrial partners would have to work together. J. Manber did not see the 
point of turning the ownership over to an aerospace contractor. A better thing 
would be to turn the ISS into a space hotel, a "Hilton in the sky". A. Eddy 
disagreed, saying that if the industry wanted such a hotel, it should build one. 
He did not see that things would change very much, since Boeing already runs 
the ISS. J. Richardson emphasized that businesses can fail; they do not provide 
guaranteed success. Also, there is a whole spectrum of ownership types 
between federal and private. J. M. Cassanto did not think the ownership should 
go to a big company like Boeing, since that would mean a conflict of interests. 
Rather, it should be given to an international consortium. 




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Session 3 

ISS for Education and Public Awareness 

Session Chair: 

N. Ochanda, University of Nairobi, Kenya 




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Searching for New Opportunities from the 
International Space Station, and Using Them in 
Eastern Africa 



N. Ochanda, University of Nairobi, Geography Dept., P.0 Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya 



e-mail: ochanda@hotmail.com 



Abstract 

Universal acceptance of new opportunities from the International Space Station 
depends upon the meanings that such new opportunities have for members of the 
global family. While some members in the family are able to connect to the future and 
clearly see the value of the Space Station, others are only remotely aware of the new 
possibilities or they are just indifferent. Such people may not make reasonable choices 
or set goals when their attention is drawn to new opportunities. Instead, they desire 
the opportunities to fit in with their lifestyles; if not, the individuals become anxious 
and helpless and cannot conform to the requirements of the International Space Station 
and the global family. There are philosophical and political views that shape 
individuals' commitments to the ISS, their ability to construct meaningful lives and 
opportunities for moral and social change. 

We aim at pointing out possible ways of making people who are far removed 
from the activities of the ISS to join the search for new opportunities. We believe that it 
is easier for individuals to join the search if they discover opportunities which they fit 
into their daily life occupations and if we can forge a link between converging Digital 
Technology, the Space station and daily life occupations. We think that this should 
make the families working and living in Eastern Africa share the costs and risks, and 
reshape their labour and ingenuity in the search, along with personal achievement, 
family growth, social networking and spiritual nourishment. We are convinced that 
families can put their weight behind the Space Station and search for opportunities that 
enhance the lives of present and future global families. 

1. The Search for New Opportunities 

The International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to link individuals 
and families working and living in Eastern Africa to space ventures and 
services. When there is an opportunity to utilize it effectively countries, which 
are not directly contributing to ISS, would cooperate with ISS partners in 
international space projects. Individuals who are connected to the future reach 
the next space marketplace, fabricate the existing opportunities and create new 
ones from their daily life occupations. Much of the linkage would occur in the 
context of occupation that is stimulated by the meaning which new 
opportunities have for the individuals. The individuals would seek connectivity 
to their families and try to share intrinsically connected opportunities for family 
growth. Families would search for opportunities that link them to ISS network. 
Willingness to join the search would depend upon their experience to link with 
opportunities from the ISS and other areas of their daily life occupations. The 
individuals would pursue choices that bring about emotional, intellectual and 

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social change [Reference 1]. These changes increase our chances of linking 
individuals and families to the ISS community. 

1.1 International Cooperation in ISS Projects 

Rationale for International Cooperation. There is the commitment by ISS 
partner states to utilize the capabilities of the ISS to the fullest, with the 
rationale being for long term internationally cooperative projects. The ISS 
partners would promote international cooperation, perhaps using foreign policy 
mechanisms [Reference 2] to influence commercial utilization and operation of 
the ISS. When the policy mechanism is applied within an atmosphere that 
stresses the value of ISS opportunities, the countries in Eastern Africa would be 
encouraged to cooperate in ISS projects. Individuals who are connected to the 
ISS community may be sufficiently aroused to join the search and to build 
capability to fabricate a new life with new opportunities. But when the policy is 
used differently, the dominant partners may be tempted to sideline "good will" 
propagation of the ISS and the countries would feel powerless and reluctant to 
cooperate in the international project. Some individuals could become 
indifferent to ISS activities while those who are only remotely aware of them 
wait for privileges. Potential users of the ISS in Eastern Africa may find it 
difficult to join the ISS community in the search for valuable opportunities from 
space when policy arrangements appear not to increase their participation in 
ISS activities. 

Connectivity with ISS Partner States. Individuals, families and the social 
network in Eastern Africa should be connected to ISS utilization and operation 
through a network of an ISS community of users. In this way the views of ISS 
partners would increase connectivity and stimulate cooperation with non- 
contributing countries. The opportunity to link effectively is provided when the 
ISS partners foster interest among the non-contributors to perceive and deal 
with ISS suggestions. Individuals would be motivated to search for 
opportunities with the conviction of value without losing their commitment to 
ordinary everyday activities and the interpersonal contexts in which they occur. 
Engagement in the ISS would provide an opportunity for commitment to justice 
and empowerment. Connectivity would make individuals share new 
opportunities in a network. By communicating between themselves and with 
the ISS community, they would hopefully remove certain geographical barriers 
to ISS utilization and speed up its operations. 

1.2 Control of Commercial Ventures 

Commercial Ventures and Services. The ISS partners view the ISS as 
potentially the next space marketplace and are searching for ways of 




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commercializing it. The rationale for commercializing the ISS would be the 
optimization of its potential, support for its growth and opportunities for 
private, institutional and public good. The search for new opportunities would 
be influenced by the control mechanism. If partner states take control of space 
ventures they would move between competitive and cooperative support for a 
diversity and growth of new ventures. 

Countries in Eastern Africa could make initiatives, pay attention to new 
space ventures and take responsibility for sharing benefits, costs and risks. 
However, individuals would have little involvement and would, most likely, 
not be aware of space ventures. If the ventures were under the control of 
private sector this would provide new opportunities to individuals and families 
to form a network of space ventures and services that support ISS growth and a 
meaningful life. 

Experience to Pursue Space Ventures. When ISS opportunities are 
brought to the attention of potential users, individuals with experience would 
reach the next space marketplace, extract new commercial opportunities and 
investigate opportunities in other areas of their daily life occupations. The 
individuals would seek connectivity to family needs. The families would 
cooperate as they engage in opportunities that link them to the network of the 
ISS community. Those without experience would feel left out and wait for 
privileges, as they desire that new opportunities fit into their daily lifestyles. 
They would become anxious and helpless if they cannot achieve personal 
growth and social worth. Institutions and the private sector lack motivation 
and commitment to search for new ventures and services. A large community of 
potential users in Eastern Africa does not have the experience or ability to 
search for or create other opportunities for their daily life occupations. Those 
who have the experience may lack the opportunity to search effectively. 

2. Using ISS Opportunities in Eastern Africa 

Using ISS opportunities involves a relationship between new 
opportunities, digital communications and other areas of daily life, and linking 
the results to the long-term political and philosophical views that stimulate 
engagement and shape the individual and family commitment to new 
opportunities. This helps to construct a meaningful life for individuals and 
families in Eastern Africa and to support growth and progress of the ISS. 

2.2 Philosophical Views 

The ISS cannot be separated from individuals' perception of the 
environment and the global network of users; we are likely to have to rely on 




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this as the adaptive mechanism in the next century. If we use the ISS simply as 
a coping mechanism, some individuals would use the ISS for productive, 
touristic and festive occupations while others remain passive recipients. If we 
perceive the global village as a materialistic world, we can easily turn the ISS 
into an instrument for power and the movement towards commercialization 
and privatization suits the needs which we have in commercial terms 
[Reference 3]. Some individuals may use old approaches to new life 
experiences with the ISS, and rely on old skills. Used in this way, emotional 
states are stressed. A feasible approach is to incorporate ISS opportunities into 
our daily life experiences, which allows us to attach meaning to them. Our 
spiritual activities become integrated into ISS utilization as we retool old skills, 
and reshape dreams and capacities, to utilize the ISS. Adaptation becomes a 
process of selecting and organizing new opportunities to improve life 
opportunities on Earth according to the experiences of individuals. The 
outcomes are building a portfolio of investments and establishing strong ties 
with family and friends, and polishing our capacity to become a member of the 
global family here on Earth and later in outer space. 

2.2 Political Views 

Empowerment. We aim at helping individuals and families in Eastern 
Africa to redefine their position and alter their social network to suit their 
engagement in ISS utilization. Organizing and experiencing power determines 
the actual possibility of allowing ISS users to increase their potential to rise and 
move towards the ISS [Reference 3]. Empowerment occurs when individuals 
occupy decision-making positions in the ISS community. That captures other 
people's imagination and changes the terms of how Africans relate to the next 
space marketplace. This involves being open to the value of space realities. It 
can aggregate up to the national level, and increase engagement and 
commitment as the community fosters an interest in ISS activities. The 
individuals have to cope with tensions between the ISS community and their 
perception of opportunities fostered by the ISS community. The professionals 
feel motivated, change their attitude and become more open. 

Emancipation. Engagement in the ISS programme should be done in such 
a way that creates a fair opportunity for everyone, regardless of ability and 
ethnic differences (Reference 4). This could involve tapping creative, pragmatic 
and utilitarian potentials. Sharing of opportunities becomes an everyday 
experience of power in exercising choice and self-control in a social network. 




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2.3 Reaching the Next Space Marketplace 

State Interest. Countries in Eastern Africa are strengthening their 
positions, in horizontal power structures with progressive leadership, and are 
accorded positive per capita income. Many are improving their communications 
systems for local and global sharing. This forms the context in which Eastern 
Africa could be more involved in ISS utilization and operations. By turning ISS 
opportunities to their own ends, countries of Eastern Africa may shift some of 
their research and educational needs; entrepreneurial and cultural activities can 
be turned away from traditional approaches towards ISS opportunities. New 
opportunities in the next space marketplace would increases state revenue as 
they improve the lives of their citizens, caring and sharing opportunities with 
other countries. 

Individual and Family Interests. When we use the ISS in the context of 
daily life, individuals and families would reach the next space marketplace and 
demonstrate creativity and enterprise. Given power and opportunity to make 
reasonable choices, the individuals would fabricate a new life from existing ISS 
opportunities. New feelings and ideas could be evoked as the desire in 
individuals to choose opportunities that meet household needs is increased and 
families would share intrinsically connected opportunities in a social network. 
With ISS opportunities, individuals would create new opportunities from 
interactions with daily life activities drawing on threads of their past selves and 
creating a new routine. We should, therefore, identify ventures that are 
effective in meeting local needs. 

2.4 Socio-Spatial Network of Customers 

Local Control. Daily participation in the ISS accrues; it is culture laden and 
is connected to the societies in which we live. It is our moral identity that is 
likely to ignite intense engagement in the ISS. This requires a policy 
environment that is hospitable to access to ISS opportunities and human talent. 
Individuals would be motivated to identify new space ventures, and an 
emotional intensity would be involved when the individuals forge a reflective 
process of making choices and constructing daily routines with ISS 
opportunities. This would require a knowledge of ISS opportunities suitable for 
daily life, of how engagement in them shapes personal identity, and of how to 
use reflective process in order to enhance life opportunities. We enact social 
roles that maintain the stability of our culture, which are tied to moral identities 
that make us feel passionate. Occupational roles involving ISS fall within social 
roles and let us deal with a full round of daily activities. We must ignite an 
intense engagement in ISS opportunities and daily life activities, and feel 
passionate about those activities that preserve or enhance our moral identity. 




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Social Network. The most important component in social networking is 
the connectivity of communities in Eastern Africa and the ISS community, and 
the capacity to understand and use the connectivity to gain access to ISS 
opportunities. Tele-centers could be the main delivery mechanism to facilitate 
such a connectivity by generating income activities and developing a market for 
ISS ventures and services. 

National and Regional Strategies. Each nation could facilitate community 
access to ISS through a policy mechanism involving human capacity and 
community needs. A policy that links university and other networks leads to a 
sharing of ISS opportunities, research on issues central to the introduction of ISS 
opportunities and national information, and dynamic partnerships that apply 
throughout the region. Some of the ISS ventures and services may cut across 
national borders; tele-centers can facilitate community usage of the ISS, human 
resource sharing and sharing the lessons learned. 

3. Moral and Social Change 

3.2 Motivation to Enter the Next Space Marketplace 

We should be motivated to reach for the ISS; we should develop the ability 
and willingness to search for new opportunities that we think are useful to the 
countries in East Africa or those that families expect from individuals. We 
explore ourselves through the real experience with the ISS, and our emotions 
link us to ISS opportunities; cognitive abilities make us aware of our abilities to 
search for new opportunities (Reference 4). We do this as we conform to social 
expectations and comply with expectations that are appropriate to our specific 
tasks. These depend upon the ways in which we use the skills we possess as 
participatory members, the ways in which we organize ourselves as we 
communicate with others, and our interests. We succeed when we apply our 
searching and use our skills in teamwork, share our experiences with others and 
establish companionship in our families. The self awareness that is so 
intrinsically linked to society is an opportunity to learn to celebrate our talent in 
the utilization of the ISS for quality living to uphold fairness and equity — or it 
can be a barrier if we learn to be impaired in the everyday situation. We break 
bad habits and avoid the unthinking, patterned and rigid way of life when 
grasping the new ISS opportunities, and educate our children about space 
education. 

3.2 Socio-Spatial Network of Users 

Our experiences with the ISS and other patterns of thought locate us in a 
physical world. We forge new time and space configurations by breaking 




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geographical barriers in the utilization and operation of the ISS [Reference 5]. In 
the ISS community, individuals flourish and create order, which they find 
personally gratifying; they proceed according to the demands placed upon the 
time. Individuals in nations, which are not directly involved in the ISS, have 
their potential limited by inexperience. We forge a new use of space and time 
by creating a socio-spatial network that connects the international community of 
ISS users. 

3.3 Valuing ISS Opportunities 

We can engage in ISS utilization and operation with the conviction of value 
that contributes to the next space market. We must neither lose our 
commitment to ordinary everyday activities nor to the interpersonal contacts; 
we must value the customer in Eastern Africa. Value is built during life 
experiences that evoke strong emotions. If value is built through association 
with past life situations a change may be sparked as we engage in ritualized 
activities of merging opportunities with our daily life occupations. If value is 
built in relation to the larger human condition, social change occurs as we fully 
participate in the ISS community. Valued opportunities are a powerful means 
of companionship in families and lead to the formation of a social network. 

3.4 Personal Achievement and Family Growth 

Individuals with visions of hope investigate other areas of their daily life 
occupation, create new opportunities and celebrate personal achievements. 
Those without hope risk being left behind, and yet this should not happen. In 
societies in which visionary ideas are pursued, families engage and co-operate 
in occupations that link them to a social network as they celebrate their growth. 
Societies without a vision are tempted to turn ISS opportunities into instruments 
of power and this may tend to suppress personal achievement and family 
growth. The best way to foster interest in the ISS opportunities is to participate. 
Non-space communities can get interested and involved in ISS activities. 

4. Reflections and Conclusions 

• Reflections. What is the policy framework that is hospitable to ISS access 
for countries in Eastern Africa? What contribution could these countries 
make to ISS operations? What are the different approaches to providing 
access to ISS ventures and services? And how can they be used to extend 
the reach of the individuals and families working and living in Eastern 
Africa? How could the individuals and families identify ventures and 
services that are efficient in responding to personal achievements and 
family growth? And how can they contribute to the growth of the ISS? 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



• Conclusions. Non-contributing countries could become more involved 
when ISS partner states find value in their contribution and foster their 
interest in such an internationally cooperative project. Individuals, the 
private sector and institutions in non-space communities will be 
committed to ISS utilization when they discover ventures and services that 
fit in their daily life occupations. Connectivity with the ISS is faster and 
more effective when directly made between individuals, the private sector 
and institutions, rather than via policy mechanisms. 

Acknowledgements 

I am most grateful to the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs and the International 
Space University for sponsoring my participation in the international exchanges and 
insights of the next space marketplace. I acknowledge the University of Nairobi for 
allowing me to join the space culture during this symposium on the International Space 
Station. 

References 

1. Meredith, C.: Goodbye Gaia , goodbye! Paper presented at the 14th Annual 
Conference of Science Teachers Association of Western Australia, Muresh, 1991 

2. Le Gall, Jean-Ives.: CNES - The way forward: A new strategic plan. Space Policy , 13 
(1): 1536, 1997 

3. Homer-Dixon, T.: The ingenuity gap: Can poor countries adapt to resource 
scarcities? Population and Development Review, 21 (3): pp. 587-612, 1995 

4. Townsend, E.: Occupation: Potential for personal and social transformation. 
Journal of Occupational Science, 4 (1): pp. 18-26, 1997 

5. Dear, M.: Time, space and the geography of everyday life of people who are 
homeless. Occupational Science: The evolving discipline, R. Zemke and F. Clark 
(Eds). Philadelphia: F.A. Davies, 1996 




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International Space Station: New Uses in Marketplace 

of Ideas 



J.D. Burke, 165 Olivera Lane, Sierra Madre, CA 91024, USA 
e-mail: jdburke@its.caltech.edu 



Abstract 

Education and public outreach are recognized functions of the International Space 
Station (ISS). In this paper let us consider how those functions may be enhanced as ISS 
becomes fully operational and can support new uses and new users. We shall focus on 
the International Space University (IStJ) as the primary vehicle for a future advanced 
education program using ISS, extending the achievements of present outreach efforts. 
In 1987 the founders of lSU visualized a three-step process: first, peripatetic ten-week 
summer sessions; second, a year-round Master of bpace Studies curriculum at a central 
campus; and third, a campus off-Earth. Their goal was to build a worldwide network of 
leaders whose shared, intense educational experience would raise lasting friendships. 
The first two steps have now been splendidly achieved, with 1350 ISU alumni already 
making their mark in space enterprises. Not only was ISU an idea whose time had 
come; the felicitous growth of the Internet greatly aided it in building an intercultural 
academic community that now includes 25 affiliate universities in 14 countries. Arthur 
C. Clarke, ISU's Chancellor, regards ISU as a modern analogue of the great universities 
of the renaissance and enlightenment, when transocean voyaging coincided with an 
outburst of new institutions and ideas. Permanently occupied space stations in low 
Earth orbit can be thought of as the coastal trading vessels of a future where people 
regard ventures farther into space as a practical reality. The commercial success of 
space fiction entertainments shows that the public is ready to believe in such a future. 

However, for the notions of space tourism, revived lunar and martian exploration 
and lunar settlement to become reality, there must be public acceptance of a large and 
sustained investment in real as distinct from fictional off-Earth living. Use of off-Earth 
resources is essential. In such a large shift of public opinion education will be the key; 
self-serving agency propaganda will not do. A broad segment of the world public needs 
to share true knowledge and a rational belief about the long-term value of human space 
voyaging and, more fundamentally, of the elevation of human values that can 
accompany it. Existing commitments to education and public outreach provide a model 
for the early stages. Once the ISS becomes permanently occupied a more diverse and 
unpredictable education activity can start to grow. Diverse, because more educational 
experiments will be possible; unpredictable, because people both on Earth and in orbit 
will invent new teaching and learning concepts. A worldwide information system 
already exists and the first experiments are in progress for using it to support 
spaceborne education. However, many questions as to policy, economics and above all 
content remain unanswered. 

ISU is the right institution and this symposium is the right venue for starting the 
needed discussion. In this paper we examine possible paths of evolution from today’s 
programs and plans to a time when there is in space an educational, research and 
public-service enterprise strong and durable enough to be called an affiliate campus of 
the International Space University. 

1. Introduction 

A founding principle of the International Space University is that humans 
will eventually establish permanent settlements off the Earth. Though no one 
can now say when, with what purposes, or driven by what incentives that 

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development will occur, we already need to begin considering its implications 
and nurturing its future leadership. The history of exploration and colonization 
on Earth includes both sublime and abysmal examples of human behavior. In 
space there is a chance for humanity not only to repeat past mistakes and make 
new ones but also to reach new heights of courage, achievement, knowledge 
and wisdom. 

Space stations in low Earth orbit offer the first technical capacity for 
sustained living off-Earth. Heroic feats of endurance in Mir demonstrate the 
remarkable resilience of trained and motivated humans. In the next step, ISS is 
intended to provide augmented living leading to increased human performance 
and increased knowledge of the interaction of humans with the space 
environment. These complicated international programs depend absolutely on 
public support and the organized skills of large numbers of professionals highly 
educated in many fields. So too will an even more demanding future where 
people inhabit the Moon and venture to Mars. 

Recognizing this, people in many nations are promoting space-derived 
education and public outreach as stimuli not only for future space achievements 
but also for the health of their economies. That is good, but there is more to the 
subject. In this paper let us entertain the thought that ISS, in its later evolution, 
may play host not only to the scientific, technical and managerial education 
required for programs and economies but also to the liberal arts, elevating 
public understanding and commitment to an open, sustainable future, thus 
advancing humanity toward the goals of the founders of ISU. 

2. Present Space-derived Education and Outreach 

Let us begin with a brief survey of space-related education in the United 
States, the country whose education establishment has been most impacted by 
the coming of the space age. For more than a century all Americans have been 
expected to go to school. Over much of that time, pro and con arguments over 
education policies flourished even as most of the population became literate and 
economically functional and a few institutions achieved world renown. But all 
was not well in the resulting education structure. The great research 
universities, sponsored by government after the technical miracles that helped 
win World War II, turned out a generation of scientists who won many Nobel 
Prizes. Meanwhile primary and secondary schools were failing as shown by test 
results and, more important, by an observable growth of scientific illiteracy and 
defective thinking among non-scientists [Reference 1]. 

Upon the launch of Sputnik in 1957 a perceived crisis was followed by 
efforts to improve American educational performance. Space-related education 




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and outreach were regarded as significant contributors, especially in 
encouraging students to pursue math and science. Today in the United States a 
broad and diversified effort at national and local levels attempts to advance 
education in all school and university grades. Success varies from place to place 
but educators observe that, for many reasons, needed change comes slowly 
[Reference 2]. In an effort to hasten progress, NASA and other agencies are 
augmenting their education and outreach activities. A typical example is the 
recently reorganized Web site for NASA's human flight enterprise [Reference 3] 
giving information about a variety of school and university programs bringing 
students and teachers into closer contact with workers at the NASA Johnson 
Space Center. Among those programs are several intended to make use of ISS 
capabilities; precursor experiments are already in progress using shuttle flights 
[Reference 4]. 

In addition to initiatives by NASA and the National Science Foundation, 
many other public and private space-related educational enterprises exist in the 
US. By visiting some typical Web sites [Reference 5] one can gain an idea of the 
effort being thrown into educating children, teachers, university communities 
and the general public, including emphasis on women and minorities who have 
been under-represented in fields related to spaceflight. At the university and 
postgraduate level the space science enterprise is threatened by the combination 
of events outlined in Reference 1. The collapse of the Soviet Union, combined 
with the over-production of PhD's in postwar decades, is foreclosing 
opportunities and driving bright young Americans to seek more rewarding 
careers away from science. Graduate students from other countries, however, 
still see opportunities and are now doing much to energize US universities. 

What does all this mean with regard to ISS? As in every other NASA 
program there is an education and public outreach component [Reference 6], a 
source of funding and encouragement for building bridges between ISS 
personnel and the outside world of educators and the public. But the ISS is 
much more than a usual NASA program because of the large and critically- 
important contributions of America’s international partners. The full 
educational implications of this difference remain to be seen, but one obvious 
consequence is that ISS outreach efforts will need to be adapted to existing 
structures in the partner nations. And, beyond that, a goal of ISS is to be a 
resource of knowledge and inspiration for the entire world. 

Recognizing these new challenges, NASA staff and their colleagues in the 
partner nations are preparing a suite of ISS-based education and outreach 
activities [Reference 7] using the Internet and other means to engage as large an 
international population as possible during the coming years. This ISS outreach 




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can be the springboard for the enterprise proposed in this paper, namely, the 
evolution of ISS into a test-bed precursor of schools and universities off-Earth. 

3. The Long-Term Promise of ISS 

To discuss our subject meaningfully we must make three main 
assumptions: first, that ISS will succeed technically; second, that its partners will 
stay the course and continue to operate it after its initial goals have been 
achieved; and third, that humans will ultimately use space resources and live in 
large numbers off-Earth. Of course the third is the most speculative concept. 
However, without that as a clear goal, even though its achievement may lie in 
the indefinite future, much of the justification for a long-sustained ISS program 
disappears. Once the problems of long-duration human spaceflight are worked 
out well enough to support a rational commitment to the human exploration of 
Mars, why will we need to continue ISS operations? It is easy to predict a 
budget collision between that continuation and the Mars program itself. 
Perhaps commercial opportunities can provide a strong impetus as discussed 
elsewhere in this symposium, but as yet that proposition is not proven. 

Resolving this conflict will require the development of good and accepted 
reasons, both commercial and non-commercial, for continuing ISS operation 
into an extended mission phase. In robotic space projects extended missions are 
common. Magellan, having finished its radar mapping of Venus, was 
maneuvered into a low orbit (using a tiny amount of residual project funding) 
and tracked to give a gravity map of the planet. The two Voyagers, having long 
since achieved all of their planned objectives, are operated at relatively low cost 
as heliospheric probes traveling into interstellar space. Galileo, having met its 
main scientific goals in the Jovian system despite a failure of its high-gain 
antenna, has been funded to continue operations with emphasis on Jupiter's 
mysterious satellite Europa. 

Each of the projects mentioned included an education and outreach 
component, but the main purpose of their extended missions was science, not 
education. In contrast, operation of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN), a 
worldwide complex of tracking and data acquisition facilities, includes one 
highly-successful activity entirely dedicated to education. This is the Goldstone- 
Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project in California [Reference 8]. In 
this project a 34-meter tracking antenna, decommissioned from service in the 
DSN, has been converted to serve as a radio telescope and is made available to 
middle school and high school students who design experiments, make 
observations and report results, operating through the Internet. Funding for 
telescope operation and maintenance is provided by NASA under a 
memorandum of understanding with the Lewis Center for Educational 




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Research, a public-service institution set up to serve communities near the 
Goldstone facility. Because of its Internet communications, however, GAVRT is 
not limited to use by local schools; distant student teams can and do use it. The 
whole activity is highly regarded as an example of innovative sponsorship, 
education and outreach benefiting from a previous large investment in the 
space program. 

It is not a huge extrapolation to imagine a late-term ISS activity analogous 
to GAVRT. Education and outreach, at least as they are defined today, will not 
command such large budgets as to cover the whole cost of maintaining a Space 
Station, even in a low-activity, extended-mission mode. However, by 
innovatively combining commercial and public sources of support it may be 
possible to sustain the ISS and use it in a new fashion — to make it serve as a 
marketplace of ideas. Let us now examine this prospect. 

4. Steps toward a Campus in Space 

Once ISS assembly is complete and operation passes from preparatory to 
routine status, much of the on-board timeline will be devoted to activities 
intended to generate new knowledge. Opinions differ as to the efficiency of 
these activities, but if assembly is successful it is only a matter of time until 
experience will show what manifested programs tend to have the best yield in 
proportion to the resources (funding, transport, microgravity, IV A, EVA) that 
they demand. Based on prior experience in the management of timelines, such 
as that of the Hubble Space Telescope, against multiple demands it is to be 
expected that understanding how to manage the ISS resource will evolve and 
improve over a period of years. 

During this evolution some part of the ISS resource will be devoted to 
education and public outreach as outlined in Reference 6. However, progress 
may be limited by the rate at which schools can adapt to the new information 
exchanges made possible by communications with both human and robotic ISS 
systems. Much will depend on the individual initiative of students, teachers, 
school boards and administrators. 

One interesting question is the relation between ISS-based education and 
space-supported education delivered by other means, such as small store-and- 
forward satellites typified by the Surrey UOsat series [Reference 9] and the 
student-built satellites launched from Mir. ISS educational exercises conducted 
by crew members can offer a real-time human element just as immediate as that 
of a classroom, if and only if the students on Earth are equipped with 
appropriate video terminals. Many US schools now have such facilities and use 
them for receiving NASA television. In some school systems optical fiber 




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networks permit two-way TV interactions with multiple remote classrooms. A 
lower-cost alternative is Internet slow-scan imaging through ordinary telephone 
lines. However, even this technique is as yet unavailable in parts of the 
developing world; it should be a prime objective of space-supported education 
to reach such parts. For example, Brazil, a modem nation with highly- 
developed industry and communications in urban centers, is expected by year 
2000 to have only 12 telephone lines per 100 of its 175 million people [Reference 
10]. Bringing education of any kind, space-delivered or not, to such populations 
remains a challenge, but numerous entrepreneurial enterprises are trying to 
meet the need. If they succeed it will be imperative for the ISS education and 
outreach component to use the resulting new capabilities. 

More important than these technical options is the question of content. 
Even within the US it is a continual struggle to establish content appropriate to 
the learning capacity of students at all ages. Educators sponsored by the 
National Academy of Sciences have established some minimum, voluntary 
standards [Reference 11]. Whether or not these would be appropriate in other 
cultures is an open question. Yet if ISS is to fulfill its promise as a beacon of 
knowledge and learning incentives its education standards must somehow fit 
world needs, not only in terms of what reaches students but also in the 
professional development of teachers in many countries. This immediately 
raises the question of language barriers. Clearly a future ISS education plan 
should deal with that problem to the extent possible. There is some useful 
experience in the comparison of children's performance in different countries 
[Reference 12]. ISS education plans would benefit from an extension of such 
data-gathering and analysis. 

From all of these observations it is apparent that ISS education and 
outreach will demand a multicultural approach. That is the main reason for 
what this paper advocates — namely, the accession of the International Space 
University into a significant role. Within the US there are good models for such 
a function. One example is the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado 
[Reference 2]. This organization acts to bring together educators, space project 
managers, scientists, museum directors and interested citizens so as to catalyze 
improved space science education at all levels. It is highly successful in its 
chosen field. However, that field represents only a part of what should be 
contained in the ISS education and outreach enterprise. For ISS to reach its full 
potential as a world resource it must offer not only science but also learning in 
all the other fields where space-delivered education can make a difference. 

This provides another reason for urging that ISU become an agent: ISU 
from its beginning has offered an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to 
broaden the viewpoint of its alumni and fit them for leadership in a world 




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where engineering and science interact with policy, law, business, history, 
politics and the arts. If ISU becomes engaged in the development of a 
worldwide ISS outreach integrating these many aspects of civilization, ISU will 
do much to enhance the benefits of ISS to humanity. A practical way to start 
along the recommended path would be for ISU students to carry out a project 
on ISS education and outreach pointed toward use of space resources and 
human space settlement. The current Team Project on ISS commercialization 
[Reference 13] includes an ISS users' guide, excellent grounding for such a 
follow-on ISU project. 

5. Conclusion 

During the years of its operation the ISS may support a variety of 
noncommercial, educational and cultural activities. At first these will inevitably 
be constrained, not only by on-board limitations but also by the limits of ground 
facilities. It is unrealistic to imagine that every school in every country can gain 
early access to ISS information. However, over the years of growth of ISS and its 
evolution into a world asset, economic and business drivers will be forcing the 
proliferation of universal communications systems. In time it may indeed be 
practical to hook the ISS into an existing worldwide information grid enabling 
students anywhere to communicate with people and robots aboard the station. 
Then the limitation will not be technical; instead it will be due to the same 
factors that now, as outlined above, impede educational change. Long before 
that stage is reached, ISS-based educational innovations should be in pilot 
testing;, what the results may be, we cannot now tell. But we can observe 
successful analogues. The Goldstone-Apple Valley Telescope (GAVRT) 
consortium, the Space Science Institute at Boulder, and other innovative efforts 
are showing the way. Going beyond science education, there may be an 
opportunity to propagate the ideas espoused by G.K. O'Neill and promoted by 
the Space Studies Institute at Princeton [Reference 14] — that space 
manufacturing using extraterrestrial resources can be the key to an open and 
expanding future for humanity. Only through the widespread acceptance of 
those ideas is broad public support likely for the concept of large human 
settlements, including schools and university campuses, off-Earth. 

Public support of a space-enabled better future need not be limited to the 
present spacefaring nations; indeed it must not be. Improving life in the 
developing world is an urgent goal for all of education, including that 
supported by ISS. Ideas promoted in the World Academy of Art and Science 
[Reference 15] are typical of current thinking on this problem. From its 
beginning ISU has included people from developing cultures in every class of 
students. If it proves to be possible, through some combination of commercial 
and other incentives, to sustain an extended mission of ISS there will be an 




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opportunity for the station to serve as a catalyst in a new marketplace of ideas. 
By demonstrating the practicality of off-Earth living plus a commitment to 
education in the values of a learned, civil terrestrial society encouraging all the 
arts and sciences, people in the station and their colleagues on Earth may open 
the way for humanity into the cosmos. The International Space University 
should aim to be a primary agent of this outreach. 

Acknowledgements 

The author wishes to thank Ms. Lindsay Chestnutt and Prof. Michael Rycroft for 
review and editing. Ms. Goldie Eckl, with ISU since its founding, inspires all to sustain 
their commitment to ISU's goals. Dr. and Mrs. Max Larin, Dr. Knut Oxnevad, Mr. 
Clovis de Matos and Ms. Olga Zhdanovich have provided ideas and stimulating 
discussions. Max, Knut, Clovis and Olga are alumni of ISU and each is fulfilling ISU's 
promise by doing good work in today's space enterprise while maintaining a 
thoughtful interest in the farther future. 

References 

1. Goodstein, D.L.: Scientific Elites and Scientific Illiterates , Engineering and Science, 
Spring 1993, 23 - 31. 

2. Morrow, C. et al.: Fifth Annual K-12 Education Workshop for Scientists , Engineers and 
EPO Leads, Boulder, Colorado, 11-14 April 1999 

3. http: / /www.spaceflight.nasa.gov/outreach/ index.html 

4. http:/ /www.calspace.ucsd.edu/ed-outreach.html 

5. http: / /www.nas.edu/rise, http: / /www.nsip.net, http: / /learners.gsfc.nasa.gov, 
http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/women/start.htm, http://cass.jsc.nasa.gov 

6. http: / /www.station.nsa.gov/ outreach/ 

7. http://estec.esa.nl/outreach/ 

8. http: / /deepspace.jpl.nasa.gov/dsn/ applevalley 

9. http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/ 

10. Globalstar Annual Review 1998 : http: / /www.globalstar.com 

11. National Science Education Standards, U.S. National Research Council, 1996, 
Washington, DC: National Academy Press 

12. http://www.csteep.bc.edu/timss 

13. International Space Station Users' Overview, Team Project of the ISU Master of Space 
Studies Class of 1998/99 

14. Space Manufacturing 11 : Proceedings of the Thirteenth SSI/Princeton Conference, 
edited by B. Faughnan, Space Studies Institute, 1997 

15. http://www.hhh.umn.edu/centers/world-academy/page5.htm 




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ISS — The First International Space Classroom: 
International Cooperation in Hands-on Space 

Education 

V. A. Cassanto, ITA, Inc., 15 E. Uwchlan Avenue, Suite 408, Exton, PA 19341, USA 

e-mail: Vcassanto@aol.com, Hyperlink: http://www.ITAspace.com 

D. C. Lobao, Instituto de Aeronautica e Espa^o IAE/ASA-L, Pra$a Marechal Eduardo 
Gomes n. 50, CEP: 12228-901 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP Brazil 

e-mail: Dclnaee@iconet.com.br 

Abstract 

The present paper explores the possibilities for international cooperation through 
hands-on space education onboard the International Space Station. The purpose is not 
only to provide a direct and real-life educational experience but also to link together 
students and teachers from many countries as an integrated team with a common goal. 
The role of the International Space University is important in facilitating these student 
international cooperation efforts on the International Space Station. 

1. Introduction 

The International Space Station has a multitude of exciting opportunities 
for space education relative for both students and teachers. Real opportunities 
for student space research on the ISS will help to foster the education of our 
next generation of teachers, students, and space researchers and explorers. As a 
result of a private sector, international space education program with Brazil, 
France and the United States, using the Space Shuttle for student space 
experiment opportunities, this paper shows how a similar system can be 
utilized on the ISS. Ways are explored to enhance the "hands-on" aspects of the 
ISS experience, for example, multi-national multi-school space experiments, 
student down-link visualization of the experiments operating on the 
International Space Station, an international e-mail network among students 
and teachers to discuss and plan experiments, student and teacher direct e-mail 
and/or video conference communication with ISS Payload Specialists, and the 
development of a unique program such as the proposed Student Space Gardens 
— growing vegetables for astronauts to consume while they are on the Space 
Station. The ISS will be a perfect follow-on and larger scale motivator for the 
current private sector hands-on space education work being conducted on the 
Space Shuttle. 

Here we emphasize the use of the International Space Station by schools 
and universities as an integral part of international cooperation in space 

119 

G. Haskell and M. Ry croft (eds.), International Space Station, 119 - 125 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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education. The basic idea is to motivate and realize an educational opportunity 
for students and teachers involving space activities. 

2. General Aspects of Space Education 

Space education provides an ideal entree to the methods of science in 
general [Reference 1, 2]. When students begin to understand how it is possible 
to learn about space science, they obtain a demonstration of the power of the 
scientific method that is likely to have a beneficial impact in all their science 
courses. Many teachers would love to include more space education in their 
classes, but they are often held back because of their own backgrounds and 
training in the subject which may be weak or out of date. They worry that, 
without further training, they will not do a good job teaching space education 
subjects. Yet how many teachers have the time to spend a semester learning 
astronautics and astronomy? 

That is the reality in many countries around the world. Most space 
educators prefer to give support and emphasize all kinds of hands-on activities. 
It is expected that students will discover the ideas of space or astronomy for 
themselves, not just to read or hear about them passively. Space education has 
two sides that work together: one is to train people who will later work in and 
for space activities of all kinds, and the other is to develop space awareness 
among the community, let people understand space activities, and get the 
community to consider and support space activities [Reference 3]. 

The well-trained teachers can return to their schools with the resources, 
activities, and information to incorporate more space education into their 
existing classes. So in order to have a successful cooperation in hands-on space 
education, basic work in education has to be developed in the schools; teachers 
have to be trained to be effective agents of learning and change in the 
classroom. The First International Space Classroom, aboard the International 
Space Station, can motivate students in the sciences and help them to develop 
their future careers. 

3. Hands-on Space Education Program - an Example 

A private space company, ITA, Inc. (Instrumentation Technology 
Associates) successfully established a student hands-on space education 
program, which has been running for the past eight years [Reference 1, 2]. Many 
student microgravity experiments have been flown on ITA's payloads 
(designated CMIX and CIBX) on the Space Shuttle (missions STS-52, STS-56, 
STS-67, STS-69, STS-80, STS-95) [Reference 4] and onboard the Brazilian VS-30 




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sounding rocket (March 1999) [Reference 5]. The program to date has involved 
over 3000 students and 50 teachers nationally and internationally. 

3.1 The Space Experiment Equipment 

The students' experiments were housed in an automated laboratory, the 
Materials Dispersion Apparatus, or MDA [Reference 1, 2]. The MDA is an 
automated device for materials processing in space, capable of bringing into 
contact as many as 100 different samples of fluids and/or solids at precisely 
timed intervals. The MDA provides ready-to-use equipment for students. ITA 
handles all of the NASA integration and documentation [Reference 2, 4], thus 
freeing the students and teachers to concentrate on the experiment design and 
preparations. The MDA units provide the students with an easy and flexible 
way to conduct a variety of experiments in space. 

ITA has flown a variety of seed experiments for elementary and high 
school students, i.e., coreopsis, columbine, mustard-spinach, mushroom, 
tomato, pepper, poppy, radish, lettuce, and alfalfa seeds. The tomatos in space 
experiment is a joint educational adventure by ITA and Lockheed Martin 
involving young students from various U.S. elementary schools [Reference 1, 2, 
6]. The objective of the experiments is to determine whether exposure of tomato 
seeds to different space environments — Shuttle middeck. Shuttle cargo bay. 
Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) — and different exposure durations 
(from 9 days to more than 4 years) affects germination and growth rates. 

3.2 The Program 

An ITA representative goes to the school to teach, or the school's students 
and teacher come to ITA to learn about, microgravity, the experiments already 
performed, what is possible, and the equipment. Typically one teacher or one 
student interfaces with ITA to design the experiment and document the 
materials to be flown and the experimental protocol. The number of students 
involved in each school ranges from a few to many. In addition, for some 
experiments, several schools were involved, thereby spreading the experience to 
many students [Reference 1, 2]. 

In the case of high school students, the ITA space education program has 
had several beneficial effects on their career choice and education. Some of the 
students have expressed this positive influence in their lives. For instance, a 
student from the Titusville Florida Fligh School reported that the experience 
had caused him to focus on science as a career. In general, the main benefit was 
that it motivated a new interest in the sciences and mathematics through their 
participation in a hands-on science project associated with the high-technology 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



and high-visibility space program. They were involved in a space program with 
specific objectives, real progress milestones leading to a Space Shuttle flight, 
working in close coordination with faculty, scientists and engineers. They 
learned the value of searching libraries for relevant information, planning 
experiments, calculating parameters such as packaging density, preparing flight 
samples, obtaining experiment samples after the flight, evaluating the results, 
comparing with ground control experiments, and writing reports. 

3.3 International Involvement 

3.3.1 France 

Following the success of the ITA student program at the U.S. national level, 
the same type of program was offered internationally. Through a collaboration 
with the International Space University (ISU), a competition was initiated for 
French high school students to fly an experiment on the STS-95 (John Glenn) 
mission. The ISU interdisciplinary and international approach was adopted by 
the French students, and this led to a more complete experience [Reference 7], 
Experiment preparations included teamwork among all the different school 
departments (e.g., English classes writing the press release and the experiment 
report in English, and art classes designing the mission patch and 
commemorative card). The students received local corporate sponsorship to pay 
for their flights to the U.S. and lodging in Cape Canaveral to attend the launch. 
The French students had earlier made contact with fellow American students 
from the Travis Middle School in Texas. When they arrived in Cape Canaveral, 
they greatly enjoyed meeting each other and sharing in the pre-launch and 
launch activities [Reference 8]. 

3.3.2 Brazil 

Following an important workshop in Brazil, "The First Brazilian Seminar 
on Space Education," in 1997 [Reference 9], both authors made efforts to include 
Brazilian Universities in the ITA program. On the STS-95 Shuttle mission, three 
Brazilian University experiments were flown [Reference 5]: 

• Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UniVap) University: to study the effects 
of microgravity on the regeneration of body parts of the Planaria worm 

• Faculdade de Engenheria Industrial (FEI): to better understand Lipase 
enzymatic reactions in microgravity 

• University of Sao Paulo: to obtain high quality sugar crystals from space. 

The Planaria and Lipase experiments were re-flown for validation and 
further experimental data on a Brazilian (VS-30) sounding rocket providing 
several minutes of low gravity. An additional University of Sao Paulo 
experiment was included: "Crystallization of Pharmaceutical Products." The 




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rocket mission named "Operagao Sao Marcos" was organized and sponsored by 
the Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, and the Instituto de Aeronautica e Espacjo, of 
Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil [Reference 10]. This was the first time that 
microgravity experiments were flown on a Brazilian sounding rocket, and they 
were done by teachers and students! These kinds of experiments are being 
encouraged by the Brazilian Space Agency as a stepping stone for utilization of 
the Brazilian share of the ISS. 

4. Student Space Gardens 

The proposed Student Space Gardens study provides a perfect follow-on 
from a multitude of student plant biology experiments already performed on 
the Space Shuttle [Reference 11, 12, 13]. It is also an excellent program for 
students of all ages (ranging from the very young, i.e., eight years old, to 
adults). Through hands-on activities, experiments, and discussions, students 
practice how to identify, classify, organize and recall information, which helps 
to reinforce their basic skills. 

In long duration space flight (i.e., the International Space Station, future 
manned missions to Mars, etc.), plants will be required as a food source for the 
crew. A good example is the soybean. Soy is unusually complete in proteins: of 
the eight essential amino acids, soybeans contain seven in sufficient quantity, 
thus making it an important human food [Reference 14]. Plants, in general, can 
be an important part of bioregenerative life support systems in which food is 
produced, human waste is recycled, air is purified, carbon dioxide is consumed, 
and oxygen is manufactured. 

The objectives of the experiment aboard the ISS would be to: 

• find out what seeds can be germinated in space 

• discover the optimal plant varieties that may be suitable in life support 
systems as well as food sources in space 

• optimize seed production in space. 

To start, students should build a small open garden to understand how to 
grow vegetables from seeds. Then the garden needs to be modified, 
miniaturized and enclosed (accommodated to existing flight hardware) in order 
to be flight-worthy for the ISS. The ground-based garden should be identical to 
the ISS garden in order to be the ground control. 

To demonstrate the effects of microgravity on seeds, students set up the 
experiment, monitoring plant growth and appearance with the frequency of 
watering, water temperature, exposure to fresh air, soil, and light being as 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



constant as possible. They select rapid-growing seeds as well as slow-growing 
ones. 

5. Communications 

The conventional e-mail facility has to be intensively used as the main 
means of communications for information exchange. A World Wide Web page 
should be held as a complement part of the monitoring process during the 
entire experiment period. This network will bring as much information as 
possible to satisfy all students' needs. 

Reports of the experiment can be monitored via direct e-mail 
communication onboard the ISS. A special server can take the e-mails and 
provide the reports as quickly as possible to anyone participating in the 
experiment. This will keep all those involved up to date about the status of the 
seeds in the microgravity environment. In case of any changes, the ground 
control equipment can immediately be adjusted to replicate the conditions 
onboard the ISS. 

A basic aspect of this First International Space Classroom is the 
visualization of the experiment operating on the International Space Station. 
This can be done by a down-link direct to one specific school or over a network 
reaching as many schools as possible. This effort presents a major advantage as 
a live operation that carries visual pictures plus sound. 

6. The Role of ISU 

The ISS will be comprised of modules from different partner countries, but 
currently there is no one module that is truly international to act as a reminder 
and a symbol of the importance of international cooperation and space 
education [Reference 7]. The ISU could propose a module which could provide 
a "uniting" function, being at once a true space educational facility, an orbiting 
space "library" and, perhaps, a common neutral meeting place aboard the ISS. 
That module could be the First International Space Classroom. We encourage 
the ISU to make this program on the ISS a reality for the next century. 

7. Concluding Remarks 

The overriding goal of this First International Space Classroom on the ISS is 
to motivate and teach students to become well-formed professionals, i.e., to 
view the space field as their professional arena, to be committed to contributing 
to it in the future, and to understand the technical, logistical, financial, and 
organizational issues that shape the space field. Since the space field is young. 




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we expect our students to be educators who, regardless of their eventual 
professional settings, can speak knowledgeably about the space field and its 
role in our daily lives. We accordingly emphasize the development of skills in 
space multidisciplinary areas, with a set of hands-on experiences. 

Acknowledgements 

The second author would like to thank Miss Valerie A. Cassanto and Mr. John M. 
Cassanto, President of IT A, for their unwearying support in making space education a 
reality for students and teachers in many countries. 

References 

1. Cassanto, V.A., Wood, B.J.: Student Experiments in Space: A Private Sector Model , 
48th International Astronautical Congress, Turin, Italy, October 6-10, 1997 

2. Cassanto, V.A., Wood, B.J.: Student Experiments in Space: A Private Sector Model, 
Earth Space Review , Vol 7, no. 2, pp. 25-28, 1998 

3. Pignolet, R. G.: Second Workshop on Aerospace in Portugal (Workshop Sobre 
Actividades Aeronauticas e Aerospaciais em Portugal), Instituto Tecnico-Centro 
de Congressos- Lisboa, July 29-30, 1998 

4. Morrison, D.R, Cassanto, J.M.: Low Shear Encapsulation of Multiple Drugs. Low G 
Journal Vol 9, p. 1, March 1998 

5. Agenda Espacial Brasileira (AEB), SBN - Quadra 02 - Bloco J Ed. Eng. Paulo 
Mauricio, 5° andar Cep. 70040-905, Brasilia, Brasil^ http://www.agespacial.gov.br 

6. Tomatos in Space, Historic Glenn Launch Seeds Student Space Experiments," 
Spotlight Magazine , Lockheed Martin Technology Services , Volume 7, Number l, 1999 

7. International Space University: ISU, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 
Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France, http://www.isunet.edu 

8. La Tete Dans Les Etoiles, news article. Dernier es Nouvelles d' Alsace, 1998 

9. First Brazilian Seminar on Space Education, 1957-1997: 40 Years of the Space Era, 
Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Instituto de Aeronautica e Espago, Sao Jose dos 
Campos, SP Brazil, October 21-22, 1997 

10. Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Instituto de Aeronautica e Espago, Sao Jose dos 
Campos, SP Brazil, http:/ /www.iae.cta.br 

11. http://www.lerc.nasa.gov/othergroups/pao/html/ microgex.html 

12. http: / / quest.arc.nasa.gov/ smore/background/microgravity/mgintro.html 

13. http://www.ITAspace.com 

14. Watanade, Tokuji, Kishi, A.: The Book of Soybeans: Nature's Miracle Protein, 1982 




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Art Module "MICHELANGELO": 

A Possibility for Non-Scientific ISS Utilization 

C. Wilp, ART and SPACE, Friedrich-von-Spee-Str. 47, 40489 Diisseldorf, Germany 
e-mail: artandspace@t-online.de 

B. Bratke, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG, BEOS, Postfach 286156, 28361 Bremen, 
Germany 

e-mail: burkhard.bratke@ri.dasa.de 



Abstract 

For the consumption as well as the production of art, the feeling of microgravity is 
expected to be an as yet unknown generator of human creativity. It is proposed that an 
art module, named ^MICHELANGELO", be added to the International Space Station 
(ISS) after the technically designated elements are completely assembled and the 
operational activities have beun. This module would be equipped with nothing; but its 
life support systems; no racKS or other equipment should disturb the available space 
within it. Its utilization would be completely devoted to art activities. For its realization 
private investors could choose between several different possibilities. 

1. Introduction 

According to current planning the assembly of the International Space 
Station ISS will be finished in the year 2004. It will then consist of a number of 
habitable modules, and will include three nodes, a service module, laboratory 
modules from four different countries and logistics modules. All the necessary 
elements that support its technical tasks and human work on it will be there. 
But how about the elements or provisions for recreational activities for the 
humans living on the ISS? Does the currently planned range of activities for a 
permanently inhabited human outpost in space reflect non-work life on Earth in 
an appropriate way? The answer can only be "no". Besides sporting activities 
the creation, performance and consumption of art represent a fundamental part 
of human life and humans living together anywhere on (or outside) the Earth. 
Therefore it is essential that the astronauts' time schedules leave time for art. 
This pastime could be spent nowhere better than in an art module, which could 
be added to the ISS. For the consumption as well as the production of art, the 
feeling of microgravity is, as yet, an unknown generator of human creativity. 

2. The Idea 

It is suggested that an art module, named "MICHELANGELO" (see Fig. 1), 
be added to the ISS after the technically designated elements are completely 
assembled and the operational activities have settled. 

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Figure 1. Collage of images for the art module "MICHELANGELO", with the first 

author in the foreground 

This module would be equipped with nothing but its life support systems; 
there would be no racks or other equipment to disturb the available space 
within it. Its utilization would be completely devoted to art activities like 
painting, drawing, sculpting, producing of videos or movies (e.g. Mir - The 
Movie, filmed on the ISS, in case Mir is not available for that project anymore). 



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designing fashion, writing literature (e.g., consider the Japanese journalist on 
Mir in 1996), creating music or performing dances, etc.. The microgravity of 
parabolic flights has been experienced by Charles Wilp to charge, 
subconsciously, batteries of creativity. The results of art activities in space may 
be expected to be unique art works of high value. 

At first the astronauts themselves could use this location; however, it is 
also possible, though, that artists from Earth could work for a certain time on 
the ISS, thus becoming "ARTronauts". 

Also entertainment, advertising and early space travel might be feasible 
non-scientific leisure activities in the art module. It is to be expected that the 
chance to have a module completely free from science and technology, to be 
used only for cultural purposes in weightlessness, would challenge the 
curiousity and sense for sensation of many people on Earth. The increased 
media attention during the recent Space Shuttle flight of Senator John Glenn can 
be seen as an indicator of this, even though most of that mission was devoted to 
science and research. 

3. The Plan 

The realization of this idea does not seem to be that far away, on its second 
view, as it seems to be on the first. A dedicated development for this module is 
not necessary. For its procurement private investors could choose between 
different possibilities. The Italian space company Alenia, for example, is 
currently building six structurally very similar flight modules for the ISS: the 
European laboratory module COLUMBUS, the Italian ISS contribution MPLM 
(3 flight units) and the ISS nodes 2 and 3. Boeing and Russian companies surely 
have similar elements available that could be relatively cheaply rebuilt to serve 
as an art module. ESA's ATV module might be another alternative for a certain 
period of time. The adaption of a no longer used Spacehab module for 
attachment to the ISS could be yet another possibility. After all, in the year 2003 
the first Spacehab module will already celebrate its tenth anniversary in space. 
The utilization of inflatable structures, like the Transhab module currently being 
developed, opens up further options. 

The transportation of the art module into space could be fairly inexpensive, 
if it can be used as a logistics carrier on its way up. Its adaption to the ISS and 
the resources used for it would then have to be bought from the ISS operator. 
Here, it is expected that these costs could be covered by renting the module to 
interested companies, consortia or even individuals, who are interested in 
creating or performing works of art in space, and including advertising 




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activities. The selling of space art works should be a second source for 
financing. 

4. Conclusion 

Even though, at the moment, no sound and waterproof business plan can 
be presented for the idea outlined here, there exists great confidence in the 
concept and its commercial realization during the first decade of the new 
millennium. Contacts with relevant industrial partners have been established 
already. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Martine Kerguel, ESA 
crew doctor, and Jean Pierre Haignere, Eurokosmonaut and pilot of the Caravelle 
airplane dubbed "Orbitic 22", who provided the first author with the direct feeling of 
microgravity for the production of art. Furthermore, Ingrid Schmidt-Winkeler is 
acknowledged for her invaluable support. 




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Space Education and Space-Based Education: The 
Russian Experience 

O. Zhdanovich, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, Parc 
d'lnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d’Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France 



D. Pieson, Moscow Aviation Institute Aerospace School., 4.,Volokolamskoe sch., GSP, 
Moscow 125871 Russia 

e-mail: zhdanovich@isu.isunet.edu, pm@glasnet.ru 



Abstract 

This paper discusses the experience of space and space-based educational 
programs developed in Russia from school to university level, including the Russian 
National Space Education Program, as well as public outreach programs carried on 
Russian Tv /radio channels in the Soviet Union and continued in Russia during the last 
two decades. 

1. Introduction 

Russia already has more than 25 years of experience in long duration 
manned space flights, starting with the Salyut generation and followed by the 
Mir Space Station. Space education issues have been of concern within the 
professional community practically since the beginning of space programs. 
Significant efforts were made by the enthusiasts to introduce astronautics and 
space research issues into the regular education program as well as to utilize 
space technology features for educational purposes. However, there was not 
any public foundation that can unite all schools and universities working in 
aerospace education together. The NASA idea of the first Teacher in Space, with 
Sharon Christa McAuliffe, a member of the ill-fated Challenger crew, sped up 
the processes of creation of such an organization in the Soviet Union. At the 
end of 1988, the All-Union Youth Aerospace Society "Soyuz" was founded. It 
united many young professionals interested in space. As a result, many of those 
people who now develop the Russian National Space Education Program, 
publish the magazine Cosmonautics News ("Novosti kosmonavtiki") and 
produce TV/radio programs with the Videocosmos company, participated in 
the creation and development of that society. 

2. Space Education in the Soviet Union before Mir Space Station 

Space education has strong roots in the Russian national education system. 
The "Sputnik shock" of 1957 was caused to a large extent by the developed 
system of secondary and university level education in cosmonautics-related 

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fields as well as an elaborate system for the motivation of talented youth to 
work in the aerospace arena. 

As space exploration led to extensive studies aboard the Salyut Space 
Stations, the idea has been to attract young people to the design and planning of 
on-board experiments. In November 1981, a competition for school students 
(aged from 7 to 18 years old), Malyi Intercosmos ("Small Intercosmos"), was 
held with participants from the USSR and Eastern Block countries. The leading 
role in the organization of this competition was taken by the Moscow Palace of 
Pioneers (now Center for Youth Creativity) with Boris Pshenichner. The original 
idea was to attract students to develop in-space experiments. Later the contest 
as well as a number of similar (for example, annual Cosmos) competitions has 
been arranged for future spacecraft projects and a models' competition. As a 
result, these competitions have become a good student recruitment base for the 
leading aerospace universities. 

The extension of this recruitment base was one of the reasons for the 
following event. As mentioned above, in 1988 the All-Union Youth Aerospace 
Society "Soyuz" was organized, chaired by cosmonaut Alexander Serebrov (now 
re-named the All-Russian Youth Aerospace Society). This society united schools 
and universities working in space education as well as established contacts with 
aerospace societies in the USA, Japan and China. The idea of that society is to 
find talented students interested in aerospace subjects at school level and to 
help them to enter aerospace universities. The Society has organized a variety of 
competitions mainly for school children in various topics of space related 
disciplines, including even a competition of space-related drawings. The 
winners have had the opportunity to visit youth aerospace camps in the USA 
and Japan. 

3. Educational and Public Outreach Programs from the Mir Space Station 

3.1 Lessons from Space 

Cosmonaut Alexander Serebrov, President of the "Soyuz" Society, started 
space lessons for school children in 1990, during his flight on board the orbital 
Space Station Mir which he continued during his next mission in 1994. The first 
space lesson from Mir was dedicated to the memory of Sharon Christa 
McAuliffe, the first teacher in space, a member of the Challenger crew whose 
flight into space lasted only 76 seconds. Space lessons were dealing with the life 
of the cosmonauts on board Mir, crystal growth in conditions of zero-g and 
monitoring the Earth from space. The "Soyuz" Society organized a call for 
themes of space lessons in nation-wide specialized newspapers for school 




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teachers. Teachers with the best proposals participated with their students in 
space lessons in the Mission Control Center. 

3.2 TV Programs Based on Mir Videography 

In 1990 the Videocosmos company was organized; it specializes in the 
covering of space exploration by developing TV/radio programs, producing 
video-documentary films for /about the Russian space industry and publishing 
a monthly magazine "Cosmonautics News" ("Novosti kosmonavtiki"). In 1992 
it organized a joint programme on space-related topics with the famous Russian 
program for teenagers, "Maraphon-15". The program covered various aspects 
of the cosmonaut profession, showed the latest space news all over the world, as 
well as an astronomy TV serial produced by Canadian TV and translated into 
Russian. Cosmonaut Musa Manarov organized a geographical contest for 
young people in three programs of space for "Maraphon-15". This contest was 
based on video filming of the Earth from Mir during his one year mission in 
1990-1991. In the first program Musa showed three easily recognised regions of 
the Earth. He suggested that children should work at home with maps and find 
the names of the places shown. In his second and third programs cosmonaut 
Manarov showed three cities and three lakes. The first winner of this TV 
geographical contest had the opportunity to visit the NASA Johnson Space 
Center in Houston, USA, and other winners received various presents. 

Videocosmos also produced 10 to 15 minute video-films based on video 
recordings made aboard Mir, for example, as "Hotel halfway to the Moon" 
covering all the main issues of manned spaceflight to Mir, as well as "Flesh of 
the Earth" covering the Earth's environmental problems caused by human 
activities (such as air and coastal pollution) including the Gulf War as seen from 
space. 

In November 1994 Videocosmos organized a TV bridge between Mir and 
French TV. Young people from France were discussing various aspects of life on 
board a Space Station with cosmonauts Alexander Serebrov and Vasily Tsibliev. 
In 1993 Videocosmos produced a documentary in 13 episodes for TV, "Red 
space", covering all the major milestones of the Soviet/Russian space program 
from the time of Kostantin Tsiolkovsky up to today, and produced a CD-ROM 
on "Soviets in space". 

3.3 Joint Multidisciplinary Programs for Decisionmakers and Cosmonauts 

In 1992 Professor Vitaly Gridin from the Moscow Academy of Oil and Gas 
developed an idea of joint space-ground studies and the management of natural 
resources of various regions of the Russian Federation from space. For 




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traditional remote sensing techniques this approach is not new. The novelty of 
the idea of Prof. Vitaly Gridin is that the study and management of regional 
natural resources is done by joint multidisciplinary teams which include 
members of the regional administration, medical doctors, geologists, 
meteorologists, etc., including cosmonauts. The project starts during the 
cosmonauts' pre-flight training instructing them in the specific natural features 
and human activities of particular regions. With such projects it is possible to 
educate regional decision-makers as to how space technology can be useful for 
the particular region and well as educate cosmonauts more deeply in 
environmental issues. In 1993-1994, such a project was carried out for the 
Orenburg region. Three cosmonauts obtained a second Master's degree, in 
Environmental Science, from the program developed between the Cosmonaut 
Training Center and the Moscow University of Geodesy and Cartography. 

4. Russian National Space Educational Program 

In spite of a number of separate efforts, until recently there was no 
country-wide program for space education, neither in the Former Soviet Union 
(FSU) nor in the recent Russia. To fill the gap, in 1996 a study was initiated by 
the Russian Space Agency (RKA) to develop and implement the Russian 
National Space Education Program [Reference 1]; the Moscow Aviation 
Institute's International Center for Advanced Studies, COSMOS, was assigned 
by the RKA as the prime contractor to develop this program. 

According to the Program's definition, space education is a wide spectrum 
of activities: 

• to recognize the human role and place in space exploration, as well as the 
relationships between Earth and space phenomena 

• to understand the meaning and role of space research and space 
applications in human life 

• to use the achievements of cosmonautics in the different fields of science 
and economics 

• to master the space-related professions 

• to facilitate decision making in fields relating to space activities. 

The major directions of the space education activities covered by the 
Program are: 

• Development of the space education system for the general public, 
including public relations (PR) activities. Development of the space 
education information and knowledge tools 




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• Deepening and expansion of the space-oriented courses within the pre- 
university education system. Professional development of primary and 
high school teachers in the space field 

• Development of methods and managerial structures for the universities 
which provide both the aerospace industry with human resources and the 
country with new intellectuals 

• Improvement of the professional development of, and postgraduate 
curricula for, the aerospace industry and science. 

The six subject fields covered as a set of subprograms are: 

• Space education of the population and public relations 

• Primary space education 

• High school and university space education 

• Postgraduate and professional development education in rocket and space 
technology 

• Distant learning space education 

• International co-operation in space education. 

Within the National Space Education Program framework. Space Stations 
and satellite-based educational programs are of special importance. Also, the 
public outreach and students' professional orientation aspects aboard the ISS 
are important parts of this Program. 

5. Conclusions 

The Russian experience in the development of space and space-based 
education programs as well public outreach programs aboard Mir will be of 
great help for the development of such programs aboard the International Space 
Station. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to express my gratitude to Vladimir Semenov, President of 
Videocosmos Inc., Russia, ror providing videomaterials of TV programs based on Mir 
videography for the oral presentation of this paper. 

References 

1. Alifanov, O., Senkevich, V., Usyukin, V., Khokhulin, V., Doroshin, V, and others: 
Russian National Space Education Program, a report for the Russian Space 
Agency, Moscow, 1998 




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Report on Panel Discussion 3: 

Education and Public Awareness 

L. Higgs, C. P. Karunaharan, International Space University, Strasbourg Central 
Campus, Parc dTnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch- 
Graffenstaden, France 

e-mail: higgs@mss.isunet.edu, karunaharan@mss.isunet.edu 

Panel Chair: R. Oosterlinck, ESA Headquarters, Paris, France 
Panel Members: 

J. D. Burke, Senior Member, Technical Staff JPL (Retired on-call), USA 
V. Cassanto, ITA Inc., USA 

N. Ochanda, University of Nairobi, Kenya 

M. Uhran, NASA, USA 

C. Wilp, ART and SPACE, Germany 

O. Zhdanovich, International Space University 

Opening the discussion, the chairman stated that, in ESA, it is mandatory 
to give, not only postdoctoral fellowships, but also education for young people 
(science and technology to primary and secondary schools). There is now an 
inter-agency working group for education. 

Walt Disney has shown an interest in space and may provide money and 
education. What suggestions would the panel provide? V. Cassanto opened 
the replies by stating that imagery and animation could be integrated in films 
made in space and broadcast from the ISS to Earth. O. Zhdanovich proposed 
showing how science is done in space. J. Burke said that Disney could make 
toys for education, similar to Sojourner, the Mars surface rover. R. Oosterlinck 
made the point that young people's dreams and visions were important and 
that showing images helps to create dreams. 

In the 1950's Disney had visualised Von Braun's ideas. In education, what 
is the vision of the future? J. Burke remarked that choreography for the ISS, 
with its low gravity, and dancing gives the young ideas of what they could do 
in space. R. Oosterlinck said that the young want to solve problems and the ISS 
could motivate them to solve the mysteries of space; V. Cassanto agreed. C. 
Wilp gave an example of a seven year old girl involved in a parabolic flight 
who wanted to be a cook — her imagination was captured, and she wanted to 
cook for astronauts! 

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What is the co-operation between space agencies as ISS partners, and what 
is ISU’s role in education? R. Oosterlinck portrayed a public relations role, 
which would be a forum for the meeting and exchanging of information. He 
noted that in Europe it was difficult to introduce changes to the curriculum, but 
ESA is taking steps to introduce educational "tools"; however, Japan is very 
advanced in this field. J. Burke added that NASA JSC in Houston has a similar 
programme, and that the Web site has education and activity spin-offs from the 
Space Shuttle programme. He recommended that the ISU could have a student 
Design Project or Team Project to this effect and place itself as a "broker" 
connecting educational groups. ISU was the right forum because of its 
interdisciplinary, intercultural and international approach. O. Zhdanovich 
suggested that ISU, its affiliates and alumni should be involved in research for 
the interest of the general public. Great Britain is at the forefront of space 
education through its "Space Days", boasted C. Wilp. 

The next question was directed at N. Ochanda. How would the above 
scenario apply in Africa and would the same technology apply? He answered 
that a link should be created at a basic level between the universities and the 
general public. Concluding this inspirational session, the question was raised of 
why Africa was not taking part in the ISS — was it due to the fact that although 
they had the technology they did not have the users? In reply, N. Ochanda 
pointed out the need to increase public awareness. R. Oosterlinck reminded the 
audience that space spin-offs were already being implemented in the fields of 
telecommunications and education, as well as using solar cells domestically in 
tropical countries. 

In his closing remarks, R. Oosterlinck rejoiced at the fact that the panel 
was from a variety of different generations and cultures. 




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Session 4 

Innovative Approaches to Legal and Regulatory Issues 

Session Chair: 

A. Farand, ESA 




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Legal Environment for Exploitation of the 
International Space Station (ISS) 

A. Farand, European Space Agency, 8-10 rue Mario-Nikis, 75736 Paris, France 
e-mail: afarand@hq.esa.fr 



Abstract 

This presentation focuses on the legal environment created by the 
Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) and the four related Memoranda of 
Understanding (MOUs) for carrying out International Space Station (ISS) operation and 
utilisation activities, over the useful lifetime of the flight elements provided by the ISS 
Partners. It addresses the issues to be dealt with in the arrangements which will be 
concluded for enabling the various categories of users, from whatever field of activity 
in either the public or private sector, to exercise utilisation rights belonging in the first 
place to the Partner's Cooperating Agencies, while attracting funding from sources 
other than States' contributions. The presentation also reviews the efforts being made 
by the European Space Agency (ESA), on behalf of the European Partner, to prepare for 
efficient ana effective use of the European utilisation allocation of the ISS, despite the 
difficulty of reconciling competing interests at both national and Agency levels. Finally, 
the presentation examines different aspects and implications of the new ISS exploitation 
programme subscribed in May 1999 Iby the ESA Member States concerned, the most 
ambitious and complex exploitation programme ever undertaken by the Agency, with 
the added constraint of avoiding exchange of funds between ISS Partners. 

1. Introduction 

The general framework put in place for cooperation on the International 
Space Station project comprises three layers of agreements, which are explained 
in detail: a multilateral intergovernmental agreement (IGA); four Memoranda of 
Understanding between the designated Cooperating Space Agencies; and the 
implementing arrangements already concluded or to be concluded over the 
duration of the cooperation. The general rule is that a State can exercise its 
control and jurisdiction only on its territory and in its air space; the IGA 
therefore constitutes the basis on which the signatory States are allowed to 
extend their national jurisdictions and controls into a facility located in outer 
space. Before its ratification of the IGA, a State will make sure, through 
adoption of appropriate legislation for example, that its national legal system is 
compatible with the commitments which it has subscribed in the IGA and take 
appropriate means to ensure that its national law can apply over the flight 
elements and personnel which it provides to the project. Furthermore, in 
elaborating a comprehensive legal regime governing activities taking place on 
board the International Space Station, the States concerned have not created a 
new body of laws applying to the ISS; they have rather made links between the 
ISS, or more precisely its modules and personnel, and their territories so as to 
authorise the application of their national laws to a given situation. 

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2. The Three-layer Legal Framework 

2.1 The Intergovernmental Agreement 

On 29 January 1998, the representatives of fifteen States, i.e. the United 
States, Russia, Japan, Canada and eleven Member States of ESA, signed in 
Washington an intergovernmental agreement (referred to as the IGA) 
concerning cooperation on the civil International Space Station. This agreement 
which, when brought into force, will replace the 1988 IGA, not only formalises 
Russia's integration in the partnership but also confirms major changes in the 
Partners' contributions and a dramatic evolution of the rules put in place for 
this cooperation. 

Because of the expected 15-year duration of this project, the corresponding 
multi-billion dollar envelope to be spent by each Partner and the fact that 
carrying out a project of such magnitude requires arrangements in some fields 
of jurisdiction that are clearly beyond those falling under the responsibility of 
Space Agencies, it was decided not to limit the legal instruments to Agency- 
level MOUs as for previous cooperative endeavours but rather to involve the 
Governments wishing to participate in the project through the conclusion of an 
international agreement. The IGA sets out the general principles for carrying 
out this cooperation, including those governing the parties’ conduct in outer 
space. It establishes "a long-term international cooperative framework among 
the Partners, on the basis of genuine partnership, for the detailed design, 
development, operation, and utilization of a permanently inhabited civil 
International Space Station for peaceful purposes, in accordance with 
international law". The IGA makes a distinction between Partner States and 
Partners which is quite innovative in terms of international law; this is realised 
when one looks at particular responsibilities reserved for Partners and others 
for Partner States in the IGA. This is a distinction of particular importance for 
Europe. There are fifteen Partner States but only four Partners in the project 
because the eleven European States are grouped, for the purpose of conducting 
this cooperation, under the umbrella designation of the "European Partner". 

The signature ceremony on 29 January 1998, which followed more than 
four years of rigorous bilateral and multilateral negotiations, can be 
characterised as a major milestone in the international partnership. In addition 
to a fairly broad legal regime developed in the IGA itself for the conduct of 
Space Station cooperation, very innovative rules have been drafted to govern 
such things as the development and utilisation of the Space Station, and the 
management and financing of the Partners’ programmes and the international 
programme made up of the Partners' combined contributions. Although the 
original concept of an integrated Space Station has been preserved in this 




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negotiation process, many features of the cooperation have been modified, 
generally for the sake of underlining the genuine partnership concept, or have 
evolved considerably from what was envisaged at the outset. 

During the negotiations held between 1994 and 1997, the original Partners 
could justify their acceptance of a number of IGA provisions confirming the 
lead role of the United States in the international programme not only because 
of the overwhelming importance of its contribution to the programme but 
mainly because of the need to provide for a clear line of command and control 
in this endeavour. Throughout the negotiation process, on the strength of its 
long experience of long-duration human spaceflight, Russia pressed for 
recognition in the Space Station Agreements of a role which would reflect the 
qualitative and quantitative importance of its contributions to the International 
Space Station programme. In the renegotiation of the IGA, this overarching 
Russian requirement was a factor as important as the U.S. leadership had been 
during the original IGA negotiations of 1986-1988 in establishing a particular 
balance between the Partners, this being accomplished without prejudice to the 
genuine partnership concept. As a result of the more recent negotiations, the 
lead role of the United States, and almost all its original responsibilities for 
overall programme management and coordination, have been confirmed in the 
IGA. However, a large number of changes were made to reflect the new 
technical reality brought about primarily by Russia's contributions but also by 
Europe's redesign of its original contributions to the project and its insistence on 
recognition of specific activities, including the periodical correction of the 
Station's orbit using the ESA-developed Automated Transfer Vehicle in 
conjunction with Ariane 5. 

2.2 The Memoranda of Understanding 

Also on 29 January 1998, the Head of NASA and of the Heads of the 
Russian Space Agency, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space 
Agency respectively signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) 
containing detailed provisions for implementation of Space Station cooperation. 
While it was originally envisaged that a fourth similarly-worded MOU with the 
Japanese cooperating Agency would be signed only after ratification of the new 
IGA by the Japanese Diet, NASA and the Government of Japan, representing a 
series of Japanese agencies charged with different aspects of the cooperation, 
changed their approach and signed their MOU on 24 February 1998, thus 
enabling the Diet to examine this MOU together with the IGA. 

When brought into force, i.e. after the Parties notify each other that their 
internal procedures required for this purpose have been completed, the MOUs 
signed on 29 January and 24 February 1998 will replace the three original ones 




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signed in 1988. The four new MOUs concern the detailed design, development 
and operation of a manned civil Space Station. A memorandum of 
understanding is generally not considered to be an agreement generating rights 
and obligations at international law for its signatories, although this does not 
exclude the possibility of remedies provided for under a Partner State's legal 
system being applicable on the basis of a memorandum of understanding if, for 
example, a party to it failed to discharge its obligations appropriately. The 
memorandum of understanding is considered to be a type of arrangement that 
registers a political and moral commitment on the part of an international 
organisation, a government, or a constituent part of the latter, to conduct itself 
in a certain way. Because of their close links with the IGA, it would appear that 
the Space Station MOUs will have acquired the status of international 
agreement, as an exception to the general practice in this field. 

It is interesting to note that the multilateral bodies established for the 
management of Space Station, such as the Multilateral Coordination Board 
(MCB), the top-level body in charge of coordinating the activities of all 
Cooperating Agencies related to the operation and utilisation of the Space 
Station, are provided for in the MOUs, which are bilateral instruments between 
NASA and each of the other Cooperating Agencies. The pattern of cooperation 
put in place through the MOUs has been referred to as the "hub and spoke" 
approach, similar to the pattern adopted for air transport in a number of 
countries. In this particular instance, NASA is the hub and all the other 
cooperating agencies are "spokes": one consequence of this pattern is that a 
commitment made in a given MOU by a Cooperating Agency in favour of 
others has to be reflected in the other relevant MOUs, with this commitment 
"transiting", so to speak, through NASA, which is a party to all the MOUs. It is 
also the MOUs that define the five-year "sliding" planning process for the 
operation and utilisation of the ISS, including the procedure put in place by the 
Cooperating Agencies for approving the corresponding documentation 

2.3 The Implementing Arrangements , and Other Arrangements 

The third layer of international instruments is represented by the 
"implementing arrangements" referred to in Article 4 of the IGA. These 
arrangements, relating to implementation of the Parties' obligations or the 
exercise of their rights, as spelled out in the MOUs, are subject to the MOUs and 
thus NASA always has to be a party to them. The IGA and the four recently 
signed MOUs contain numerous provisions calling for the conclusion of 
implementing arrangements and, in that sense, the IGA and MOUs are only the 
tip of the iceberg of legal instruments that need to be put in place by the Partner 
States and the Cooperating Agencies. At this stage, only one implementing 
arrangement has been concluded between ESA and NASA: it relates to the 




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barter between the NASA launch of the ESA-developed Columbus Orbital 
Facility (COF), using the US Space Shuttle, and the development by ESA, and 
delivery to NASA, of the ISS Nodes 2 and 3 and equipment to be used on board 
the US laboratory. 

Article 4.2 of the IGA which establishes this hierarchy between Space 
Station Agreements (IGA, MOUs and implementing arrangements) is silent on 
the other arrangements and agreements that may be concluded between 
Partners for the purpose of furthering Space Station cooperation. One example 
of these is the Memorandum of Understanding concluded in 1990 (and 
amended in 1997) between NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for the 
development by ASI of the mini pressurised logistics module (MPLM) which, 
under the MOU, is a NASA-provided element of the Space Station. Another 
example of an arrangement not provided for in Article 4.2 of the 1988 IGA, 
which is arises from Russia’s arrival in the partnership is the arrangement 
signed in 1996 between ESA and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) for the 
delivery by ESA to the RSA of a European external robotic arm (ERA) to be 
used on the Russian segment of the Space Station. 

3. The Partner States' Obligations 

For the purposes of discharging almost all its ISS-related responsibilities 
and exercising its rights, the European Partner is acting through ESA. 1 
However, a number of responsibilities, for example in the fields of customs and 
immigration and of criminal jurisdiction, are exercised directly and exclusively 
by the States themselves. 

The explicit obligations contained in the IGA which have been assumed by 
the European Partner, and consequently by the European Partner States jointly 
and severally, and which have a bearing on utilisation of the Space Station, are: 
(a) to provide the elements listed in Section 2 of the IGA Annex (flight elements, 
ground elements and other elements); (b) to take responsibility for the operation 
of the elements which it provides and to develop and implement procedures for 
operating the Space Station in a manner that is safe, efficient, and effective for 



1 A number of IGA provisions confirm that the European Partner’s obligations, and therefore the 
European Partner States’ obligations, will be discharged (and the corresponding right will be 
exercised) through ESA:(I) the paragraph in the preamble referring to the ISS programme, (ii) 
Art. 4.1 which designates ESA as the European Partner’s Cooperating Agency, and Art.4.2 which 
provides that “the Cooperating Agencies shall implement Space Station cooperation...”, (iii) Art. 
6.2 which provides that the European Partner entrusts ESA with ownership of the elements and 
equipment developed and funded under an ESA programme as a contribution to the Space 
Station, its operation or utilisation, and (iv) Section 2 of the IGA Annex which lists the elements 
(flight, ground and other elements) to be provided by the European Partner, through ESA. 




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Space Station users and operators; also, to sustain the functional performance of 
the elements which it provides; (c) to make available launch and return 
transport services for the Space Station; and (d) to bear the costs of fulfilling its 
responsibilities under the IGA. 

4. Utilisation of the Space Station 

The basic principles for utilisation of the Space Station are laid down in 
Article 9.1 of the IGA: 

“Utilization rights are derived from Partner provision of user elements, 
infrastructure elements, or both. Any Partner that provides Space Station user 
elements shall retain use of those elements, except as otherwise provided for in 
this paragraph. Partners which provide resources to operate and use the Space 
Station, which are derived from their Space Station infrastructure elements, 
shall receive in exchange a fixed share of the use of certain user elements.” 

The share of the use of user accommodations, such as pressurised 
laboratories, to be retained by the Partner providing that accommodation is 
expressed in fixed percentages in the MOUs. To be more precise, ESA will keep 
51% of the user accommodation on the European pressurised laboratory and 
Japan's Cooperating Agency will retain the use of 51% of the user 
accommodations on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The remaining 
49% of user accommodation in the COF and JEM are attributed to those 
Partners providing infrastructure resources to ESA and Japan's Cooperating 
Agency (referred to in the MOUs as "the GOJ"), essentially NASA but also the 
CSA, which is providing the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) as an 
infrastructure element. 

A second step in the understanding of the principles applicable to 
utilisation of the Space Station is an examination of the approach taken in the 
allocation of Space Station resources. First, an agreement has been reached 
between the original Partners and Russia based on the premise that Russia on 
the one hand and the other Partners on the other retain utilisation of their own 
contributions to the Station and seek to offset only those items that cross the 
interface. This of course has many implications with regard to the sharing of 
ISS resources and the treatment of common operations costs involving 
exchanges between the Russian segment and the segment of the Space Station 
composed of elements (the Alpha segment) provided by the other four Partners. 
The Partners have nevertheless laid strong emphasis on the need for the closest 
possible adherence to the philosophy of an integrated International Space 
Station and the rules underpinning that philosophy in the Space Station 
Agreements. 




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By way of illustration, it was decided that, for the purposes of sharing 
utilisation, the Russian Partner would keep 100% of utilisation of its own 
modules, thereby recognising that the infrastructure element supplied to the 
Station by Russia for its own benefit and that of the other Partners would enable 
it to accumulate up to 100% of the utilisation rights in its own modules. This 
calculation has the advantage of avoiding a debate on the relative value of the 
utilisation and infrastructure elements supplied by Russia as a proportion of the 
Space Station as a whole. This means that the percentage agreed, on the basis of 
100% within the Alpha segment, among the founding Partners could be 
retained for the purpose of sharing available resources. The MOUs specify the 
precise percentage of resources to be allocated to each Cooperating Agency: for 
example, ESA's share has been fixed at 8.3% of the resources available for 
sharing on board the Alpha segment. 

Establishing a direct link between the allocation of resources and the 
financial responsibilities of the Cooperating Agencies, Article 9.3(a) of the 
ESA /NASA MOU provides that: 

“NASA, ESA and the other partners will equitably share responsibilities for the 
common system operations costs or activities, that is the costs or activities 
attributed to the operation of the Space Station as a whole.... RSA will be 
responsible for the share of the common system operations costs or activities 
corresponding to the operation of the elements it provides. NASA, ESA, the 
GOJ and CSA collectively will be responsible for the share of common system 
operations costs or activities corresponding to the support of the operation of 
elements they collectively provide using the following approach: each will be 
responsible for a percentage of common system operations costs or activities 
equal to the percentage of Space Station utilization resources allocated to it ...” 

In addition to the above-mentioned common system operations costs 
responsibilities, each Partner will be financially responsible for costs or activities 
attributed to operating and sustaining the functional performance of the flight 
and ground elements which it provides and the use of its user accommodations. 
To give an idea of the scale of costs to be borne by each Partner, it can be 
reported that ESA has estimated that the total exploitation costs over a period of 
10 to 11 years would be of the same order of magnitude as the total 
development costs of its contributions, two thirds of that sum being devoted to 
discharging common system operations responsibilities. This explains the 
efforts put by the European Partner into persuading its Partners of the need to 
lay down transparent financial rules for the cooperation. 




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5. Financial Rules Applicable to the Cooperation 

A significant interest of the European Partner in the IGA and MOU 
negotiation process which extended from mid-1994 until end of 1997 were of a 
financial order and resulted from directives and guidelines given by the 
participants at the ESA Council meeting at ministerial level held in Granada in 
November 1992. The European Partner therefore proposed to amend Article 15 
of the IGA on Funding with a view to formalising two concepts: (a) the offset 
concept, according to which a Partner would be able to meet its share of the 
Station's common system operations costs by supplying goods and services 
produced by itself, and (b) the concept of the "not-to exceed figure", which 
would involve the establishment of procedures administered by the 
management bodies for containing the common system operations costs within 
predetermined and agreed levels, thus imposing a ceiling on these costs. This 
would enable a Partner to know the full extent of its commitment sufficiently in 
advance to plan its expenditure accordingly. 

These two concepts are linked to agreement among all the Partners on the 
setting-up of a fleet of spacecraft supplied by four of the five Partners to meet 
all the Station's transport requirements. This change, which was unavoidable 
with Russia's arrival in the partnership, represents a significant departure from 
the situation outlined in the IGA signed in 1988 where the U.S. Space Shuttle 
was the only space transport system to be used for the cooperation. With 
Ariane-5, operating in conjunction with the ATV, the European Partner is in a 
position to discharge its share of common costs in a worthwhile manner, given 
that space transport is going to account for some 80% of the Station's common 
operations costs. Much of the discussion between the European negotiators and 
their counterparts centred on the type of assurance which the European Partner 
could be given at this stage by the United States and the other Partners to the 
effect that Ariane-5/ATV, deployed on Station orbit reboost missions for 
instance, and other European services would indeed be used to offset the whole 
European share of common system operations responsibilities, so that 
cooperation could be established on the basis of "no exchange of funds" 
between the European Partner and its Partners. 

6. How the European Partner is Organising its Utilisation of the ISS 

6.1 The ESA ISS Exploitation Programme 

At the ministerial meeting of the ESA Council in Toulouse in October 1995, 
the ten ESA Member States participating in the development of the European 
contributions to the ISS already decided on the rules to be applied in an 
appropriate programmatic framework for the subsequent operation and 




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utilisation of the Space Station by the European Partner. Their motive for doing 
so at that early stage was that, at the time that a decision with significant 
financial consequences was being taken on the last step of the development of 
Europe's contributions to the ISS project, there was a need to make sure that 
there was a genuine political and financial commitment to operate and use this 
in-orbit infrastructure. 

On 12 May 1999, also at a ministerial meeting of the ESA Council, this time 
held in Brussels, the same States finalised and brought into force the legal 
instrument setting up an ESA ISS exploitation programme, confirming that their 
participation in that new programme would extend until the end of the useful 
lifetime of the European flight elements contributed to the ISS, envisaged for 
2013. This was accompanied by the participating State's subscription of the 
financial sub-envelope covering the two-year first step of early activities and 
their confirmation of a complementary provisional financial commitment for the 
following three-year period. The above financial sub-envelope, and therefore 
the participating States' subscriptions, have been broken down between fixed 
and variable costs, the former being more closely related to the operation 
responsibilities of the European Partner, including its share of common 
operations costs, and the latter being related to its utilisation interests in the ISS. 
However, this distinction between fixed and variable costs will remain rather 
artificial until actual utilisation of the Station by the users of the European 
Partner States, from 2004 onwards. 

Although it is reassuring that the start of this new exploitation programme 
should ensure that the corresponding activities will be carried out on a stable 
financial basis over the long term, it should be stressed that this recent decision 
was accompanied by very explicit directives given to ESA not only to make all 
reasonable efforts to bring this exploitation programme within more palatable 
financial parameters but also to find new funding sources. 2 This could be 
explained by the rather consistent past practice of the European Space Agency 



2 In this connection, the last paragraph of Resolution No. 2 adopted by ministers 
assembled at the ESA Council meeting at Brussels on 12 May 1999 reads as follows: 
"INVITES the Director General to identify and propose the best conditions and 
structures for promoting efficient and effective operation and utilisation of the 
various infrastructure elements such as the International Space Station and 
launchers developed by Agency programmes, and in particular to examine the 
scope for industrialising exploitation of the ISS, and submit a corresponding 
proposal to Council by March 2000 and STRESSES the need to execute operations 
and utilisation activities in partnership with other European entities, such as the 
European Commission, or with industry, commercial users and commercial 
operators and to involve the various user programmes of the Agency in those 
activities. 




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of transferring technology and facilities developed under its programmes to 
other international organisations or private entities for the purposes of their 
exploitation, so as to prevent a sizeable part of ESA's budget being diverted 
from its core mission of research and development in the space domain. This 
allows ESA to largely keep out of the space-operations business and concentrate 
on fostering new technologies and exploration, and to ensure that exploitation is 
carried out in the best possible environment, commercial or otherwise. The 
concern voiced by Member States' representatives at the Brussels meeting is 
also understandable when it is realised that the ESA ISS exploitation 
programme could represent a steady-state average of approximately 11% of 
ESA's total annual budget, with close to two-thirds of that sum being devoted to 
the operations side of exploitation. The Agency would then be left with no 
resources with which to enter into new fields of manned space activity. 

Undoubtedly, the wealth of literature produced by the numerous forums 
that have considered various aspects of commercialisation of the ISS will be a 
good point of departure for ESA's own deliberation on the subject. Two aspects 
will be examined: (a) how to succeed in the transfer to the private sector of the 
largest possible portion of the operations side of ISS exploitation, from mission 
planning and maintenance to transport, communications and training, on the 
understanding that the Partner States and ESA retain their overall 
responsibilities under the ISS agreements, and (b) how to use a significant 
portion of ESA's ISS utilisation rights for development of new products and 
services by the private sector ranging, for example, from pharmaceutical 
companies and telecommunications firms to the entertainment industry and 
advertising agencies, through an appropriate marketing effort. Privatisation of 
operations could be justified only if, as expected, private companies are able to 
provide comparable levels of service and technical sophistication at a much 
lower cost. Before the Cooperating Agencies could envisage recouping some of 
the public's investment in the development of the ISS, their objective will be to 
recoup the costs directly attributable to use of the ISS facilities, then those 
related to maintenance of the infrastructure, referred to as "fixed cost" in the 
ESA programme. 3 



3 In an article of 15 December 1998 published on the Internet by ABC News and entitled 
“ISS, Brought to You By”, Peter N. Spotts lists the following obstacles to be cleared before 
commercialisation could be successful: (a) prohibitive launch costs, (b) too few flights and 
unacceptable lead time between applying for a flight and launch, (c) the lack of a basic price 
list for Space Station activities, as well as a central clearing house for proposals from the 
private sector. 




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6.2 Different Aspects of European Utilisation of the ISS 

A part of the development programme decided upon in October 1995 and 
currently being implemented is devoted to preparations for European 
utilisation of the Space Station. In this connection, ESA has already issued 
"Announcements of Opportunity" (AOs) addressed to potential European ISS 
users in different fields of research and development for the purpose of 
collecting proposals for experiments to take place on the ISS. Since utilisation 
rights will not formally start accruing to ESA until the COF is verified in orbit, 
an event currently expected to take place at the beginning of 2003, in January 
1997 ESA concluded with NASA a barter arrangement that will provide ESA 
users with utilisation opportunities as early as 2001 and 2002, on board the US 
ISS laboratory, in exchange for the provision by ESA of specialised laboratory 
equipment. 

It has already been decided that European utilisation of the ISS will be 
organised in consecutive phases, so as to allow for necessary adjustments due to 
changes in the programme, the need to inject some flexibility into the actual 
implementation, experience gained and promotional aspects. The first 
utilisation phase will be based on the early utilisation opportunities secured 
from NASA as just mentioned. An annual European utilisation plan will be 
submitted for approval to the Manned Space Programme Board, the ESA 
delegate body in charge of manned programmes. This plan, covering the 
totality of the share of ISS utilisation accruing to the European Partner, will be 
prepared by a recently created working and advisory body called the European 
Utilisation Board (the EUB); this preparation will include a review of proposals 
by experts in the field and prioritisation of proposals according to a number of 
recognised criteria. 

More detailed utilisation rules will be developed in the framework of ESA 
over the coming years so as to regulate the specific conditions for user access, 
including access by space programmes carried out by individual ESA Member 
States, and third-party users, which comprise industrial and commercial users. 
These rules will also address such matters as: (a) the allocation of resources to 
different disciplines among the various user categories, (b) the procedure for 
issuing Announcements of Opportunities, (c) the criteria to be applied in the 
selection of facilities, experiments and investigations aboard the ISS, (d) the 
means of protecting the intellectual property rights of the different categories of 
users, (e) the information and data access policy, and (f) the charging policy to 
be applied to users originating from ESA Member States other than those 
participating in the programme and to third parties. Finally, ESA will need to 
ensure the coordination of the European utilisation plan with those of the other 
Cooperating Agencies, consistent with applicable MOU procedures. 




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6.3 Arrangements Between the Users and the Cooperating Agencies 

As we have seen, the IGA and MOUs have established the broad 
framework for the basic rules which Partner States have agreed to apply to all 
Space Station-related activities, including utilisation activities. However, one 
could say that this legal framework is fairly general and permissive and, except 
for two elements mentioned below, does not impose any specific condition to 
the Cooperating Agencies in their dealings with potential users, in particular in 
relation to the protection of these users' intellectual property rights. In dealing 
with potential users of Space Station facilities, the interested Cooperating 
Agency shall include in the corresponding contractual arrangements (a) the 
cross-waiver of liability outlined in Article 16 of the IGA so as to ensure, on the 
basis of reciprocity, that the user is protected against claims that could be 
presented by the other Space Station Partners or their respective related 
entities, 4 and (b) an explicit obligation for the user to provide the Cooperating 
Agency with sufficient data on the payload or experiment it intends to provide 
so that the Agency will be able to discharge its own obligations towards the 
partnership, including those related to safety, with regard to that payload or 
experiment. 

As far as protection of Space Station users' intellectual property rights is 
concerned, it should be mentioned that Article 19 of the IGA contains rules and 
procedures, related to markings, to protect against any retransfer to third 
parties of any data or goods which a Cooperating Agency is obligated to 
provide to another Agency if such data or goods are protected for proprietary 
or export control purposes. Also, Article 21 of the IGA, on Intellectual Property, 
establishes that patent laws of the Partner State having provided the flight 
element in which an invention has taken place shall apply to the patenting of 
that invention and also establishes a number of assumptions in case of claims, 
before a European jurisdiction, for patent infringement; these rules are very 
general, and essentially procedural, and do not affect the nature of the 
arrangements that can be made between a Cooperating Agency and its 
sponsored user for the sharing of benefits accruing from an invention resulting 
from Space Station work. It can be assumed that in most instances the invention 
resulting from the experiment will be identified or made from raw data after the 
experiment or payload is returned to Earth. Therefore, the invention will be 
patented in accordance with the rules applicable in the corresponding State. 



4 This, however, shall not prejudge the liability regime to be negotiated between the user and 
the sponsoring Cooperating Agency, although there also a cross-waiver of liability seems to 
be the relevant approach. 




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Finally, it could be recalled that the "black box" approach, and the need for the 
Partners not to be too intrusive on payloads provided by other Partners' users 
or by their own users if that has been specified in the sponsoring Partners' 
contractual commitment, was present in the mind of the 1988 IGA negotiators 
when they developed Article 20 of the IGA on Data and Goods in transit. 

7. Conclusions 

The rules established for Space Station cooperation will contribute to a 
certain emancipation — from a legal standpoint and compared with the current 
situation in which only the United States and Russia have the technical means 
and expertise to send a human being into outer space — of the Cooperating 
Agencies of Europe, Japan and Canada in their manned space activities. This 
emancipation will have a beneficial impact on all aspects of these activities. The 
development of Space Station rules will be a challenging task for the European 
Partner States, in particular because it calls for an effort of harmonisation 
between their national laws and regulations applicable to one aspect or another 
of Space Station cooperation. 

As with almost all aspects of Space Station cooperation, more work lies 
ahead for the Cooperating Agencies after the signature of the new Space Station 
Agreements in January 1998. In particular, the Code of Conduct for the 
astronauts provided for in Article 11 of the IGA, which is not technically an 
implementing arrangement but could be seen as having a legal status somewhat 
similar to that of the IGA and the MOUs, is the most urgently needed 
document, and also a very complex one, yet to be developed by the Partners. In 
addition to the forthcoming negotiations between the Cooperating Agencies on 
various legal instruments called for in the IGA and the MOUs, these Agencies 
will have to develop individually not only their detailed utilisation rules but 
also their own approach, and the corresponding policies and rules, for 
proceeding with what has been referred to as the industrialisation of the 
exploitation of the ISS. This expression applies to a combination of privatisation 
of the bulk of ISS operations and commercialisation of a significant part of the 
available utilisation capacity offered by the Space Station. 




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Promotion of Industrial ISS Utilization by the German 

Space Agency 

F. Claasen, P. Weber, H. Ripken, V. Sobick, German Aerospace Center, 53227 Bonn- 
Oberkassel, Germany 



e-mail: Friedhelm.Claasen@dlr.de 



Abstract 

The International Space Station is a global cooperative programme between the 
United States, Russia, Canada, Japan and Europe for the joint development, operation 
and utilization of a permanently inhabited space station in low Earth orbit, dermany 
contributes 41% of the overall development costs for the European part of the ISS. 
During recent decades Germany has been strongly involved in manned space flight 
programmes and has gained extensive experience in microgravity sciences, engineering 
and management. Therefore Germany is aiming at a leading role in ISS utilization 
within Europe and ESA. 

The ISS is a new orbital structure with the possibilities of longterm 
experimentation, servicing of hardware, short term and regular access, availibility of 
more energy and data transmission, realtime video and robotics. These new boundary 
conditions are very promising prerequisites, not only for the well established space 
community, but also for industrial and commercial activities in space by non-space 
industries. The ISS will become a tool like any other large scale laboratory facility on 
Earth. To make this new research facility known among non-space industry researchers 
and to get them "onboard" the DLR has initiated the project "Promotion of industrial 
users of the ISS". Within this, the relevant information is distributed via adequate 
media, e.g. workshops, periodical Newsletter, Internet, and potential users are 
addressed via national associations of sciences and of industrial companies in a 
framework of events (symposia, meetings, workshops). In the early utilization phase, 
ESA and the national agencies intend to provide for the costs of the flight, logistics and 
the required system operations. In principle the user has to provide his experiment 
hardware and to cover the expenses for the related ground-based research. Industrial 
requirements for ISS use are identified and have to be implemented according to the 
jointly to be agreed access rules of the ISS partners. Administrative and legal questions, 
e.g. proprietary rights, confidentiality, charging policies, advertisement rules, costs and 
schedules, have to be settled by clear and transparent international agreements. Within 
such a framework the ISS can be a valuable tool for profit-oriented industrial and 
commercial ventures. 

1. Introduction 

The International Space Station will be built by the five international 
partner organizations NASA, RKA, NASDA, CSA and ESA. The ten 
participating European nations are represented by ESA. Amongst them 
Germany contributes the major financial part, 41% of the overall development 
cost for the European part of the ISS. Future contributions for the exploitation 
phase, namely for operation and utilization of the ISS are not yet fixed, but 
ongoing European negotiations let us assume similar efforts from Germany 
[Reference 1]. 

155 



G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 155 - 162 . 
© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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In the past Germany has gained broad experience in manned space flight 
projects: foremost with Spacelab, FSLP, D1 and D2, then with participation in 
many US shuttle missions (IML, MSL), with several cooperations with Russia 
using the Mir space station, and furthermore with cooperative ESA projects. 
Major experience has been achieved in microgravity sciences, engineering and 
project management. This experience can now be used to maintain a leading 
role in ISS utilization in Europe. 

In April 1999, the German Chancellor Schroder chaired the opening 
ceremony of the Spacelab exhibition in Bremen. He demanded an active role 
from Germany to apply the knowledge gained in many years as an important 
international space partner, especially for the upcoming industrial utilization. 

2. One Third of the ISS Resources for Industrial Utilization? 

The first two elements of the ISS have been launched successfully last year 
and the construction is now an ongoing and continuous process. The station will 
be available for research very soon and that will open a completely new era of 
space investigations. A permanent crew can be expected shortly after the 
Service Module has been launched. 

The German space industry has gained a broad know-how during the past 
25 years. Now, shortly before the International Space Station is permanently 
operated, we have to provide well suited boundary conditions, especially for 
the non-space industries, enabling them to make the best use of this new 
research facility in space. 

2.1 European Utilization Conditions 

Within Europe the ESA utilization concept for the ISS is based on three 
utilization branches: fundamental and applied research, industrial/commercial 
users, and third parties. Announcements of Opportunity are open worldwide, 
and different selection processes apply for the different branches. These include 
established peer reviews looking for the best science in the case of fundamental 
research, evaluating market potentials for pure commercial experiments, and 
selection on a case by case decision for third parties. The recent definitions of 
user categories and ISS user access guidelines are to be found in the relevant 
documentation of the ESA Program Board Manned Space [Reference 2]. There is 
no a priori allocation defined for the different utilization branches, and the 
Manned Space Program Board will strive for a balance amongst the different 
disciplines. 




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One of the most difficult problems arises with proprietary rights for the 
resulting research data. According to existing overall ESA rules it is required 
that, for payloads flown on an ESA mission free of charge, the Agency expects 
to be entitled to a free of charge, non-exclusive irrevocable license to use the 
invention or proprietary technical data, produced by the experimenter, for their 
own purposes in the field of space research and technology. This old ESA rule, 
resulting from former scientific research programmes, is now under discussion 
among the Member States and has to be adjusted to the changing utilization 
scenario of the ISS. The up to now still existing regulation would be a severe 
obstacle for the involvement of commercial ISS users and its readjustment is a 
mandatory prerequisite. ESA has already expressed its intention that for 
industrial research and development by the private sector on a commercial 
basis adequate guarantees of confidentiality, including intellectual property 
rights, will be secured [Reference 3]. 

2.2 German Utilization Concept 

The German utilization participation will be handled primarily via ESA for 
the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) and the external facilities; in addition there 
will be bilateral projects with the other ISS partners, e.g. NASA or RKA. The 
different users are subdivided into three utilization branches: basic science, 
application oriented research and industrial/commercial utilization. Although 
no strict requirement, it is anticipated that each branch will take about one third 
of the overall German utilization resources. The ISS utilization is based on 
excellent science with increasing industrial participation. 

2.3 New Quality of Resources 

Up to now the available resources in manned spaceflight have been 
limited; energy, crew time, up- and download, mission frequency and duration 
depended on the availability of Shuttle flights or possible participation in Mir 
projects. As Germany does not have its own access to space, the situation was 
even worse here. Now a new dimension opens up — the continuous availability 
of all the above resources, with regular flights up and down and a permanent 
habitation. 

Comparing the Columbus Orbital Facility with Spacelab, it is like having a 
permanent Spacelab mission. 8.3% of the non-Russian ISS resources and 51% of 
the COF resources are for European use [Reference 4]. For Germany this sums 
to approximately a quarter of a Spacelab mission; however, it is on a permanent 
basis. This is an absolutely new boundary condition which makes the utilization 
valuable and calculable for industrial users. Large resources, inside the modules 
and outside on platforms, become available on the ISS, combined with 




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continuous access. This is a new quality which makes the ISS attractive for 
industrial utilization by the non-space industries. 

3. Promotion of Industrial Users of the ISS 

The main objective of the DLR project is to get in close contact with the 
non-space industries and to promote the ISS utilization there. The project 
systematically supports this new strategy for utilization by relevant investors. 
The marketing approach, which is part of the promotion project, is done outside 
the established space community. New multilateral contacts are established 
between government, organisations and companies; personal contacts are of the 
utmost importance. This new scenario leads to the development of internal 
evaluation processes among the addressed companies. We intend to stimulate 
an open and positive platform for decisions which may become relevant for 
participation in future space experiments. In parallel space solutions for 
terrestrial research activities will be outlined and brought to the prospective 
customer. The main contractor for this project is the German consulting 
company Kesberg, Biitfering und Partner. 

The promotion project has to proceed slowly and step by step. We have to 
take into account still developing boundary conditions and must be very 
sensitive to the reactions of potential new users, creating moderate expectation 
levels, and act as a service provider. Because of past unsuccessful approaches to 
intensify industrial participation under poor access conditions, there are old 
prejudices against space flight participation. Although the boundary conditions 
are now more favourable, people do not know enough because the information 
is not transparent enough for them. 

The DLR promotion project consists of the following major elements: 

• Information Service ISS, including a quarterly ISS Newsletter and a 
dedicated Internet home page (www.raumstation.dlr.de) 

• Workshops organised by DLR, for industries and their associations 

• Working Group Innovation ISS, an experts' forum and evaluation group 

• Information services for the associations of industry and Chambers of 
Commerce. 

Besides this, several other activities like participation in exhibitions, 
conferences and intensive communication with potential participants from non- 
space industries contribute to this project which is performing successfully. The 
project is in very close contact with the German space industry, to exchange 
information about their own activities of market preparation for industrial 
users. This leads to an optimised effort within Germany. 




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4. Other Support to German Industrial Users 

Besides this promotion project Germany supports at the present time two 
industrial users participating in the early external utilization of the ISS, and 
provides existing experiment hardware and facilities for use by industry. 

4.1 Industrial Payloads for Early External ISS Utilization 

Among the German contributions for the early external utilization of the 
ISS during the timeframe 2002 - 2004 are two payloads which are already 
mainly financed by industrial users. 

Global Transmission System (GTS). This is a joint project between the 
German watch company Fortis, the car maker Daimler Benz and the University 
of Stuttgart. The intention is to provide a space-borne time signal for wrist 
watches with an antenna in the bracelet. Emitted via the Space Station, this 
signal will be available to 95% of the world's population. This is an advantage 
over the present radio technology, which is based on a long wave radio 
transmission, restricted to a 2000 km radius around the transmission source 
near Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Besides the time signal the project opens 
possibilities for world wide paging, theft protection of cars, credit cards and 
more. This experiment is preparing for new industrial applications using space 
as a means to provide a service on the ground. 

High Temperature Superconductor Demonstrator for Communication 
Satellites (HTSC). The achievements of this technology lie in the 
miniaturization of key components in microwave signal amplifiers without loss 
of quality and reliability. These components, e.g. multiplexers and filters, 
operated at a high temperature superconducting state, will reduce mass and 
volume of space operated components and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. 
This experiment increases the product acceptance by system customers, 
prepares the market and improves the competitiveness of the component 
provider. 

4.2 Availability of Existing Payloads for Industrial Utilization 

Some other already existing space instrumentation is now being made 
available for industrial utilization approaches by several space industry 
enterprises. The commercial activities are supported by the agency in such a 
way that the suitable facilities are offered for use by industry for a nominal fee. 

The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS), which was 
originally developed by OHB-System under contract from the German Space 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Agency, is part of the Memorandum of Understanding between OHB and 
SPACEHAB jointly to provide commercial life science spaceflight services on 
the Space Shuttle and the ISS [Reference 5]. 

The Commercial Protein Crystallization Facility (CPCF), originally 
developed by DASA, has been flown successfully in 1998 within the framework 
of an industrial experiment on the Space Shuttle and it is now anticipated to 
refly some of the 1998 experiments, providing a longer crystallization time. The 
high interest of the users is documented by their strong financial contribution. 
Only the provision of the flight opportunity and the mission costs is requested. 

4.3 Classic Networking Combines Basic , Applied and Industrial Research 

Besides these new approaches Germany continues to work on the classic 
network projects. On the one hand we have several national networks in the 
fields of materials science and life science. Other projects have been established 
at the European level by ESA, so called topical teams [Reference 6], or by the 
EU, the well known example of ISPRAM (In-situ Processing of Aluminum 
Matrix Composites). All of these projects are conducted with strong German 
participation. 

5. Access Conditions and Requirements for German Industrial Users 

The new user community for industrial /commercial utilization needs 
access conditions strongly differing from the purely scientific approach. Peer 
reviews are no longer a means to fulfill confidentiality requirements. Research 
results must be exclusively reserved for the investigating company. Other 
important criteria are reliable schedule and precise cost information, and the 
possibility for access within a very short time. These requirements are derived 
from the experience gained in some first industrial experiments and have been 
summarized at the European level by EUROSPACE [Reference 7]. With this 
information the potential user can calculate his risk in participating in a space 
experiment. Last but not least, the safety processes must be performed in a 
confidential manner, not disclosing experiment relevant information but still 
fulfilling necessary safety standards. During the ongoing preparations of the 
first industrial utilization projects, these conditions are evaluated and 
successfully applied. 

Industrial proposals should be forwarded via the national space agencies 
and national evaluation criteria should apply. A special selection process has to 
be established to consider the specific industrial aspects and to assure, 
definitely, the required confidentiality. Priorities have to take into account the 
value adding and market potential of the individual proposal. The services 




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which need to be given to industrial/commercial users will be provided first by 
already existing user support centres like Microgravity User Support Centre 
(MUSC), Microgravity Advanced Research and Support (MARS), Centre of 
Assistance for the Development of Microgravity and for Operations in Space 
(CADMOS), etc., from the former Spacelab/Mir era. New commercial service 
providers are growing, e.g. BEOS in Bremen. This is a new quality of service, 
where government is no longer the only customer. In Germany 
industrial/commercial users should contact DLR first; they will then get in 
contact with the relevant specialists for further advice and support, pending on 
the individual demands of the experiment. 

For the time being we are in a promotion phase for ISS utilization. Thus the 
mission itself will be supplied without charge during the next years. Users are 
expected to take significant financial risk only for their own experiment 
activities on the ground; funding, e.g. via DLR, other national institutions or 
European Union is anticipated. It is clearly understood that during the next few 
years a funding component is mandatory to prepare the new market place in 
space. 

6. Successes in the Past, Today and in the Future 

Even with relatively counterproductive boundary conditions of the past 
some important and promising results for industrial enterprises could be 
achieved. Examples are an eye pressure measuring device, solidification of 
aluminum alloys used by Audi and Airbus, bearings for engines, robotics 
software and sensors, and protein crystallization. 

The following examples of identified research topics for ongoing and 
future work give an idea of the broad potential behind industrial research in 
space: combustion processes, phase transitions in fluids, compound materials, 
casting and directional solidification, undercooling, amorphous solidification 
and glasses, thermophysical properties, crystallization of semiconductors and 
proteins, aerosols, colloids, and growth of three-dimensional tissue. 

The current terrestrial research topics like health, biotechnology, 
environment, mobility and new materials are well met by the above key words. 
The potential benefits of the new research opportunities on the ISS have been 
clearly understood during the first discussions with non-space industry. 
Although the number of direct meetings with these potential new users was 
limited because of the recent start of the promotion project (autumn 1998), we 
have experienced a very positive resonance. Industry is open to listen to the 
offer and is requesting more information regarding their individual research 
topics. This service is provided to them within the infrastructure of the project. 




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7. Conclusions and Outlook 

The access conditions have to be defined to comply with the needs of 
industrial and commercial users. Germany acts according to the above 
mentioned requirements within the relevant ESA boards. On a clear and 
transparent basis industry is expected to make the best use of the new large 
scale research facility in space, on the same foundation as similar facilities on 
the ground. Potential and promising research fields have been identified in the 
framework of analysis and discussion together with industry. Even with the 
rare access occasions of the past and today, the first successful experiments for 
industrial/commercial users were performed. It is our conviction that we will 
experience a growing market in the future. 

References 

1. European Space Agency: Draft Declaration on the European Participation in the 
International Space Station Exploitation Programme, ESA/PB-MS(99)8, March 5, 
1999 

2. European Space Agency: Programme Proposal for the European Participation in 
the Exploitation of the International Space Station, ESA/PB-MS(99)7,rev.l, March 
23, 1999 

3. European Space Agency: The International Space Station, A Tool For Industrial 
Research, ESA BR-136, October 1998 

4. European Space Agency: The International Space Station, A Guide For European 
Users, ESA BR-137, February 1999 

5. OHB-System GMBH and SPACEHAB, Inc.: OHB and SPACEHAB agree to 
develop commercial experiment facility for the ISS, 
http://www.spacehab.com/press/99_03_31.htm, April 13, 1999 

6. European Space Agency: Approval of the Topical Teams in Physical Sciences, 
ESA/PB-MG(96)3, February 1999 

7. EUROSPACE Report: Industrial Utilisation of the ISS by European Space Industry, 
January 1999 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



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Commercial Management for the Space Station: 
Making the ISS More Accessible to All 

G. Inoue 1 , Inmarsat Ltd., 99 City Road, London, EC1Y 1 AX, UK 
e-mail: Detto@aol.com 



J. Maroothynaden, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, UK 



e-mail: j.maroothynaden@ic.ac.uk 



Abstract 

The International Space Station represents a remarkable milestone: if managed 
correctly, it has the potential of becoming the first truly global marketplace, one set 
above all national borders. Yet, contrary to its name, the ISS is currently far from being 
international. Under current agreements, it is, in fact, only accessible through the 
national space agencies of a select group of participating nations. 

In this paper, an innovative concept is suggested where the use of the ISS is 
managed in a fair and efficient manner, allowing not only the ISS participating nations 
but all users, including developing nations and commercial companies, to benefit from 
use of this international orbiting station. The proposal is based upon the creation of a 
'quasi-IGO', whose main business would be to run and manage efficiently the 
allocation of Space Station resources to potential users. The company would be set up 
by a consortium of international businesses and would act as a single point contact 
between the end user customers and the national space agencies of the ISS participating 
nations. The Company would also offer other services. 

A concept of a "participation fee" is introduced in the paper, whereby a fee is 
collected from all parties wishing to send payloads to the ISS, except from the initial 
consortium of founding companies. The collected funds are used to subsidise 
experiments from educational users and those from the developing countries, thereby 
making the Space Station more accessible to all. In addition to the fees, users are also 
subject to a charge for each payload or experiment they wish to send, which would 
vary according to the launch ana operation costs, and the amount of resources required 
aboard the station. As a conclusion, the current trend of commercial businesses being 
encouraged to access space without having recourse to public funds is mentioned, ana 
the potentially attractive implications which this has on the proposed venture is 
explained. 

1. The International Space Station 

The International Space Station (ISS) will be the most technically advanced, 
permanently inhabited man-made structure to orbit the Earth. Its construction 
has been achieved through Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA) between 7 
national partners (United States, Russia, Canada, Japan, ESA, Italy 2 and Brazil) 
resulting in the design, manufacture and delivery of various flight components 



1 George Inoue currently works as a finance officer at Inmarsat Ltd. The views presented 
in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect those of the organisation. 

2 Although part of the European partner, Italy is providing the American designed 
temporary module - ASI Multi Purpose Logistics Module. 

163 



G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 163 - 174 . 
© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



and associated ground support elements [References 1,2]. The US National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently leading the ISS 
development and implementation program by providing the main elements and 
modules, in conjunction with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). 

2. Utilisation of the International Space Station 

2.1 Users 

Potential uses of the ISS may be characterised into 4 distinct types - 
academic, industrial, media and educational. Together they cater for a wide 
range of applications (Table 1). 

Academic uses may also be combined with industrial users via research 
collaborations, where the emphasis is on the development/qualification of 
hardware and products for commercial gain (i.e. pharmaceuticals, or electronic 
chips through microgravity research). Media and educational utilisation use 
spaceflight in the form of films, educational programs, advertising and 
exhibitions to educate or entertain the public. Commercial emphasis is 
exhibited by media utilisation due to advertisements, product placements and 
selling educational material. 



Applications 


Academic 


Industrial 


Media 


Education 


Natural sciences 


X 








Engineering 


X 


X 






Manufacturing 


X 


X 






Instrumentation/detection 


X 


X 






On-orbit crew utilities 


X 


X 






Remote Sensing 


X 


X 






Test bed / spaceflight qualification 


X 


X 






Education 


X 






X 


Entertainment 


X 


X 




X 



Table 1. Current spaceflight utilisation 



2.2 Getting Access to Space 

Currently, all potential users are required to undergo a mechanism 
consisting of proposal submission, evaluation and selection in order to get 
access to space. The stages involved in the experiment proposal selection are 
usually defined by the respective agencies of each partner nation but are 
presented here in their general form (Table 2). There are 7 stages that may be 
divided into three phases: initial, core and final. 













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In the initial phase, an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) is issued by 
the respective space agency, and proposals for this are collected from potential 
users. Industrial users have the option of lay-passing" the time consuming AO 
stage by paying a participation fee, but are still mandated to go through the core 
selection stage. The core selection phase is also time consuming, consisting of a 
review by peer panels on the scientific and technical merit of the proposal. 
Once the proposal is accepted as technically suitable for flight, it is reviewed 
again to determine if it is relevant to the research and development programs of 
the various space agencies. 



Stages 






Media 


General Public 


Time 


Agency announcement (AO) 


X 




X 


X 


3 month 


Proposal submission 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Scientific and technical 


X 


X 


X 


X 


5 


merit evaluation 
Assessment of technical 


X 


X 


X 


X 


months 


feasibility 












Review of relevance 


X 


X 


X 


X 
















Ground based R&D 


X 


X 




X 


> 4 years 


Flight 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Post-flight 


X 


X 


X 


X 





Table 2. Current proposal selection procedure 



As can be seen in Table 2, the time from proposal submission to flight is 
currently very long (greater than 4 years). This is due to the ground based R&D 
phase where the proposal is transformed from a paper concept to flight 
hardware and protocols. This time lag may be reduced (by 1 or 2 years) by 
industrial and media users who often use 'off the shelf' space-qualified 
products in the experiment designs. 

2.3 Who has Access? 

The United States and Russia currently have the most regular and reliable 
fleet of launchers to access orbiting platforms. Through the IGAs, NASA and 
the RSA allocate a number of flight opportunities, which are then bartered for 
by the partner states. The flight opportunities are then advertised via AOs to 
nationals stipulated by the advertising partner agency. It is then up to the 
partner agency to allocate flight opportunities to other, non-participating 
nations, depending on their levels of contributions to that agency. 

























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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



2.4 Problems with the Current System 

According to the IGA, NASA has the lead role in the ISS utilisation 
program. The IGA require the amount of utilisation, operation and 
management controls delegated to each partner nation to be proportional to 
their contribution levels. In addition to this, partners are fully responsible for 
maintaining and developing their own ISS elements, and the common ISS 
operational costs are to be spread amongst them. (For example, ESA has been 
assigned 51% usage of its own Columbus module and 8.3% usage of ISS on- 
orbit utilisation resources once the ISS is fully operational [Reference 1].) 

The resultant effect is that, for the first few years, the United States will 
have the majority share of ISS resources, and partner payloads may not be 
flown until at least 2001. This means that, whilst the partners are contributing 
to the ISS, their experiments and crew members will not be able to reap the 
benefits until around 2003, when it is expected partner payloads will be fully 
integrated within the Space Station [Reference 2]. 

Another major problem is the political influence in the experiment selection 
procedure (which has to go through national space agencies). This inhibits a 
number of users, especially commercial, from having their proposals selected 
for flight due to the nature of the payloads. Furthermore, these space agencies 
would be more inclined to approve politically attractive payloads that are of an 
educational or scientific nature, for example, as they are more in line with the 
public perception of what national space agencies should be doing. This 
political aspect of the agencies cannot be avoided, as they are essentially 
government organisations, and have to account for their budgets to taxpayers. 

A possible solution is proposed to ease this process and allow easier, and 
timely, access to space, both of which are fundamentally important if we are to 
increase the use of the ISS by commercial users. 

3. Solution: A Commercial Company to Manage Commercial ISS Payloads 

The majority of problems mentioned in the previous section may be 
eliminated by having a commercial company act as a "manager" 3 of commercial 
proposals for the ISS. 

The main service provided by the Company is to act as an international 
single point of contact to allow all user"s (Table 3), irrespective of nationality, to 



3 The Company will only manage payload volume onboard ISS that has been allocated 
for commercial purposes only. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



167 



benefit from easy access to the International Space Station for their payloads. 
To do this, the Company is to provide all the services that may be required 
when sending payloads to the ISS. These are explained in the following 
sections. 



Established Applications 


New/Imaginative Applications 


Natural sciences 
Engineering 
Manufacturing 
Instrumentation/detection 
On-orbit crew utilities 
Remote sensing 

Test bed / spaceflight qualification 

Education 

Entertainment 


Crew training 

Mission operations (ground and in-flight) 

Repair and maintenance (ground and in-flight) 

Crew and cargo delivery /return systems 

Experiment design support 

Tourism 

Free flyers 

Communications 

Transportation device development 
Technology development 



Table 3. Current and potential flight user applications for ISS 



3.1 Services Provided by the Company 

Management of payload proposals. The main service provided by the 
Company is to manage commercial proposals of ISS payloads. The process of 
screening proposed payloads is extremely complicated and is briefly dealt with 
in this paper. The first step involves the separation between payloads whose 
owners are prepared to pay a premium in exchange for a swifter launch, and 
those who would prefer a cheaper launch, despite longer waits. Secondly, the 
proposal would go through the techical feasibility check process (Table 2). The 
third step would be to collect similar payloads and try to match them onto a 
single mission. 

In addition, the Company would also be responsible for ensuring that the 
various safety, import/export regulations for the launch vehicle state are strictly 
adhered to by the payloads, prior to the shipping to the launch site. 

ISS resource management. The Company would be responsible for 
ensuring that the required resources onboard the ISS are available. This would 
be mostly done though negotiations with the participating nations, by 
purchasing ISS volume through the respective module owners, and either re- 
selling or leasing it out to the proposal managers. The idea is that the Company 
would have more weight in negotiations with participating nations to acquire 









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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



the resources than individual users (through professional contacts and frequent 
dealings). 

Specialist advice / Consultant services. Another service to be provided by 
the company involves giving specialist advice on the various international 
regulations concerning the import/export of high-tech payloads, radio 
frequency issues, and intellectual property issues on board the ISS, among 
others. In order to provide such services, the Company would strive to employ 
experienced consultants in relevant fields, in addition to having special contacts 
within the various organisations (such as NASA, US Government) where advice 
may be obtained directly from the policy makers. 

The Company is also to offer assistance to users (especially those from the 
developing nations) to identify additional sources of potential funding. 

Competitive insurance premiums. The Company may also offer 
competitive premiums for insuring payloads through negotiations with global 
insurance houses, and various space agencies on behalf of the users. Once 
established, the Company may also act as an 'insurance broker', offering users a 
choice of services from favourable insurance companies. 

Cheaper launch prices. The Company may be in a position to negotiate 
mass bookings of launch space aboard a portfolio of launch vehicles. By 
booking in bulk, cheaper launch prices may be negotiated. Also, similar 
payloads will be combined and flown on dedicated missions. These measures 
will result in lower prices for the user. 

3.2 Structure of the Company 

In-order to realise this company, we propose a unique 2-stage process. The 
first is to create an amalgam of an Intergovernmental Organisation (IGO) and a 
commercial corporation to enable the creation of the Company. The second 
stage is to transform the 'quasi - IGO' to a profit making commercial company, 
independent from poltical influences. 

IGOs and their structures. Historically IGOs were mainly created in 
situations where the participation and backing of a number of governments was 
necessary to allow the project or system in question to operate. One good 
example of this is in the satellite telecommunications industry where a number 
of IGOs were created in the 1970’s. By having a number of governments 
participate in and fund the IGO, the business and financial risks to each 
individual nation were decreased, whilst at the same time allowing the nations 
to benefit from the potentials offered by satellite based telecommunications. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



169 



The structures of the various intergovernmental organisations typically 
consist of a number of bodies, usually representing the organisation workforce, 
the participating governments and the companies with vested interests. The 
structure of one such IGO, the International Mobile Satellite Organisation 
(INMARSAT) is a good example (for more information, refer to Reference 3.) 

Problems with the IGO structure. One of the main drawbacks of the IGO 
structure is in its inability to adapt quickly to new business demands to remain 
competitive. As a result, it is now widely recognised that such organisational 
structures may only be effective as long as there are no commercial competitors 
providing similar services. 

In the case of the satellite telecommunications industry, the market has 
developed enough for the private sector to become more willing to bear the 
risks of starting up private satellite based ventures. As such, a number of 
commercial companies offering similar services have been created since the 
advent of the IGOs. These companies, being commercial, are better able to 
adapt to the changing market demands than the intergovernmental 
organisations, and over the years these companies have been 'eating away' at 
the market, previously dominated by the IGOs. As such, a number of IGOs have 
recently announced their intent to dissolve and privatise into commercial 
entities in order to remain competitive - Eutelsat, Intelsat [References 4, 5], and 
one, Inmarsat, has recently become the first IGO successfully to undergo 
privatisation on April 15, 1999. 

Quasi-IGO: The first stage for the proposed company. For our proposed 
company, it is clear that the market demand for such services as management of 
ISS payloads has not yet developed. It is also clear that no single government or 
private entity is prepared to bear the risk of providing these services. It may 
therefore be said that the situation is similar to the conditions where IGOs were 
initially created, and hence one may be tempted to propose an IGO structure for 
the Company. However, to avoid the problems facing IGOs once the market 
develops, it is suggested that a new, innovative organisation be created for this 
Company. 

A 'quasi-IGO' structure consisting of a consortium of governmental 
agencies, corporate entities and other organisations that is operated and 
managed by a board of directors, typical of a private commercial company, is 
proposed. This consortium will most likely be composed of entities which stand 
to make frequent use of the company's services due to the various privileges 
and concessions granted to them, once the company becomes operational. 
Examples of entities that might be interested in forming the consortium include 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



NASA and ESA as governmental agencies, large pharmaceutical companies for 
corporate entities, and universities and research institutions. 

Implementation of 'quasi - IGO'. The consortium is to be responsible for 
providing the initial financing to set-up and operate the Company, whilst the 
board of directors will be responsible for the daily operation of the Company. 
The initial board of directors of the new Company is to be elected by the 
consortium, and most probably be representative of the investment share of 
each consortium entity, very similar to an IGO. 

As the Company is to be fully commercial, it must be stressed that ALL 
management decisions regarding its operation remain with the company board 
of directors, and NOT the consortium. They will get a fair return on their 
investment through a waiver of participation fees, and through other benefits as 
described in the following sections. This is essential to allow the Company's 
board of directors to act in the best interest of the company, and not of that of 
the consortium. Additionally, by giving complete management autonomy to 
the board, the Company will effectively be able to select the ISS payloads 
impartially without prejudice or political preference to payloads originating 
from member states of the consortium. 

Commercial company: The second stage. As the market develops and 
private industry begins to warm up to the high potentials presented by the ISS, 
the Company may be able to secure additional funding through the usual 
means of issuing debt and, at the appropriate time, floating on the stock 
markets through an IPO (Initial Public Offering). Once this is achieved, the role 
of the consortium as financiers of the venture will change, but they will still 
retain their various benefits as founding members. As per the norm, the 
shareholder will then be able to elect new members to the board of directors in 
the usual corporate manner. 

Hence, the proposed 2-stage structure would allow the company to have a 
truly international personality, without having any governmental involvement, 
thereby allowing the company to maintain its competitive edge, and also 
facilitating the payload selection process in a truly impartial manner. 

3.3 Participation Fee 

All users wishing to send a payload to the ISS through the company will be 
required to pay a 'participation fee'. This is somewhat akin to the ESA 
membership structure [Reference 6]. This fee will reflect the individual usage of 
the company's services and is to be levied on all users, except 'special' 
members, and those members of the consortium. (As it is most likely that 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



171 



members of the consortium are the highest users of the services provided by the 
company, they will stand to benefit the most from this concession of the 
participation fee.) The main reason for the participation fee is to cover various 
operational costs for the Company, as well as to provide for a mechanism to 
enable partial funding of payloads from developing nations and other, non- 
profit organisations, by the Company. It is hoped that such a policy would not 
only allow for truly global access to the ISS, but also help justify to 
governmental agencies that the Company is worth the investment. 

A tiered charging system. As mentioned previously, the fee should be 
levied to each participant reflecting the various levels of ISS utilisation, on a 
yearly basis. For regular ISS users (i.e. at least one flight every three years), the 
nominal annual participation fee would be appropriate. This nominal fee is to 
be paid every year, irrespective of whether a payload is scheduled for launch in 
that year or not. 

For "one-off" or irregular users, the participation fee would be 
correspondingly higher than the nominal fee, yet will only be applicable to the 
calendar year in which the payload is to be considered for launch. This "higher 
rate" will be priced in such a way as to make it more economical for regular 
users to continue paying for the nominal rate on a yearly basis, as long as on 
average they intend to send a payload into space once every three years. 

It is hoped that this participation fee structure would avoid the problem of 
"one-off" or irregular users benefiting unfairly from the annual fees paid by the 
regular users. 

Special concessions. A specially reduced participation fee would be 
offered to non-profit organisations such as universities and to developing 
nations. This would act as an incentive to send payloads to ISS. For academic 
institutions, a condition for the discounted fee is that the results obtained by the 
ISS flown experiments are made publicly available to all participating members 
(including the consortium). The level of concession would vary on a case-by- 
case basis, and would depend on the amount of pooled funds available from the 
participation fees paid by others. 

3.4. Pricing Issues 

The participation fee described in the previous section does not include 
any payload management, launch or insurance costs. The cost for each payload 
is to be evaluated individually, and this will depend on a number of factors. 
These include: 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



• Placement within mission depending on the complexity of the payload. 
Standard, and common, payloads (such as telecommunications) will 
obviously be easier to place within similar missions, and hence would incur 
less administrative cost than 'unusual' payloads 

• The timeline needed for payload launch. The longer the time to launch, the 
lower the cost. This is because, with additional time, the company will be 
more able to wait for an appropriate mission with which to include the 
payload 

• Payloads requiring 'extra care', such as cryogenic cooling, or extra testing 
and verification to ensure flight safety, would incur extra charges 
accordingly 

• Payload dimensions. This is because the physical size and weight of the 
payload would play a crucial role in determining the launch vehicle and 
whether or not it is possible to include it as a 'piggy-back' launch with 
other payloads 

• Selection of the launch vehicle for their payloads, from a list provided to 
them by the Company including the choice of 'piggy-back' rides or 
dedicated launches; insurance premiums; import/export licences and 
additional legal requirements. 

3.5 Financing of Member Payloads 

To remove bias, it is suggested that ALL payloads should be priced using 
the same methods, irrespective of the member status. Once the costs have been 
determined, negotiations should then take place to determine the amount of 
financing which the member payload should receive, depending on its status 
(i.e. from developing nation, or non-profit organisation) and needs. The size of 
the fund available at that time should also be considered. As previously 
mentioned, this fund is to be gathered from the participation fees and from 
other sponsorship plans. 

The Company is to provide minimal funding only, with the main emphasis 
being on helping the users to find external sources of funding though industrial 
and governmental contacts. 

3.6 Main Risks to the Company 

Market risks. The proposed Company is especially sensitive to market 
risks, as the main business of the Company does not yet have a developed 
market. Indeed, one may even consider the business to be more of a market 
'driver' rather than being market led. It is actually anticipated that the market 
demand for payload access aboard the ISS will develop further, once the 
company has been established. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



173 



The risks are best reduced through extensive market research to establish 
accurate forecast models to ensure that the demand for such services, and the 
prices which the market is willing to tolerate, are properly determined and 
accounted for. Recent studies have concluded that the market for such services 
will indeed flourish, especially from the private sector [Reference 7]. 

Recent legislation passed by the US Congress mandating NASA to use 
commercial services for space activities, wherever possible, has also helped to 
reduce concerns over the development of this market [References 8, 9, 10]. Such 
legislation would also ensure that ISS payload customers applying for access via 
NASA would more likely be transferred back to the proposed commercial 
Company by the agency. Alternatively, payloads may still be managed by 
NASA, but the proposed Company would act as a subcontractor to NASA. 

Financial risks. Financial risks are a major hurdle for the Company. The 
initial financial requirements are quite substantial, but not unreasonable, 
especially compared to the amount of funding raised by other "start-up" 
ventures in the satellite telecommunications industry [References 11]. Whilst the 
business case for mobile satellite communications ventures may probably be 
more obvious to investors than that of payload access aboard the ISS, the 
inherent business and financial risks are very similar. Both are very high risk, 
and both aim to address a new market, one that has yet to be developed. As 
these mobile satellite ventures have managed to secure the funding from the 
banks and private investors, it may be reasonable to assume that the proposed 
Company should be able to manage the same. 

Legal risks. Legal risks are also significant. The ISS has no legal precedent. 
It is the first time that the world has created an orbiting platform, composed of 
modules manufactured by different nations. To allow commercial payloads 
from foreign nations to reside and operate in these modules would indeed raise 
interesting legal issues. Furthermore, significant legal developments are also 
required to allow private companies to send and manage ISS payloads. One of 
the main purposes of including governmental agencies such as NASA and ESA 
in the initial consortium was to ensure that, through their active involvement, 
governments would be more inclined to push for legislation reforms, to 
facilitate the implementation and operations of the Company. 

4. Conclusion 

The International Space Station presents a unique opportunity for global 
users to benefit from having an orbiting platform to host payloads over long 
periods for various purposes. Due mostly to political issues, the current 
procedure for gaining access to the Space Station is not very favourable to users. 




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especially for those not part of the ISS participating nations. In order to 
overcome these problems, an innovative concept has been proposed in this 
paper, where a private commercial Company is to run and manage the payload 
selection procedure, and all other phases including up to launch of the payloads 
to the ISS. The proposed Company faces a number of business and financial 
risks, the main one being the possibility that the market for such services 
(providing easy access to the ISS) fails to develop swiftly enough. However, 
despite the risks, it has been concluded that the potential benefits from the 
venture would be greater, making the investment worthwhile. In addition, 
recently passed legislation in the US has paved the way in allowing such 
commercial space activities to develop, and it is anticipated that other space- 
faring nations will soon follow suit in implementing similar legislation. 

It should be noted that, whilst there are a large number of political, 
financial and business hurdles to overcome in implementing the Company, the 
message is clear: if the ISS is to become a prime tool in promoting and 
developing commercial activities in space, the current system for ISS access will 
have to change. The proposed Company is an example of how to do this. 

References 

1. ESA Space Station Utlisation Division: The International Space Station - European 
Users Guide. Directorate of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, ESTEC, 
Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998 

2. Bartoe, J. D. F.: International Space Station - Programs and Research Prospectus , 
Presented at the Second European Symposium for the Utilisation of the ISS, Paris, 
ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, November 16, 1998 

3. Inmarsat Ltd.: Inmarsat Internet Site , <http://www.inmarsat.org>. Inmarsat, 
London, UK, April 4, 1999 

4. Eutelsat: Eutelsat Internet Site, <http://www.eutelsat.com>. Eutelsat, Paris, France. 
April 10, 1999 

5. Intelsat: International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation (Intelsat) Internet Site , 
<http://www.intelsat.int>. Intelsat, Washington D.C., United States, April 8, 1999 

6. ESTEC Public Relations Office: ESA. November 1995 

7. Personal notes of ISU Lectures by industry officials, January-February 1998 

8. NASA Act of 1999 (Introduced in House), HR. 1654 SEC.203 Commercial Space Goods 
and Services, <http://thomas.loc.gov>. May 2, 1999 

9. Commercial Space Competitiveness Act of 1999 (Introduced in House), HR. 1526, 
<http://thomas.loc.gov>. May 2, 1999 

10. Commercial Space Act of 1998 (Agreed by the House), H.RES.572, 
<http://thomas.loc.gov>. May 2, 1999 

11. Iridium: Iridium LEG. Internet Site, <http://www.iridium.com>. Iridium, Reston, 
VA, United States, April 20, 1999 




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A United Nations Module on ISS: A Study 

V. Lappas, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, Parc 
dTnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France 

e-mail: lappas@mss.isunet.edu 

Abstract 

In November 1998, the space community saw the beginning of a new era, the era 
of the International Space Station. It is an effort that materializes the effort of many 
nations to cooperate and to establish a permanent manned presence in space. But is this 
effort truly international, or rather multi-national? Are there any opportunities for truly 
international cooperation for the ISS? This paper tries to answer these questions by 
describing a new concept on how to bring vision, international cooperation and reality 
within the ISS framework. 

This idea involves using existing technologies /hardware on Mir to build an 
international environment on ISS under the umbrella of the United Nations. This will 
enable countries which are members of the UN, but which do not have direct, 
autonomous access to space (i.e. not major space powers) to utilize a proposed UN 
module for scientific research, space-related projects or experiments. In this paper, the 
relevant technical and political issues are addressed, resulting in a proposal involving 
more partners /participants on ISS. 

1. Introduction 

On the verge of the second Space Shuttle mission to the International Space 
Station (ISS), the space community has finally realized that in one way or 
another ISS is a reality. Even though ISS initially began as a one nation project 
(Freedom, USA), it eventually evolved to a Western multi-nation project 
including Japan, Europe and Canada. This plan changed after the end of the 
Cold War with the addition of Russia, giving ISS an international flavor. 

Many things have changed in space. Today, there is a renaissance in the 
space community in all areas. New launchers, new business ventures and more 
and more countries without previous experience are either getting (or planning 
to get) involved in space related activities. Although heavily and continuously 
criticized by all, ISS is the flagship of this renaissance in space. One of the most 
interesting aspects of ISS is the interest of a number of non-ISS partner countries 
to conduct research on ISS. 

2. New Cooperating Partners-Users on ISS 

There are many countries interested in becoming involved on the ISS. 
These countries members of the former Eastern Pact, gained useful experience 
on Salyut and Mir Space Stations. These countries, such as Bulgaria, Poland, 
Czech Republic and many others (e.g. India, Australia) had very interesting 
space programs and have accumulated much experience and expertise. Many of 

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G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station , 175 - 180 . 
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them also had flight opportunities to space as well. Thus it is natural that these 
countries are seeking cost effective avenues to become involved with ISS. There 
are also many other countries that have the potential of becoming cooperating 
states such as South Africa, Australia, Chile, China and Ukraine. But it is very 
difficult for all these countries, when more research and science have to be done 
with limited or decreasing national funds. 

Thus, an organization that would concentrate, analyze and materialize 
various proposals which could be made by these countries in the near future, in 
a cost effective manner, is needed. 

2.1 The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 
(UNCOPUOS) 

The General Assembly, in its resolution 37/90 of 10 December 1982, 
decided, upon the recommendation of the Second United Nations Conference 
on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE), that the 
United Nations Program on Space Applications, inter alia, should promote 
greater cooperation in space science and technology between developed and 
developing countries, as well as among developing countries [Reference 1]. 

The UNCOPUOS public outreach programs aim to support, develop and 
sustain the direct participation of developing countries in front-line activities, in 
a three-phase approach involving: 

• Basic space science education 

• Further development of locally (and regionally) identified research and 
educational facilities, such as networked modem astronomical 
observatories of moderate size 

• Direct access to facilities for front-line basic space science 

The UNCOPUOS outreach program provides an excellent platform to 
conduct international, multidisciplinary research on ISS between developing 
and non-developing countries. There are interesting examples from the 
UNICOPUOS outreach program that prove this point, such as the proposed 
World Space Observatory, the Sri Lanka Telescope Facility, the Central 
American Astronomical Observatory in Honduras, and many others [Reference 
2 ]. 

2.2 A United Nations Module on the International Space Station 

Although ambitious as a concept, the idea of developing countries as well 
as others being able to conduct space-related research on a facility in space is 




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too intriguing to ignore. What better facility could possibly exist than ISS to 
promote space science education, further develop research and provide access 
to a first-class, front-line facility? The advantages of a UN facility on ISS would 
be to: 

• Stimulate space related research in developing countries 

• Provide flight opportunities for countries which are members of the UN in 
cooperation with ISS partners 

• Promote greater cooperation in space science and technology between 
industrialized and developing countries, as well as among developing 
countries 

• Gain further public support for ISS 

• Accelerate ISS utilization 

• Have a truly international ISS 

• Complement, or become the space segment of, the proposed World Space 
Observatory 

• Stimulate the creation of a single, international coordination and decision 
making body for ISS operations and utilization, based on the contribution 
of each partner. 

Instead of having to build a costly new module US $ 300-400 million, the 
example of the Sri Lanka telescope could be used, where Japan donated the 
necessary equipment to Sri Lanka. It is proposed that just before the de-orbit of 
the Mir Space Station (whenever this might be planned) one of its existing 
modules could be transferred to ISS. 

The two possible candidates for a UN module from Mir would be the 
Krystall module and the newer Priroda module (see Fig. 1). The choice of which 
module to select would be based on the research to be conducted by the 
interested parties — Earth observations, or space science and materials science. 
Other factors affecting the choice are the technical characteristics of the modules 
and their age [Reference 3]. 

2.3 The Kristall Module 

The Former Soviet Union added the Krystall module to Mir in June 1990. 
The module contains experiment space inside for biological and materials 
science experiments. It also hosts solar panels (72m 2 total area) that provided up 
to 8.4 kW; these can be folded or unfolded as a function of electrical power 
requirements to generate power for Mir. A 360 A-hr NiCd battery system 
provides energy storage. The module also comes equipped with a special 
"androgynous docking mechanism" at the far end of the module. This 
mechanism is used for docking with the Space Shuttle. 




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Figure 1. Mir Space Station with Priroda and Krystall modules 
The instruments carried are as follows: 

• Krater 5, Optizon 1, CSK-l/Kristallizator semiconductor materials 
processing furnaces 

• Zona 2/3 materials processing furnaces 

• Glazar 2 UV telescope -cosmic radiation studies 

• Earth resources camera system-2 KFA-1000 film cameras 

• Svet plant cultivation unit 

• Mariya magnetic spectrometer 

• Marina gamma ray telescope 

• Buket gamma ray spectrometer 

• Granar astrophysics spectrometer 

• Ainur electrophoresis unit. 




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2.4 The Priroda Module 

The most recent addition to Mir, the Priroda ("Nature”) module, was launched 
in April 1996, completing the assembly of the Mir complex. The module 
carries Earth observing equipment as well as experiments and other equipment 
used in the joint American-Russian missions on Mir. There are several 
purposes for the Earth remote sensing mission of Priroda. It is designed to 
study the atmosphere and oceans, with an emphasis on pollution and other 
environmental impacts of human activities. It is also designed to conduct 
geological surveys that can be used to locate mineral resources and water 
reserves, and study the effects of erosion on crops and forests. It is also 
designed to receive and relay information from "emergency buoys" located in 
seismically active areas, around nuclear power plants, and other zones, as part 
of the Kentavr monitoring and warning system. 

The instruments aboard are as follows: 

• Ikar passive and active microwave polarization radiometers 

• Travers: 2 frequency SAR 

• Istok-1: 64 channel infrared radiometer for ocean research 

• Ozon M: spectrometer to measure ozone and aerosol concentrations 

• MOZ-Ozbor: 17 channel spectrometer to measure reflected solar radiation 

• MSU-SK: medium resolution MSU-E high resolution scanners 

• Centaur: Geophysical station interrogation 

• Alisar: lidar aerosol. 

2.5 Technical Issues 

The first two issues that arise with the idea of utilizing a Mir module for 
ISS are transportation and compatibility. For transportation, by utilizing a 
simple Hohmann combined plane change (assuming that both stations are at 
about the same inclination and waiting for their planes to coincide) from 350 km 
to 450 km, the AV required is in the range of 0.4 km/s. A modified Progress M 
would be able to perform such a task, as to transfer one of the modules to ISS. 
As for compatibility the Russian segment of ISS uses the same docking and 
interconnect techniques as in Mir. The modules already have solar arrays, 
which would be of degraded capability and a replacement of those would be 
necessary in the future. Another issue is where in the Russian segment one of 
these modules should be placed. Depending on the module, the docking 
position should be carefully selected in order to ensure there will be no 
obstacles to observe the Earth or space or, if the Krystall module is selected, to 
ensure that the Space Shuttle can dock to it. 




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3. Conclusions 

As in all space projects, the first issue that arises is that of cost. It is 
understandable that, in these times when the space community is trying to find 
ways to commercialize its projects, proposing a project with small commercial 
potential in an already very expensive project will be viewed with criticism 
even if there are ways to minimize costs (donation of module, transfer vehicle, 
shared costs between interested parties, rent facilities and space). It is, 
however, very compelling to see how such a project could become a truly 
international bridge of cooperation and of sustained development. ISS, from its 
early stages has shown to us that a new way of thinking is needed to be used in 
the technical, business and commercialization fields related to ISS. Maybe a 
United Nations initiative (module) might be able to stimulate all partners to 
think differently. It might also convince all partners to adapt a consolidated, 
international and interdisciplinary ISS strategy with input from all interested 
parties such as government, academia and industry that could also become the 
precursor to a unified and consolidated ISS coordination body that would 
include functions such as mission planning, utilization and operations. A useful 
parallel that could be used is that of the International Space University (ISU) 
and ISS. ISU has clearly proven that, no matter where people come from, what 
their colour or specific education is, as long as they strongly believe in the same 
goals and work hard, a lot can be achieved. ISS should provide the opportunity 
to all nations, whether they are space or non-space powers, developing or non- 
developing countries, to promote space science and technology, education and 
space business. Then, ISS would truly be the International Space Station. 

References 

1. Haubold, H.J.: Worldwide Development of Astronomy: The story of a decade of 
UN/ESA workshops on basic space science. Space Technology, Vol.18, pp. 149-156, 
1998 

2. United Nations, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: Report on the 
seventh United Nations /European Space Agency Workshop on basic space 
science: Small Astronomical Telescopes and Satellites in education and research, 
hosted by the Observatorio Astronomico De La Universidad Nacional Autonoma 
De Honduras, on behalf of the government of Honduras, Report number 
A/AC. 105/682, January, 1998 

3. NASA Shuttle-Mir Web: Phase I program, http://shuttle-mir.nasa.gov/ops/mir. 
May 5, 1999 




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Report on Panel Discussion 4 
Innovative Approaches to Legal and Regulatory Issues 

O. Tomofumi, R. Mittal, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc d'lnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: tomofumi@mss.isunet.edu, mittal@mss.isunet.edu 

Panel Chair: D. Rausch, NASA, USA 
Panel Members: 

F. Claasen, German Aerospace Center, DLR, Germany 
A. Eddy, CSA, Canada 
A. Farand, ESA 

J. Richardson, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, USA 

The first and main question proposed was: "would it be useful, in the 
current legal regime and political scenario, to use the UN system and its 
specialised agencies (like COPUOS, International Civil Aviation Organisation, 
etc.) to promote ISS commercialization further?" 

A. Farand: In the 1960’s and 70’s, the UN was in the forefront of making 
rules for activities in space. Then individual states took over from the UN. The 
nature of IGAs and other instruments is such that negotiations between 5 or 
more partners is difficult and would be even more difficult if more countries are 
involved through the UN system. But there is still the need for the UN to play a 
role. 



A. Eddy: The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is not averse to the UN 
promoting the commercialisation of the ISS. CSA has already been approached 
by many non partner countries for access to and use of the ISS, and looks 
forward to a very meaningful role to be played by the UN. 

F. Claasen: It is very difficult for ESA to reach a single opinion on behalf of 
its 15 members; how much more difficult it would be for all the countries to 
reach a consensus under the UN. Moreover, ESA is open to every country's 
participation in the ISS utilisation programme under the present IGA structure. 

J. Richardson: Our world is "idea rich"; under the UN, we can come up 
with many ideas and the partners can debate these and decide. 

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G. Haskell and M. Ry croft (eds.), International Space Station, 181 - 182 . 

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Another question was: "in the event of an ISS payload obtaining remote 
sensing data for military applications, would the ISS become a military target? 
And in that case would it be subject to the rules of war?" J. Richardson did not 
see any difference between the ISS and any other civilian place becoming a 
military target. A. Farand noted that the IGA requires the ISS to be used always 
for peaceful purposes. 

What do the panelists, as government agencies' representatives, expect 
from users in private industry? A. Eddy's answer was to "bring money". J. 
Richardson's view was that the public and private sectors have to work in 
tandem. 




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183 



Session 5 

Technical and Management Innovations for ISS 

Session Chair: 

M. Uhran, NASA, USA 




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185 



Commercial Development of the International Space 

Station 



M. L. Uhran, Space Station Utilization, National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, Code US, 300 E Street SW, Washington, DC, 20546-0001, USA 



e-mail: muhran@hq.nasa.gov 



Abstract 

The Commercial Space Act of 1998 was signed into law by President William 
Clinton on 21 October 1998 (Public Law 105-303). Section 101 of the Act addresses 
Commercialization of the Space Station and establishes the economic development of 
Earth orbital space as a priority goal of the space station, while encouraging tne fullest 
possible engagement of commercial providers and users in order to reduce government 
operating costs. The Act also requires NASA to submit to the Congress a series of 
reports delineating potential commercial opportunities, specific policies and initiatives 
to stimulate economic development, and an independent market study. 

In response to the law, NASA has produced a Commercial Development Plan for 
the International Space Station which proposes a range of actions to be undertaken in 
pursuit of the Legislative and Executive Branch objectives. These actions fall into three 
broad categories: (1) completion of an internal study on potential pathfinders for 
economic development, to be complemented by the independent external market study; 

(2) approval of an Organizational Work Instruction (OWI), under the auspices of the 
agency-wide ISO-9000 certification initiative, to establish a clearing house function at 
NASA headquarters for the dispositioning and auditing of commercial proposals; and 

(3) development of the concept for a Non-Government Organization (NGO) to manage 
utilization and economic development of the United States stake in the International 
Space Station. 

These actions are currently in the nascent stage; however, they are anticipated to 
grow in terms of their impact on space station utilization and operations as the 
assembly sequence and economic development plan progress. 



1. The International Space Station and Microgravity 

Just six months ago, the Russian Zarya spacecraft and the United States 
Unity node were successfully joined in orbit (Figure 1) to form the first stepping 
stone in the assembly of the International Space Station. Much like the Hubble 
Space Telescope, the International Space Station has taken twenty years to 
advance from concept to reality. I remember the time scale well, because I began 
planning for utilization of the space station in 1984, during the phase A study. I 
also intend to see the full assembly through to completion — about five years 
from now. 



185 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station, 185 - 194 . 
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Figure 1: Zarya-Unity in low Earth orbit 



Just as looking through the Hubble Space telescope has dramatically 
advanced our understanding of the cosmos, I am confident that the research to 
be performed in the space station laboratories, both inside and outside, will 
soon begin to expand our knowledge in basic biology, chemistry, physics, and 
engineering. 

The reason why I am so confident is because an understanding of the 
forces that drive motions is a fundamental step in unveiling the secrets of 
dynamic systems — both organic and inorganic. 

The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations form the basis for our current 
understanding of motions. Not only liquid and gaseous (fluid) systems, but also 
solids undergoing changes of state, are subject to the laws of motion. The force 
of gravity on unit mass, as readily apparent by the term "g", is pervasive in 
these analytical expressions (Figure 2). Whether it is the diffusion of 
biochemicals across a permeable membrane in living systems, or the dispersion 
of dopant atoms in the lattice structure of a solid state compound undergoing 
solidification, understanding the transfer of mass — motion — is the key to 
advancing our knowledge. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



187 




Fundamental Motion 

(Euler end Wavier Stakes Equation*) 



Lot-iil 

Inertia 


Convective 

Inertia 


Friction 


Equations 


Steady 

Motion 

LIT Tnutlcil] 
Cofluifcfcd as 
a surtx&Lun 

nodnas 


Slow Motion 


w/o friction 


grad (p + Pgz) = 0 


w/ friction 


- grad (p + Pgz) + ps^ = 0 


Irrotational 

Motion 


w/o friction 


grad (py 2 + p + Pg.z) = 0 
2 


Rotational 

Motion 


w/ friction 


grad (PV 2 + p + Pgz) = ■ pEcuri V) x V + ps^ 
2 


Unsteady 

Motion 


Slow Motion 


w/o friction 


P dV+ grad (p +Pgz) = 0 

dr 


w/ friction 


P dV + grad(p + Pgz) ■ ps^V = 0 

dt 


Irrotational 

Motion 


w/o friction 


P dV + grad(Pi£ 2 + p + Pgz) = 0 
dt 2 


Rotational 
Motion 


w/o friction 


grad (Pi£ 2 + p + pgz) +P dli + Ptcurl V) x V = 0 
2 d! 



U'lhtr, II, U,. (edlLorh. Flubd Kcltrittnd KcI*k< In Kjiact, SfirtH jjKWrlufc, IDM7 



Figure 2: Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, with p pressure, p density, g acceleration 
due to gravity, z height, V velocity, and p coefficient of viscosity 

The microgravity environment in a space station orbiting the Earth 
represents a scientific frontier as exciting to researchers entering the 21st 
century as the vacuum environment was to investigators early in this century. 
Their work ultimately led from vacuum tubes to transistors and then to the 
large-scale, high-speed integrated circuits that drive contemporary technology. 
Studying the role of gravity in the fundamental equations of motion offers the 
prospect of not only improving our understanding of the forces of motion at the 
molecular level, but also, and more importantly, learning to control those forces. 

Some have argued that the past fifteen years of Space Shuttle laboratory 
sorties to low Earth orbit have not yielded products of economic value. But 
closer study will reveal that during this period less than nine months of actual 
on-orbit research time have accrued. This, of course, leads me to one of the 
primary reasons why we are building a permanently crewed space station. It 
will operate continuously, for many years, with unprecedented laboratory 
capabilities. 

Since the inception of the space station program, there has been an ongoing 
debate regarding the mission. Here, I suggest a resolution of that debate. The 
station has both intangible and tangible missions. 





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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



The intangible include global cooperation, the inspiration of our children to 
pursue excellence in science and technology, and, of course, the intrinsic human 
quest to explore. The more tangible missions encompass scientific research, 
technological advance, and economic development. It is this mission in 
economic development which leads to the subject of this paper. 

2. NASA's Commercial Development Plan for the ISS 

In November 1998, a significant convergence of events (see Figure 3) took 
place. The long awaited first element launch (FEL) milestone for the space 
station was finally achieved. The program entered its operational era — over the 
the next twenty years the largest civilian engineering project ever undertaken 
will play out in homes, classrooms, offices and industrial sites around the 
world. 




1. 1998 Commercial Space Act (Public Law 105-303) 
passed by Congress and signed by President. 

2. NASA “ Commercial Development Plan for the 
International Space Station” approved and released. 

3. International Space Station First Element Launch 
(FEL) milestone successfully achieved. 



Figure 3: November 1998 Convergence of Events 



The 105th Congress of the United States also passed, and the President 
signed into law, the Commercial Space Act of 1998. This legislation has created 
the impetus for a bold new initiative in the economic development of space, 
with the space station as a cornerstone. Also, in concert with the Commercial 
Space Act, NASA released a Commercial Development Plan for the 
International Space Station. This plan does not obviate the missions in scientific 
research or technological advance, but, for the first time, articulates a vision and 
a specific strategy for the third component — economic development. In all 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



189 



respects this mission — a mission for the private sector — follows logically and 
directly from the NASA missions in applied science and basic technology. 

The NASA plan (Figure 4) has been throughly reviewed and formally 
approved by the Associate Adminstrators for Space Flight and for Life and 
Microgravity Sciences. It will shortly be submitted to the Congress by the NASA 
Administrator in response to specific provisions of the Commercial Space Act. 




Major Elements 
* Pathfinder Strategy 



• Organizational Work 
Instruction 



• Non-Government 
Organization 



http://www.hq.nasa.gov/offiee/codez/policy .html 



Figure 4: NASA's Commercial Development Flan for the ISS 



There are three major elements of the Commercial Development Plan for 
the International Space Station; the plan is built upon a pathfinder strategy 
(Figure 5). The time has come to leave behind generalizations and hypothetical 
circumstances, and turn instead to specific business proposals. Over the years 
many barriers to private investment have been discussed, debated and 
dismissed, to no avail. The only pragmatic way to break down these barriers is 
to identify, in detail, specific privately sponsored enterprises - and then to use 
these enterprises as test cases to drive change in government policies, practices 
and procedures. 




190 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 




• Internal study identified potential commercial 



opportunities across ISS scope: 

3 utilization 
3 sustaining operations 
3 evolutionary development 

* External market assessment complete. 

• External audit of costs complete. 



Pathfinders will be used to break down barriers 
and open the path for economic expansion* 



Figure 5: NASA's strategy is to break down barriers to private investment and 

enterprises aboard the ISS 



NASA has completed an internal study of potential pathfinder areas for 
commercial development. The study suggests that business opportunities may 
exist across the entire spectrum of the International Space Station program: 
utilization, operations and future developments. In the area of utilization, the 
station offers distinct comparative advantages for the development of advanced 
engineering technologies - components and subsystems can be tested and 
modified in real time without the expense, schedule, or risk of multiple 
launches. New sensors and detectors are ready examples. 

In the area of operations, commercially provided services may represent 
cost savings, or cost avoidances, in comparison to government owned and 
operated systems. New transportation vehicles and carriers are ready examples. 
In the area of future capability development, growth elements of the station, 
perhaps co-orbiting, represent commercial opportunities. Private development 
of an International Space Station habitation module, with medical, recreation 
and health facilities could become the precursor to future complexes as 
envisioned by Arthur C. Clarke and cinematically brought to life over 30 years 
ago by the late Stanley Kubrick in "2001 — A Space Odyssey". With the space 
station becoming a reality, these concepts are no longer "far out". 





International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



191 



NASA is now open to such entrepreneurial visions, and the space station is 
now open for business. NASA is accepting commercial offers with the intention 
thoroughly to evaluate all prospects and proceed with the most pragmatic 
pathfinders. But NASA cannot proceed alone; there must be clear industry 
sponsorship, with private investment. NASA will not be releasing requests for 
proposals (RFPs) nor awarding government funded contracts. There is no 
budget for this initiative, neither will NASA be requesting an appropriation. 
There are real opportunities for the private sector. 

Next, in addition to our internal studies, NASA has initiated an 
independent market assessment as required by the Commercial Space Act; this 
study is due out this month. NASA has initiated a retrospective analysis of the 
long- and short-run marginal and average costs related to Space Shuttle 
operations, as well as a prospective assessment of the analogous cost projections 
for the International Space Station. This information will form the basis of 
estimates from which we will structure a pricing policy for the ISS. 

The absence of a definitive pricing policy has long been viewed by the 
private sector as an obstacle to commercial development; NASA intends to 
remove that obstacle. NASA is working with the necessary stakeholders in the 
executive and legislative branches to converge on a value-based pricing policy 
with a marginal cost floor. NASA is also requesting the authority to waive all, or 
part, of the marginal costs in the short rim, in order to stimulate industrial 
investment, while invoking the full marginal costs in the long run, in order to 
ensure that the government does not end up in the position, a decade from now, 
where profitable enterprises have been created which rely on public subsidies. 
NASA has asked industry to participate in identifying specific pathfinders. 

Thus, NASA is moving rapidly toward a more substantive engagement 
with the private sector. NASA has already received seven commercial offers 
and projects another five in the next quarter. The prospect of incoming 
proposals brings us to the second major element of NASA's Commercial 
Development Plan, namely Organizational Work Instruction (Figure 6). 




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Organizational Work Instruction (OWI) 

* Commercial offer registration at NASA headquarters, 

* To be developed under ISO 9000 standard, 

* Will establish “single-point-of-entry”, 

* New NASA HQ “Space Utilization and Product 
Development Division” in place. 




The OWI will be used to streamline and discipline 
the processing of commercial offers. 



Figure 6: Organizational Work Instruction (OWI) 



Historically, commercial concepts have entered NASA through a variety of 
doors, both at headquarters and in the field. The situation reminds me of first 
year University courses in Physics, and fundamental wave theory. When wave 
sources are not synchronized, destructive interference results. Synchronization 
of the wave sources is necessary in order to achieve constructive interference. 
This is where NASA is headed with the second element of the plan. 

There has been a NASA-wide effort underway to obtain ISO-9000 
certification. Under the auspices of this standard NASA is developing an 
Organizational Work Instruction (OWI) that will register all commercial offers 
asociated with the International Space Station. In the future all formal offers will 
enter through a single door. That is not to say that NASA will discourage 
informal discussions of commercial concepts across the agency, at all levels. 
This should, and must, continue. Rather, it is intended to bring order and 
discipline to the process, once the private organization has reached the stage at 
which it is prepared to submit a formal offer. 

The Commercial Space Act requires NASA to report on International Space 
Station commercial proposals received in calendar years 1997 and 1998. As this 
report was assembled, it was extremely difficult to identify and track such 
proposals; that led to the conclusion that the process badly needed reform. 





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NASA's objective will be to establish a fully auditable process that treats 
proprietary proposals with a much higher level of confidentiality. The process 
will also highlight where the obstacles lie, in specific terms, and what NASA's 
rationale is for acceptance or rejection. 

People often ask: "what are the selection criteria?" Quite simply, the ratio of 
private to public funding will be the principal figure-of-merit. In addition, the 
presence of non-government markets will be a significant factor. In time, NASA 
expects to develop performance metrics to track the time required to the 
disposition of commercial offerings, as well as the success rate in reaching 
formal agreements in various categories. 

Now one might ask: "should the government even be in the position of 
evaluating and selecting commercial ventures? " The answer, of course, is no. 
This is the role of the capital markets and, in the United States, the market is 
particularly adept at this. This leads to the final element of NASA's plan — the 
concept of a non-government organization (NGO) to manage International 
Space Station utilization and economic development (Figure 7). 




* Management of Space Station Utilization and 
Economic Development. 



* Reference model developed* 

* National Research Council evaluation underway* 

* Trade studies initiated on NGO forms: 

3 direct contract 
3 cooperative agreement 
3 government corporation 

The NGO will he used to undertake those actions 
which are beyond the scope of the government sector . 



Figure 7: NASA plans a Non-Government Organization to manage ISS utilization and 

commercial development 





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This is, perhaps, the most controversial element of the plan, despite the fact 
that NASA has a terrific history of success with NGOs. When NASA was 
created the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a federally funded R&D center operated 
by the California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA, became a 
closely associated element of the civil space program. A few years later the 
Communications Satellite Corporation — COMSAT — was created as a 
government corporation and as a signatory to the INTELSAT organization. 
More recently, the Space Telescope Science Institute began operating under a 
contract with the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy 
(AURA). And now the National Space Biomedical Research Institute has 
(NSBRI) been established through a cooperative agreement under provisions of 
the Chiles Act. 

Among the various legal options — a government corporation, a 
cooperative agreement, or a fixed price contract — it is not yet clear which, if 
any, would be suitable for a space station NGO. That is why NASA is spending 
this year thoroughly evaluating the alternatives. It will be a great challenge 
forming an association that is capable of managing all three missions 
(components) of the International Space Station's Commercial Development 
Plan, not to mention ensuring upward compatibility to a global scale of 
operations in conjunction with the international partners. Perhaps the objective 
is too bold; if so, NASA is prepared to limit the scope of the NGO to commercial 
development. 

We have enlisted the services of the National Research Council to assist in 
this effort and to ensure that the outcomes are pragmatic. 

3. Conclusion 

It is said that "nature abhors a vacuum"; perhaps, by shifting our 
laboratories to the microgravity and ultravacuum of space, nature's secrets will 
be further revealed. In the course of doing so a surrounding infrastructure will 
emerge, and the space economy will expand. The International Space Station 
will form the nucleus for human activities in space for the foreseeable future. 
However, it will not remain so indefinitely. Inevitably, this Nucleus Station will 
become only a portal to the next human frontier in space. 




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195 



Enabling Better Science: A Commercial 
Communications Payload for the International Space 

Station 



D. Beering, Infinite Global Infrastructures, LLC, 618 Maplewood Drive, Wheaton, IL 
60187-1400, USA 



e-mail: drbeering@sprynet.com 



Abstract 

During the past five years, using NASA's Advanced Communications Technology 
Satellite (ACTS), a group of NASA and industry participants have performed a series of 
experiments focusing on the interoperability of TCP/IP, ATM, and higher layer 
protocols and applications. These experiments have yielded very exciting results, 
including pro-forma configurations in the following areas: 

• TCP/IP data transfer over geostationary satellite delays at speeds exceeding 500 
Megabits per second using standard network hardware, computers, and operating 
systems 

• Video, audio, and telephony over satellite links using ATM to engineer links with 
a constant Quality of Service for these time-sensitive applications 

• Security overlays featuring encryption and IP firewalls at up to 155 Megabits per 
second 

• Mobile satellite terminals that operate on ships, trucks, aircraft, and (eventually) 
spacecraft. 

This paper describes a proposed communications payload for the International 
Space Station, which supports the use of commodity industry-standard 
communications protocols to support direct user access to science instruments and 
experiment payloads from the ground. The payload concept, which is based entirely on 
commercial off-the-shelf products, was developed as a result of the five-year ACTS 
experiments program. 

1. The ARIES Project 

Sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the ATM Research & 
Industrial Enterprise Study, or ARIES, involved more than thirty US 
organizations ranging from NASA laboratories to major oil companies, to 
commercial communications providers and telecommunications equipment 
manufacturers. The goal of the project was to study the emerging class of high- 
performance virtual networks by building a pro-forma model of a service 
provider-based, high-performance network. The motivation behind ARIES was 
to position the oil industry to assimilate new communications technologies 
rapidly in order to enable the industry to collapse cycle times dramatically for 
US-based and remote operations. 

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Modem exploration operations generate significant volumes of complex 
data and telemetry that need to be transmitted in a timely fashion to decision 
makers at the home office. Since the petroleum industry operates in nearly 
every region of the world, the communications infrastructure must be global. 
Further, since wired, fiber infrastructure is not available in most frontiers where 
the industry operates, the communications infrastructure must be wireless or 
satellite-based. The most daunting of the remote data transfer challenges 
involves the transfer of seismic data from moving seismic acquisition vessels 
while they are on a prospective exploration site. This operation encompasses 
remote communications, high-speed data transfer, and mobility all in the same 
model. It was this challenge that ARIES pursued with the most vigor, for to 
solve this problem would mean that most of the other problems involving 
remote connectivity would have to be solved along the way. 

Due to the high costs of developing fossil fuel resources in new frontiers, 
consortium-based (multiple oil companies) exploration has become the 
preferred way to open up these prospects. The ARIES experiments were 
conducted assuming consortium-based exploration as a baseline. From a 
networking perspective, successful consortium-based exploration leverages the 
following components: 

• A shared high performance terrestrial network connecting all of the key 
participants from the consortium, or geographically separated participants 
from a single organization. This allows computation, modeling, 
interpretation, and visualization to be distributed geographically. If the 
network connecting the different locations is capable enough, the physical 
location of each resource becomes irrelevant 

• A high-speed link from remote data acquisition resources. Since the 
remote acquisition resources move, this would take the form of a high 
performance satellite channel. The primary benefit of this activity would 
be to make unprocessed data available to the center of excellence in near 
real-time, reducing the need to place costly human resources at the 
acquisition sites (single-tasked). This also allows rapid decision making 
based on earlier access to the unprocessed data 

• Intelligent use of data pre-processing and data compression at the remote 
site. This would reduce the reliance on the high-speed satellite channel, 
allowing it to be used as needed, rather than full-time. 

The telecommunications infrastructure supporting the ARIES project was 
based entirely on industry standards, most notably TCP/IP and Asynchronous 
Transfer Mode (ATM). The experiments focused on the following elements: 




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• Experimental work with TCP/IP to enable the Internet protocol to scale to 
accommodate high-speed, reliable data transfer over satellite channels 
with very high bandwidth and geostationary satellite delays 

• Development of applications to facilitate high speed reliable data transfer 
from high-performance, high-density tape subsystems, in addition to 
(much easier) host-to-host transfers 

• Development of stabilized shipboard platforms to support accurate 
pointing and steering of Ka-band satellite antennas to counter ship motion 
at sea 

• Development of end-to-end models of collaboration using very complex 
graphical data sets and high-performance terrestrial extensions of the 
ship-to-shore satellite link. 

Early in 1996, a fully functional model of the interactive oil exploration 
concept was built by the ARIES team. The demonstration illuminated the areas 
where further work was necessary in order to make the vision of interactive 
exploration a reality. The experiment culminated in a demonstration of the 
system at the National Press Club in Washington, DC. During the 
demonstration, a high-speed shipboard data transfer was performed from the 
M/V Geco Diamond, a seismic acquisition vessel that was operating in the Gulf 
of Mexico, to two supercomputing facilities in the continental US. The satellite 
link for the demonstration operated at 2 Megabits per second over NASA's 
Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, operated by the NASA Glenn 
Research Center in Cleveland, OH. 

Many important lessons were learned, including: 

• Multi-service high-speed networks can be successfully deployed to 
moving ships using small, articulated (steered) antennas. In the case of the 
Diamond experiment, the Ka-band antenna measured 0.40m by 0.11m 

• The best networking technology for supporting multi-mission remote 
networking is Asynchronous Transfer Mode. This technology provides the 
ability to add applications to the mission profile on very short notice 
without having to redesign the entire data transfer application. ATM also 
allows different applications to be supported with different qualities of 
service (dedicated, best effort, etc.) 

• The best networking technology for reliable data transfer is TCP/IP. In a 
point-to-point data transfer application, TCP/IP guarantees delivery 
through the use of acknowledgements. Therefore, using TCP/IP over 
ATM provided a networking model that supported the greatest flexibility 
of data networking alternatives, while guaranteeing delivery of the most 
critical data 




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• The data transfer requirements for shipboard seismic data are not 
symmetrical. The ship-to-shore satellite channel needs to operate at a 
much higher data rate than the shore-to-ship channel. The shore-to-ship 
data rate must be sufficiently large to support the required TCP/IP 
acknowledgements, however. For TCP/IP-based data transfer, this data 
rate can be as little as one or two percent of the ship-to-shore channel data 
rate. 

Many of the insights gleaned from the three-year ARIES project are 
applicable to the space communications application area. 

2. The 118 Series of ACTS Experiments 

The ultimate goal of all of the oil industry experiments was to use TCP/IP 
for the end-to-end communication between ships and remote sites, and the 
researchers. The reason for this was simple — applications based on available 
industry standards are substantially less expensive to develop, maintain, and 
operate than those based on proprietary protocols and gateways. This goal is 
coincident with NASA’s Consolidated Space Operations Contract (CSOC). The 
network architecture for CSOC is referred to as the Integrated Operations 
Architecture, or IOA. During 1997, 1998, and 1999, NASA has performed a 
series of very high data rate experiments using the Advanced Communications 
Technology Satellite. The series of experiments, all which operated at 622 
Megabits per second across the satellite link, were referred to as the 118 series of 
experiments. 

Until recently, it was believed that special applications and protocols 
would need to be developed to facilitate moving data across satellite links at 
hundreds of Megabits per second, due to the inherent limitations of the original 
TCP/IP protocol suite. Recent enhancements to the TCP/IP protocol have made 
it possible to support very high data rates using off-the-shelf equipment, 
however. Many of the leading computer and operating systems manufacturers 
are now shipping their operating systems with these enhancements 
implemented, or at least resident. The enhancements are well documented in 
the Internet Engineering Task Force's TCP/IP recommendations, entitled RFC 
1323 TCP Extended Windows and RFC 2018 TCP Selective Acknowledgement. 

The most recent ACTS experiment, called 118Next, is using the Advanced 
Communications Technology Satellite to test computing hardware and 
operating system software from several of the leading computer and 
communications vendors to determine the level of interoperability among the 
vendors at high rates using TCP/IP. The performance of each individual 
vendor's TCP/IP implementation is also being studied. 




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Recent tests have yielded the following results over the satellite link: 

• Workstation to workstation best sustained TCP/IP transfer rate of 520 

Megabits per second 

• Tape-to-tape best sustained transfer rate of 324 Megabits per second. 

In October 1998, the same team of NASA and industry researchers 
combined their efforts with the Satellite and Wireless Networking Branch of the 
US Naval Research Laboratory to field a stabilized satellite terminal on a 14m 
vessel on Lake Michigan off the coast of Chicago, IL. The system utilized a one- 
meter antenna and pedestal manufactured by SeaTel, Inc.. For the duration of 
the experiment, the satellite link between the vessel and the Glenn Research 
Center operated at 45 Megabits per second. During the at-sea tests, ship-to- 
shore sustained data transfer rates of 40.5 Megabits per second were achieved 
using TCP/IP over ATM on the satellite link. The link also supported real-time 
full-motion video, CD-quality audio, and connections to the Internet /World 
Wide Web. 

3. Application to Robotic (Science-Gathering) Space Vehicles 

As a part of the development of the Integrated Operations Architecture 
(IOA) for the Consolidated Space Operations Contract, Lockheed Martin 
asserted that TCP/IP and ATM could be applied uniformly across NASA's 
space architecture for reliable, end-to-end communications at substantially 
lower cost than current systems. Pursuing that claim, Lockheed Martin built a 
pro-forma network configuration featuring a simulated science-gathering 
spacecraft communicating with the ground through a link that simulated 
NASA's Tracking & Data Relay Satellite. The simulated spacecraft was 
connected to a control center in Houston, TX, which was in turn connected to a 
large Internetwork. The experiment was publicly demonstrated in January 1998. 

In actuality, the simulated spacecraft was located in building 55 at the 
NASA Glenn Research Center. The spacecraft was constructed using a series of 
software models running on a pair of computer workstations, including an IBM 
AIX host, and a Sun Solaris host. The simulated TDRSS link was a real satellite 
link, carried across NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. 
The satellite link was asymmetric, with the return link (spacecraft-to-ground) 
operating at 45 Megabits per second, and the forward link (ground-to- 
spacecraft) operating at 4 Megabits per second. The following applications were 
supported in the experiment: 




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• High-speed reliable data transfer using TCP/IP optimizations developed 
during the 118i and 118j experiments 

• Interactive TCP/IP sessions between the spacecraft and the control center 
carrying telemetry 

• Real-time, full-motion video (bi-directional) 

• Real-time telephony (bi-directional) 

• Multi-level security, including dual-key, triple DES encryption applied at 
the ATM layer, per application 

• Extensive use of automation onboard the spacecraft and in the ground 
systems 

• Enforcement of varying Qualities of Service (QoS) for different 
applications using the link. 

The demonstration provided a great deal of encouragement that the vision 
of an end-to-end space communications architecture based entirely on 
recognized commodity commercial standards was achievable. 

4. Application to Human-Rated Space Vehicles 

The demonstration of real-time, bi-directional services from the simulated 
science spacecraft was designed to illustrate the CSOC IOA applying equally 
well to human-rated space vehicles as to robotic spacecraft. Following the 
successful demonstration, both Lockheed Martin and NASA Glenn started 
independent studies to determine the feasibility of placing a Blackbird-like 
payload in a human-rated space vehicle, starting with a series of experiments on 
the Space Shuttle, and moving later to the International Space Station. The two 
projects had the following attributes: 

• Based entirely on commercial communications protocols (TCP/IP and 
ATM) 

• Envisioned starting on the Space Shuttle, and later on the International 
Space Station 

• Envisioned an experiment package supporting a host of recognized 
commercial interfaces — Ethernet, ATM, V.35, etc. 

• Proposed to start with a Ka-band experiment on ACTS 

• Realized that antennas supporting high data rates would need to be 
developed, or borrowed from the existing Shuttle inventory. 

5. Conclusion 

The end goal of this work is to utilize commercially available satellite 
services and ground distribution networks to provide the necessary space-to- 
ground data networking connectivity through the standards-based 




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201 



communications system on the ISS. However, it will be some time before viable 
commercial satellite platforms exist. Therefore, in the meantime, NASA will 
need to leverage existing space networking assets, in particular the Tracking & 
Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). While this goal can be achieved today 
utilizing NASA's existing space network infrastructure, the system will be more 
cost effective when the space network (space-to-ground link) is commercially 
provided. 

The work discussed here involves the implementation of an onboard 
communications infrastructure that relies on commodity industry standard 
interfaces and protocols throughout (see Figure 1). This is the most expeditious 
way to prepare for utilization of commercial satellite/ground network assets for 
the future ISS communications system. The combination of the advanced 
onboard system with a high-performance standards-based ground distribution 
network will be an enabler for science data to be carried seamlessly between the 
vehicle and the scientists and operations personnel. 



MODULAR COMPONENTS OF SPACE-BASED COMM SYSTEM 




Space- 

based 

Antenna 



Ground- 

based 

Antenna 



RF 

Subsystem 



RF 

Subsystem 



Space Segment 



GEO Relay 
MEG Refay 
Direct to Ground 



Tracking 



Tracking 



MODEM 



MODEM ; 

Coding/ FEc ] 



Encryption 



Encryption 



Voice /Telephony 
Video 



Native AT 



■ATM Switch 



lAJMSwitchl 



“ — ATM- attached 
DS-1 Computer 
V<35 
RS-449 

Other non-ATM interface 

■ 101 00 Ethernet 

■ FDDI 



Carrier- 

Based 

ATM 

Service 



The 

Internet 



SPACE 



GROUND 



Figure 1. Block Diagram of the ISS Communications Architecture 





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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



The combined system (spacecraft, space network, and ground network) 
will be able to support nearly any application that can be realistically 
envisioned at nearly any location on the ground. The science community would 
benefit dramatically from such an investment. Without a state-of-the-art 
communications system, the ISS is just an outpost. 




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203 



Commercialization of Management Know-How 
Generated by the ISS Program 

M. Bosch, University of Regensburg, Faculty of Business Administration, D - 93040 
Regensburg, Germany 



e-mail: Michael.Bosch@wiwi.uni-regensburg.de 



Abstract 

The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex technology 
project in the history of humankind. Currently, 15 countries and their aerospace 
industrial contractors are participating in this program. This leads to the following 
organizational challenges for program management: (1) Interdisciplinary integration of 
highly specialized professionals, institutes and subcontractors, (2) International and 
intercultural integration of participating countries, (3) Life-cycle-oriented integration: 
experts for the later stages of space station utilization and operation are also included in 
the early phases of design and development, (4) Integration of different users and their 
experiments during the Space Station utilization phase. To face these challenges, NASA 
and the prime contractor Boeing established a team-oriented organization with 
Integrated Product Teams (IPTs) and Analysis and Integration Teams (AITs). This type 
of organization successfully meets the integration requirements mentioned above. 

Similar integration problems occur in other projects both within as well as outside 
the aerospace sector. Even in the real estate development business, there is a growing 
awareness that a life-cycle-oriented approach to project management is crucial for 
project success. Such an approach integrates the utilization phase in an overall facility 
management. The goal of this paper is to show ways to commercialize this 
management know-how generated by the ISS-Program effectively. This paper begins 
with an explanation of the IPT /AIT -organizational structure in the ISS-Program, and 
then explores possibilities to create commercial consulting services for the distribution 
of this management know-how. Finally, the successful implementation of an ISS- 
inspired, team-oriented organization in a large real estate development enterprise is 
described. 

1. Introduction 

The development and production of spaceflight systems present challenges 
which can hardly be compared to other branches of engineering. Especially for 
manned missions, technically perfect system solutions need to be developed in 
order to assure safe missions. 

Even for missions carried out by a single country, an organization which 
guarantees cooperation between main contractors and subcontractors, 
government agencies, universities and research institutes is necessary. At the 
current time, 15 nations are involved in the ISS Program. This increases the 
level of complexity in comparison to projects carried out by a single country. 



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© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



2. Integration Requirements 

2.1 Interdisciplinary Integration 

A project as large and as complex as the ISS requires a division of labor 
among highly qualified specialists, departments, enterprises and institutions. In 
addition to technicians, experts in the natural sciences, computer sciences, 
medicine, business, law and for the operation and utilization of orbital facilities 
are also necessary. The project organization must guarantee an interdisciplinary 
integration of specialists and contractors. 

2.2 International Integration 

The international cooperation between the 15 countries participating in the 
ISS Program requires additional management efforts because: 

• Development and finances must be regulated by contracts between the 
participating countries 

• Different languages, cultures and legal systems must be taken into account 

• Of the ever-present risk that one of the international partners may 
withdraw from the project; such situations must be covered by 
contingency plans. 

A major problem in the management of international, government-funded 
space programs carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA) is "juste 
retour", the ’’geographical return rule”. This means that, for a specific program, 
the contract volume awarded to the industrial contractors of each Member State 
must be nearly equal to that state's payment to ESA for this program. 

2.3 Life-cycle-oriented Integration 

Each project goes through a certain life-cycle, which can be divided into the 
following phases: 

• Concept Phase with Feasibility Studies (Phase A) 

• Definition and Design (Phase B) 

• Development (Phase C) 

• Manufacturing (Phase D) 

• Operations and Utilization (Phase E) 

• Dismantling and Disposal (Phase F). 

A large portion of the costs for the entire life-cycle are already determined 
at the end of the Definition and Design Phase [Reference 1]. As a result. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



205 



optimization of life-cycle costs requires the early integration (in Phases A and B) 
of experts assigned to later project phases. 

3. Integrated Product Team Organization 

To fulfill these integration requirements, NASA and the prime contractor 
Boeing established a team-oriented organization with Integrated Product Teams 
(IPTs) and Analysis and Integration Teams (AITs). In this type of organization, 
an interdisciplinary group of people is responsible for the design, development, 
manufacturing, operations and support of a specific "product" [Reference 2]. A 
product is defined as either a hardware or software element of the ISS, a 
document, a procedure, a plan or a facility. Representatives of the following 
disciplines may be included in an IPT, as needed: 

• Program Control 

• Systems Engineering 

• Design 

• Development 

• Manufacturing 

• Quality Assurance 

• System Safety 

• Test 

• Operations 

• Utilization 

• Crew. 

In addition to employees of the contractor, an IPT can also be made up of 
additional personnel from NASA (e.g. Space Shuttle Program), as well as from 
other contractors or international partners. An IPT has all the resources 
required for its product and is accountable for technical, schedule and cost 
performance [Reference 3]. 

AITs provide system level analysis and integration for the IPTs. They 
ensure interface, configuration and integration control. Each contractor's 
Program Manager is responsible for the development of the work packages as 
specified in the contract. The program manager has full authority over all IPT's 
and AIT's within the enterprise. In addition, the program manager is also 
responsible for the project functionals [Reference 4]. The integration 
requirements mentioned above are successfully met by the organizational 
concept shown in Fig. 1, as introduced in 1994. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 




Figure 1. IPT- /AIT -Structure [Reference 4] 



4. Opportunities for Commercialization 

Similar integration problems occur in other projects both within as well as 
outside of the aerospace sector. In this section, possibilities to transfer 
organizational concepts from the ISS to other consulting and organizational 
projects will be explored. Team-oriented organizational structures can be 
applied to projects which have integration problems similar to those which 
occur in the Space Station Program. Projects can be divided into different 
classes, according to how well the organizational structures from the Space 
Station Program can be applied. 

National and international aerospace programs have the most complex life- 
cycles and extended operation and utilization phases. Thus, they are an ideal 
application for team-oriented organizational structures. Large projects in non- 
aerospace branches must possess the following characteristics in order for an 
application of ISS organizational concepts to be useful [Reference 5]: 








International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



207 



• high level of complexity with a large number of project participants 

• high level of innovation 

• high technical risks 

• hard deadlines 

• high risk of exceeding planned costs and deadlines. 

Examples of suitable projects would be the development and operation of 
new transport systems, such as Mag-Lev trains, complex military systems 
(missiles, aircraft carriers) or the construction and operation of large, complex 
facilities, such as airports or power plants. 

Smaller, less complex projects with fewer participants would not be 
suitable for a complete transfer of the ISS organization. The application of a few 
selected concepts, however, such as life-cycle oriented organization and 
integration of teams, could be of value. 

Each case must be examined individually. A simple one-to-one transfer 
should be avoided. This new market niche for qualified analytical services can 
best be filled by professional management consultants. 

5. Application in Real Estate Development 

Real estate projects have life-cycles which include the following phases: 
conception, planning, construction and sale. In addition, they also have 
relatively long operation and utilization phases. The costs during the operation 
and utilization phases are much higher than those in the earlier phases. In 
order to plan an optimization of the entire project life-cycle, experts for the 
operations and utilization phases need to be integrated in the earlier project 
phases. A team-oriented, organizational concept for a large real estate 
developer, which includes the development, operation and utilization of a 
building is depicted in Fig. 2. 

Conception Planning Construction Sale Utilization 

IPT1 
IPT2 
IPT3 




Figure 2. Life-cycle-oriented real estate development 



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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



An IPT is responsible for a given real estate project from its conception 
through its utilization. The team can consist of representatives of the following 
disciplines, as needed: 

• Project Acquisition 

• Architecture 

• Civil Engineering 

• Project Control 

• Real Estate Sales 

• Financing 

• Property management. 

Personnel from subcontractors or from the customer can be included in the 
individual teams, as needed. In this manner, the design of the building can be 
taken into account during the planning stage in order to simplify cleaning 
during the later operation and utilization phases. Consideration of different 
alternatives to reduce energy and water costs during the planning phase can 
thus result in a significant reduction of operation costs. 

Previously, the life-cycle in the real estate development business has been 
largely defined to extend only up until the sale of the facility. The operations 
and utilization phases have been almost completely ignored. Both rapidly 
rising operational and maintenance costs as well as increasingly cost-critical 
customers require a radical change of course. In addition to the cost advantages 
already mentioned, a real estate developer or one of its subsidiaries can take 
advantage of the rapidly growing market for professional property 
management. Existing activities in the development, construction and sale of 
real estate bring advantages over other competitors in the acquisition of 
lucrative property management contracts. 

6. Conclusions 

The management concepts applied in the ISS Program offer many 
commercialization possibilities for professional management consultants. 
Transfer of the IPT organizational concept to other branches requires an 
individual consideration of the size and complexity of the project in question. 
Enterprises which previously defined their life-cycles to end with the 
development or production can acquire lucrative follow-up contracts, especially 
in the operations and utilization phases. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



209 



Acknowledgements 

I would like to give special thanks to Patricia Shiroma Brockmann for the 
translation of this paper into English as well as for her continued encouragement and 
thought provoking discussions. 

References 

1. Krummrey, C., Blank, F.: Ermittlung von Lebenszykluskosten in der Raumfahrt, 
MBB-Publikation UR-E-910/86 PUB, 1986 

2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: International Space Station 

Alpha, Management and Implementation of Integrated Product Teams, 

Orientation Package, April 1994 

3. Kennedy Space Center: Space Station AIT/IPT Overview, 1994 

4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: International Space Station 

Alpha, Management and Implementation of Integrated Product Teams, 

Orientation Package, April 1994 

5. Bosch, M.: Management internationaler Raumfahrtprojekte, Gabler Verlag, 
Wiesbaden, 1997 




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An Initial Strategy for Commercial Industry 
Awareness of the International Space Station 

C. Jorgensen, FDC, Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, 8 Langley Road, M.S. 328, 
Hampton, VA, 23681, USA 



e-mail: c.jorgensen@larc.nasa.gov 



Abstract 

The on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) began in December 
1998. While plans are being developed to utilize the ISS for scientific research, and 
human and microgravity experiments, it is time to consider the future of the ISS as a 
world-wide commercial marketplace developed from a government owned, operated 
and controlled facility. Commercial industry will be able to seize this opportunity to 
utilize the ISS as a unique manufacturing platform and engineering testbed for 
advanced technology. Activities to allow the initial planning of the commercialization 
of the ISS have begun. NASA is currently in the strategic planning phase of the 
evolution and commercialization of the ISS, an essential and critical step. The Pre- 
Planned Program Improvement (P 3 I) Working Group at NASA is assessing the future 
ISS needs and technology plans to enhance ISb performance. Plans are being 
formulated for ISS enhancements to accommodate commercial applications and the 
Human Exploration and Development of Space mission support. As this information 
develops, it is essential to disseminate this information to commercial industry, 
targeting not only the private and public space sector but also the non-aerospace 
commercial industries. An approach is presented for early dissemination of this 
information that includes ISS baseline system information, baseline utilization and 
operations plans, advanced technologies, future utilization opportunities, ISS evolution 
and Design Reference Missions (DRM). This information is being consolidated into the 
ISS Evolution Data Book, an initial source and tool to be used as catalyst in the 
commercial world for the generation of ideas and options to enhance the current 
capabilities of the ISS. 

1. Introduction 

The assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is underway and 
within a relatively short period of time, by 2004, will be completed and fully 
operational. The NASA Administrator, Mr. Daniel S. Goldin, declared that 30% 
of the U.S. Laboratory space would be commercialized as part of the directive of 
the Commercial Space Act of 1998 [Reference 1]. Recently, Mr. Goldin stated 
that "nothing would please me more than if commercial demand for Station 
accommodations reached 40, 50 or even 80 percent" [Reference 2]. Any amount 
of commercial use of the ISS could distribute the resource burden of continual 
ISS operations between NASA and the commercial sector, which would be a 
plus for both sides. This vision of commercial use of the ISS up to 80% is a signal 
for all sides involved to act now in planning for commercial ventures on the ISS. 

Commercialization is a "...private sector, profit-seeking entity using its own 
or borrowed and/or invested funds to carry out activities intended sooner or 

211 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station, 211 - 218 . 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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later to result in products or services that can be sold at a profit through a 
market, either to government or non-government customers or to a mixture of 
the two" [Reference 3]. The current NASA thinking is that industry will utilize 
the ISS for commercial research to develop new technologies that can be used in 
terrestrial-based commodities. This can be taken a step further to use the ISS as 
a possible and probable production facility and as a facility in which products 
and services can be bought and sold (i.e. products, entertainment) and, hence, a 
space marketplace. 

NASA has developed a plan for commercializing the ISS; however, there is 
a need for supplemental activities to occur now in addition to those included in 
NASA's plan. Acting now can ensure the timely and effective development of 
the ISS as a viable and acceptable marketplace by commercial industry. 

2. Parallel Perspectives 

2.1 Existing Strategy 

The current NASA strategy for commercializing the ISS is outlined in the 
Commercial Development Plan for the International Space Station [Reference 4]. 
The tactics included in this strategy include: 1) an independent market 
assessment, 2) identification of barriers to market entry, and 3) the 
establishment of a non-government organization (NGO) for ISS utilization 
development. The time frame for the completion of the first two activities 
would be June 1999 and the end of 1999 for the establishment of an NGO. This 
strategy is well thought out with the necessary steps for creating a new 
marketplace; however, the focus here is primarily from the NASA perspective. 
The studies and analyses outlined in the plan are directed towards the NASA 
implementing commercialization of the ISS. 

2.2 A Commercial Industry Perspective 

Developing the ISS into a marketplace should also be addressed from the 
commercial industry perspective. The initial transition of this facility to a 
commercial marketplace could place a heavy financial burden on commercial 
firms. It is evident that in the U.S., at least, the government must develop cost 
cutting processes for ISS access to entice the commercial firms to utilize the 
facility. The government may initially have to subsidize some of the 
expenditures of commercial companies who desire to venture into this new 
marketplace. This transition phase will allow NASA, in conjunction with 
commercial industry, to increase the efficiency of ISS operations processes and 
thus reduce operating costs. These cost reductions will provide the commercial 
firms with higher returns on investments (ROI) and ultimately entice more 




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commercial firms to enter the ISS space marketplace. In addition to the 
investment burden which commercial companies will face, the acquisition of 
programmatic and technical information pertaining to the feasibility of 
proposed ISS-based commercial ventures presents additional roadblocks. 

Commercial industry must be made aware of the opportunities that are 
available on the ISS. This should happen now so that commercial industry can 
initiate their planning strategies as NASA has done. It is going to take time for 
commercial industry to accept the ISS as a viable marketplace. Industry 
executives and analysts will need to look at cost versus ROI. Industry will also 
need facility and utilization information to determine from an operational 
standpoint whether they can use the ISS as a marketplace. This information 
must be disseminated to industry quickly and thoroughly in order for informed 
decisions to be made. Currently, there are Commercial Space Centers (CSC), 
usually universities, working in conjunction with NASA as an avenue for 
industrial firms to approach the space program. When an industrial interest 
becomes convinced that a space research activity has a potential economic 
benefit, it can approach a CSC with a proposal [Reference 5]. From these initial 
discussions, the CSC will determine whether the space research activity is 
feasible and will work with them to integrate the research into the ISS Program. 

The CSCs work with approximately 135 industrial firms at this time. This 
avenue has been an effective means for commercial industry to take to get to 
space. However, this has been primarily for research purposes only and many 
of the companies associated with the CSCs are already involved in the space 
industry in some manner. There are many firms who are not affiliated with any 
space related-industry who may be interested in utilizing the ISS as a 
marketplace in areas other than research. Additionally, there are many firms 
who have not even considered the possibility of utilizing the ISS in any manner 
for the mere fact that they are unaware that this is possible, or will be possible 
in the relatively near future. It is this part of commercial industry that this 
strategy targets, as is explained in the next section. 

2.3 Commercial Industry Awareness 

Many firms within the U.S. and worldwide are unaware of the fact that 
they could someday utilize the ISS for new product development in such areas 
as telecommunications, pharmaceuticals and materials processing, as a 
production facility, or even as a service provider, as in the entertainment 
industry. Even if they are aware of this fact, their planning on ways to utilize 
the ISS platform should begin now. For any industry to begin planning, they 
must have some initial source of information to help them determine potential 
venture characteristics such as cost, operations, facilities, resources, legal. 




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potential for expansion, etc.. There is currently an overwhelming amount of 
information on the ISS that includes the planning and process documentation, 
technical specifications, assembly information and the list goes on. Not only is 
the amount of information mountainous, it is also mostly unavailable to the 
general public at this time. While this is understandable from the perspective of 
NASA and its contractors, from an industry perspective the unavailability of 
this information can be construed as another obstruction in their journey 
towards acceptance and utilization of the ISS. A commercial firm interested in 
obtaining information to establish the initial viability of a commercialization 
concept could find it to be an almost impossible task. Where would they begin? 
They would first have to determine what information they needed and request 
it from the owning entity, if they knew who that was. Even if they did get a 
positive response from the information owner, they would then have to sift 
through an enormous amount to extract the information which they need for 
their application. 

Currently, an informational reference source is being developed at NASA 
Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, sponsored by the Director of 
Advance Projects, Office of Space Flight at NASA Headquarters in Washington, 
D.C., as an initial solution to this potential roadblock. The document entitled 
"The International Space Station Evolution Data Book" [Reference 6] provides a 
focused look at the opportunities and drivers for the enhancement and 
evolution of the ISS during its assembly and beyond the assembly complete 
stage. These enhancements would expand and improve the current baseline 
capabilities of the ISS and help to facilitate the conversion of the ISS into a 
marketplace by and for the public sector. 

The purpose of the data book is threefold. First, it provides a broad, 
integrated systems view of the current baseline design of the ISS systems and 
identifies potential growth and limitations of these systems. Secondly, it 
presents current and future options for the application of advanced technologies 
to these systems and discusses the impacts these enhancements may have on 
interrelated systems. Finally, it provides this information in a consolidated 
format to scientific and commercial entities to help generate ideas and options 
for creating new technologies and products, and to assist in determining 
potential beneficial uses of the ISS in commercial business. 

3. ISS Evolution Data Book Description 

The ISS Evolution Data Book is composed of six sections, the first of which 
is the introduction. The second, third and fourth sections give a broad, 
integrated systems view of the ISS baseline design. Section 2 of the data book 
provides a brief overview of each of the 22 major components of the ISS. This 




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215 



includes individual laboratories owned by the ISS International Partners, the 
integrated truss segments, the various nodes, propulsion modules, and science 
facility modules. These brief descriptions provide the readers with information 
on the overall Space Station. 

Section 3 covers nine of the individual critical sub-systems onboard the ISS. 
These include Power; Thermal; Communications; Command and Data 
Handling; Guidance, Navigation and Control; Propulsion; Environmental 
Control and Life Support Systems; Robotics; and Structures and Mechanisms. 
The document provides high-level technical overviews of each system, the 
capabilities of each, the potential limitations of each, and a description of 
potential growth opportunities and limitations. 

Section 4 provides information on the current baseline plans for the 
operation and utilization of the ISS. This section includes plans for utilization of 
crew time, traffic models, space availability, and resource availability including 
bandwidth and data rates for communications, power, thermal, and system 
ground commanding availability. It also includes descriptions of each of the 
internal facilities on board the ISS, which will provide specific services to 
payloads that are either currently planned, research-based activities or future 
commercial-type endeavors. These include facilities such as the Combustion 
Facility and Fluid Physics Facility that are used in materials research, the Life 
and Microgravity Science Gloveboxes which are fully contained facilities for 
performing biological or materials activities, and many more. Along the same 
lines, it provides location and resource information on the external payload 
facilities, including the U.S. and Japanese facilities. The European Space Agency 
facility and Russian facility will be described as information becomes available. 

This baseline information will assist commercial industry in developing 
their view of the ISS as a potential marketplace. Industries can utilize this 
information to determine if their specific technologies can benefit the ISS 
and/or if the ISS offers an environment which they could utilize in a 
commercially viable manner. 

The next two sections of the data book present current and future options 
for the application of advanced technologies. Section 5 presents the advanced 
technologies that are being investigated by the Pre-Planned Program 
Improvement (P 3 I) Working Group, led by the NASA Johnson Space Center in 
Houston, Texas. These advanced technologies will provide enhanced 
capabilities to the ISS that may be beneficial to commercial industry. The section 
discusses proposed ISS technology enhancements that are known at this time 
and provides roadmaps for the investigation of each area. This information 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



may entice commercial firms to look at their own technologies for enhancement 
of ISS systems. 

Finally, Section 6 summarizes current Design Reference Missions (DRM) 
that are being investigated for post-assembly complete utilization and 
enhancements. These include free-flying satellite servicing, enhanced 
communications capabilities utilizing the Advanced Communications Tower 
and utilizing a new module, TransHab, for increased pressurized volume 
onboard the ISS (see Fig. 1). Each of these DRMs and the others that are 
presented in this document provide options for ISS enhancements that could be 
achieved via commercialization. 



Russian 

Research 

Modules 




Advanced 

^^Communications 

Tower 

Crew Return V 



Figure 1. Concepts of ISS Evolution 



4. Effective Utilization of the Data Book 

The ISS Evolution Data Book is intended to provide high level technical 
information to the science community, commercial industry, academia, and the 
general public. Used as a desktop reference, the data book not only provides 
high-level finger-tip information on the technical aspects of the ISS, but also 
provides further references for more detailed information. 

This data book should be used as a planning tool and a desk reference and 
not as a design tool for the development of a system, product, or any other 
entity. It is to be used for reference only to provide a high-level technical 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



217 



overview of the ISS, its capabilities, future options for enhancements, and 
opportunities for commercial use. It is hoped that the data book can act as a 
catalyst to facilitate innovative uses of the ISS for commercial ventures and to 
facilitate the application of non-aerospace technologies to enhance the many 
capabilities of the ISS. 

5. Marketplace Outreach 

The data book will be used as part of the marketing strategy for developing 
the ISS as an international marketplace. NASA Langley Research Center, in 
conjunction with NASA Headquarters, plans to distribute this information 
through the CSCs, through face-to-face contact at commercial and industrial 
trade shows, through the NASA commercialization initiatives at Headquarters, 
Johnson Space Center, and Langley Research Center, and via a publicly 
available web site. This web site is planned to have links not only to NASA 
public web sites, but also to business associations. As information becomes 
available, the document will be revised to remain current for industry. The 
updated information will be available electronically and via hard copy if 
desired. A database of interested firms will be established to ensure that the 
flow of information continues. 

6. Summary 

The commercialization of the ISS can be facilitated by informing industry 
of its potential and limitations. It is important that this information be 
disseminated now to as much of commercial industry as possible, both in the 
U.S. and globally. For the ISS to become a global marketplace, ISS-specific 
information must be communicated to guide the initiative and ambitions of 
public sector industry towards space. The use of the ISS Evolution Data Book to 
stimulate the creative expertise of industry is just one step towards 
commercializing the ISS. As the developing information is disseminated 
throughout industry, the acceptance and — hopefully — adoption of the ISS as 
a global marketplace will become a reality. However, this must be done now. 
We cannot wait until the ISS is fully complete and then hope that industry will 
fall in line. Providing the information to as widespread an audience as possible 
will help the commercial community to begin to look at the ISS as a marketplace 
now, and allow them to develop potential commercial uses for the ISS. 

Acknowledgements 

This work was supported by the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, 
Virginia, under contract NAS1-96013, with Mr. Jeff Antol as technical monitor. I would 
like to acknowledge the Spacecraft and Sensors Branch at NASA Langley Research 
Center. 




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References 

1. Public Law 105-303 : Commercial Space Act of 1998, Section 101 from the 105th 
Congress, October 28, 1998 

2. Goldin, Daniel S.: The National Importance of the Development of Space, Speech 
presented to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce at the Forum on the Future 
Development of Space, March 16, 1999 

3. Logsdon, J.M.: Commercializing the International Space Station: current US 
thinking. Space Policy, Vol. 14, pp. 239-246, November 1998 

4. NASA: Commercial Development Plan for the International Space Station, 
November 16, 1998 

5. NASA: The NASA Research Plan, p. 41 

6. NASA: International Space Station Evolution Data Book, Document No. Pending, 
Draft 




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219 



Market Potential for the International Space Station 
(ISS) Service Sector 

R. Nakagawa, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson 
Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA 



e-mail: roy.nakagawa@nasda.go.jp 



R. Askew, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Headquarters, Washington, 
D. C., USA 



e-mail: raskew@mail.hq.nasa.gov 



Abstract 

There are two fronts to the commercialization of the International Space Station 
(ISS). One involves commercial use of ISS, while the other involves commercial service 
to ISS. This paper addresses the latter. How big is the market? Last year, United Space 
Alliance, the joint venture formed only a few years ago, came in second in a top 100 list 
of federal prime contractors. Their contract covers about a third of NASA's $3.2 billion 
annual budget for Space Shuttle operations. As other responsibilities are transferred to 
private industry, that percentage could double to two-thirds of NASA's shuttle budget. 
NASA's ISS budget may not be as big, but if one includes the projected operational 
costs of all of the international partners combined, the figure is quite high. What 
services could private industry provide? 

This paper touches upon some of the possibilities, and also introduces how firms 
in Japan are well-positioned to capture pieces of the emerging market. The key to 
success will be the ability of the service provider to save costs, reduce risk, add value, 
and spin-off newly acquired know how. Examples include the use of commercial 
satellite communications service for the downlink of payload data, microgravity 
environment upgrades for improving science performance, telescience systems ana 
robotic servicers to reduce crew workload and risk. Another more general way is for a 
service provider to facilitate the overcoming of traditional barriers and disincentives for 
commercial use of ISS. 

1. Introduction to the ISS Service Sector 

"We want to do everything possible, but what we do not want to do is 
pretend that it is privatization by having companies do 100% of their business 
with NASA and calling it commercial." Dan Goldin, during the House 
Appropriations Subcommittee on VA/HUD/IA Hearing on FYOO NASA 
Request, 23 March 1999. 

The ISS is now a reality. The next generation full time laboratory in space 
can now be utilized in a limited way for scientific, engineering, and commercial 
initiatives. Much has been said about the commercial potential of this platform. 
Each of the international partners has promoted the ISS to industry to stimulate 
interest in using it to develop commercial data and possibly commercial 

219 

G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station , 219-226. 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



products. The amount of identified interest has been very limited. The primary 
reasons for this limited interest are: 

• Industry does not see a clear reason for conducting activities in space 
(shortened product development time, significantly enhanced 
product/service, lower costs/higher margins) 

• Commercial development issues, objectives, and goals are generally 
targeted to produce measurable progress within a year or less. The time to 
get a project into orbit has been, and is projected to continue to be, much 
longer than that required by private enterprise 

• The reliability of access to space has been seen by the private sector as 
uncertain. With regard to NASA, industry sees the focus of the agency to 
be on the agency, not on the user 

• Projected costs for access to space, even for activities requiring modest 
amounts of hardware mass to orbit and very limited times of operation, 
are well beyond the level of high risk investment which is acceptable. 

Fundamental research in space and the development and qualifying of 
hardware to operate in space is a quite different area. Both offer significant 
opportunities for commercial activities on the ISS but will require significant 
changes in policies by each of the international partners. Historically the 
responsible government organizations have maintained tight control of the 
resources and their utilization. These agencies have made very few policy 
changes and implementations, which the private sector views as significant. 
The agencies believe in and operate space resources as their own; that is the 
way that these agencies evolved. In general, their personnel have invested 
careers in government service. There are few incentives to evolve from a 
controling to a supporting role. 

Nonetheless, as the ISS platform evolves, the international partners will be 
operating the largest, most advanced, full time laboratory facility ever in space. 
During the past decade, the governments of the international partners have 
moved to transfer some government operated terrestrial facilities to operation 
by the private sector. Such transfers have not been without their problems, yet 
many have occurred. The results have, in general, been good. New commercial 
support services have arisen and many have expanded their role to include 
similar or spin-off services to the broader economic market. This is an area in 
which the ISS has a very significant commercial potential, but to achieve it will 
require fundamental changes in philosophy by each international partner. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



221 



2. Projected Size of the ISS Service Sector 

NASA has developed ISS operational cost models and the partners have all 
accepted target figures, which exceed US $ 1 billion annually. In addition, to 
develop and conduct activities on the ISS, fully utilizing the resources, will 
require a significant annual expenditure. The planned research budgets for 
these activities by the individual partners have been projected and are 
constantly being reviewed. However, there is little doubt that full utilization for 
research will require an expenditure in excess of US $ 300 million annually. 
These levels of expenditure provide a significant incentive for the private sector 
to develop the services needed by both the ISS and the users of the ISS 
commercially. The government agencies representing the partners must make it 
clear through policy changes and early initiatives that the agencies will no 
longer provide these services. 

Each partner agency is concerned about both operations costs and the 
amount of research to be accomplished. These two budgets are clearly 
connected. The agencies are thus looking for assistance from the private sector 
to reduce operations, thus permitting greater funding for research. At the same 
time, industry must see economic opportunities for itself, and must see a 
reduction of government intervention and a high degree of government 
consistency. 

There currently exists a number of large aerospace corporations which 
have significant space operations experience derived by supporting the various 
international partner space agencies and supporting the space communications 
activities, both public and private. Some have formed partnerships (e.g., US 
Alliance) to leverage their individual abilities. Others see niche opportunities, 
but only if they are not competing with partner space agencies. 

3. Some Examples of ISS Service 

The ISS partners must operate the ISS as a laboratory for the conduct of 
research. The elements of operation are clearly known. For the private sector to 
assume specific roles, it must see clear evidence that the partner agencies will 
not compete with them. They must find ways by which to provide these 
services without increasing the costs to the partners and, at the same time, 
expect a reasonable rate of return. To do so will require innovation. Many 
innovative concepts have previously been proposed but few are being 
developed because the partners have not clearly committed to using private 
services if available. Some examples of potential areas of operations 
enhancements are: 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



• The single most significant element of cost is transportation. While work 
on the next generation launch vehicle continues at NASA, other 
unmanned vehicles are being developed by the partners. How such 
systems operate will determine the level of cost reduction 

• Partner agencies currently maintain and operate their own 
communications infrastructure. Use of a satellite communications 
network would permit the reduction of partner-sustained facilities 

• Telescience systems could increase the amount of research to be done by 
reducing the use of crew time for basic operations 

• Improved thermal management capabilities within rack payloads and 
improved vibration isolation for long duration experiments would 
increase the research output. 

4. Current Situation in Japan 

The Japanese contribution to the ISS Program consists mainly of the 
Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), and the 
Centrifuge Module which the Japanese are developing as a cost offset to JEM 
launch on the Space Shuttle. Although Japan, as in Europe and the U.S., has 
long recognized the need to promote private industry use of the ISS, many 
barriers common to their partners as well as unique cultural barriers appear to 
exist. The authors suggest that these barriers, like those of the partners, are not 
insurmountable; to overcome them requires acknowledgment of their existence 
and a commitment to surmount them. 

4 . 1 Overview of Japan's Space Industry 

The Japanese space industry is supported primarily by government sales; 
therefore, a private sector-driven market has not yet arisen. In 1993, sales to 
NASDA accounted for 43% of the industry's total sales, while sales to other 
government agencies accounted for an additional 40% [Reference 1]. Since 
1993, NASDA's annual budget has been rather flat, going from US $ 1.3 billion 
to the current level of US $ 1.6 billion. Meanwhile, the percentage outlay for 
space utilization promotion activities (which includes Japan's ISS contributions) 
has varied from a high of 33% in 1994 to a low of 22% in 1998 [Reference 2]. If a 
flat budget and an average percentage of 20% is assumed for the near future, 
the size of the government sector of the ISS market in Japan is roughly US $ 320 
million per year, a significant financial incentive. 

There are some signs that the Japanese space industry will grow more 
rapidly in the new millennium. The Ministry of International Trade and 
Industry (MITI), which is charged with promoting the growth of domestic 
industries, predicts that the market will triple by 2010, especially in the multi- 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



223 



media telecommunications field. The same report points out that, for Japanese 
companies to meet the coming global challenges, they must forge an integrated 
systems approach rather than simply remain as hardware providers [Reference 
3]. 

4.2 Background on Promotion of JEM Utilization 

Recognizing the limitations in government funds available to finance the 
utilization of the JEM, MITI along with the Science and Technology Agency 
(STA) enlisted the cooperation of a broad range of private firms to promote the 
use of the ISS by the private sector by forming the Japan Space Utilization 
Promotion Center (JSUP), in 1986. Since then, JSUP has published numerous 
reports (including a monthly newsletter), organized countless symposia and 
workshops, conducted seminars, and coordinated experiments on the shuttle as 
well as sounding rockets and drop towers. 

Between 1993 and 1998, JSUP organized teams of researchers from national 
research institutes, universities, and corporations as members of the Space 
Utilization Frontier Joint Research projects, which were intended to serve as 
precursors to JEM utilization [Reference 4]. Although significant results were 
obtained from these projects in each of the areas of microgravity utilization, 
human space technology, and engineering research, industry continues to view 
the JEM as an expensive science laboratory with minimal payoff [Reference 5]. 

In an effort to make JEM utilization more attractive to industry, this year 
JSUP launched the Applied Research Pilot Project for the Industrial Use of 
Space (ARPPIUS) [Reference 6]. This pilot project is similar to the Microgravity 
Applications Promotions (MAP) Program at ESA. Both programs recognize the 
need to shorten turnaround time, protect intellectual property, implement cost- 
sharing schemes, and accommodate user-provided facilities. Workshops have 
been held in Tokyo, Osaka and Kyushu and solicitations for proposals have 
recently been initiated. Industry response to date has been rather slow, 
especially in areas outside Tokyo and Osaka [Reference 7]. 

4.3 Barriers Confronting Commercial Utilization of the JEM 

There are a number of identified potential barriers to commercializing the 
operation and utilization of the JEM. A near term prevailing issue is the current 
economic conditions in Japan. Beyond this condition, however, most barriers 
involve the common themes of risk and cost, just as they do for their ISS 
partners. The following are representative concerns: 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Lack of experience/knowledge about space environment. Most non-space 
industry companies are simply not aware of what possibilities the space 
environment holds. Conferences and workshops help but more are needed. 

Lack of intellectual property protection. If companies cannot retain rights 
to intellectual property, they have no incentive. Universities and national 
laboratories must be sensitive to this when collaborating with private entities. 

Excessively complicated process and long lead time for conducting 
experiments. According to ESA's MAP Programme, a turnaround of less than 3 
months and "easy access/cost efficiency" are needed. 

On-orbit laboratory designation. Official Japanese government 
designation of the JEM as a scientific facility has prevented its use for other 
purposes. The government has not yet indicated a movement towards 
privatization. As a government owned facility, the JEM cannot be used to 
enable a private entity to reap profits solely for itself. 

Lack of industry-academia collaboration. Traditionally, Japanese 
universities were prohibited from receiving private funds for research. 
Regulations are loosening but the stigma remains and a large faction of purist 
academics are still opposed. Sawaoka argues that universities and non-profit 
organizations need to take the lead on collaborative research projects in 
microgravity science [Reference 8]. 

Lack of inter-agency cooperation. Having three autonomous agencies 
involved with JEM, problems arise. Japanese policy separates the promotion of 
the industrial use of space (MITI), the conduct of science (STA), and the role of 
academic institutions (MOE). 

Corporate aversion to risk. In Europe, industry has indicated to ESA that a 
success rate of at least 50% is needed for it to commit to funding ISS 
experiments [Reference 7]. Japanese firms favor incremental improvements 
(e.g., inkjet printers) over untested innovations. 

Hardware-focus. Most manufacturing companies are focused on 
producing hardware. System integration, life cycle support, turn-key 
technologies, etc., are largely foreign business practices. 

Lack of entrepreneurial infrastructure. The "best and the brightest" work 
for large corporations. Venture capital is scarce and banks are averse to making 
loans without collateral (usually land ownership). 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



225 



4.4 Potential Market for JEM Service Sector 

In view of Japan's current JEM utilization promotion efforts and the 
various obstacles to commercialization highlighted in the previous section, a 
market for a small yet potentially high value-added service sector, targeted at 
overcoming some of these obstacles, may exist. For example, as part of JSUP's 
ARPPIUS and beyond, there are companies that could provide the following 
types of services to facilitate JEM utilization by industry. 

• Development and support of hardware and procedures for ground-based 
research and on-orbit experiments 

• Provision of know-how relating to space utilization 

• Provision and setup of on-orbit experiment opportunities 

• Implementation of these experiments. 

Companies like Japan Manned Space Systems Corp., Space Engineering 
Development Co., and Advanced Engineering Services Co. are well-positioned 
to provide these and other types of barrier-breaking services. Currently, each of 
these companies is increasing its activities in the operation and utilization 
support for both ground and on-orbit research, although all three companies 
still derive a majority of their revenues from NASDA. 

4.5 Recommendations for JEM Commercialization 

The Federation of Economic Organizations (KEIDANREN) has, for many 
years, advocated the industrialization of space as the fourth infrastructure for 
commerce after land, sea, and air. In their policy report, KEIDANREN promotes 
the following five policies to enable the Japanese players to remain competitive 
in the global playing field [Reference 9]. 

• Make public test facilities available for private use for a small fee 

• Develop new techniques for cost reduction and manufacturing efficiency 
and/ or relaxation of regulations 

• Promote the responsive use of spin-off technologies 

• Facilitate the transfer of technologies maintained by NASDA 

• Continue to allow other government agencies to use the space 
infrastructure for satellite communications and Earth observations. 

There are many paths, which NASDA could follow, to implement these 
recommendations. As with the other partners, clear policies which give the 
private sector confidence of stability must come first. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



5. Gold Mine or Cash Cow? 

Industry investors clearly say that if being involved in "commercial space" 
requires profits elsewhere to offset space losses, they will choose low risk profits 
elsewhere and omit the space losses. They feel that they must see a profit path 
for the space involvement. The only way in which this happens is for the costs 
to industry to be defined such that profits are achievable within a reasonable 
time, if they are to succeed at their undertaking. There is no need to try and 
build any artificial model with ISS. History is full of examples where 
governments have paid sunk costs and underwritten operations costs because 
they perceived (rightly or wrongly) a long term value to the enterprise or the 
potential larger scale economic impact evolving from expanded jobs from spin- 
offs. There are precedents when new frontiers are involved. Historically, 
exploration has been a public initiative. It has been very high risk with some 
promises of great rewards (most of which never occurred). What has occurred 
has been long term developments of value, and then only when the private 
sector became involved and focused on its business interests. The long term 
payoff for the ISS is yet to be determined. But the short term provides 
opportunities for the service communities to turn a profit. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors wish to express appreciation to Mr. K. Shiraki of JSUP and Mr. K. 
Nozaki of NASDA for providing background information and excellent comments. 

References 

1. Henry, E.: Japan's Space Industry as an Emerging Competitive Arena, The MIT 
Japan Program Science , Technology & Management Report , Vol 2, No. 1, pp. 2-6, 1995 

2. National Space Development Agency of Japan: NASDA' s Space Utilization Activity 
Overview, March 1999 

3. Ministry of International Trade and Industry: Uchuu Sangyou Kihon Mondai 
Kondankai Houkokusho, http://www.miti.go.jp/past/b60701hl.html. April 28, 1999 

4. Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center: Space Utilization Frontier Joint Research , 
December 1995 

5. Shiraki, K. and Kobayashi, T.: A Study on Space Station JEM Utilization for Applied 
Research by the Private Sector , Paper IAF-98-T.4.04, presented at 49 th International 
Astronautical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, September 28-October 2, 1998 

6. Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center: Applied Research Pilot Project for the 
Industrial Use of Space, April 1999 

7. Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center: JSUP News, March 1999 

8. Sawaoka, A.: A Realistic Scenario of Japan for Strong Connection between Microgravity 
Researches and Ground-Based Hi-Tech Industries, presented at the International 
Symposium In Space '98, Tokyo, Japan, September 21-22, 1998 

9. Federation of Economic Organizations (KEIDANREN): Wagakunino Uchuu 
Kaihatsu/ Riyou oyobi Sangyouka no Suishin wo Nozomu, 
http://www.keidanren.or.jp/ japanese/policy /poll80.htm. April 28, 1999 




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ISS: Overview of Where Station is at and a Concept for 
Commercial Utilization 

J. Worley, The Boeing Company, M/C HS-42, 2100 Space Park Drive, Houston, TX 
77058, USA 

e-mail: jeffery.worley@sw.boeing.com 

Abstract 

Having outlined the early stages of the life of the International Space Station (ISS), 
current U.S. ideas for reducing the costs of using it — and hence for encouraging its 
commercial utilization — are introduced. 

1. Current Situation 

With the joining of the Russian FGB and the American Unity node (see 
Figure 1), it can truthfully be stated that ISS operations and utilization are 
already underway. On 27 May 1999, the Space Shuttle was launched (STS-96), 
carrying provisions for the ISS. Further equipment to be sent into space to mate 
up with the ISS is currently at the Kennedy Space Center. Later in 1999, it is 
anticipated that the Russian service module will be launched from Baikonur. 




Figure 1. The Russian module, with solar arrays, joined to the U.S. Unity node in low 

Earth orbit 
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Three further Space Shuttle launches are planned in quite rapid succession. 
STS-92, with the Z1 truss, control moment gyros and Ku-band and S-band 
communications equipment is undergoing ground testing now (see Figure 2). 
STS-97, with the U.S. photovoltaic array, thermal control system. Integrated 
Equipment Assembly, and S-band communications equipment, will follow. The 
U.S. laboratory carrying five laboratory System Racks is the cargo aboard STS- 
98. 




Pressvized Nfejjng 






S.£rxl 



Figure 2. Equipment to be carried aboard the third American ISS launch, STS-92 

Then STS-102 will carry aloft the Italian Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, 
named Leonardo, further Laboratory System Racks, the Human Research 
Facility for recording the health and performance of the astronauts, and the 
Integrated Cargo Carrier for delivering supplies and equipment to the ISS. The 
Leonardo module has already been tested at the Kennedy Space Center. 

2. Concept for Commercial Utilization 

The requirements of different commercial users of the ISS have to be 
balanced against the requirements for safely operating the ISS (which Boeing is 
interested in carrying out). Thus, the particular attributes of the present concept 
for using the ISS commercially include: 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



229 



• an integrated environment which brings together the key needs of users 
and the requirements of ISS support 

• complete support of the users' equipment aboard the ISS 

• an effective interface between the customers and the ISS operator 

• forward accountability for infrastructure systems and processes 

• a clear pathway towards commercialization. 

Effective — and streamlined — management is essential here. 

Attempts are being made to reduce the costs of carrying out studies aboard 
the ISS, not only by seeking smaller costs for access to space but also by 
simplifying the complexity of ISS operations to make those more efficient. Key 
elements of the interdependent support and utilization systems are: 

• program integration and support 

• operations 

• payload support 

• selection of carriers and integration of cargo in preparation for delivery to 
the ISS 

• product support. 

Ways must be found to remove duplication and redundancies, multiple 
interfaces, and conflicting criteria. These should incorporate the industry's best 
practices and current technologies as much as possible. 

The complementarity of the ISS operations' (O) systems and the users' (U) 
systems are illustrated in Figure 3. Here it is anticipated that a Non Government 
Organization (NGO) will be established [Reference 1]. The responsibilities of the 
NGO are shown as six bullet points within the circle on the left; DDT&E refers 
to Design, Develop, Test and Evaluate. The common, and recurring, elements of 
operations (O) and utilization (U) are shown in the central oval. The benefits 
expected to accrue from streamlining things are itemized in the box on the right 
of Figure 3. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 




Furry 

Commercial 

Payloads 



Projects 

Priorities 



* Integrated Solution 

- Common Processes 

- Smooth Transition 
From DOT&E to O&U 

* Complementary 
System For Users 

Streamlined Single 
Interface 

Minimize Agency Cost 



Figure 3. Common aspects of ISS Operations and Utilization, and the benefits to be 
gained by rationalizing these two systems 



Further, this concept provides a natural pathway for commercialization 
and/or privatization of ISS activities, by allowing commercial utilization to 
evolve and by stimulating an international, market-based program. 

3. Summary 

Figure 4 illustrates the ways of reaching the goal that the operations and 
utilization of the ISS become economically viable, in order to "enable" the 
commercial utilization of the ISS. The left-hand side illustrates attributes which 
increase the cost of the ISS. These must be removed by conducting a dialog 
between those involved in the technology and the management of the ISS 
program, and by applying the "lessions learned" in earlier manned space 
missions such as Spacelab and Mir. 





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231 




Optimize Processes arm 
interfaces 

Reduce Menagemoni 

Structure 

Commercial “BeStT 
Practices 



Assembly 
Shuttle 
Spaceiab 
Phase 1 Mir 
Spacehab 



Aulpmation/Artliiclal Intelligence 
Network Systems 
Virtual Offices 
Teleprasanceroperadens 






Complex Inter 
Hel&flonships 

8Sffi in9 

Rrodupt Hand- 
Offs 



Figure 4. Diagram showing how the costs of ISS utilization can be reduced 



Then the seven bullets in the right hand arrow will, by increasing 
efficiency, drive down the costs of using the ISS for the benefit of the peoples of 
the world. 

References 

1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Commercial Development Plan 
for the International Space Station, November 16, 1999 



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Report on Panel Discussion 5: 

Technical and Management Innovations for ISS 

R. Alexander, E. Benzi, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc dTnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: alexander@mss.isunet.edu, benzi@mss.isunet.edu 

Panel Chair: Y. Fujimori, NASD A, Japan; International Space University 
temporary Faculty Member 

Panel Members: 

D. Beering, Infinite Global Infrastructures, LLC, USA 

S. Gazey, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG, Germany 
M. Uhran, NASA, USA 

J. Worley, The Boeing Company, USA 

Y. Fujimori led the discussion, which covered the need for a general 
business plan for the commercialization of the ISS, the role of small and big 
companies in the process, the problem of accessing the facility, and a long-term 
perspective for the the Space Station. He started by asking the panel members 
for comments on the usefulness of a business plan for the use of the ISS that 
would help the partner agencies to tune their commercialization efforts. 

M. Uhran outlined the role of providers of information which the 
government agencies should maintain, and stated that it is the specific duty of 
the private investors to establish a business plan. The role of the government is 
not to select businesses, but to choose the best criteria to access the ISS facilities 
to ensure the success of the project, and thereafter step back. D. Beering pointed 
out that, in the communications sector, the private companies can do R&D for 
corporate goals, as well as establishing cooperation with NASA to provide 
services for the scientific sector. ISS is an excellent laboratory for commercial 
applications, as well as for research. J. Worley conveyed his corporate 
perspective, stating the need for a business case to justify the private sector's 
intervention, in a search of possible profitable markets. Servicing the ISS might 
itself be a good market — at least that is the Boeing belief — although "it is 
undefined as of today". Among the many hurdles to be overcome to ease the 
commercial exploitation of the Space Station, the biggest was identified as 
access to the ISS, both the long time required and the large launch costs. S. 
Gazey agreed on the existing difficulties, but put the emphasis on the necessity 

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for prompt and committed actions from the major private actors. The system 
itself should be utilized to learn how to develop the next generation 
technologies in order to provide more users with affordable and promising tools 
for their businesses. Optimization should be sought in all fields, from logistics to 
astronaut training, particularly, in the first stage, by the natural operators of the 
ISS, who are also the providers of the facility to the commercial world. These 
operators are, for their knowledge of the hardware and the consequent 
possibility to improve its design and operations, the agencies' prime 
contractors. The existence of a business plan that DaimlerChrysler Aerospace 
has been developing was outlined in this regard. 

J. Cassanto (ITA), from the audience, directly addressed the Boeing 
representative by asking for the reasons behind the retreat of the company from 
its leadership position in the space privatization process. J. Worley underlined 
the difference between the past and the present with the merger having created 
the need for a reevaluation of the space business area. J. von der Lippe 
(INTOSPACE) stated his concern about smaller users with regard to the 
complexity of the interfaces. J. Worley agreed, and suggested a co-operation of 
the whole users' community to identify the necessary steps to improve the 
situation, one being the establishment of clear and easy to follow guidelines to 
access the ISS. S. Gazey underlined that the needs of the agencies and the large 
organizations necessary to operate the Space Station do not correspond to those 
of the small users. A specific effort is necessary to learn from the Mir example 
and offer to small users the shortest possible turnaround time and ease of 
access. The possibilities existing in the communications field were used by D. 
Beering to further stress the need for simplified interfaces. M. Uhran 
emphasized the universal desire to reduce the costs and time of access to the 
ISS. 



An indication of the price which Boeing would charge for a new module 
(in comparison to its Russian counterpart, Energia) was invited by E. Dahlstrom 
(space development consultant); J. Worley pointed out the relative exiguity of 
the incremental cost, i.e. a possible big decrease in price. S. Gazey gave the 
example of the COF module and the halving of the original cost through 
reviews and building on experience. R. Moslener (Boeing), from the audience, 
clarified the will of Boeing to re-enter the private segment via co-operations 
with small companies or groups. 

The problem of the time for access to the ISS and uncertainty of funding 
was posed again in relation to the short turnaround time for investigators in the 
microgravity science community. This question of C. Rousseau (ISU) was 
answered by M. Uhran with the consideration of the general availability of 
funding, while the resources to access the facilities are not enough. S. Gazey 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



235 



added the need to keep in mind other facilities beyond those in space, and 
noted the relative good state of the microgravity science sector in Europe. As a 
follow on to the question, the problem of a possible over-selling in the past of 
the microgravity market, and the possible re-establishment of a more realistic 
perception was raised from the audience. M. Uhran admitted NASA's and the 
other agencies' faults, and restated the problem of long access time as a major 
drawback. Y. Fujimori concurred, and also added that the science program is 
the most important for the ISS, and thus it should be made as attractive as 
possible. 

J. Burke (NASA-JPL), with the help of a visual summary of the panel's 
main topics, asked for an identification of the practical steps to be taken to solve 
the problem of access to the ISS. M. Uhran pointed out the relevance of the 
users' guides as critical tools from which to start augmenting the possible 
gateways, which are becoming global, and are still undefined. Life science and 
microgravity should be included in the process, although their access methods 
are already good. P. French (ISU) questioned whether the need is for more 
gateways or for the present ones to be streamlined. D. Beering advocated the 
impossibility of following the commercial market, with its speed of change, as a 
motivation for the rules being changed within the market itself, and not, 
artificially, from outside. Greater simplicity was the solution proposed by J. 
Worley, as more gateways might just add complexity and cause chaos. He 
added that the present gateways allow for diversity; they should come closer 
together without becoming monopolistic. Of the same opinion was S. Gazey, 
who went even further by imagining a case-specific access for each commercial 
user, without too much importance being given to universal gateways. 

The next question from the audience, posed by C. Rousseau (ISU), related 
to the long term vision (15 years ahead) of the panel members' involvement 
with the ISS. J. Worley forecast a scenario with a separate spin-off company 
operating the ISS independently of the rest of the Boeing company. S. Gazey, 
assuming an established commercial presence for the ISS, depicted 
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace selling on Earth technology and know-how 
acquired during the ISS lifetime and preparing for an international Mars 
mission. M Uhran pointed to the viability demonstration phase giving way to 
the real commercial exploitation phase, so that "the next Space Station will be 
private". D. Beering added his wish to see ISS being "considered as just another 
node of the world space network". 

Y. Fujimori concluded by inviting all those involved to work together so 
that the public money spent on building the ISS could create a common 
business system. 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



237 



Session 6 

Concluding Panel 

Session Chair: 

K. Doetsch, President, International Space University 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



239 



Report on the Concluding Panel 

P. Messina, T. Brisibe, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc d'Innovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andemach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: messina@mss.isunet.edu, brisibe@mss.isunet.edu 

Panel Chair: K. Doetsch, International Space University 
Panel Members: 

C. Bonifazi, ASI, Italy 

D, Branscome, NASA, USA 
A, Eddy, CSA, Canada 

Y. Fujimori, NASDA, Japan 
U. Merbold, ESA 
H. Ripken, DLR, Germany 

The concluding panel discussion was directed by K. Doetsch with the 
underlying theme that the symposium had been an analysis of the realities in 
utilizing the International Space Station, which could be described as a 
twentieth century pyramid, a stepping stone to space for mankind, or a market 
place. That analysis generated thought provoking comments such as "having 
developed the Space Station, the agencies should relinquish it". The debate 
commenced with a discussion concerning the long term prospects of the 
agencies acting as promoters of ISS utilization, and the validity of the need both 
to minimize government risk and responsibility and to increase the degree of 
risk and responsibility borne by the private sector. 

H. Ripken stressed that indeed the International Space Station is not a 
vehicle with a singular mission; the discussions have resulted in the emergence 
of the realization that it has many purposes, albeit with the need to confer 
responsibility as necessary. Y. Fujimori, who opined that NASDA holds a 
similar philosophy, supported this view. C. Bonifazi chose a diametrically 
opposed view by emphasizing that in fact the reality had already been finalized 
as the agencies would give preference to the scientific community; only with 
time and experience would a new community be formulated, thereby 
simplifying the interface between users and operators. Adopting a middle 
position U. Merbold stressed that it is the practice in numerous fields of 
endeavor to have government involvement and that the profit-driven motives 
of the private sector were crucial but had to be considered alongside other 
interests. D. Branscome pointed out that the private sector is necessary to 

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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



improve activity in addition to reducing costs for ISS utilization. Considering 
the shortcomings of governments there is an obvious need to allow private 
sector participation in such a way that market-oriented decisions are the criteria 
on which to proceed, thereby leaving the market free to develop. A. Eddy 
buttressed this viewpoint further by stating that, except with political pressure 
from above, the agencies would not relinquish their ISS roles although 
economics could be a driver behind the politics. 

K. Doestch then invited questions from the audience, the first of which 
was asked by K. Rezkallah implying that the developers of the International 
Space Station are selling something for which the customer is not yet prepared, 
thus creating a need to educate the commercial environment within the next 
five years. C. Bonifazi replied by pointing out that a lot of emphasis had been 
laid on construction of the ISS, but nonetheless that construction was an 
outstanding achievement in itself and would remain a greater challenge than 
ISS operation. U. Merbold disagreed, claiming that in the long run utilization of 
the ISS is more fascinating than its construction. D. Branscome chose a middle 
position believing that there is still a public awareness and educational need. 
This view was supported by H. Ripken who reckoned that scientific users are 
well aware of the possibilities offered by the International Space Station and a 
concentration on public awareness is necessary. A good demonstration is the 
overselling of the ISS as a platform for on-board experiments. The real challenge 
will be to attract commercial users and to sell the Space Station as a tool for 
solving the problems of industry. 

A member of the audience was curious as to how liability and insurance issues 
would be addressed in the event of a force majeur. A. Eddy responded by 
pointing out the fact that all the partners of the Space Station cooperation are 
responsible and the cross-waiver provisions in the Intergovernmental 
Agreement addresses the issue. Y. Fujimori supported this opinion, confirming 
that the relevant rules are explicitly provided for in the said agreement and 
related events would be settled by discussion. J. Cassanto, inviting all the 
panelists to comment, reiterated the opening question posed by K. Doestch, 
claiming that the answer already exists. He believed that the NASA policy of 
devoting 70% of ISS resources to scientific activity and 30% to commercial 
activity should be maintained, and that the peer review policy needs to be 
abandoned with regard to commercial activity. H. Ripken stated that as far as 
Europe is concerned, by the authority of the European Utilization Board and the 
International Space Station User Panel, it had been agreed to divide utilization 
fairly between scientific applications, industrial and commercial needs. 

M. Harringion then steered the discussion to a futuristic scenario by asking 
if the existence of entrepreneurs in 10 years that would put an end to users' 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



241 



subsidies would be considered as evidence of success of commercialization of 
the ISS. A. Eddy stated that 10 years is a long time as cost-based prices need to 
be lower than market-based prices in order for governments to recover their 
investments and the private sector to make a profit. D. Branscome felt that the 
concept of marginal costs would be used as a base, with policy and value 
costing being used as a means to recover costs. U. Merbold opined, with the 
concurrence of C. Bonifazi, that the results of utilizing the International Space 
Station would be non-material products — like knowledge — as opposed to 
physical goods, thereby making it difficult to come up with such numbers. M. 
Rycroft speaking from the audience simplified the question to: "what is the 
single best way, if not making a quick buck, making a slow buck with the 
International Space Station"? D. Branscome promptly replied... "if I knew, I 
would not tell you". 

K. Doestch posed a last request to the panelists: what would you like to 
leave with the attendees and students? C. Bonifazi stressed that maintaining 
the proper attitude and speaking the truth was necessary. U. Merbold warned 
that the International Space Station is big and powerful, and that the scientific 
potential is not the most crucial issue because its justification was political — it 
is an outpost, and the realization of its scope will only emerge in retrospect. D. 
Branscome stated that the success of commercialization depends on its 
utilization and that the development of hardware in space is crucial. Y. 
Fujimori, labeling all in attendance as "space junkies", emphasized that 
marketing is crucial especially to the academic, research, institutional and 
industrial sectors. A. Eddy, addressing the MSS students in particular, advised 
them to refrain from underestimating what had already been done and to 
realize that they were pioneers who consequently needed to be daring, brave, 
innovative and creative in order to make the Space Station both a land of 
opportunity and a reality. H. Ripken suggested that co-operation between the 
commercial sectors in different nations would be difficult. 

K. Doestch thanked the panelists for their views. He stated that there had 
been much talk in the presence of the custodians of the Space Station, and that 
he was much encouraged by the resulting interchange between the private 
sector, academia and governments. It was simply incredible that the 
International Space Station was becoming a reality for the next millennium. 




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Poster Papers 




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245 



The International Space Station: Expanding our 
Knowledge of Reactions to Microgravity and Methods 
to Compensate the Effects of Gravity in Relation to 
Certain Species of Birds 

L. Higgs, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, Parc 
d'Innovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France 

e-mail: higgs@mss.isunet.edu 

Abstract 

Since the launch of the first biological satellite. Sputnik 2, in 1957, experimentation 
has been performed to understand the effects on the anatomy of living and working in 
a microgravity environment. Many different species (examples being mammals and 
fish) have been used as test subjects, including humans; however, research using birds 
has been limited. This paper establishes the essential role that birds (Class Aves) should 
play in future space missions, how birds can be utilized to further other fields of 
research in relation to osteoporosis and other medical conditions, and why the ISS will 
be the most logical choice for this research. 

1. Introduction 

In the event of mankind inhabiting celestial bodies, the fragile ecological 
system associated with the Earth's biosphere should be recreated. Birds have an 
ecological niche in maintaining this equilibrium [Reference 1] and act as 
environmental indicators [Reference 2]. Their location in the food chain can 
show the health of their habitat as they feed on insects, thus controlling insect 
populations, and keep a balance between the organisms. Other key roles of 
birds include the reintroduction of nitrogen into the soil through their waste 
[Reference 2], seed dispersal and pollination of plants, detection of gases 
harmful to humans and, ultimately, a source of food (another level to the food 
chain). 

Birds can also be subjects for numerous medical research studies. The 
skeletal structure of birds differs from that of other species as the bones are 
hollow and linked to a system of air sacs [Reference 3]. Research into the effects 
of prolonged exposure to microgravity may show an unknown effect. Other 
medical benefits may include research on conditions such as osteoporosis, 
infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey's Disease) and antitrypsin deficiency 
[Reference 3]. 

However, before birds can be introduced into the ecological system of a 
space-based habitat and ultimately benefit mankind, controlled experiments 
must take place to understand how they will react and adapt to their new 

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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



environment. The International Space Station provides the perfect environment 
for microgravity experiments and experiments with differing gravity levels, 
using the ISS centrifuge. Simulations can be performed at various gravity levels 
to mimic the conditions expected on a relevant celestial body. 

2. The 'Life-Cycle' Project 

2.1 Proposal 

The proposed utilisation project would take place over the entire life span 
of birds to understand the effects of microgravity on their development. 
Beginning at hatching, the experiment would chart the development of the 
birds, through growth, into maturity and until death. It would be an ongoing 
project as it would continue with the offspring of the original test subjects. 
Constant research could therefore take place into how Class Aves adapt to life 
in space and how human development may also be affected. 

2.2 Why Use the ISS Rather than Other Options? 

The ISS is ideally suited to undertake this experiment due to the controlled 
environment , in which the progress of the caged test subjects is monitored. 
Multiple generations could be studied, to show any changes occurring over a 
longer period of time. Also the long duration reduced gravity conditions would 
help in readiness for life on the Moon or Mars. Experimentation on confinement 
could occur on Earth, but new effects could be expected aboard the ISS. 

Other options include parabolic flights ; however, these are only short 
duration flights. Although they would give valuable preliminary data, it would 
be difficult to show how birds react at different stages of their life cycle. Shuttle- 
based experiments would provide longer duration exposure to microgravity 
conditions, but insufficient time for the life cycle to take place. 

3. Conclusion 

The opportunities that will be made possible through the International 
Space Station are huge and will serve as an essential bridge between current 
understanding and greater knowledge. Stemming from a singular experiment, 
there would be significant spin-off possibilities available to both science and 
academia. 

The ISS allows for biological research to be undertaken in an environment 
that will best resemble life on a celestial body. It will show how birds could live 
in space and adapt to reduced gravity conditions. Birds will be able to 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



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experience microgravity or reduced gravity conditions for a complete life cycle, 
and tests can be completed on them at different stages of their development. 
The Station could be used throughout its proposed life span (15 years), thus 
creating an experiment over many generations. 

The possibilities of developing new cures for diseases as well as 
overcoming problems associated with microgravity are two key reasons for 
undertaking this research. From this, information on how life can develop in 
space from conception through to death can also be obtained. 

A unique opportunity can also be envisioned from the applications 
available to education. Interactive experiments could be held between ground- 
based controlled experiments and the ISS, showing the differences between 
results. This could be wide ranging through its use by school, college and 
university students. 

Creating a new, innovative and educationally stimulating role for the ISS 
could be achieved through the development of such a project. "...Through 
individuals and groups theorising alternative and possible futures , they are analysing 
probable considerations , which will ultimately guide our development to other celestial 
bodies..." [Reference 4]. This project will further our development and 
ultimately establish the International Space Station as an internationally 
beneficial tool to celestial colonisation. 

Reference 

1. The Guinness Compact Encyclopedia, p. 140. Guinness Publishing, Enfield, 1994 

2. Earth Generation: Facts about Birds, 

http://eelink.umich.edu/Curriculum/birdfacts.htm. January 28, 1999 

3. Encarta Encyclopedia: Birds, http://encarta.msn.com/EncartaHome.asp. January 
28, 1999 

4. Higgs, L.: A Lunar Frontier: Comprehending Life on a Celestial Body, Master's 
thesis. International Space University, 1999 




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Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA): Intelligent 
System Monitoring, Management, Analysis, and 
Administration 



C. Holland, Honeywell, Inc., Satellite Systems Operation: Space Systems, 19019 N. 59 th 
Avenue, Glendale, AZ 85308-9650, USA 



e-mail: cholland@space.honeywell.com 



Abstract 

The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides diagnostics of International 
Space Station hardware and software; the advanced Honeywell 'smart' model based 
technology performs real-time diagnostics. An astronaut or mission specialist can 
perform diagnostics of problems with Space Station electronic equipment and software 
on board the Space Station at any time. This feature provides 24-hour access to the 
knowledge of the best International Space Station hardware and software experts. The 
architecture of the DSA consists of a human-centered interface, diagnostic engine, 
system fault model, and system infrastructure. 

The system is being developed in five phases. 

Fault Isolation Phase. A user inputs fault symptoms to the system. The DSA uses 
the database to trace symptoms to possible sources, and presents the resulting list to the 
user, who then performs additional hardware or software tests to isolate the fault. 

Fault Diagnosis Phase. The DSA performs fault isolation as in the first phase, and 
then displays an ordered list of inputs for the user to examine for faulty values. Also, 
the user receives instructions and test cases to assist in finding the faults. 

Fault Detection Phase. The DSA monitors the signals of the system in order to 
detect symptoms automatically. The astronaut, mission specialist, technician, or 
engineer does not have to input symptom data. The DSA performs the fault isolation 
and fault diagnosis as in the first two phases. 

Active Diagnosis Phase. The DSA monitors system signals and isolates faults as in 
the previous phases. Either the user may initiate the system by identifying a faulty 
output, or an error condition may trigger the diagnosis. The DSA executes automated 
test procedures to produce the smallest fault set possible before displaying the list. 

Proactive Diagnosis Phase. This incorporates all the above, and applies advanced 
system monitoring techniques to predict or provide early detection of faults. 

1. Problem Statement and Solution 

The complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) requires that a full 
staff of ground-based system diagnosis experts is trained and available at all 
times. Response to critical situations must be immediate no matter what time of 
the day or night. Installation of new systems plus normal staff turnover cause 
personnel to be in training constantly. Domain knowledge lost due to staff 
attrition can never be regained. All of these factors lead to extremely high-cost 
ground-based flight system monitoring stations and sub-optimal efficiency. On- 
orbit diagnosis and recovery procedures are currently available only as massive 
binders of paper copies, making access difficult. Valuable time is wasted while 
the astronaut or mission specialist leafs through volumes of printed material. 

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The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides a solution to the 
inadequacies of the current on-orbit diagnosis and recovery plans. As fully 
integrated Vehicle Health Management (VHM), it offers a systems monitoring 
capability that is collocated with the system being monitored. DSA reduces the 
response time to complete the diagnosis, reduces the cost of maintaining a 24- 
hour manned monitoring center, and makes expert knowledge of systems 
operations constantly available. The DSA implements failure and fault 
diagnosis as an automatic function based on a system description database that 
captures the operational model of the system to be monitored. When a failure 
and fault occur, the response becomes an automatic function based on a system 
monitor procedure database, which captures the procedures to be followed. 
The database is updated as systems change and new systems are installed. 
Support is provided for on-line documentation access for flight crews, making 
paper copies unnecessary. 

2. DSA Structure: The Five Levels 

Fault Isolation Phase: Level 1 creates a tool that will capture system model 
information maintained by system experts to assist non-experts in fault 
isolation. The system model captures the operational description of the system. 
Fault information is input as states of system signals observed by the user who 
is maintaining the system being monitored. 

Fault Diagnosis Phase: Level 2 enhances the user's ability to diagnose faults 
by providing direct access to system description drawings, specifications, and 
test procedures. Relevant documents are linked to specific areas of the system 
being diagnosed. 

Fault Detection Phase: Level 3 monitors the system data directly by direct 
connection to the bus. The database for this level is modified to provide a 
description of the protocol to be used to collect live data and filter it for 
application to the system model. 

Active Diagnosis Phase: Level 4 relieves the user of having to trace fault 
symptoms and conduct isolation and diagnostic testing. The DSA commands 
the system to collect more data to complete the diagnosis. 

Proactive Diagnosis: Level 5 completes the VHM functionality by adding 
prognostics to the DSA system. System component failures are predicted to 
support scheduled preventative maintenance, and to facilitate planning for 
carrying replacement parts to ISS by the Space Shuttle. 




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Measurements of Raised Intra-Cranial Pressure, a Cause 
of Space Motion Sickness 

C. P. Karunaharan, O. Atkov, International Space University, Strasbourg Central 
Campus, Parc d'Innovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch- 
Graffenstaden, France 

e-mail: karunaharan@mss.isunet.edu, atkov@isu.isunet.edu 

Abstract 

Space motion sickness may be explained in terms of vestibular problems, fluid 
shift and raised intra-cranial pressure(ICP). The latter is known to trigger nausea, 
vomiting and headache in patients who have a defect in the drainage of cerebrospinal 
fluid. Different non-invasive as well as invasive techniques have been used in space to 
test this hypothesis. Solving the problem will enable astronauts aboard the International 
Space Station to be more effective. 

1. Introduction 

Different non-invasive as well as invasive techniques have been used in the 
space environment to test the hypothesis that increased intra-cranial pressure 
(ICP) causes space motion sickness. The former include Doppler ultrasound 
devices, tympanic membrane displacement devices and 
opthalmodynamometer. The invasive techniques so far include the Russian Bion 
experiments using primates which had probes placed intra-cranially prior to 
being flown. 

The Variable Frequency Pulse Phase-Locked Loop (PPLL) measuring 
device developed by NASA [Reference 1] sends an ultrasound wave through 
the head, where it is reflected from the back of the skull and returned to a 
sensor. This device maintains a constant distance between the peaks of the 
outgoing and incoming sound waves by changing its wavelength. Therefore, 
with rising ICP, if the measurement between the front and the back of the 
cranium increases, so should the wavelength providing a marker for pressure. 
The first flight tests will be carried out during 1999. Alterations of ICP during 
acute 6° Head Down Tilt have been examined in humans using a non-invasive 
tympanic membrane displacement technique [Reference 2]. Early results point 
to a rise in ICP. In the volunteers studied, the stimulus intensity corresponded 
to a 20-25dB above reflex threshold, and at this level the mean displacement in 
the sitting position, +194nl, compared favourably with other investigations, 170 
to 210nl. Tympanic membrane displacement of +194nl corresponded to an ICP 
of about 1.5mmHg. In 6 0 Head Down Tilt posture, a rise in ICP of 17mmHg 
was indicated. The opthalmodynamometry considered by Hamburg University 
[Reference 3] suggests a positive correlation between a rise in intra-ocular 

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pressure in microgravity conditions (Spacelab D2-mission/German Mir 
Mission) with ICP. Using the automatic microprocessor controlled ocular 
tonometer the intra-ocular pressure at the moment of arterial collapse is 
measured. Clinical trials are yet to be done with this technique. 

The invasive technique involved in measuring ICP by the epidural and 
subdural method was carried out on the primate 'Macata Mulatta' aboard BION 
( M bio-satellite M ) in 1995 [Reference 4]. Both in animals that are awake and under 
narcosis, ICP always rose when transferring into an anti-orthostatic position. 
However, it did not rise above the common "physiological" standard and there 
was no correlated arterial pressure change. If animals are kept in the anti- 
orthostatic position for many hours, there is a trend to ICP normalisation and, in 
fact, this is the case by about the ninth day of the flight The pattern of ICP pulse 
wave corresponds to the development of a considerable stagnation in the 
venous circulation of the brain during the fifth or sixth day of the space flight. 
Gradual ICP retrieval to the initial standard indicates adaptation of the system 
to the new dynamic conditions. For rabbits in simulated motion-sickness 
conditions [Reference 4] there was a pressure rise up to 15mmHg, whereas for 
those which were treated with lasex (l-3ml) a rise of only up to 7mmHg was 
noted. The second BION experiment was carried out in 1998 [Reference 5]. 
Within 5min of launch, the pressure rose to 13.78mmHg with an average of 
10.23mmHg over the 20hr of the experiment. The ICP increases for the first 5 
days, achieving values of 14mmHg. Unlike conditions on Earth, the rise during 
sleep is higher than when awake. Different results are obtained later in the 
flight. If ICP deviates from normal during sleep disturbances, reducing this may 
stabilise the upset sleep patterns which are a problem in space travel since they 
reduce work efficiency. 

2. Proposed Experiment 

ICP is potentially a critical parameter for understanding physiological 
changes (reduced blood flow and therefore decreased oxygen and metabolites) 
during actual and simulated microgravity conditions. A detailed understanding 
of the relationship between cerebral haemodynamics, cerebrospinal fluid and 
intracranial pressure changes in microgravity requires further studies. Clinical 
’spin-offs' are of great value in neurosurgery, otolaryngology as well as in 
cardiovascular diseases. Our proposal is to use a combination of the methods 
discussed to measure ICP for a long period (perhaps on a weekly basis, on the 
ISS, with parameters such as EEG) to understand the correlation with sleep 
patterns and determine whether ICP increases enough (e.g. up to 7mmHg) to 
trigger sleep disturbances without any other clinical manifestations that are 
observed at higher pressures (up to 15mmHg). If this is the case, then 
controlling raised intracranial pressure will be an effective countermeasure to 




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sleep disturbances and reduced working capabilities of astronauts aboard Mir 
and the ISS. 

References 

1. Nowak. R.: NASA's Space Biology Program shows signs of life. Science, Vol. 268, 
1995 

2. Hargens. A., et al.: Increased intracranial pressure in humans during simulated 
micro-gravity, Physiologist, Vol. 35. Nol. Suppl.,1992 

3. Draeger, J. A., Rumberger, E., Hechler, B., Linner, E.: Non-invasive control of 
intracranial pressure rise due to fluidshift after entry into microgravity conditions using a 
new fully automatic microprocessor controlled Opthalmodynamometer, Second 
European Symposium, "Utilisation of the ISS", ESTEC, Noordwijk, The 
Netherlands, November 16-18, 1998 

4. Trambovetsky, E. V.: Dynamics of the intracranial pressure of animals in zero-gravity 
model and in real space flight, Airborne, Space and Marine medicine, Ph.D. Thesis, 
Moscow, Russia, 1995 

5. Trambovetsky, E. V., Krotov, V. P.: Abstracts of Conference (Vol II), 10th 
Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Moscow, Russia, June 22- 
26, 1998 




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Recording Sprites, Blue Jets and ELVES from the ISS 

A. Larisma, M. Rycroft, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc d'lnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 



e-mail: larisma@yahoo.com, michael.j.rycroft@ukgateway.net 



Abstract 

Sprites, blue jets and ELVES are lightning-triggered optical emissions which occur 
in the rarefied atmosphere above thunderstorms. Images of these phenomena first 
appeared in the scientific literature less than a decade ago and the mechanisms 
responsible for their eeneration are not yet fully understood. One of the factors 
hindering a fuller understanding is the scarcity of good quality video observations 
around the world. Several features of the ISS make it an ideal platform from which to 
study such events. This paper proposes an experiment consisting of an astronaut 
tended, ground controlled, low light level video camera, sensitive to both visible and 
infrared light, mounted on an Earth-facing payload site aboard the ISS. Ideal 
observation windows would be selected beforehand to make optimal use of the data 
down-link bandwidth and astronaut time. This would involve using existing ground- 
and space-based meteorological observation networks to identify mesoscale convective 
systems (i.e. energetic thunderstorms), above which sprite phenomena typically occur. 
Astronaut observations from the cupola would facilitate the identification of regions of 
high activity; these are not always clear on wide-field video images. Real-time decisions 
made by the astronauts on where to point the camera would enable the operators to 
zoom in on an area of interest, and record events with high spatial and temporal 
resolution. Sub-millisecond timing of video frames, required for correlation with 
complementary ground-based observations such as very low frequency radio 
recordings and lightning detection data, could be supplied by the ACES clock on ISS. 
Coordinated ground-based, airborne and coarse satellite observations could be used for 
triangulation, and hence accurate position and size determination. Finally, the program 
could exploit the ISS’s long lifetime by studying the effects of the solar cycle on the 
occurrence of sprite phenomena. 

1. Introduction 

Recent papers [References 1, 2, 3] have described the characteristics of red 
sprites, blue jets, and ELVES. Sprites are vertically aligned, often filamentary, 
luminous structures, extending from 35 to 90 km altitude. Their diameters may 
be as large as 50 km. The sequence of visible events preceding a sprite begins 
with a discharge in a thundercloud. After a delay of about a half-second, there 
is a brightening of the cloud. This is associated with a positive cloud to ground 
(CG) lightning discharge. The appearance of the sprite follows the discharge, 
with a characteristic development time of 10 ms. Additional discharges continue 
in the cloud after the sprite for about 1 s. 

Blue jets are luminous cones that propagate upwards from cloud tops at 
about 100 km/s to altitudes of around 40 km. Unlike sprites, they are not 
associated with positive CG discharges. They typically occur in storm cells with 

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intense negative CG lightning activity and are usually followed by a decrease in 
this activity in a region extending about 15 km around the blue jet. 

'Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations From 
Electromagnetic Pulse Sources', or ELVES, are large horizontal flashes that 
illuminate the sky for a region extending about 100 km around a causative 
lightning flash. 

2. Proposed Experiment 

An astronaut tended, ground controlled, video camera, sensitive to both 
visible and infrared light, mounted on an Earth-facing payload site aboard the 
ISS would be suitable for recording sprite phenomena. Recordings could be 
made in different modes depending on the temporal, spatial and spectral 
coverage and resolution desired. Different lenses, sensors and recording devices 
would be needed. Surveys of wide areas over long time periods could be made 
using a wide-angle lens and ordinary videotape. These could be used for 
statistical studies. 

In depth views of the morphology of such celestial fireworks could be 
gained using high-speed video and a lens with a narrow field of view. Much of 
this footage would be of no value to the experiment as the chances of capturing 
an event, even under good observing conditions, are very low. The footage 
could be reviewed on board the ISS perhaps automatically, based on some 
signature of the phenomena, and uninteresting data could be discarded. This 
would help conserve data downlink bandwidth or storage medium bulk. 

Observations could also be divided into astronaut-tended sessions and 
purely remote-controlled recordings. Survey recordings could be made with 
minimal interference from operators, while high-resolution recordings would 
benefit from astronaut intervention. Ideal observation windows would be 
selected beforehand to make optimal use of the astronauts' time. This would 
involve using existing ground- and space-based meteorological observation 
networks to identify mesoscale convective systems (i.e. energetic 
thunderstorms), above which sprite phenomena typically occur. 

Astronauts should be able to control the camera, and have access to the 
video signal from the cupola. This would allow them to direct the camera based 
on visual observations. It should also be possible to relay the video and control 
signals continuously to the ground to enable scientists to control the camera 
remotely and make real time observations. 




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Observations of VLF waves, gamma rays or ~100 keV electrons could 
complement the video observations. Instruments could be specially installed for 
this purpose or use could be made of currently proposed sensors such as those 
on NASDA's Space Environment Monitor. Coordinated ground-based, airborne 
and coarse satellite observations could be used for triangulation, and hence 
accurate position and size determination. Observation campaigns could be 
arranged around one or two solar maxima and minima to investigate the 
dependence of sprite occurrence on the solar cycle. 

3. Conclusions 

Several features of the ISS make it an ideal platform from which to study 
sprites, blue jets and ELVES: 

• The ISS's altitude provides a good vantage point from which to view large 
portions of the Earth 

• The relatively low orbit of the ISS enables images with good spatial 
resolution to be made 

• The inclination of the ISS's orbit allows for the major thunderstorm regions 
to be covered regularly 

• The ISS's infrastructure can easily provide basic resources to the 
experiment such as power, communications bandwidth, accurate timing 
and cargo transport 

• Existing instruments aboard the ISS such as NASDA's Space Environment 
Monitor can provide complementary data to the experiment 

• Astronauts aboard the ISS can make complementary visual observations 
from the cupola, take decisions on where to point the camera, change 
recording modes or install new equipment 

• The ISS's long life allows for observations to be made over one or more 
solar cycles. 

References 

1. Armstrong , R. A., Shorter, J. A., Taylor, M. J., Suszcynsky, D. M., Lyons, W. A. 
and Jeong, L. S.: Photometric measurements in the SPRITES '95 & '96 campaigns 
of nitrogen second positive (399.8 nm) and first negative (427.8 nm) emissions. 
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, JASTP, 60, pp. 787-799, 1998 

2. Boeck, W. L., Vaughan, O. H., Blakeslee, R. J., Vonnegut, B. and Brook, M.: The 
role of the space shuttle videotapes in the discovery of sprites, jets and elves, 
JASTP, 60, pp. 669-677, 1998 

3. Wescott, E. M., Sentman, D. D., Heavner, M. J., Hampton, D. L., Vaughan, O. H.: 
Blue jets: their relationship to lightning and very large hailfall, and their physical 
mechanisms for their production, JASTP, 60, pp. 713-724, 1998 




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Gene Therapy as a Possible Counter-measure for Long 
Duration Space Flight 

J. Maule, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, Parc 
dTnnovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France 



e-mail: maule@mss.isunet.edu 



Abstract 

Long duration spaceflight results in certain medical problems for astronauts such 
as bone weakening and a decline in the immune system. Whilst many methods have 
been used to combat these effects, they have been only partly successful. This paper 
proposes that spaceflight counter-measures be considered on a new and more molecular 
basis than has been done previously. One branch of molecular biology that has 
undergone rapid growth over the last decade is gene therapy. Experimental trials of 
this technique on the International Space Station could enable the development of an 
effective counter-measure for long duration spaceflights of the future. 

1. Introduction 

Gene therapy has been used on Earth for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, 
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome 
(AIDS), asthma and Severe Combined Immuno-Deficiency (SCID) (see 
Reference 1 for review). It is now being used extensively in human clinical trials 
[References 2, 3]. 

The simplest form of gene therapy involves a single injection of DNA into 
skeletal muscle, resulting in uptake and long term expression of foreign genes 
by muscle cells [Reference 4]. The procedure of injection and the events that 
follow intra-muscular injection of DNA have now been characterised in detail 
[References 1, 5, 6]. 

Many applications to spaceflight are envisaged, including administration 
of the osteoprotegrin gene [Reference 7] to prevent bone weakening, and 
stimulation of the immune system [Reference 1] to prevent decline of the 
immune system. 

2. Methods 



Plasmid DNA (circular DNA containing the desired gene) can be grown in 
bacterial cultures, isolated and purified ready for injection in less than a day 
(see Reference 1 for details). The plasmid DNA is dissolved in sterile saline 
solution and is then injected intra-muscularly in a similar fashion to 
conventional vaccine jabs. The method is simple, specific and inexpensive. DNA 
can also be stored easily at cabin temperature without degradation. 

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3. Conclusion 

The long duration spaceflights of the future, such as a manned mission to 
Mars, will probably require biomedical counter-measures of greater efficacy 
than are currently available today. This paper has proposed that research 
should now be performed into new and non-traditional counter-measures. The 
substantial growth of gene therapy over the last decade should encourage 
experimental trials of gene therapy on the International Space Station. 

References 

1. Maule, J.: The Characterisation and Modulation of the Immune Response following Direct 
Injection of Plasmid DNA into Murine Skeletal Muscle, Ph.D. Thesis, London, 
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, 1998 

2. Bolhuis, R. L., Willemsen, R. A., Lamers, C. H., Stam, K., Gratama, J. W. and 
Weijtens, M. E.: Preparation for a phase I/II study using autologous gene 
modified T lymphocytes for treatment of metastatic renal cancer patients, Adv Exp 
Med Biol, Vol 451, pp. 547-55, 1998 

3. Mackiewicz, A., Kapcinska, M., Wiznerowicz, M., Malicki, J., Nawrocki, S., 
Nowak, J., Murawa, P., Sibilska, E., Kowalczyk, D., Lange, A., Hawley, R.C. and 
Rose-John, S.: Immunogene therapy of human melanoma. Phase I/II clinical trial. 
Adv Exp Med Biol, Vol 451, pp. 557-60, 1998 

4. Wolff, J. A.: Direct Gene Transfer into Mouse Muscle in vivo. Science, Vol 247, pp. 
1465-8, 1990 

5. Wells, K. E., Maule, J., Kingston, R., Foster, K., McMahon, J., Damien, E., Poole, A. 
and Wells, D. J.: Immune responses, not promoter inactivation, are responsible for 
decreased long-term expression following plasmid gene transfer into skeletal 
muscle, FEBS Lett, Vol 407, pp. 164-168, 1997 

6. Wells, D. J., Maule, J., McMahon, J., Mitchell, R., Damien, E., Poole, A., Wells, K. 
E.: Evaluation of plasmid DNA for in vivo gene therapy: factors affecting the 
number of transfected fibers, J. Pharm. Sci., Vol 87, pp. 763-768, 1998 

7. Cancedda, R. and Falcetti, G.: Mice Drawer System, presented at Second European 
Symposium on the Utilisation of the International Space Station, ESTEC, Noordwijk, 
The Netherlands, 1998. 




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Some Ideas for a Global ISU Educational Program 
Centered on the International Space Station 

0. Zhdanovich, M. Rycroft, International Space University, Parc d'Innovation, 
Boulevard Gonthier d'Andemach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France 

e-mail: zhdanovich@isu.isunet.edu, rycroft@isu.isunet.edu 

Abstract 

An ISU global education program linked to the International Space Station (ISS) is 
proposed in this paper. The aim of this program is to improve access by the general 
public to the results of research carried out aboard the International Space Station and 
thus to receive more support for space programmes. 

1. Concept 

The International Space Station (ISS) can be a unique classroom for space 
education and space-based education for students as well as for the general 
public. Recently, the space agencies have organised a special inter-agency group 
responsible for the educational program of the International Space Station. This 
group is now developing its working structure, etc., but no real project has been 
proposed. Separately NASA and ESA have their own educational initiatives as, 
for example, the NASA KidSat and ESA's SUCCESS project. The KidSat 
payload would it make possible for teachers and students to observe various 
phenomena from space on the Earth with a video camera. ESA's SUCCESS 
contest asks students from Europe to propose experiments for the ISS. The best 
proposals will fly on board the ISS and the winners will also be offered 
internships or thesis opportunities with European industries /universities. 

The International Space University teaches students from all over the 
world in the peaceful uses of outer space. The ISU global education program 
linked to the ISS proposed here is aimed at raising interest among the general 
public in space-based education, in space activities and in pre-competitive 
research. This program which is based on the three ISU principles — 
international, intercultural and interdisciplinary — would make it possible for 
teams of students of all ages, from different countries and different disciplines, 
to analyse data obtained aboard ISS, in order to develop scientific ideas and 
obtain results, and also to consider the important issues of space commerce and 
public outreach. Dr. C. Welch, ISU UK Affiliate, comments: "an ISS-related 
nanosatellite program could offer education in the areas of remote sensing, 
space environment, space science and satellite systems engineering for schools 
and universities in many countries. Given its international network, ISU is 
perhaps uniquely placed to initiate such an undertaking". 

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People of different age groups and backgrounds would be involved: 
schoolchildren (especially underprivileged groups, e.g. disabled children, 
orphans), university students (Bachelor, Master and Doctoral students), school 
teachers, university staff, researchers, the general public, policy and decision- 
makers, and the private sector. The fields of study would be very broad, 
ranging from life sciences to microgravity, science and technology, and Earth 
observations. For school children and students, the program can be developed 
based on the principle of simplification from the doctoral to the school levels. 
Utilising the facilities and experiments aboard the ISS, the participation of 
university students and staff could be in various disciplines — biomedicine, 
production of new materials, science /engineering, and environment. The 
projects could start with a close co-operation with the Principal Investigators, 
and with astronauts and cosmonauts during their training, followed by their 
carrying out projects on board the ISS, and post flight processing. Competitions 
could be held amongst the participants within each class of people involved. 
The participants would be linked to ISU, to the network of ISU affiliated 
campuses and to national coordinators for this ISU/ ISS education program, as 
well as the public outreach and educational offices of space agencies. The 
participation of other nations, such as China and India, would be desirable. 

2. Conclusions 

Educational programs are directly linked to the public outreach aspects of 
space programs. Altogether they aim to improve participation by the general 
public in space activities and to receive more support for these. A few 
suggestions as to how this can be done, some based on the experience of 
educational and public outreach programs for the Mir Space Station developed 
in Russia this decade, are: 

• Special competitions for university students and staff, analyzing the 
results of experiments performed aboard the ISS 

• Development of space lessons from space; special education programs on 
TV, with special competitions for children of different age groups; special 
competition for journalists from magazines and TV/radio for the best 
coverage of space and best "space" journalist of the year [Reference 1]. 

References 

1. Zhdanovich, O.: Visionary Strategic Planning for the Space Exploration and Resources 
Exploitation in the 21st Century , ESA WPP-151, January 1999 




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Epilogue 




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Epilogue to the ISU Symposium on "ISS: The Next 
Space Marketplace" 

H. Ripken, German Aerospace Center, DLR, Koenigswinterer Str. 522, 53227 Bonn- 
Oberkassel, Germany 

e-mail: hartmut.ripken@dlr.de 

G. Haskell, M. Rycroft, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc d'lnnovation. Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: haskell@mss.isunet.edu, rycroft@mss.isunet.edu 
Abstract 

This epilogue aims to report the main sentiments with which the attendees left the 
Symposium, although it cannot formally be said to represent the Conclusions of the 
Symposium. Two specific Recommendations for Future Actions are made, however. 

I. Closing Thoughts 

1.1 Preamble 

At the end of this most interesting three day Symposium, no Committee or 
Working Group was established to generate a set of Conclusions arising from 
the wide-ranging discussions that took place at the Symposium. However, the 
first author had already taken the initiative during the Symposium to draft a 
Position Statement. This was circulated to a number of attendees, and a fuller, 
second draft was soon created with two recommendations. After the 
Symposium, the second author circulated that draft to all attendees, seeking 
their views on it and asking for suggestions for improvements and changes. The 
third author considered all the inputs that were received together with his own 
impressions, and generated a third draft on which this Epilogue is based. 

What follows here, therefore, is a complement to the Symposium, rather 
than a Summary of it. It is presented in the hope that it will assist in carrying 
forward the discussions around the world on the crucial topic of ISS utilization 
and commercialization. 

It has recently been announced that, from 13 to 15 June 2000, a conference 
will take place in Berlin, Germany, with the name "ISS Forum 2000: New 
Opportunities in Space". One objective of that meeting will be to convince the 
scientific establishment, and hence also public opinion, of the great value of the 
International Space Station. 

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The International Space University hopes that the papers presented, and 
the discussions reported, in this book will act both as valuable reference 
materials for the Berlin meeting and also as a stimulus to further discussions, 
plans and actions. 

2.2 Specific Statements and Suggestions 

1. Early in the new millennium, and driven mainly by political considerations, 
the ISS will become an integral part of the global infrastructure, enriching 
technology development, scientific research, education and commercial 
business on the ground for the benefit of all peoples. Broad education and 
public awareness programs for the ISS are required in all Partner nations to 
ensure that the ISS program is as cost-effective, efficient and productive as 
possible; such programs should play specific roles, each having elements of 
public service (outreach) and commercial opportunities (e.g. market 
development). 

2. There are new business areas and commercial opportunities where the ISS 
can be a valuable, or even a necessary, tool. A broad range of commercial 
opportunities for both traditional space industries and non-space industries 
should be exploited, to encourage a wide spectrum of activities in the 
future. 

3. To promote ISS commercialization, partners from academia, industry and 
government should work together to reduce the ISS programmatic and 
policy constraints in order to stimulate viable commercial activities on the 
ISS. This requires clearly understood, and stable, policies on access to the 
ISS, e.g., project selection criteria, pricing, confidentiality, and intellectual 
property rights. 

4. Management and support structures should be as "user friendly" as 
possible in order to encourage utilization of the ISS by commercial entities. 
At the same time these structures should enable, not limit, competition 
between potential users in different nations. 

5. In the long-term, space agencies are not well suited to operate Space 
Stations or to manage commercial activities in space. They should act as 
promoters of space commercialization. While the risks resulting from new 
developments need to be minimized for investors, the responsibilities for 
utilization - and the associated risks - should be transferred to the private 
sector, as each commercial area becomes self-sufficient. ISS utilization needs 
to be an open process, with as much private responsibility as possible, and 
as little public responsibility as necessary. 




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6. In order to seed and incubate commercial ventures, public-private sector 
partnerships having adequate resources are an important step towards 
successful commercial ISS utilization. 

7. Experience from past and present private sector initiatives in space, and 
from the commercial use and operation of space facilities, should be injected 
into ISS utilization plans. 

8. Both private and public sectors should identify, discuss and prepare for the 
elimination of policy, cost and technical barriers to commercialisation of the 
ISS. 

1.3 Specific Recommendations for Future Actions 

1. International information interchange and cooperation are required to 
promote ISS industrialization and commercial utilization. An "ISS 
Commercialization Working Group", with participation going beyond the 5 
ISS partners, should be established with agency, university and private 
sector representatives, to identify the way forward and make 
recommendations on, e.g., the standards which ISS commercial users 
should meet. 

2. An international Symposium should be organized in the year 2000 to 
review the progress made in the last 25 years and the prospects for the next 
25 years in all relevant areas of space activities. Both the theoretical basis 
and the empirical evidence to date should be summarized by the leaders in 
these space fields, with a view towards answering the questions: "what 
studies should be performed aboard the ISS?", "what are the next steps in 
the manned exploitation of space?", and "how should they be pursued?" 




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Annex 

Utilization of the ISS, A User's Overview 




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Utilization of the International Space Station: A User's 

Overview 

E. Benzi, B. Boardman, T. Brisibe, R. Gao, L. Higgs, C. Maredza, J. Maule, P. Messina, 
R. Mittal, M. Rezazad, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc d'Innovation, Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

e-mail: benzi@mss.isunet.edu, boadman@mss.isunet.edu, brisibe@mss.isunet.edu, 

gao@mss.isunet.edu, higgs@mss.isunet.edu, maredza@mss.isunet.edu, 

maule@mss.isunet.edu, messina@mss.isunet.edu, mittal@mss.isunet.edu, 

rezazad@mss.isunet.edu 

Executive Summary 

"Utilization of the International Space Station: A User's Overview" is a 
primer designed to give the reader a brief, but comprehensive, 
multidisciplinary look at the ISS. Although its focus is basic, it is also broad 
enough for the experienced reader to find new insight and be led by the 
references to whatever depth of information is needed. Its purpose is to engage 
prospective users in beginning with the Station's capabilities and ending with 
the first steps to be taken when participating in a mission. 

This document arises from the literature review for the Team Project of the 
Master of Space Studies Class of 1999 at the International Space University. It is 
the result of a group effort by all thirty-eight members of the class and began as 
a much broader work in the fall of 1998. An exhaustive multi-disciplinary 
review of Space Station literature proved too cumbersome and the narrower 
focus of a "User's Overview" was chosen. Although it was written with the 
early scientific user in mind, the utilization climate has been rapidly changing in 
the direction of commercialization. If the project had run for another month, 
this document would have reflected more of this change in the direction of 
industrial users. 

"A User's Overview" begins with a brief look at the historical and political 
development of the Space Station. Manned space platforms have been 
considered since late in the last century, but not until the 1970's with the Salyut 
and Skylab programs was the vision achieved. The Russians' Mir has been in 
operation for thirteen years and seems to have more than nine lives. The 
current Space Station began with a NASA Task Force in 1982 and was endorsed 
by President Ronald Reagan in his 1984 State of the Union address. Both the 
design and the list of Partners has undergone various changes. Canada, 
Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States now work co-operatively based on 

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G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.), International Space Station, 271 - 273 . 
© 2000 Kluxer Academic Publishers. 




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an Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) and four Memoranda of Understanding 
signed in January 1998. As of May 1999, the first two elements of the 
International Space Station, the Functional Cargo Block and the Unity element, 
are on orbit. The Spacehab double cargo module is due for launch in a matter 
of days and four other assembly launches are scheduled in 1999. Many 
variables will affect the timing of the assembly sequence, but the complete ISS is 
well on the road to reality. 

"A User's Overview" continues with an examination of the laws applicable 
to its utilization. The legal framework in which ISS will operate is often 
overlooked and this oversight is addressed. Underlying principles governing 
utilization as expressed in Article 9.1 of the IGA are presented. The percentage 
utilization rights of each of the Partners are given. The co-ordination of 
Partners' activities through the Multilateral Co-ordination Board is discussed, as 
well as cross waivers of liability and the issues of criminal and torts liabilities. 
Perhaps the most compelling legal issue surrounding the ISS in the immediate 
future will be intellectual property rights. Close communication among the 
Partners will be necessary to ensure that the legal impact on commercialization 
is positive. 

Next follows a brief but comprehensive technical description of the ISS. Its 
characteristics, elements and the Partners responsible are listed in detail. 
Following a discussion of the space transportation systems used, the Station's 
major systems are described. The section closes with an examination of the 
natural and induced environments in which the ISS will operate. 

Section five of "A User's Overview" examines the actual utilization of the 
ISS. First is the technical and engineering utilization complete with listings of 
space and Earth-based applications, both practical and "unrealistic". Following 
a discussion of the ISS as an in-orbit test bed for new technologies and its use as 
a manufacturing, assembly and servicing station is a realistic appraisal of the 
technological constraints on ISS utilization. Section five continues with 
utilization for the life sciences. The full range of laboratory facilities is 
discussed in great detail on a Partner-by-Partner basis. The potential for 
advances in the life sciences aboard the ISS is great; particularly valuable will be 
the impact on space medicine as the Russian tradition for research on the effects 
of long duration missions is expanded. The third part of section five is devoted 
to utilization in the physical sciences. Space physics and microgravity are 
discussed before the facilities and research interests are described Partner-by- 
Partner. The issue of constraints on the quality of microgravity is addressed 
again. Section five closes with utilization as applied to observing sciences. A 
discussion of astronomy facilities and projects is followed by similar material on 
Earth observations. Again, a Partner-by-Partner examination is presented; the 




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section closes with a balanced appraisal and critical analysis of' the observing 
environment aboard ISS. 

Section six of the "User's Overview" discusses utilization of the ISS for 
those readers who are actually ready to participate in a mission. It begins by 
examining the management and planning process, continues with a discussion 
of the Announcement of Opportunity scheme for scientific experiments and 
concludes with a description of each Partner's approach to the administration of 
utilization. 

"A User's Overview" continues in section seven by describing new ideas 
for the utilization of the ISS and offering recommendations for the future. These 
recommendations are listed as they apply to life sciences, physical sciences and 
observing sciences. 

"Utilization of the International Space Station: A User's Overview" 
concludes with additional ideas for the future. Three ideas for utilization not 
addressed in the ISS design are discussed: use the ISS 1) as a base for other free- 
flying platforms, 2) as a jumping-off point for resource recovery and missions of 
space exploration, and 3) as a construction platform. The "Overview" 
concludes with some thoughts on commercialization and the need for a broad 
multidisciplinary approach to long range planning for the whole life of the ISS 




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Utilization of the International Space Station: A User's 

Overview 

E. Benzi, B. Boardman, T. Brisibe, R. Gao, L. Higgs, C. Maredza, J. Maule, P. Messina, 
R. Mittal, M. Rezazad, International Space University, Strasbourg Central Campus, 
Parc d'lnnovation. Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 
France 

Abstract 

After a brief introduction to the historical and political development of the 
International Space Station, this report documents in detail the legal environment in 
which utilization must unfold. Then, following a technical look at the Space Station as a 
whole, currently planned utilization is examined critically in four broad categories: 
Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Observing Sciences, ana Technology Applications. 
Reference is made to a Web-based User Facilities table which gives a module-by- 
module rundown of facility resources. 

Next is basic information on how to put an experiment aboard; in the section 
called "How to Utilize ISS." The report closes with broad ideas for the coming 
utilization of the ISS and offers recommendations for the future. 

Preface 

This overview is the result of the teamwork of the 38 graduate students in 
the Master of Space Studies (MSS4, 1998-1999) program at ISU. It began as a 
'literature review' for the topic "Utilization of the International Space Station". 
Undaunted by such a broad subject, the class plunged into the task only to 
discover just how broad and complex it is. At the time, the work was organized 
by discipline into six major chapters. Although the result was interdisciplinary, 
it was not at all integrated or particularly coherent. The class learned how 
challenging it is to communicate with one voice when it is stirred by so many 
souls from 24 different countries. This product has evolved from that initial 
effort. 

One of the things that became obvious to MSS4 while working on this 
"Overview" is that it has been produced at a unique moment in time. At one 
point, this work was called a "User's Guide". After dwelling on the name for a 
couple of days, it occurred to us that we ought to contact some users and get 
feedback on what they wanted in such a document. So two of the class 
members ventured forth by phone and e-mail to do some marketing research. 
That is when we discovered that our project had become somewhat obsolete 
before it was even conceived. Virtually everyone interviewed suggested that the 
piece be directed toward commercial users, where the new market emphasis is. 
If there had been another month and no other topics to distract us, a commercial 
guide is what we would have produced. In addition, one of those contacted in 
the research process pointed out that ESA already published a User's Guide. 
We discreetly changed the title. 

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G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.). International Space Station, 275-355. 

© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 




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One doubt that has bothered this group from the very beginning is that 
there are really no new ideas concerning the International Space Station. A lot 
of the suggestions in the literature have been around for years. Still, we have 
documented some of these because so many feasible, practical ideas fail to be 
put in motion. It is good to keep sight of them. 

MSS4 continues to learn a lot on the way to finding one cohesive voice with 
which to communicate. If this "Overview" has helped the reader to use or 
further understand the ISS, we have succeeded. 

1. Introduction 

The material in this "User's Overview" is intended to serve as the 
Literature Review for the group thesis of the International Space University's 
Master of Space Studies Program for 1999. Although most reviews of this 
nature are "exhaustive," the topic "Utilization of the International Space 
Station" is so broad that the humans involved became exhausted long before the 
available resources. This effort was pared down in size by maintaining a very 
narrow editorial focus on only the issues which directly affect utilization and 
the ability of users to access the ISS. An attempt has been made to reach a 
balance between stand-alone disciplinary sections and integrated multi- 
disciplinary ones. 

After a brief review of the historical and political development of ISS, a 
thorough examination of the legal environment surrounding the Station is 
presented. Even though "commercialization" and "privatization" are 
buzzwords in the space business overall, the impact of these trends on 
interlocking legal relationships that affect ISS is not often discussed. After an 
overview of the legal framework of the Space Station, the specific law governing 
utilization is explored in detail. 

The Technical Description of ISS that follows is, again, the result of 
deciding the difference between everything known about the Space Station and 
everything that is related to its utilization. It is not always easy to tell the 
difference. This section should provide new insight for all readers regardless of 
background. 

The following sections detail current utilization plans that are, of course, 
mostly scientific experimentation. This detailed examination of experiments is 
organized in the usual national space agency groups: Technology and 
Applications, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Observing Sciences. 
Presenting this material in a consistent manner proved to be difficult. 




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Basic information on "How to Utilize the ISS" is then presented. Next are 
some ideas for future utilization and finally MSS4's recommendations for the 
future of ISS. In addition to Appendix 1, which is an exploded view of ISS at 
configuration complete. Appendix 2 is a precis of a stand-alone Facilities Table 
which is produced more completely on the World Wide Web. Vital ISS data are 
reorganized in a way that not only eliminate duplication in writing but is also 
unique as well as useful to the user. That web site is: 

http: / / mss.isunet.edu/~mss4web/tps/publications/fac table/ index.html 

2. Historical and Political Development 

2.1 The U.S. Decision to Build a Space Station 

Scientists and novelists in the soon-to-be space faring nations had already 
dreamt of a permanent manned space platform almost 100 years ago; witness 
the Russian Tsiolkovsky and the American Edward Everett Hale with his Brick 
Moon. The dream became reality in the 1970's with the USSR program Salyut. 
In 1973 NASA put Skylab in orbit. The first permanently manned space station, 
Mir, has been operated by the Russians since 1986 and has doubled its expected 
six-year lifetime. 

The 1984 announcement- In 1961 President John F. Kennedy chose to 
direct the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) toward a 
moon landing in lieu of a manned space platform. Despite this stated program 
goal, NASA continued to look into the possibilities of a Space Station. Skylab 
was a very valuable experience but the development of the Shuttle coupled with 
massive budget cuts in the late 1960's forced NASA to abandon plans for a 
space platform temporarily. Once the initial work on the Shuttle was completed, 
planning resumed on the Space Station effort. The Space Station Task Force was 
created in 1982. NASA's plans were given a green light in 1984, when President 
Ronald Reagan, in the Annual State of the Union address, called for the United 
States to develop the Space Station. Primary objectives of Reagan's decision 
were to retain America's preeminence in space, to encourage U.S. 
competitiveness and contribute to national pride. For strategic and diplomatic 
reasons, the United States' allies, Canada, Europe and Japan, were invited to 
join the project [Reference 1]. 

ISS and its evolution- The Station underwent several redesigns. At the 
onset of the program, the baseline design had a dual keel, a rectangular truss 
with living quarters and laboratory modules near the center. After the 
Challenger accident in 1986, a single truss replaced the dual keel in order to 
compensate for a lower Shuttle flight rate. Further revisions took place in 1988 




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and 1992. A major redesign occurred in 1993 that aimed at reducing costs as 
well as increasing international involvement. The newly redesigned Space 
Station program did include Russian parts and merged elements of the planned 
Mir2 with those of the planned US Space Station. 

2.2 The Other International Partners' Participation 

Europe: from the 1985 package deal to the current contribution- The 

ambitious Long Term European Space Plan, endorsed in 1985 by the ESA 
Council, included the Columbus program as the intended European 
contribution to the International Space Station. Strongly supported by Germany, 
the Columbus Program eventually gained French support. In exchange, 
Germany agreed to contribute to the development of a new cryogenic engine for 
the launcher Ariane and to the Hermes spaceplane. The Columbus program 
was composed of three modules (a pressurized one, a Free Flyer and a polar 
platform) and represented a considerable part of the ESA budget at that time. 
By the beginning of the new decade the political and economic situation had 
changed considerably in Europe. The ESA Ministerial Council then decided to 
redirect the Columbus program and to intensify international cooperation in 
order to reduce costs. The final decision, made in 1995 was for the European 
participation to be reduced to only the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). 

Japanese participation- Japan had already been approached by NASA to 
contribute to the post-Apollo Program in the 1970's. The USA renewed the 
invitation in 1982 through the Space Station Task Force. The decision to 
contribute to the Space Station project was made in 1985. Studies on the 
Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and its functions and capabilities were 
conducted in the period 1985-1987. The preliminary design phase began in 1990. 
In addition to the JEM, Japan is providing the H-2 launcher and the centrifuge 
for the US Lab in exchange for its share of launch costs. 

Canadian participation- The foundation for Canada's participation in the 
Space Station project was laid by successful cooperation with the United States 
on the STS (Space Shuttle) program [Reference 2]. This cooperation resulted in 
provision of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), a robotic system known as 
the Canadarm. Canada's involvement in the ISS followed President Reagan's 
invitation in 1984 to participate as a full partner in the Space Station program. 
Canada is providing the ISS with the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), a 
sophisticated robotics unit that will be used to assemble and maintain the Space 
Station as well as maneuver equipment and payloads around it. The program is 
managed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). 




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2.3 Current ISS Status 

In January 1998 the Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) was signed 
along with four Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) between NASA and each 
International Partner's Agency involved in the ISS, namely CSA, ESA, 
Government of Japan (GOJ) and RSA. These international agreements along 
with various implementing arrangements and the general provisions of 
international and national space laws constitute the legal framework necessary 
for the operation and utilization of the ISS. 

The first element, the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) was successfully 
launched on 20 November 1998, followed a few weeks later by the Unity 
element. Docking of the two modules has been performed successfully. Testing 
and Stage Integration Reviews (SIR's) have been completed on the Service 
Module, the Z1 truss, the P6 array and the US Lab. Each of these is scheduled 
for launch in 1999, a year in which five flights are scheduled. 

3. The Law Applicable to Utilization 

3.1 Basic Concepts 

The IGA provides in Article 2.1 IGA that "The Space Station shall be 
developed, operated, and utilized in accordance with international law, including the 
Outer Space Treaty, the Rescue Agreement, the Liability Convention, and the 
Registration Convention." It should be noted that the IGA has not defined a 
uniform set of rules that would apply only in or on the Space Station, but rather, 
in dealing with a number of legal issues which are fundamental to utilization, 
"it has established a link between: (a) the different parts of the Station, these 
being the flight elements provided by each of the partners, and the personnel, 
and (b) the jurisdiction exercised by the Partners on their own territory. In other 
words, the rules constituting the legal regime are aimed at recognizing the 
jurisdiction of the Partner States' courts and consequently allowing for the 
application of substantive national law in such areas as criminal matters, civil 
matters, including liability issues, and administrative matters which cover 
among other things the protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) and the 
exchange of goods and data" [Reference 3]. The implications and complexities 
that could arise from the effect of this legal regime on the aforementioned areas 
will be discussed more explicitly later in this section. The foundation for this 
basic rule or link is stated in Article 5 of the IGA which provides that " each 
partner shall retain jurisdiction and control over the elements it registers.... and over 
personnel in or on the Space Station who are its nationals". Jurisdiction therefore is 
fundamental to utilization and a direct consequence of the assimilation of flight 
elements to the territory of Partner State(s). 




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3.2 Utilization Rights 

Underlying principles- The basic principles governing the utilization of 
the Station are laid down in Article 9.1 of the IGA, which provides that 
" Utilization rights are derived from Partner provision of user elements, infrastructure 
elements, or both. Any partner that provides a Space Station user element shall retain 
use of these elements, except as otherwise provided for in this paragraph. Partners 
which provide resources to operate and use the Space Station, which are derived from 
their Space Station infrastructure elements, shall receive in exchange a fixed share of the 
use of certain user elements ” . The provision takes into account the fact that 
partners may elect to include non-partners or private entities in their activities 
and thereby permits their inclusion provided the purpose is consistent with the 
applicable agreements, MoUs and implementing arrangements. This is subject 
to prior notification to all the partner's co-operating agencies as well as timely 
consensus between the said co-operating agencies. 

In generic terms, the right to utilize the Station is related to the provision of 
user elements, infrastructure elements or resources, and the percentages 
allocated to the partners is stated in Article 8 of the MoUs which are discussed 
in detail later. 

Provision and allocation of resources- The percentages of the rights to 
utilize user accommodations such as pressurized laboratories to be retained by 
the partner providing these accommodations is expressed in Article 8.3 of the 
IGA as follows: " NASA will retain the use of 97.7% of the user accommodations on 
its laboratory modules, 97.7% of the use of its accommodation sites for external 
payloads and will have the use of 46.7% of the user accommodations on the European 
pressurized laboratory and 46.7% of the user accommodations on the JEM ; 

-RSA will retain the use of 100% of the user accommodations on its laboratory 
modules and the use of 100% on its accommodation sites for external payloads; 

-ESA will retain the use of 51% of the user accommodations on its laboratory 
module; 

- the GOJ will retain the use of 51% of the user accommodations on its laboratory 
module; and 

- CSA will have the use of the equivalent of 2.3% of the Space Station user 
accommodations provided by NASA, ESA and the GOJ". 

In addition to the above there is also a sharing arrangement between the 
partners based on the allocation of Space Station resources. In this regard "an 




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agreement was reached between the original partners and Russia based on the 
premise that Russia on the one hand, and the other partners on the other, retain 
utilization of their own contributions to the Station, and seek to offset only those 
items that cross the interface. By way of illustration, it was decided that for the 
purposes of sharing utilization the Russian Partner would keep 100% of 
utilization of its own modules, thereby recognizing that the infrastructure 
element supplied to the Space Station by Russia for its own benefit and that of 
the other partners would enable it to accumulate up to 100% of the utilization 
right on its own module. This means that the percentage agreed upon, on the 
basis of 100% within the entire Station, between the founding partners could be 
retained for the purpose of sharing available resources" (sic) [Reference 4]. The 
MoUs go further to provide the precise percentages to be allocated to each co- 
operating agency in Article 8.3.d as follows: "76.6% will be allocated to NASA; 
12.8% of the utilization resources will be allocated to the GO J; 8.3% will be allocated to 
ESA; and 2.3% of utilization resources will be allocated to CSA". 

Barter and sale of Space Station resources- Article 9 of the IGA provides 
that the partners shall have the right to barter or sell any portion of their 
respective allocations. The terms and conditions of any barter or sale shall be 
determined on a case by case basis by the parties to the transaction. 

Co-ordination of activities relating to utilization- The co-ordination of 
utilization activities is governed by a complicated set of provisions stated in 
Article 8 of the MoUs. Simply put, the MoUs establish a Multilateral Co- 
ordination Board (MCB) which will meet periodically over the lifetime of the 
ISS program or promptly at the request of any partner with the task of ensuring 
co-ordination of the activities of the partners related to the operation and 
utilization of the Space Station. The MCB comprises representatives of all the 
co-operating agencies and will be chaired by NASA with its decisions made by 
consensus between the agencies and without any modification of the rights of 
the partners as provided for under the MoUs. 

3.3 Crew 

The provisions relating to the crewmembers who will be responsible for 
the operation and utilization of the Space Station while it is in orbit are 
governed by Article 11 of the IGA and Article 11 of the MoUs, respectively. The 
Article addresses these issues among others: the prerequisite that crews will be 
trained in order to acquire skills necessary to conduct Space Station operation 
and utilization, and then subjects them to a code of conduct to be developed by 
NASA with the full involvement of the other co-operating agencies and 
approved in accordance with procedures followed by the MCB. 




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3.4 Liability Provisions 

Cross-waivers in the Intergovernmental Agreement- The Outer Space 
Treaty of 1967 states in its Article VII the general principle that the launching 
state is internationally liable for damage. This principle has been elaborated in 
the 1972 Liability convention. Liability will be based on fault in the case of 
damage arising elsewhere than on the surface of the Earth to other space objects 
or to persons on board the space object, and it will be absolute in case of 
damage arising on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft in flight (Articles II and 
III). With regard to damage to third parties, the same principles apply, and the 
launching states shall be jointly and severally liable (Article IV). 

Under the IGA, the essential provision concerning liability is that each 
partner agrees to a cross waiver of liability pursuant to which each partner state 
waives all claims based on damage arising out of Protected Space Operations 
(PSOs) [Reference 5]. These include all activities related to the Space Station 
except the development, manufacturing, or use of products or processes on the 
Earth developed as a result of activities in outer space [Reference 6]. The 
purpose of the waiver is "to remove from the liability equation any damage 
suffered by one partner as a result of the activities of another partner. The 
partners become self-insurers for their own property damaged during 
'protected Space Operations'" [Reference 7]. This cross waiver shall apply to 
any claims for damage, whatever the legal basis for such claims for damage, 
including delict and tort (including negligence of every degree and kind) and 
contract, against the following: 

• Another Partner State 

• Related entities of another Partner State 

• The employees of any entities identified above. 

• However, the cross waiver of liability shall not be applicable to: 

• Claims between a Partner State and its own related entity or between its 
own related entities 

• Claims for personal injury or death 

• Claims for damage caused by wilful misconduct 

• Claims concerning intellectual property (for intellectual property a specific 
regime has been concluded in Article 21 of the IGA and is discussed further 
in a later section). 

Criminal liability- The IGA does not contain an article covering the 
uniform exercise of criminal jurisdiction. Rather in its Article 22 it provides for 
each partner to exercise criminal jurisdiction over its own flight elements and 




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over its own nationals on board, wherever they may be. Inter alia it identifies 
jurisdiction that can be exercised by a Partner regarding misconduct causing 
damage to flight elements or injuring a crew member; constitutes the treaty as a 
basis to proceed with extradition; and confirms the non interference between 
itself and the code of conduct to be developed pursuant to Article 11. 

Liability for torts- Unlike criminal jurisdiction the Agreements do not 
contain parallel articles on civil jurisdiction and liability except between the 
Partners themselves and their related entities by the extensive cross-waiver 
clauses discussed herein before. The Agreement provides that Partners remain 
liable in accordance with the liability convention and because that convention 
covers liability for damage caused by space objects it does not embrace claims 
that result from injuries on board the Space Station itself. "The absence of tort 
jurisdiction therefore constitutes a major omission and a failure to address the 
issue of civil jurisdiction over persons on board the Space Station at an early 
stage of its development will cause the problem to magnify when the Space 
Station becomes operational and Space Station crews and accompanying 
personnel have no blueprint for the civil order on board" [Reference 8]. 

Since the Partners have opted to apply earthly rules to space, three major 
concerns regarding the settlement of tort claims immediately arise due to the 
multitude of conflicting laws that govern our planet and because of the 
territorial orientation of national law. These concerns are: determining the 
forum; selecting the law; and enforcing the decision. "Another concern is the 
sovereign immunity of partner states. One of the respondents in a civil action 
arising from a tort on board will always be one of the partners. This stems from 
each partner's responsibility for national activities under the Outer Space 
Treaty" [Reference 9]. The Agreement does not address the issue of state 
immunity from tort claims, again due to the cross waiver clauses. 

There are other related issues. For instance, a decision is needed as to the 
adoption of a limited liability regime. The liability Convention sets no limit on 
recoveries for damage caused by space objects. Compensation therefore is to be 
determined in accordance with the relevant international laws and the 
principles of equity and justice. Limitation of liability is not only necessary to 
serve the needs of commercial practicality; it is required to promote 
international commerce, encourage private investment and initiative, and 
provide a cap on liability. This will afford a realistic basis for calculating risk 
and the procurement of affordable insurance. 

Intellectual property- In order to address the protection of intellectual 
property (IP) we shall recall the principles as expressed in various legal 
instruments and the IP clauses for the IGA as stated in Article 21. The basic 




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principles underlying national intellectual property laws may be illustrated by 
one of the most venerable texts on the matter, the United States Constitution 
(1787). Article 1, Section 8, paragraph 8 states: " Congress shall have the power. ..To 
promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors 
and inventors the exclusive right to their writings and discoveries". All modem 
national patent laws are based on the same basic principles, giving rise to 
codification of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in the respective countries. A 
general definition of IPR emerges from a mosaic of national laws. IPR is the 
legal right, which is obtained, exercised, interpreted and judged according to 
nationally enacted legislation and ensuing case law. It is the right to forbid third 
party exploitation, or to allow the exploitation by license on terms dictated by 
the registered IPR owner or his designated successor. The scope of the 
protection of IPR is defined by the filed instruments, for example, by the claims 
of a patent. The geographical scope of the protection is that of the territory of 
the state which has registered the IPR. And the IPR has a limited lifetime, for 
example, twenty years after the filing date for patents [Reference 10]. 

It should be stressed that because the IGA does not constitute a 
homogeneous set of rules to deal with protecting IPR but rather tries to establish 
the necessary links between: (a) the different parts of the Space Station, these 
being the flight elements provided by each of the partners, and the Personnel, 
and (b) the jurisdiction exercised by the Partners on their own territory, the IGA 
is aimed generally at recognizing the jurisdiction of the Partner States' courts 
and consequently allowing for the application of substantive national law 
[Reference 11]. The provisions governing applicable law (including, but not 
limited to, IPR law) in the IGA therefore follow the "flagship principle" 
[Reference 12] as applied to vessels on the high seas, or aircraft flying over 
international waters. This is synonymous with the extra territorial jurisdiction 
exercised by sovereign states over their registered aircraft or vessels. In this 
regard Article 21 states "...an activity occurring in or on a Space Station flight 
element shall be deemed to have occurred only in the territory of the Partner State of 
that element registry, except that for ESA-registered elements any European Partner 
State may deem that the activity occurred within its territory". Because the European 
Partner State (EPS) is in fact made up of 11 member nations specific rules in 
addition to the above would also apply as provided for in Article 21.4. In effect 
this implies firstly that "judicial procedures with regard to a patent 
infringement case shall not take place in more than one European Partner 
State's court and secondly that recognition shall be granted in all European 
Partner States to a license if the latter is enforceable under the laws of any EPS" 
[Reference 12]. 

It is worth mentioning that the above provisions are not conclusive on the 
legal mechanism for the protection of IPRs. The IGA in Article 8.4 of the MoUs 




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forecasts the development of new legal texts before the exploitation phase of the 
ISS, "procedures covering all personnel, including Space Station crew, who have access 
to data" to be developed by the MCB. In addition. Article 11 of the MoUs 
proposes the development of a code of conduct which will, among other things, 
establish physical and information security guidelines. Finally, Article 19.9 of 
the IGA enjoins the Partners through their cooperating agencies to establish 
guidelines for security of information which is of primary concern in the 
exchange of data and goods. 

The issue of intellectual property rights may prove to be one of the most 
important challenges to face Partners in the future. International competition is 
rigorous and researchers are not always forthcoming on the subjects of shared 
credit and discovery. Remedies and preventative approaches should be worked 
out in advance through the review process at the international advisory 
committee level. 

3.5 Exchange of Data and Goods 

The provisions guiding the exchange of data and goods are laid down in 
Article 19 of the IGA. Pursuant to these provisions there is an obligation on each 
partner to transfer technical data and goods considered necessary to fulfill the 
responsibilities of the transferring Agency under the relevant MoU's and 
Implementing Arrangements. The Partners are further obliged to apply their 
"best efforts" to handle requests for the transfer of data and goods 
expeditiously. Because there is a need to protect data which are sensitive in 
nature for export control purposes and proprietary rights for purposes of 
confidentiality, the transfer of technical data and goods may be subject to a 
Marking procedure (which is intended to trigger particular protection with the 
receiving agency). This Marking procedure has the following features: 

• It indicates specific conditions regarding use of transferred data and goods 

• It indicates that data or goods shall only be used for the purposes of the 

co-operation and shall not be re-transferred to a third party without prior 

written permission of the furnishing Partner State [Reference 12]. 

3.6 The Future 

Chairman H. Sensenbrenner, addressing the United States House of 
Representatives Committee on Science on October 7, 1998, emphasized the fact 
that "historically, governments have always dominated space activity. 
However, numerous benefits flow from the change of government dominance 
to commercial dominance including the emergence of entirely new markets 
within the commercial sector, involvement in new technologies, etc.. The vast 




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potential of the commercial space industry has been constrained, however, by 
government regulations and laws that have not kept pace with the latest 
technology and changes in the market place". Perhaps governmental awareness 
of this state of affairs may have led to the recent promulgation of the 
Commercial Space Act of 1998 by the USA which in its Section 101 provides for 
the undertaking of a study concerning inter alia... ."the opportunities for 
commercial providers to play a role in International Space Station activities , including 
operation, use, servicing and augmentation". 

4. Technical Description of the International Space Station 

The International Space Station is composed of pressurized and 
unpressurized elements, distributed systems and the associated ground 
elements that are provided by all Partners. This section provides an overview of 
these elements and systems. 

4.1 General Description 

A summary of the ISS characteristics at the assembly complete 
configuration is presented here, with Appendix 1 showing an exploded view of 
the Station: 



ISS Characteristics at Assembly Complete 


Span, m 


108 


Length, m 


74 


Mass, metric tonnes 


420 


Maximum power output, kW 


110.. .120 


Pressurized volume, m 3 


1200 


Atmospheric pressure, kPa 


101.3 


Operational 

Orbit 




370-460 


Inclination, deg 


51.6 


Attitude stability, deg per axis 


±2.5 


Crew, person 


Up to 7 


Data rate uplink. Mbits/ s 


72 


Data rate downlink. Mbits /s 


144 


Data rate uplink, TDRSS, Mbits /s 


120 


Data rate downlink, TDRSS, Mbits /s 


120 


Expected lifetime, years 


15 + 



Table 1 . Final ISS Parameters 



The Partners, including Member States of the European Space Agency 
through ESA, and the USA, Russia, Canada, and Japan through their space 













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agencies, are responsible for providing different elements of the Space Station. 
Table 2 shows the elements provided by each partner. 



Partner 


Elements 


Canada through CSA 


- Mobile Servicing System 

- Special purpose dexterous manipulator 

- ISS ground elements 


ESA Member States 


- Columbus laboratory, including basic 
functional outfitting 

- Automated transfer vehicle (ATV) to 
supply and reboost the ISS 

- ISS ground elements 


Japan through NASDA 


- Japanese Experimental Module, including 
the basic functional outfitting, 

- Exposed Facility and Experimental 
Logistics Modules 


Russia through RSA 


- ISS infrastructure elements, including 
Service and other modules 

- Research modules, including basic 
functional outfitting and attached payload 
accommodation equipment 

- Flight elements to supply and reboost the 
ISS 

- ISS ground elements 


The US through NASA 


- ISS infrastructure elements, including a 
habitation module 

- Laboratory modules, including basic 
functional outfitting and attached payload 
accommodation equipment 

- Flight elements to supply the ISS 

- ISS ground elements 



Table 2. Different Nations' Contributions to ISS 
The major elements of the Space Station are: 

• Modules and nodes, which house essential systems and provide 
pressurized habitable environments and laboratories, and unpressurized 
areas for experiments and external payloads 

• The truss, which is mounted on the Unity node and provides a connection 
between elements and external payloads and systems. It also houses the 
solar arrays, radiators, batteries, external payloads, and umbilicals 

• Unpressurized modules and elements, which provide some service such as 
power production, payload support, etc. 





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• The mobile servicing center and mobile transporter, which will be used to 
remove payloads from the Shuttle cargo bay and transport them to other 
locations. The remote manipulator arm can carry payloads up to 128 
tonnes, while the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator System is 
capable of performing more delicate tasks. 

A summary of the major ISS elements, their expected launch dates, their 
availability for utilization and the general ISS configuration is presented in 
Table 3. Launch dates are provided as of May 15, 1999 and are based on the 
Revision D sequence and NASA's October 1998 Planning Reference. TBD 
listings are to be determined as flight plans are still under review. A new 
assembly sequence schedule is expected in June 1999 based on delays to the 
Service Module. Readers can find current information at 
http:/ /station.nasa.gov/station/assembly/index.html [Reference 13]. 




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Principal Pressurized Elements | 


Pressurized Element 


Launch 

date 


Dimensions, 

meters 


Function 


Zarya Control Module 
(FGB) 


1998 


13x4.5 


Provides initial propulsion and power until 
the service module is activated; after that, 
serves as backup and propellant storage 


Unity Node-1 


1998 


6x4.5 


Nodes provide six docking ports, external 
attachment points for the truss, and 
pressurized access between modules 


Service Module 


Fall 

1999 


14 x 4.05 


Provides early living quarters, life support, 
communication, power, data processing, 
flight control and propulsion systems; later it 
becomes the functional center for the 
Russian segment (ROS) 


3-person permanent 
human presence 
capability 


Jan. 

2000 




Soyuz crew return vehicle docked to ISS 


US Laboratory module 


Feb. 

2000 


8.2 x 4.4 


Provides equipment for research and 
technology development with 13 ISPRs; also 
houses the laboratory support systems and 
controls the US Segment 


Node-2 


TBD 


7x4.5 




Japanese Experiment 
Module OEM) 


TBD 


11.2x4.4 


Provides laboratory facilities for materials 
and life sciences research; contains external 
platform, airlock, robotic manipulator, and 
separate logistics module. JEM has 10 ISPRs 


Cupola 


TBD 




Provides direct viewing for robotic 
operations and Shuttle payload bay viewing 


Russian Research 
Module #1 


TBD 


Details not 
available 


Provides facilities for the Russian 
experiments and research, analogous to US 
Laboratory module 


Node-3 


TBD 


7 x 4.5 




Russian Research 
Module #2 


TBD 


Details not 
available 




6-person permanent 
human presence 
capability 


TBD 






Columbus Laboratory 


TBD 


6.1 x 4.4 


Provides facilities for the ESA experiments 
and research and has 10 ISPRs 


Centrifuge 
Accommodation 
Module (CAM) 


TBD 




Contains 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge for g 
levels from 0.01 to 2 g, and houses 4 ISPRs 


US Habitation Module 


TBD 


8.2 x 4.4 


Provides six-person living facilities 




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Principal Unpressurized Elements | 


Unpressurized 

Element 


On-Orbit 

Date 


Dimensions, 

meters 


Function 


Space Station 
Remote 
Manipulator 
System (SSRMS) 


Apr. 2000 


17 


Supports ISS assembly and Orbiter 
cargo bay loading and unloading, 
capable of carrying payloads up to 128 
tonnes 


Mobile Transporter 


TBD 




Provides structural, power, data and 
video links between ISS and Mobile Base 
System (MBS) 


Mobile remote 
service Base System 
(MBS) 


TBD 




Serves as a stable base for the SSRMS 


Integrated Truss 
Assembly (IT A) 


Oct. 1999 


108 


Utilization starts after MBS 
commissioning, houses 24 payload 
adapters 


JEM - Exposed 
facility 


TBD 


5x5.2 


With 10 payload adapters, used for 
experiments and observations related to 
microgravity and space environment 


Columbus External 
Payload Facility 
(EPF) 


TBD 




Houses 4 payload adapters, used for 
experiments and research related to 
microgravity and space environment 



Table 3. The Principal Pressurized and Unpressurized Components of ISS 

For an up-to-date version of the assembly sequence table and other 
information about ISS, the reader can refer to NASA’s ISS website [Reference 
13]. 

4.2 Crew and Payload Transportation and Logistic Carriers 

Payload transportation and logistic flights are required through the 
assembly and operation phases of the Space Station. The main launch vehicles 
include: 

• US Space Shuttle 

• Russian Proton and Soyuz launchers 

• European Ariane 5 

• Japanese H-IIA launcher. 

The US Space Shuttle will be the most used vehicle for transporting 
elements, logistics, crew, and payloads to the Space Station. There are two 
options for the transfer of cargo to the Space Station via the Shuttle: 




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• The Italian built Multi Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the 
transportation of pressurized cargo to/from the ISS with a transport 
capacity of 9 metric tonnes. The MPLM accommodates 5 powered racks for 
refrigerators, freezers and active cargo, and 11 racks for passive payloads 

• The Unpressurized Logistics Carrier (ULC) for transporting unpressurized 
and external payloads to/ from the Space Station. 

The Russian Proton launcher is used for transporting the Russian 
pressurized and unpressurized elements to the Space Station. The Soyuz rocket 
is used for delivering the Soyuz crew vehicle and the Progress-Mi cargo 
spacecraft. The Progress cargo spacecraft is used for pressurized cargo supply, 
attitude control fuel supply and orbital reboost [Reference 14]. 

The Automated Transfer Vehicle will be used for transporting cargo and 
for orbital reboost of the space Station and will be launched on an Ariane 5 
launch vehicle. 

The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) will also be used for transporting cargo 
items to the ISS and will be launched on a Japanese H-IIA launch vehicle. 

The X-38 lifting body reentry vehicle is also planned for use on the Space 
Station for emergency crew evacuation and return to Earth. In the early years of 
utilization, Soyuz will be the interim emergency crew evacuation vehicle. 

4.3 Major Station Systems 

Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System- The GN&C system 
provides for orbit maintenance, attitude determination and control, orbital 
maneuvers, and reboost and rendezvous operations. This system also 
distributes data on the Space Station's exact orbital speed, attitude and altitude 
to payloads: 

• Guidance (where the Space Station is heading) tells the Space Station which 
route to follow. Guidance is accomplished by the Russian Orbital Segment 
(ROS) propulsion systems and monitored by Mission Control Center- 
Moscow (MCC-M) 

• Navigation (where the Space Station is located in space) includes the 
functions of state determination, attitude determination, and pointing and 
support [Reference 15]. 

State determination provides the Space Station state vector (position and 
velocity vectors at a specific time). Two Receiver/Processor GPS sensors allow 




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the Space Station to determine its Space Station vector independently, without 
ground support. 

Attitude determination is achieved by a GPS interferometry technique 
combined with the data from two Rate Gyro Assemblies and a propagator 
algorithm. 

For Pointing and Support the state vector, attitude and attitude rate data 
are passed to other Space Station systems. This subsystem also (a) calculates the 
targeting angle of the solar arrays, (b) calculates solar line-of-sight and line-of- 
sight vectors, along with rise and set times, (c) supplies data for measurement of 
the Space Station's center of gravity location and moments of inertia, and also 
adjustments for the location of dynamic systems like the Mobile Servicing 
System, and (d) provides GPS time for all the systems [Reference 16]. 

Control (how to get to a specific location and attitude in space) of the Space 
Station consists of translational control and attitude (rotation) control. 

Translational control is achieved by reboosting the Space Station using the 
main engine of a docked transport cargo vehicle, typically a Progress Ml. The 
Space Station is reboosted every three months to offset orbital decay from 
aerodynamic drag and to maneuver it away from orbital debris if necessary. 
The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) also contributes to reboosting. 

Attitude control is provided by the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) 
propulsion system and the US non-propulsive attitude control system, which 
consists of four Control Moment Gyros located on the truss. 

Electrical Power System (EPS)- The EPS is responsible for the production, 
processing, storage, and distribution of electrical power to the Space Station as 
well as providing an emergency power supply in case of failure in any part of 
the Space Station. 

The Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) and the US Orbital Segment (USOS) 
provide uninterrupted electrical power for their own segments, as well as 
power sharing for all other Partners to support the ISS operations and user 
requirements. These two systems together produce up to 110 kW of power. 

The USOS EPS is based on a distributed system design where primary 
power (160 V dc) is generated by two sets of solar arrays, mounted on the truss. 
Nickel-hydrogen batteries are used to store power for use while the Space 
Station is in the Earth's shadow. Primary power is converted to secondary 
power (124 V dc) and then distributed to the users. The USOS EPS provides up 




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to 80 kW of power, of which up to 50 kW is allocated to the users [Reference 
17]. 



The ROS EPS is based on localized system architecture where the elements 
have self-contained EPS with their own solar arrays which are located on 
several pressurized modules as well as on the Solar Power Platform. Nickel- 
cadmium batteries are used for power storage. The ROS EPS provides up to 40 
kW power. The generated power (32 V dc) is converted to a lower user voltage 
(28 V dc). 

If a voltage level different from the one mentioned above is required by 
users, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the voltage conversion. The 
maximum available power is 120 kW once the ISS assembly has been 
completed. 

Each power channel is configured to supply power for particular ISS loads; 
to provide redundancy, however, the assembly complete design provides for 
rerouting (cross-strapping) primary power between various channels as 
necessary. An important note is that only primary power can be cross-strapped. 
After conversion into secondary power, flow through the distribution network 
cannot be rerouted. If there is a failure within the Secondary Power System, 
there is no redundancy, and the entire downstream path from the failure is 
unpowered. Instead, redundancy is generally determined by user loads. 

Because of the high demand on power resources, specific scheduling might 
be needed for some experiments. 

Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)- The ECLSS 
maintains a comfortable and habitable environment throughout the pressurized 
modules, provides water recovery and storage, as well as fire detection and 
suppression. The system supplies suitable amounts of oxygen and nitrogen, 
controls the pressure, temperature and humidity, removes carbon dioxide and 
other atmospheric contaminants, and monitors the atmosphere for the presence 
of combustion products. The ECLSS also collects, processes, and stores water 
and waste used and produced by the crew. Fire suppression and crew safety 
equipment are also provided through this system. 

The ECLSS maintains an atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kPa with an oxygen 
concentration of less than 28 percent during 6-person human presence 
capability. 

The ECLSS subsystems are: 




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• Atmospheric Control and Supply (ACS) provides oxygen and nitrogen to 
maintain the pressurized modules at the correct pressure and composition 
for human habitation. Oxygen for the Space Station is primarily supplied 
by the electrolysis of water through an oxygen generator called Elektron, 
and also by the Solid Fuel Oxygen Generator, which produces oxygen by 
an exothermal chemical reaction. The USOS has four high-pressure gas 
tanks that distribute oxygen and nitrogen to various parts of the Space 
Station. The Shuttle recharges these tanks. The ACS also provides gas 
support to other elements such as the Thermal Control System, Crew 
Health Care Subsystem, and payloads 

• Atmospheric Revitalization (AR) ensures that the atmosphere provided by 
the ACS remains safe and pleasant to breathe. This subsystem monitors the 
composition of the Space Station atmosphere, collects carbon dioxide from 
the cabin, and filters gas contaminants and odors from the cabin 
atmosphere. This system must be capable of keeping the carbon dioxide 
level at about 0.5 kPa and under 1 kPa. Carbon dioxide is generated by the 
crew at a rate of 1 kg/man-day 

• Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) circulates air, removes 
humidity, and maintains the temperature of the Space Station atmosphere. 
Three levels of circulation, inter module, intra module, and rack 
circulation, minimize temperature variations, ensure homogeneous 
atmospheric composition, and provide smoke detection capabilities 

• Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS) provides smoke detection sensors, 
fire extinguishers, masks, and a system of alarms. There are two area 
smoke detectors in each pressurized module and one smoke detector in 
each rack. The smoke detectors are located in the air paths 

• Water Recovery and Management (WRM) collects, stores, purifies, and 
distributes the Space Station's water resources. Collected water from the 
condensers of the THC subsystem, water from EVA activity, wastewater, 
and the products of the Urine Processing Unit are sent to the ROS for 
purification and refinement into "potable" water. Crew requirements are 
approximately 3 kg/man-day for drinking and food preparation and 4.5 
kg/man-day for washing and personal hygiene. Waste water includes 
approximately 1.5 kg/man-day of urine and 2 kg/man-day of respiration 
and perspiration in addition to waste wash water [Reference 18]. 

The ECLSS also includes the Flight Crew system, which provides the crew 

with a safe environment and the basic necessities for life. The major constituents 

of this system are: 

• 



Restraints and mobility aids support Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and 
personnel mobility and equipment restraint 




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• Portable emergency provisions sustain the crew in the event of an 
emergency and ensure the survival of the crew if the pressurized element is 
lost 

• Housekeeping and trash management facilitates routine cleaning and 
garbage disposal 

• Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) enables an extended human presence 
in space by supporting the health, safety, well-being and optimal 
performance of the crew 

• Lighting systems facilitate productivity 

• Personal hygiene equipment supports personal hygiene and metabolic 
waste collection 

• Wardroom and Galley and Food Systems provide nutritional support; 
approximately 0.64 kg/man-day of ashless, dry basis food with a calorific 
value of 10500 to 11700 kj is required. Current agreements state that 
NASA provides half the food and RSA the other half regardless of crew 
make-up. Most of the Russian food is ambient stowed (freeze-dried, low 
moisture, or thermostabilized) and prepackaged in individual serving 
packages. In addition, fresh foods are used to provide variety and alleviate 
boredom. This includes in-season fruits and vegetables, and kielbasa, a 
tasty Polish sausage. The US food (before assembly complete) is based on 
the Space Shuttle food system. The food is packaged for use specifically 
with the Service Module (SM) wardroom table/ galley 

• Crew privacy provides a private area for sleeping, changing of clothes and 
off-duty activities. 

Thermal Control System (TCS)- The purpose of the TCS is to maintain 
Space Station elements, equipment, and payloads within their required 
temperature ranges. This system consists of passive and active thermal control 
subsystems. 

Passive thermal control subsystems consist of multi-layer insulation, 
surface coatings, and paints, which basically isolate the elements and prevent 
over-heating or over-cooling conditions. 

The active thermal control subsystem is provided by pumping coolant 
fluid in closed loop circuits to collect, transport and reject heat. Heat from heat 
generating devices is collected through cold plates and heat exchangers, 
transported by pump package assemblies and rejected through external 
radiators. In the USOS Active TCS, water is used as the cooling fluid in 
pressurized elements and ammonia is used in the external areas. In the ROS 
Active TCS, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol is used for pressurized 
elements and freons are used for unpressurized and external elements. The total 
heat rejection capacity at assembly complete will be up to 75 kW and the 




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temperature within pressurized modules will be in the range 18-24 degrees 
Centigrade. Electrical heaters are also used in locations where other means of 
thermal control cannot be applied, for example, to prevent external TCS fluid 
lines from freezing. No active thermal control is provided for attached 
payloads mounted on the truss. 

Command and Data Handling System- The C&DH System, as the "brain" 
of the ISS, monitors and controls all aspects of the Space Station's operation by 
collecting data from onboard systems and payloads, processing the data with 
different software, and distributing commands to the appropriate equipment. 
The C&DH also distributes payload and system data to the crew and to the 
ground controllers through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) 
system. This system consists of data processors, control and monitoring 
processors, crew interface computers, data acquisition and distribution 
networks, interfaces to systems and payloads, and different software. 

The overall Space Station computer system is comprised of various partner 
computer systems: the US Command and Data Handling (C&DH) System, the 
Russian Onboard Complex Control System, the Canadian Computer System, 
The Japanese Data Management System, and the European Data Management 
System. The US C&DH System provides the " Space Station level control" 
software which aids in configuring systems for certain ISS operations. These 
operations are divided into different modes: standard, microgravity, reboost, 
proximity operations, external operations, survival, and Assured Safe Crew 
Return (ASCR). 

The C&DH System relies on network technology and is composed of three 
components: 

• The local data buses, which provide a low data transfer rate 

• The local area networks (LANs), which provide a medium rate data 
transfer capability 

• High rate data (HRD) links, which provide payloads with high data rate 
capabilities. 

The crews have an interface, via their laptops, with all the data systems 
including payload data and communication lines with the ground. The 
interfaces for the crew laptops are similar and the data displayed on them can 
be displayed on the ground. 

Payload users may develop their own application software for integration 
into the payload computers. However, payloads are required to use standard 




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services and interfaces for commands and for all communications with the 
LANs and buses. 

The C&DH System time distribution system also provides a stable 
frequency and time reference which might be useful. 

Communication and Tracking System (C&TS)- The C&TS is designed to 
support Space Station operations and scientific research by providing audio, 
voice, and data communications with the ground, other spacecraft, and inside 
the Space Station. 

The C&TS is specifically for: 

• Two-way audio and video communications among crew members onboard 
the Space Station in the American segment and two-way audio during 
Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) 

• Two-way audio, video and file transfer communications with Flight 
Control Teams located in the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) 
and payload scientists on the ground 

• One-way communication of experiment data to the Payload Operations 
Integration Center (POIC) 

• Control of the Space Station by flight controllers through the reception of 
commands sent from the MCC-H and from the Shuttle orbiter 

• Transmission of the both system and payload telemetry from the ISS to 
MCC-H and the POIC. 

The uplink transmission capability is via an S-band system from the 
ground for Space Station systems and payloads, and the downlink transmission 
capability is via the Ku-band system. 

The subsystems of the C&TS are: 

• The Internal Audio Subsystem (IAS), which distributes audio throughout 
the Space Station 

• The Video Distribution Subsystem (VDS), which distributes video 
throughout the Space Station and to external interfaces including fiber- 
optic analog video lines and the Ku-band for downlink 

• The S-band Subsystem, which transmits voice, commands, telemetry, and 
files 

• The Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Subsystem, which is used for EVA and 
proximity operations 

• The Ku-band Subsystem, which is used for payload downlinks, and two- 
way video and file transfer. 




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Data and commands are transmitted to/from the Space Station through the 
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to/from White Sands in New 
Mexico, USA. The data are then distributed through a combination of satellite 
and ground links. During short periods known as the "Zone of Exclusion" (ZOE) 
when there is no TDRSS-to-ground coverage, and during particular Space 
Station attitudes when there is no line-of-sight between the ISS and the TDRSS, 
the Space Station and the TDRSS lose communications. For at least 60 minutes 
in each 90-minute orbit, users are able to transmit or receive data. Another very 
short communications disruption occurs when communications are being 
handed over from one TDRSS to the other; this disruption lasts about two 
minutes during each orbit. 

Communications via the Japanese (DRTS) and European (Artemis) data 
relay systems are also under consideration. 

The JEM and Columbus Laboratory have video and audio systems that are 
compatible with the US system. Video and audio signals are digitized into data 
packets and multiplexed with other data for Ku-band downlink transfer. All the 
video, audio and data signals have time synchronization for proper time 
stamping and voice /data correlation. The Russian elements use the SEC AM 
video standard and have no connectivity with the other Partner video systems. 

Because of the high demand on communications resources, specific 
scheduling might be needed for some experiments. 

The operation of the Space Station requires a diversity of information 
services. These include command and control services, payload support 
services, and automated information security services. 

Command and control services provide for the interactive monitoring and 
control of the systems, elements, and payloads, as well as for the acquisition, 
processing, transmission, storage, and exchange of data among partners and 
payload operators and users. This includes the exchange of data between the 
Mission Control Centers, Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) and 
other ground centers responsible for integration, planning, execution, 
monitoring and controlling of payload operations. Two manned flight control 
centers, one in Houston, Texas, USA, and one in Korolyov, Russia, operate 
constantly. Although the main center is in Houston, Korolyov has full control 
responsibility in a back-up situation. 

Payload support services allow the remote users interactively to access, 
monitor, and control the equipment and payloads from their home institutions 
in pursuit of their experiments. This service also provides the users with 




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ancillary data required for the meaningful interpretation of experiment results. 
Examples include orbital position and velocity, attitude references and standard 
time references as well as physical characteristics such as an element's 
temperature, gas component partial pressure, humidity, or external 
environmental parameters. 

Automated information security services control the access to the 
information network and ensure the integrity and quality of the data on an end- 
to-end basis. The Space Station does not provide data encryption services for 
payload user data; users may encrypt their own data if they wish, however. 

4.4 Environmental Considerations 

Payload users should be aware of the effects of the natural and induced 
environment on their payloads. 

Natural environment- The natural environment is the physical ambience 
surrounding of the Space Station, which generally remains unperturbed by the 
presence of the Space Station but which affects its performance. 

The Earth's atmosphere produces forces and torques that disturb the 
motion and attitude of the Space Station. The atmospherically induced 
disturbances and accelerations determine the microgravity environment of the 
ISS. The atmosphere also affects the flux of the trapped radiation encountered 
by the Space Station. 

Plasma influences the extent of spacecraft charging, affects the propagation 
of electromagnetic waves such as radio signals used for telemetry, and causes 
surface erosion. Plasma also induces electric fields in the structure of the Space 
Station as it moves through the Earth's magnetic field. 

Charged particles can penetrate deep into the structure and after that may 
cause ionized radiation. This radiation significantly affects materials, chemical 
processes and living organisms. Charged particles may also cause temporary or 
permanent upsets in electronic devices or affect the propagation of light 
through optical materials by changing their optical properties. 

Electromagnetic radiation originates from the Earth and the plasma 
surrounding the Earth, from the Sun and from outer space as well as from the 
ionosphere. Intense electromagnetic radiation could greatly affect the Space 
Station systems and payloads. 




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Micrometeoroid or space debris collisions may seriously damage the Space 
Station and its payloads. Shielding and shadowing can protect its critical 
elements. 

Induced environment- The induced environment exists as a result of the 
presence of the Space Station, in low Earth orbit. 

Control operations such as boosting, docking and undocking operations, 
gravity gradient, atmospheric drag, attitude and orbital maneuvers, movement 
of crew and robotics, operation of moving systems and other factors greatly 
degrade the microgravity environment of the Space Station. The level of 
microgravity is not the same for all frequencies of vibration. For any given 
frequency of vibration, there is a normalized level of microgravity. At a 
frequency level of 0.1 Hz or less, a standardized, planned level of microgravity 
can be maintained for at least 50% of the pressurized locations for continuous 

periods of up to 30 days and at least 180 days per year. The greatest 
-3 

disturbances (-10 g) occur during Shuttle docking and Space Station reboost. 
Microgravity quiescent and non-quiescent periods are scheduled in advance. 
The predicted microgravity quasi-steady acceleration levels are shown in Fig. 1; 

here pG represents 10 g. 



OU AS INSTEAD Y ACCELERATIONS AT ASSEMBLY COMPLETE 
'FRONT- VIEW (VELOCITY VECTOR OUT OF THE PASE) 



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Figure 1. Microgravity conditions 






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The Space Station's external environment will further be affected by its 
presence, operation and motion, with induced effects due to: 

• Plasma wake - the variation of plasma density from the ram to the wake 

• Neutral wake - the variation of neutral gas density 

• Plasma waves induced by the motion of the Space Station 

• Vehicle glow on the forward, or ram, side 

• Change of local plasma density and production of electrical noise caused 
by charging 

• Enhancement of neutral density and the change of neutral composition by 
outgassing, offgassing, and the plumes from the thrusters 

• Electromagnetic power radiated by systems on the Space Station 

• Deliberate perturbation of the environment by active experiments and 
devices, such as (a) Transmitter/wave injectors, (b) Particle beam emitters, 
(c) Chemical releases, (d) Laser beams, and (e) Venting of any excess or 
waste fluids 

• Visible light generated by the Space Station and reflections of sunlight from 
it 

• Induced potential differences and currents that are generated by the 
motion of the Space Station through the Earth’s magnetic field, which can 
draw current through the surrounding plasma. 

5. Utilization 

5.1 Introduction 

This section focuses on what are likely to be four major areas of utilization 
onboard the ISS. These are technology applications, life sciences, physical 
sciences and observing sciences. In each of these four areas there is a 
description of the user facilities available, the potential activities accommodated 
by these facilities plus a brief critical analysis. A tabular description of a broad 
spectrum of user facilities on the ISS is given in Appendix 2. This appendix 
represents part of an ongoing facilities table maintained by MSS4 at 
http://mss.isunet/~mss4web/tps/publications/fac_table/index.html 
[Reference 19]. 

5.2 Technical and Engineering Utilization 

As suggested by the complexity of the engineering system and the 
technologies involved (see section 4), the design, production of the elements, 
assembly and operations of the ISS have been and are, by themselves, an 
unprecedented and invaluable occasion for development of advanced 
engineering tools, methods and techniques. 




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Table 4 identifies, beyond the outlined technological test-bed nature of the 
project itself, the major areas of research in the engineering and technology 
fields, indicating some examples of possible applications of space-borne 
research to Earth [References 20, 21]. 




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Space Application 


Earth Application 


Extra Vehicular Activity Support Systems 


- Fire-fighting Suits 

- Toxic Waste Cleaning Suits 

- Deep Water Diving Apparatus 

- Cooling Systems for Physically Impaired 
Persons 

- Compact Power Tools 


Environmental Control and Life Support System 


- Waste Treatment 

- Environmental Clean-up 

- Agriculture 


Structural Engineering 


- Numerical Analysis of Structural Dynamic 

- Structural Verification Techniques 


Aerospace Material /Space Environment Testing 


- Lightweight 0 2 Tanks 

- High Strength, Corrosion Resistant Pipes 

- Long Life, Self-Healing Paints 

- Lubrications 

- Solar Cells 

- Aerogel 


Communications 


- Support to R&D for Commercial Market 

- High Data Rate Power-Limited Networks 


Information System (Radiation Exposure) 


- Shielding & Hardening of Aerospace 
Electronic Hardware 


Operations 


- Warning & Emergency Systems in Confined 
Environment 

- Management of Pressurized Fluids 

- Controls and Interfaces 


Fluid Management 


- Multiphase Fluid Phenomena 

- Storable Fluids Fundamentals 

- Fluid Transfer 

- Free Surface Behavior 

- Thermal Non-equilibrium Processes 

- Cryogenics 


Robotics 


- Exploration of Unfriendly Environments (e.g. 
Ocean Depths, Volcanoes) 

- Hazardous Material Handling 


Autonomous Systems 


- Remote Installation Control 

- Safety and Reliability of Hazardous Facilities 


Propulsion 


- Low-Thrust Technology 

- Commercial Satellites Propulsion 


Power Generation 


- Solar Cells and Solar Dynamics 

- Batteries and Energy Storage Systems 

- Flywheels 

- Electric-powered Transportation Systems 



Table 4. Space techniques and Earth applications 
















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From an engineering point of view three broad areas of utilization are 
identifiable: 

• Earth-oriented applications 

• Test-bed for new technologies 

• Manufacturing, assembling and servicing of the Space Station. 

The proposed uses and experiments in these areas are very general, and 
are not easily linked to a specific facility on board ISS. The critical description of 
them, which follows, respects this characteristic. 

Earth-based applications- Several projects are planned for the provision of 
Earth-based services: 

• The global provision of precision time by means of a laser cooled atomic 
clock is foreseen with the Global Transmission Service (GTS). This service 
is pre-operational and the ISS will be used for test and demonstration 
purposes [Reference 22] 

• A system for detecting and monitoring asteroids and comets that are 
potentially hazardous to the Earth is being considered for implementation 
on the ISS. Now that collision with comets 100 m or larger is recognized as 
a serious potential threat to the Earth's population, there is strong support 
for this activity from the EC. Similarly a system for monitoring space 
debris is being considered [Reference 23] 

• The use of ISS as a research facility to study the effects of microgravity as 
well as a processing facility for the commercial production of unique 
materials needed by ground-based biotechnical, pharmaceutical, electronic 
and catalytic processing industries is identified in several proposals 
[References 24, 25, 26]. Commercial opportunities are expected for high 
temperature superconductors, CdTe crystals for X-ray detectors and 
zeolites which are extensively used in the oil refining industry to improve 
the quality of gasoline and diesel fuels 

• As the microgravity environment inside the Space Station might not be 
sufficient for some of the very sensitive processes of interest, the servicing 
of free-flying platforms for the automated production of unique materials 
to be returned to Earth for further processing is proposed. Small scale free- 
flying platforms could also be used for inspecting the ISS structure with 
respect to damages caused by debris or for supporting EVA by providing 
artificial lighting [Reference 27]. 

Apart from these "realistic" applications, more visionary/speculative ideas 
for the utilization of the ISS (or any successor) are proposed. Some of these 
ideas will certainly have a significant impact on the overall configuration of the 




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Space Station and might not be compliant with the current plans for utilization 
(e.g. applications negatively affecting the microgravity environment or the 
Space Station configuration). Since in some areas the enabling technologies are 
still missing (e.g. cheaper access to space), the implementation of some of these 
ideas cannot be expected before the current design lifetime of the ISS is over, if 
ever. The majority of ideas are not related to a current, already defined mission. 

One such "unrealistic" application, generating power by nuclear fusion 
processes, especially by use of a heavy isotope of helium (He3), is considered to 
be very attractive for solving the problems related to fossil-fuel or fission-based 
power generation processes. In this context the use of ISS (or successors) as an 
orbital docking station for spacecraft transporting He3 from the Moon is 
discussed. Compared to the Earth, He3 is abundant on the Moon and mining it 
is considered a viable option [References 28, 29]. The in-orbit trans-shipment of 
the He3 would be necessary as the atmospheric reentry can be more efficiently 
achieved with special reentry vehicles. 

ISS: The in-orbit test-bed- The ISS can be used as an in-orbit test-bed for 
new technologies, as a promising alternative to the tedious on-ground 
qualifications typically achieved by a combination of more or less representative 
tests, simulations and analyses. Several areas of opportunity have been 
identified: 

• According to some reports, the ISS has been proposed as a test-bed for 
several advanced methods for generating electrical power. These proposals 
aim at increasing the overall power generation efficiency or overcoming 
limits of current technologies 

• ISS will be used to develop and qualify solar dynamic power generation 
systems for standard space applications. Compared to the conventional 
combination of photovoltaic solar cells and electro-chemical batteries, solar 
dynamic power generation, where the energy is thermally stored and 
converted into electrical energy via a thermodynamic cycle, provides 
higher efficiency (by a factor of 3). This leads to a smaller collecting area 
and less atmospheric drag in LEO than using solar arrays. This increase in 
efficiency is further enhanced by the lower losses of the energy storage 
system compared to current secondary batteries 

• Another method discussed for generating power is the use of tethers. A 
long wire, which aligns itself radially to the Earth due to the gravity 
gradient, is moving in the Earth's magnetic field at the orbital speed of the 
Space Station, and thus inducing a large electric potential difference 
(voltage) between the ends of the wire 

• The use of magnetically suspended flywheels for storing energy is another 
area under consideration. The advantages of such a system are a higher 




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energy density and practically unlimited lifetime compared to the 
restricted number of charge-discharge cycles possible with conventional 
batteries 

• There are also suggestions to use the ISS for demonstrating the concept of 
solar power satellites where power generated in space is transmitted to 
Earth in the microwave band [Reference 30]. 

Other plans to use the ISS as an in-orbit test-bed are related to the 
following fields of technology [Reference 31]: 

• Testing and verifying new propulsion systems (electric propulsion, in 
particular) 

• Testing of new ECLSSs 

• Testing of materials with respect to their radiation tolerance, their 
outgassing behavior and their degradation in the LEO environment (e.g. 
the Surface Effect Sample Monitor [SESAM] experiment) 

• Testing of new electrical components, such as more efficient solar cells with 
respect to radiation tolerance and resistance to space debris 

• Demonstrating precise deployment of structures or investigating their 
dynamic behavior (e.g. the High-resolution Photogrammetric Experiment 
[HIPE]) 

• Investigating the control/structure interaction in flexible structures and 
robots 

• Testing new transportation systems for crew and equipment supply (ATV 
to ferry payloads to and from LEO, ATV-derived space robotic vehicle to 
assemble payloads in LEO) and Crew Rescue Vehicle being developed as a 
system between two merged projects [References 32, 33, 34] 

• Reducing cost for the operation of space systems by testing autonomous 
on-board operation of spacecraft 

• Demonstration of an optical communications link to augment services for 
payloads with a data rate up to 1 Gbps. 

ISS: The manufacturing, assembly and servicing station- It is possible to 
intervene in such typical scenarios as failure to deploy a solar array or antenna, 
improper function of mechanisms, software errors, etc.. With regard to the 
assembly of spacecraft in space, the ISS is currently being considered for two 
missions. 

• The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy (XEUS) mission requiring the 
in-orbit assembly of a mirror with 10m diameter [Reference 35] 

• The next generation Very Long Baseline Interferometry space mission 
suggests the assembly of a 30 m radio telescope on, or close to, the ISS. 




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Assembling spacecraft in-orbit appears attractive as spacecraft design can 
be significantly improved if the component parts do not have to withstand 
launch loads. Today many parts of the spacecraft are designed just to survive 
the launch and ground transportation while in-orbit loads are negligible in 
comparison. Furthermore launching spacecraft in parts could allow better 
utilization of launchers. However, in-orbit assembly (in the current ISS 
configuration) requires dedicated EVAs which are a hazardous and inefficient 
way to perform the task. The small dimensions of the hatches on the ISS restrict 
its efficient utilization as an in-orbit satellite assembly and test facility, as these 
activities cannot be efficiently performed without EVAs. In this context it is also 
important to mention that the crew number is probably still too small 
considering the number of man-hours spent on the ground for the assembly, 
integration and verification of a satellite. 

The ISS can also be used to maintain, re-fuel or repair satellites [Reference 
25]. It is expected that a significant amount of money could be saved if failed 
satellites could be repaired in orbit, or the lifetime of otherwise perfectly 
operating satellites could be extended by refueling them or by exchanging 
degraded solar arrays, avionics, and payloads. This approach might, however, 
not be possible with current generations of satellites which are not designed for 
robotic or EVA servicing. Again, any intra-vehicular servicing activity would be 
limited to small satellites due to the small size of the ISS hatches and modules. 

As for the use of ISS in support of future lunar or interplanetary missions, 
no detailed plans have been drawn up due to the lack of definition of such 
missions. Applications are conceivable in the long term for using the ISS in 
order to help develop enabling technologies for future manned missions to the 
Moon or to Mars. The idea is that the ISS could be used as an orbital staging 
point for equipment and supplies brought to the Space Station in multiple 
launches and assembled there for the outbound Lunar or Martian journey. 

Technological constraints on ISS utilization- Two technological 
constraints limiting the broader utilization of the ISS can be identified: 

• Low orbit, maintenance, and human activities have an adverse effect on the 
quality of the microgravity environment aboard the ISS. The quiescent 
periods, which should provide low levels of microgravity, have a 
maximum duration of 30 days. These periods are separated by either 
maintenance activities (10 days) or reboost maneuvers. However, the low 
microgravity environment may be disturbed, at any time, by atmospheric 
drag, mechanical vibrations, crew motion and possible debris avoidance 
maneuvers 




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• Considering the number of experiments to be performed on the ISS, the 
communication data rates are relatively low. The uplink data rate is only 
72 Mbps, while the downlink capacity is 144 Mbps; when TDRSS is online, 
both uplink and downlink data rates will be 120 Mbps (see Table 1). 

In the light of these limitations and constraints, the following upgrades can 
be proposed: 

• The capabilities for communications with the ground can be augmented by 
use of commercial satellite communications services provided by LEO 
constellations 

• The cost of access to space for many potential applications on the ISS is still 
too high, and only the development of new transportation systems can 
improve the situation. Quick access to space and an immediate delivery of 
the processed materials back to Earth has been considered crucial for the 
acceptance of the ISS by a broader scientific user community 

• The development of an EVA suit with motorized hinges can increase the 
astronauts' efficiency and productivity during EVAs 

• The attachment of a large diameter module with a large hatch would 
enable the efficient intra-vehicular assembly, repair, and refurbishment of 
satellites. 

From the wide variety of possible technological uses of the ISS, both 
realistic and otherwise, we move to the very realistic business of ongoing 
scientific investigations. The International Space Station will soon be home to a 
rich variety of facilities dedicated to expanding Man's knowledge of himself 
and his environment. The rest of this section is divided into sections on Life 
Sciences, Physical Sciences and the Observing Sciences. 

5.3 Life Sciences 

Columbus- Much of this European module is devoted to research in the 
life sciences area. 

European Physiology Modules (EPMs)- Current ESA plans are that the EPMs 
will contain the Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS), the 
Advanced Bone Densitometer (ABDM) and the Bone Stiffness Measurement 
Device (BSMD), the Biomedical Analysis System (BMAS), the Station Off-Axis 
Rotator (SOAR), the Neuroscience Instrument, Cardiolab, and the ELITE-S2. 
Biolab, which occupies its own payload rack, is also discussed in this section 
[References 36, 37, 38]. 




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The ARMS will be used for respiratory, pulmonary and cardiovascular 
physiology. The instrument is based on the photo-acoustic gas analysis 
technique that enables the measurement of oxygen, carbon monoxide, methane 
(blood non-soluble component) and sulphur hexafluoride gas concentrations. 
The ARMS will contain equipment for measuring blood pressure (Portapres), 
three-lead ECG (Ambulatory Electrocardiogram) and lung volume changes 
using a Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph. 

The ABDM measures the changes in structure and mineralization of the 
bone by using the propagation properties of ultrasound. The ABDM has 
evolved from the earlier EuroMir-95 BDM and therefore was designed to 
analyze the heel bone (calcaneum); the possibility of analyzing other bones on 
ISS is being investigated. The BSMD measures the longitudinal propagation of 
acoustic shock waves along the tibia (shinbone). 

The BMAS will enable the onboard biochemical analysis of body fluids 
such as saliva, blood, and urine. Onboard analysis will reduce the need for 
frozen storage, provide quick turn-around of results and prevent possible 
degradation of stored fluids. 

The Station Off-Axis Rotator (SOAR) will provide linear acceleration 
stimulus to the vestibular organs of its subject. On the STS mission Neurolab, 
SOAR was used in conjunction with an Eye Stimulation System (ESS or VEG) 
and an Eye Movement Recording System (EMRS or BIVOG); these may also be 
developed for the ISS. 

CNES (France) and, formerly, DARA (Germany) have developed 
Cardiolab. It consists of the following instrumentation: 

• Body Impedance Instrumentation — evaluates longitudinal body fluid shift 
changes 

• Electrical Impedance Tomography Instrument — evaluates fluid volume 
changes across a body or limb section 

• Near InfraRed Module Sensor Head — measures microcirculation 

• EEG Module, with 8 electrodes- measures brain activity 

• ECG Holter Module- measures cardiac activity 

• Arterial Blood Pressure Holter Module- monitors pressure pulse at the 
wrist 

• Portapres Blood Pressure Measurement Instrumentation- measures 
pressure pulse at the finger 

• Blood Flow ultrasound Doppler module 

• Air plethysmograph — measures absolute volume variations of limbs. 




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ELITE-S2 was developed by ASI (Italy) for tracking postural movement in 
three dimensions, using four infrared cameras. 

Biology - Biolab will be used to investigate microorganisms, animal and 
plant cells, as well as small plants and invertebrates. The equipment of Biolab is 
contained in one ISPR and includes an incubator with centrifuge rotors. The 
Biolab Handling Mechanism provides an element of automation in sample 
processing. The Biolab Glovebox allows on-board sterile manipulation of 
samples. 

Some pf the equipment mentioned above and in subsequent paragraphs 
will be used on the ISS for studies in human physiology. These studies, together 
with human countermeasures, may produce vibrations detrimental to other 
experiments carried out simultaneously on the ISS that require very low levels 
of microgravity (e.g. fluid physics, observing sciences). The co-ordination 
between i) human activities and ii) experiments that require low microgravity 
needs careful attention. It is possible that a higher quality of scientific research 
on the ISS could be promoted by focusing on experiments not requiring a low 
level of microgravity rather than ensuring a selection of experiments from each 
of the scientific disciplines. 

Protein Crystal Diagnostics Facility (PCDF)- The PCDF will be 
accommodated in the European Drawer Rack (EDR). It will be used for the 
same purpose as the APCF in the US HRF and the protein crystallization facility 
planned for the JEM. Although these facilities will perform similar functions 
(for example, producing highly regular crystals from protein solutions), the 
considerable demand for high quality protein crystals for X-ray or neutron 
analysis may justify the installation of three such facilities on the ISS. The 
elucidation of protein structures can lead to considerable advances in drug 
design and great benefits for patients on Earth. The additional factor of 
commercialization should also be taken into account. Each ISS Partner may 
have an interest in installing these facilities within his "own” module, as all 
experimental results obtained on ISS are under the jurisdiction (which includes 
patent law) of the member state who owns that module (see section 3). 

The development of an instrument for in-orbit X-ray determination of the 
structure of processed crystals would produce faster results, save the expensive 
return of the sample to Earth and avoid the possible adverse effects of 
acceleration and/or thermal environments during reentry. 

Cryosystem- This device is built by ESA under a NASA-ESA agreement and 

provides cold storage of biological specimens down to a temperature of -180°C. 
It consists of the Cryogenic Storage Freezer (CSF) and the Quick/Snap Freezer 




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(QSF). The CSF will store animal cells (from proteins to whole organisms), plant 
cells and protein crystals. The QSF will enable quick freezing of animal tissue 
and plant cells and snap freezing of animal organs, muscles and tendons, as 
well as of plant tissue. 

The Minus Eighty degree Laboratory Freezer for the ISS (MELFI)-As the 
Cry osy stem, this is built by ESA under a NASA /ESA agreement. It will store 
cell cultures, fluid samples and tissue samples up to 500ml in size. Freezing 
devices such as Cryosystem and MELFI generally create much heat. It is 
important that, during the planning of the TCS of Columbus, this has been 
taken into consideration. 

The Space Exposure Biology Assembly (SEBA)- This will be used as an 
exposure facility for studies in exobiology and radiation biology [References 39, 
40]. Exobiology is the study of extraterrestrial biology, i.e. the origin, evolution, 
and distribution of life. Some exobiology experiments use organisms that are 
adapted to growth and survival in extreme regions of the Earth's biosphere, 
such as microorganisms from desert or Arctic soil, airborne microbes from the 
upper layers of Earth's atmosphere, or archaebacteria [Reference 41]. Previous 
experiments have studied halophiles (a type of archaebacteria) in space. It was 
found that halophilic microbes could survive a two-week exposure to the harsh 
environment of space, within a certain type of porous rock. Other exobiology 
experiments are performed on molecules rather than organisms [References 42, 
43]. 



EXPOSE- This is designed for experiments in photobiology and photo 
processing where samples are exposed to the UV radiation from the Sun. The 
experimental facility is a box-shaped structure that contains a tray mounted on 
a two-axis coarse pointing device. The tray contains multiple compartments, 
each of which has a lid that is controlled by a motor-operated system which 
enables precise control over exposure to solar radiation. Each compartment may 
be unsealed or sealed with quartz windows. Filters are also available, providing 
control over the wavelength of radiation incident upon the experimental 
samples. 

Japanese Experimental Module (JEM)- The JEM contains various facilities 
which will be used for life science research: the Clean Bench (CB), the Aquatic 
Animal Experimental Facility (AAEF) and the Cell Biology Experimental 
Facility (CBEF). The CB will be used as a sterile environment in similar fashion 
to the LSG facility in the US CAM. Within the CB there will be a phase contrast 
fluorescent microscope and a monitoring camera. 




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Unlike the Aquatic Habitat of the US Gravitational Biology Facility, the 
AAEF facility will accommodate freshwater organisms such as Medaka fish, as 
well as saltwater organisms like Zebra fish. The AAEF, like the Aquatic Habitat, 
will be able to accommodate organisms for up to 90 days. 

CBEF is essentially a cell and tissue culture incubator. It provides a 
controlled environment that is necessary for cell and tissue survival: 5% C0 2 

atmosphere, 37°C and constant humidity. However, C0 2 levels can be varied 

from 0-10%, temperature from 15-40°C and relative humidity up to 80%. In 
addition, CBEF contains a rotating table that provides an acceleration up to 2g. 
The JEM also contains the Solution/Protein Crystal Growth Facility payload for 
protein crystallization. 

Japanese Experimental Module Exposed Facility (JEM EE)- The JEM EF has 10 
sites for Express Pallets. These offer further opportunities for experiments in 
exobiology and radiation biology. 

Russian contributions- The Russian Space Agency (RKA) plans to 
contribute two scientific modules to the ISS, both of which may contain 
equipment for biomedical studies. The exact nature of the equipment on board 
these modules is not currently known. However, in the latter part of 1997 the 
Institute of Medical and Biological Problems (IMBP) in Moscow began to select 
proposals from Russian scientific and medical institutions for life science studies 
on the ISS. Fifty-eight proposals were selected — 23 in space physiology, 18 in 
space biology and 17 in the field of space flight medical support. Of these 
proposals, 41 are planned for execution during the early phase of ISS utilization 
(1999-2002) and 17 during the late phase (2003 onwards) [Reference 44]. 

In this case, the Russian approach to utilization has been to consult the 
scientific and medical research communities for proposals prior to defining the 
equipment that will be available. This strategy, which is more logical than the 
view taken by other agencies, where science proposals must be based on 
equipment already chosen by the agency and (in some cases) a relatively small 
group of scientists, may also promote a better quality of scientific research on 
the ISS. 

As one of the five member Partners of the ISS, Russia co-operates with the 
other four partners in the area of life sciences via multilateral working groups, 
such as (a) the International Space Station Life Sciences Working Group 
(ISSLSWG), which focuses on many aspects of non-human life sciences research, 
and (b) the Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB), which co- 
ordinates scientific research on human subjects. 




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313 



In addition, there have been reports of discussions between RKA and 
NASA regarding the salvaging of scientific equipment on the Spektr and 
Priroda modules of Space Station Mir for future use on the ISS. However, the 
RKA may decide to maintain Mir in operational use for a further 3 years (until 
2002). As of early 1999, however, plans were underway to de-orbit Mir in a 
controlled fashion later in the year. NASA is pressuring RKA to devote its full 
energy to the ISS. 

U.S. Laboratory- As with Columbus, much of this laboratory is devoted to 
the life sciences. 

The Human Research Facility (HRF)- This is located in two ISPRs situated in 
the US laboratory [Reference 45]. Scheduled for launch in 2000, it will be used 
to investigate the cardiopulmonary, musculo-skeletal, neuro-vestibular and 
physiological systems of crew members. The HRF has a modular design 
facilitating changes of equipment within the rack. In addition to the equipment 
in the two ISPRs, there will be equipment located in the module aisle. 



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Figure 2. The US Human Research Facility 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



In order to monitor many physiological symptoms, the HRF consists of a 
variety of equipment. First, the Activity Monitor, worn on the wrist, evaluates 
sleep patterns and daily activity. The Ambulatory Data Acquisition System 
(ADAS) uses physiological sensors to monitor core body temperature, blood 
pressure and respiration. In addition, there will be a Continuous Blood Pressure 
Device (CBPD) using a finger cuff for measuring blood pressure which can be 
worn for up to 24 hours. It should be noted, however, that there might be 
redundancy between ADAS and CBPD in measuring blood pressure. A third 
system is the Ambulatory Electrocardiogram (ECG), which will provide non- 
invasive, 24 hour ECG data. The Gas Analyzer for Metabolic Analysis of 
Physiology (GASMAP) and Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement 
Device (SLAMMD) are further US hardware. Equipment and a laptop computer 
will be available to collect samples and data and conduct on-board analysis. 
Non-US HRF hardware includes the Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD) 
developed by ESA to measure hand strength and the Lower Body Negative 
Pressure device (LBNP) developed by Germany for cardiovascular studies. 

Additional equipment for the HRF is under consideration, including: 

• Bone Densitometer 

• Core Body Temperature Monitor 

• Fridge /Freezer 

• Head and Body Tracking System 

• Immimization Kits 

• Skin Temperature and Blood Flow Monitor 

• Eye Tracking Monitor 

• Ultrasound device. 

Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM)- This module will contain the 
Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Life 
Sciences Glovebox (LSG) for carrying out research in gravitational biology. 

Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF)- This consists of six habitats that can 
accommodate a variety of different living systems. 

The Cell Culture Unit will maintain and monitor cell cultures for up to 30 
days. The Aquatic Habitat will accommodate freshwater organisms, such as the 
much studied Zebra fish, for up to 90 days. Although the JEM contains the 
Aquatic Animal Experimental Facility (AAEF) and this may, at first glance, 
appear to duplicate resources, the two facilities have an important difference; 
AAEF accommodates saltwater organisms, but the Aquatic Habitat does not. 




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The Advanced Animal Habitat will be able to hold up to 6 rats or 12 mice. 
Compatible with this habitat is the Mouse Development Insert, which will 
house pregnant mice and their offspring during weaning. Many mammalian 
offspring died during weaning on Neurolab on STS in 1998. For there to be 
effective mammalian research on the ISS, greater research on improved 
maternal care and survival of mammalian offspring is needed during the 
weaning phase in microgravity. As a preliminary step, animal studies requiring 
astronauts could be carried out on US STS missions and those involving 
automated animal facilities as part of the Russian Bion program. 

The Plant Research Unit supports plants up to a root-stem height of 38cm. 
Space studies on plant biology have examined every stage of plant development 
from seed to adult. Various plants have been studied in space including onion, 
Nigella, wheat, peas, com, pine, beans, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, 
mustard, spindle tree, barley, crepis, and Arabidopsis. These plants have been 
examined in terms of germinating capacity, survival, chromosomal disorders, 
radio-sensitivity, metabolic pathway disturbances, transport phenomena, 
chromosomal behavior, and reproductive development. The first plant to be 
cultivated through several generations in space (from seed to adult plant to 
seed, etc.) was Brassica rapa, a member of the mustard seed family. This plant 
successfully reproduced multiple times onboard Mir [Reference 46]. 

The Insect Habitat, a development of the Canadian Space Agency, will 
contain insects such as Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly), which has been used 
extensively for studies in genetics and development [Reference 47]. Finally, the 
Egg Incubator will be used to incubate avian and reptilian eggs. All equipment 
of the GBF will be compatible with the Centrifuge Facility (CF) except the Insect 
Habitat and the Egg Incubator, each of which has its own internal centrifuge. 

The GBF will be an important facility for the field of developmental 
biology. Developmental biology is studied in space in order to document the 
effects of gravity on the development of living organisms. There are many 
stages in the development of animals (including humans): oogenesis, oocyte 
maturation, fertilization, cleavage, axis formation, organogenesis (the point at 
which organs begin to develop within the animal) [Reference 48], and cellular 
and tissue changes throughout post-natal life. It is thought that gravity plays an 
important role in the normal progression of these developmental stages, 
although its exact role has not been completely defined. One experiment 
proposed for the ISS involves investigating a Drosophila melanogaster colony in 
space, over a prolonged period of time, in order to study the evolutionary 
changes and mutations of this species in space. 




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Centrifuge Facility (CF)- The CF will provide an acceleration of up to 2g for 
biological samples. In addition to the CF, the CAM will contain laboratory 
support equipment such as: 

• 80°C Freezer 

• 4°C Refrigerator 

• Cryo Quick/ Snap Freezer 

• Passive Dosimeter System 

• Dissecting Microscope 

• Compound Microscope. 

All this equipment is essential for biological research. Freezers, incubators 
and centrifuges, however, generate vibrations and heat. It is important that 
these items be tested for the vibrations and heat which they generate when in 
functional mode, as it has important implications for all microgravity 
experiments on the ISS. 

Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG)- This is a sterile compartment where two 
crewmembers can manipulate biological specimens and conduct experiments at 
the same time by wearing gloves that extend into the 0.5m 3 volume of the LSG. 




LHe Science* 
GtovftfMx 



Figure 3. Diagram of the LSG apparatus 

Two overviews of life science research in space have been published in 
recent years [References 49, 50]. 




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5.4 Physical Sciences 

Space physics- Space Station platforms provide two basic capabilities for 
space physics experiments [References 51, 52, 53]: 

• Continuous monitoring of the "solar constant" (the total irradiance from 
the ultraviolet to the infrared), and the solar spectrum 

• Continuous monitoring of the Space Station environment; some effects 
which the ISS has on its environment are summarized in section 4.4. 

Several experiments have been proposed on the ISS to study the long term 
variability of solar properties: 

• NASA has received a proposal for a High Resolution Solar Observatory 

• ESA is considering proposals for a Solar Variability and Irradiation 
Monitor [Reference 54], long term measurements of Solar Diameter 
Variations and Solar Spectral Irradiance and Variability Measurements 
[Reference 55] 

• Japan has proposed a Solar Radiation Monitor and Solar X-ray Imager 
[Reference 56]. 

A NASDA payload, the Space Environment Monitor, will examine the 
external environment near the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM). It contains 
a neutron monitor, dosimeter and dust collector. The Space Environment 
Monitor is, however, useful to quantify ISS environmental conditions for use by 
other experimenters and as a source of scientific data in its own right. 

Microgravity Science- In microgravity, various phenomena are 
significantly altered, especially convection, buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure, and 
sedimentation. Scientific disciplines affected include fluid physics and 
transport phenomena, combustion, crystal growth and solidification, biological 
processes and biotechnology. Microgravity may therefore be regarded as an 
important tool for increasing precision in the measurement of thermophysical 
properties, thereby improving models of complex phenomena and hence 
manufacturing processes on Earth. 

ESA- In 1995, ESA member states prepared for the 'steady-state' utilization 
phase after assembly of the ISS and stipulated an ISS Utilization Preparation 
Program including a Microgravity Applications Promotion (MAP) program 
with three projects. With the latter program in place, ESA hopes to attract 
researchers from industry and academia and to develop relevant projects 
demonstrating the uniqueness of ISS as a tool for industrial research [Reference 
50]. 




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• Crystal Growth of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)- CdTe materials are used in 
highly sensitive detectors and photorefractive devices. CdTe X-ray and 
gamma ray detectors have high potential in dental imaging and 
mammography as they are faster, give more reliable medical diagnoses and 
expose patients to lower radiation doses than do current technologies. 
Today, the commercialization of such advanced detection techniques is 
impeded by the difficulty of growing large CdTe single crystals with the 
required quality 

• Enhancement of Oil Recovery- Understanding fluid physics in crude oil 
reservoirs is essential for optimizing exploitation. This is a major challenge 
because the role of thermodiffusion (the Soret effect) in petroleum 
reservoirs is not yet fully understood. Understanding diffusion processes is 
a key element and accurate coefficients of pure diffusion can be measured 
only in microgravity. As a result, ESA is sponsoring two projects on the 
precise measurement of diffusion coefficients in crude oil mixtures 

• Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES)- The microgravity environment 
aboard the ISS allows longer observation times of laser-cooled atoms than 
is possible on Earth. This translates directly to increased frequency 
resolution and, hence, more accurate timing. An accuracy of better than 10' 
16 s is expected. This experiment will also provide a variety of applications 
of a fundamental and technological nature. These include a 30-fold 
improvement in the measurement of the gravitational red-shift constant, 
improved testing of the isotropy of the speed of light, a search for a drift in 
the fine-structure constant, dissemination of time with 30 ps accuracy, a 10 16 
Hz oscillator and also positioning with millimeter precision. ACES has 
been selected to fly in 2002. 

The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) Experiment - An experiment will 
test the WEP for anti-matter to a precision of about one part in a million. It is 
proposed to store protons and anti-protons in a magnetic bottle with the 
symmetry axis orthogonal to the Earth's gravitational field. In the experimental 
set-up, the effect of gravity on the anti-protons will show up as a perturbation to 
their motion [Reference 57]. 

The Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL)- Occupying one ISPR, the FSL provides 
a multi-user research capability for the study of dynamic phenomena in fluid 
media in the absence of gravitational forces. The most significant element in the 
FSL is the Facility Core Element which houses the standardized Experiment 
Containers (ECs), the central experiment module and the optical diagnostics 
module. The FSL can be operated by the flight crew in automatic or semi- 
automatic modes or in a remote control mode from the ground (telescience). 




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The Material Science Laboratory (MSL)- The MSL occupies one ISPR in the 
Columbus Laboratory and about half of an ISPR in the US Lab. Except for 
minor rack interface differences, the two MSL versions are identical. A multi- 
user facility, MSL supports research in crystal growth with semiconductors, the 
physics of liquid states, measurement of thermophysical properties and 
solidification physics. 

The European Drawer Rack (EDR)- The EDR, occupying part of an ISPR, 
provides a modular capability for sub-rack payloads. Its fundamental goal is to 
accommodate smaller payloads in standard experiment drawers (SEDs) and 
Mid-Deck Lockers (MDLs) for experiments with a quick turnaround. 

Japan- Microgravity sciences are promoted by Japan's Space Utilization 
Promotion Office, with participation from NASDA and MITI. Furthermore, 
industry interest in microgravity science is developing in Japan. The focus is on 
the determination of the thermophysical properties of molten semiconductors. 
This is to satisfy Japan's goal of developing high-quality silicon single crystals 
for the next generation of miniaturized electronic devices. Other topics of 
interest include the investigation of technical combustion processes to better 
understand phenomena such as droplet evaporation and ignition which is 
expected to result in a reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. 

• Gradient Heating Furnace (GHF) Payload- To conduct research on material 
sciences, this furnace (GHF), which has three heating zones and a cooling 
zone 

• Advanced Furnace for Microgravity Experiment with X-ray Radiography- 
This multi-user image furnace (AFEX) consists of a gold-plated ellipsoidal 
mirror where experiment material is placed at one focus of the reflector 
and heated and melted by the radiation from a 1500W-halogen lamp. An 
image of the material can be measured from the other focal point 

• Fluid Physics Experiment Facility Payload- This payload is used for 
conducting fluid physics research on the moderate temperature fluid 
convection in liquid bridges. With this facility, it will be possible to obtain a 
3-D visualization of the flow patterns, resulting from convection, from the 
laminar to a turbulent state. A 2-D fluid visualization will also be possible 
from CCD cameras or the infrared imager system. Furthermore, flow 
velocity measurements on the sample surface and ultrasonic velocimeter 
readings are available. 

NASA- Increasing microgravity science research requires two purpose- 
built facilities [Reference 58]: 




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• Fluids and Combustion Facility- The Advanced Fluids Module experiment 
rack will consist of a number of experiment-specific test chambers which 
will each carry ancillary equipment such as cameras, laser optics, and 
heaters to accommodate research in the fields of interface configuration, 
thermocapillary flow, particle dispersion and gravity-jitter. The 
Combustion Module will have several viewing ports to allow for various 
diagnostics as required for research in the topics including comparative 
soot-flow diagnostics, forced-flow flame spread, fiber-supported droplet 
combustion, and radiative ignition and transition to spread 

• Materials Science Research (MSR) Facility- This facility will support a wide 
variety of investigations and classes of materials. Furthermore, the design 
of the MSRs allows them to be operated as autonomous, stand-alone racks 
[Reference 59]. 

CSA- The CSA is still engaged in strategic planning for Canadian 
microgravity experiments on the ISS. The agency intends to have at least one 
experiment in each of the following areas: (a) fluid physics (molecular motion, 
bubble motion, interface physics), and (b) materials science (semiconductor 
crystal growth and diffusion studies in metals) [Reference 60]. 

Furthermore / the Canadian Space Agency will provide hardware to be 
used in microgravity research [Reference 61]. 

• Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM)- This mount isolates 
microgravity experiments from the vibrations inherent to orbiting space 
platforms. The MIM has been used on Space Shuttle missions and on Mir 
in the past, and it is intended to be used on the ISS in the future 

• Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF)- Created by the CSA and the 
former German Space Agency (DARA), this furnace melts down sample 
materials and lets them resolidify in microgravity, allowing new structures 
to be created. Materials created using the CFZF may be useful in laser 
devices, medical treatments, fiber optics, and microwave cellular 
communications. The CFZF was very successful aboard the Space Shuttle, 
and may be used on the ISS. 

RKA- No information was found pertaining to the Russian Space Agency's 
intentions with regard to the utilization of their laboratories for microgravity 
research. 

Critical Analysis- In spite of the fact that dampers may be used to protect 
microgravity experiments from moderate perturbations, the microgravity 
conditions aboard the ISS are less than optimal and even inadequate for certain 
classes of experiments. In order to carry out some of the experiments described 




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in this section, coordination with astronaut activities that induce vibration (like 
exercise) may be required. Many microgravity experiments can be automated 
and accommodated on free flyers in higher orbits where lower drag forces 
translate to better microgravity conditions. 

For onboard space physics studies, active instruments and ground 
communications interfere with natural radio observations; the neutral and 
plasma environments are changed by the presence of the ISS to the extent that 
in situ measurements of the natural state are not possible. 

5.5 Observing Sciences 

Astronomy- The current utilization of the ISS for astronomical research 
focuses on sky surveys that use equipment which is not too sensitive to stability 
or pointing accuracy and that are also resistant to pollution from the ISS. There 
are plans or proposals to do the following astronomical experiments on ISS. 

SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory)- This payload will survey the sky to 
measure the polarization of light from all directions. It will increase current 
knowledge of the linear polarization of the galactic radio emission giving the 
sensitivities required to detect structures in the Cosmic Microwave Background 
at levels of a few mK over angular scales from arcminutes to degrees [Reference 
62]. 



UTEF (Ultraviolet Telescope Facility)- This is an ultraviolet telescope that 
was originally proposed to ESA as a separate telescope but later recommended 
as an ISS telescope. A hexapod system would be used to achieve the required 
pointing accuracy and attitude control, and the telescope would use active 
optics to achieve the desired stability. 

AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer)- This instrument is a large magnet 
with detectors that will study cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy. It requires 
the space environment to search for anti-matter and dark matter in space 
[Reference 63]. 

X to Gamma Ray Sky Survey- This survey will use a coded mask telescope 
to observe the sky in the hard X-ray to gamma ray range. It would combine a 
wide field of view with resolution high enough to achieve accurate source 
location. 

OPAL, Light Scattering Facility- This instrument will be used to make 
optical measurements of dust. It would use the microgravity conditions on 
board ISS to simulate interstellar or interplanetary dust and observe how it 




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interacts with light. These results could then be used to better understand the 
effects which such dust has on our observations of stellar and solar light. 

Earth Observations- A wide range of remote sensing observations is 
possible. 

ESA- Current and planned operational space-borne Earth observation 
systems provide spatially and radiometrically crude data for the detection and 
monitoring of high temperature phenomena on the surface of our planet. High 
temperatures often result from environmental disasters such as forest fires. 
Savannah fires, and volcanic activity. For this reason and others, a global 
environmental monitoring system from space is required. 

• Fire Detection Infrared Sensor System (FOCUS)- Based on pilot studies and 
experimental work, the ISS will be used in its early utilization phase as a 
platform and test bed for an intelligent infrared sensor prototype, FOCUS, 
a future Environmental Disaster Recognition Satellite System (EDRSS). 
FOCUS is considered an important mission combining a number of proven 
technologies and observation techniques to provide the scientific and 
operational user community with data for classification and monitoring of 
forest fires [Reference 64] 

• ALADIN- Within the framework of the Earth Explorer Program of ESA, the 
Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) is planning to provide wind field 
measurements on a nearly global scale. The Atmospheric Laser Doppler 
Instrument (ALADIN) will be accommodated on the ISS and will be used 
to investigate the diurnal cycles over three years at latitudes covered by the 
Space Station. Climatological and meteorological modeling and forecasting 
will be improved by these global wind field measurements [Reference 65] 

• Real Time Mapping using Multispectral Spacebome Videography- A real- 
time space-borne (ISS) multispectral videography system would provide 
compressed video data together with orbital data back down to Earth using 
the existing down links to a central server. However, this idea is based on 
the fact that a Global Positioning System (GPS) would be available on the 
ISS, but plans for the onboard GPS have been altered. Therefore, this is 
quite a doubtful utilization idea as it stands now [Reference 66]. 

NASA- The Office of Earth Science (OES) of NASA will make use of the 
ISS as one of the platforms for Earth observations. The one payload currently 
planned for flight on the ISS in 2002 is the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas 
Experiment (SAGE III). Also, NASA is considering the KidSat Science 
Educational Payload to be on ISS [Reference 67]. 




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• SAGE III- This instrument will continue observations of the vertical 
distributions of ozone, aerosol and other trace constituents pioneered 
through SAGE I and SAGE II. SAGE III has the advantage of both solar and 
lunar occultation to measure aerosol and gaseous constituents of the 
atmosphere during Space Station sunrise and sunset events 

• KidSat- The KidSat video camera will be accommodated on the ISS for 
observations of clouds, land, ocean and other phenomena, and transmitting 
data to schools in real time on the Internet. Teachers and students will be 
engaged in a collaborative learning process of conducting scientific 
experiments in space using NASA resources and the national educational 
infrastructure. This should capture the interest of all children and help 
educators motivate children to excel in science, mathematics and 
engineering. 

NASDA- In the Japanese module, there will be a Superconducting 
Submillimeter - Wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES), a highly sensitive 
submillimeter wave limb sounder using a superconducting technique which 
enables the three-dimensional global observation of trace gases in the 
stratosphere, of relevance to ozone depletion and global warming [Reference 
68 ]. 



RSA- No information on Russian plans for Earth observations could be 
found. 

CSA- Canada has no plans for Earth observations from the ISS. 

Critical analysis- Although the orbit of the ISS (51.6° inclination) provides 
an Earth surface coverage of 85%, it is, however, not optimum. With this orbit it 
is, for example, not straightforward to study important phenomena like ozone 
depletion, occurring over the poles. Moreover, due to non Sun-synchronous 
orbit, lighting conditions on the Earth's surface vary for repeated tracks. Also, 
the periodic variation of the orbital height of the ISS might pose some 
limitations for Earth observation applications as it directly translates to a 
variation in the resolution of instruments. 

Another limiting factor of the ISS is that vented gases and light pollution 
contaminate the optical observing environment. Solar panels and other 
installations should not obscure instruments' fields of view. Many of the 
important factors related to doing astronomy from space, such as orbit, attitude 
control, stability, and communications, are not optimized for the individual 
payloads. This places several restrictions on the use of ISS for astronomical 
purposes: 




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• LEO- "Perhaps the worst orbits are those offered by 'infrastructure', which 
were not designed with astronomy as their primary driver yet have to be 
used 'because they are there'" [Reference 69]. The low Earth orbit is 
generally not suited for most astronomical purposes as the Earth frequently 
blocks its view or scatters light into the instrument. Its passage through the 
Van Allen radiation belts can also interfere with observations. This orbit is 
sufficient, however, for some missions such as all-sky surveys 

• Stability and Attitude Control- Many astronomical observations need 
additional stability and attitude control systems to achieve the required 
pointing accuracy. However, there are some instruments that do not 
require precise stability and attitude control, such as coded mask 
telescopes. And there are devices, like the hexapod base, which can 
compensate for these problems 

• Environment- The local environment will be polluted by water vapor and 
waste gases, eliminating the possibility for cryogenically cooled 
instruments. 

The ISS could be useful, possibly, for testing new kinds of space-based 
astronomy instruments which have not yet been space qualified or need 
frequent adjustment to get them working in space. Most astronomy, space 
physics and Earth observation investigations can be more cost-effectively and 
successfully conducted from unattended satellites [Reference 70]. 

6. How to Utilize the International Space Station 

6.1 ISS Management and Planning 

The ISS planning process is very complex and involves many interfaces 
and products. It is also being performed in several distinct steps with distinct 
planning processes covering different time intervals ranging from several years 
to just a few days. As a consequence of its unique multinational character, the 
planning for the ISS is based on a distributed hierarchical concept. Each Partner 
in the Space Station Program is considered a single planning entity, and, 
distributed geographically, each is tasked to integrate and plan their respective 
Partner element activities and resource utilization [Reference 71]. To facilitate 
understanding of the planning process, two terms must be introduced and 
explained [Reference 72]: 

• Increment (I). This is the time from the launch of a manned vehicle to the 
undocking of the return vehicle for that crew. The length of an increment 
ranges anywhere from 1 month to about 6 months. This term refers to all of 
the activities occurring during this time frame 




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• Planning Period (PP). This is the period on which much of the ISS 
planning is based. It spans approximately 1 calendar year, but is linked to 
the beginning and end of ISS increments, and so usually does not begin on 
January 1. 

Strategic Planning- Each Strategic and Multi-Increment plan covers a five- 
year period through scrolling plans that are updated regularly. Each year the 
new period "P5 " is added and the period of the previous year "PI" is removed. 
Details for years "P4" and "P3" are refined while the data for "P2" and "PI", 
those closest to execution, will then reflect the information provided by the 
tactical planners. The Multilateral Coordination Board (MCB), which comprises 
representatives from each of the Partner's agencies, has established Panels 
responsible for the long-range strategic coordination of the operation and 
utilization of the ISS. They are the System Operations Panel (SOP) and the User 
Operations Panel (UOP) [Reference 73]. These two panels will develop the 
annual Composite Operations Plan and the annual Composite Utilization Plan, 
respectively. The latter is the consolidation of the various Partners' utilization 
plans. Based on these two documents, SOP and UOP jointly prepare the 
Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP) which is the end product 
of the annual strategic planning cycles. 

A further multilateral body, the Multi-Increment Planning Integrated 
Product Team (MIPIPT), develops the Multi-Increment Manifest. This 
document defines the traffic and crew rotation plans for the five planning 
periods contained in the COUP. 

Tactical Planning- Tactical Planning starts 30 months in advance of the 
Planning Period. This covers approximately one year, generally from the first 
manned launch in the calendar year until the first launch of the next calendar 
year. This planning period will usually entail four increments. Based on the 
COUP requirements, the international Partners develop their proposal 
according to their flight-element and user needs. The main product of this 
planning process is the Increment Definition and Requirements Document 
(IDRD), signed by all the international Partners. The preliminary version of the 
IDRD is released at Planning Period Start (PPS) -24 months and the baseline is 
published at PPS-18 months. Further updates take place every 6 months, as 
required. The IDRD serves two purposes [Reference 71]: 

• For each specific increment mission, it defines operations and utilization 
objectives, top-level cargo manifest (up-/down-loads), payload 
complement, accommodation and resource allocations, crew rotation and 
training plan and in-orbit maintenance 




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• In addition, a set of summary documents is provided which are used to 
inform the strategic-level planners about what has been planned for PI and 
P2 of the upcoming COUP and the degree to which these IDRD's have met 
the previous COUP'S requirements. 

Other planning documents at the tactical level are the Engineering 
Feasibility Assessment (EFA) and the Operations Feasibility Assessment (OF A). 
They are meant to ensure that the priorities and objectives of the increment can 
be achieved. 

Increment Planning- Planning at this level can be divided into the pre- 
increment planning phase and planning during the increment. An International 
Execute Planning Team (IEPT) is tasked to perform the above planning based 
on the IDRD as the major input. The most important outputs for the phases 
mentioned above are the On-Orbit Operations Summary (OOS) and the Short- 
Term Plans (STP), respectively. 

The OOS utilizes a resource profile analysis, carried out on a weekly basis, 
which defines the possible limits for each resource (crew time, energy, 
communications, etc.) over a defined period of time, usually the increment 
itself. The OOS can then be developed (PP-18 months). The Preliminary OOS is 
delivered at PP-12 months with the final version published at PP-2 months. It 
will be updated through to the end of the planning period to reflect operations 
as they actually occurred. 

The STP is a detailed, integrated schedule of activities to be performed 
during one week of Space Station operations. The STP includes all ISS 
operations, including each of the ISS Partner systems and payload activities. 
Also derived from the STP is the On-board STP, which is the integrated plan 
that is executed onboard the ISS. It will contain three days of activities 
(yesterday's, today's and tomorrow's). 

6.2 Payload Cycle and Integration 

The payloads onboard the ISS are divided into two categories: 

• Class 1, or Facility Class, Payloads can be regarded as permanent multiple- 
user facilities (complete rack facilities or complex instruments on an 
Express Pallet Adapter) that provide services and accommodation for 
experiments 

• Class 2 payloads are those that are embedded into a facility and are 
provided directly by the users (scientific and/or industrial users). 




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The selection and procurement processes are different from one payload 
class to the other. Class 1 Facilities are generally developed at the Agency level 
in co-ordination with the other ISS Partners; Announcements of Opportunity 
are issued for the Class 2 payloads during the development of the Class 
payloads and throughout their exploitation phase. The Russian Space Agency 
(RKA), however, has requested proposals from the scientific communities prior 
to the development of their "Class 1" facilities for ISS. 

The main difference in the development process between the two classes of 
payloads is the time needed to complete the various stages. Based on the 
experience acquired with Spacelab, the development time for a Class 1 payload 
can last up to 5 years while, in comparison, the time needed to develop a Class 2 
payload can vary from a few months to up to three years. 

Following successful transition through the ISS partner's selection process, 
the payload is included in its PUP (Partner Utilization Plan) which is made on 
an annual basis and five years in advance of utilization. The Plans are 
forwarded to the UOP that will develop the CUP. A PUP proposed by any ISS 
Partner that falls completely within their respective allocations and does not 
conflict with another Partner's Utilization Plan will be automatically approved 
[Reference 74]. 

The payload (P/L) development cycle is summarized in Table 5 [Reference 
75]: 




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Payload Activities 


Supporting Activities 


Conceptual Design 
Feasibility Study (Phase A) 
Design Phase (Phase B) 


Strategic Planning 
Tactical Planning 


Development 


Interface Agreement 


Qualification 


Analytical Integration 


Verification 


Operations Preparation 


System Compatibility Testing 


Final Acceptance / Documentation 


System Integration 


Physical Integration 


Launch Preparation and Launch 


Logistics Support/Final Checkout 


On-Orbit Verification 




On-Orbit Operation 
Return from Orbit 


Flight Operations 



Table 5. Payload development phases 



Payload (P/L) Integration is carried out at the Payload Operations and 
Integration Center (POIC) located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 
Huntsville, Alabama, USA. The POIC will fulfill a double role. At the broad 
level, in co-operation with the Space Station Control Centers (SSCCs), it will act 
as Space Station Integrator, receiving resource requests from the element 
planners (COF, US Lab, etc.), working out resource profiles for P/L operations 
and assigning them to each P/L operation. At the Payload Planning Center 
level, it will look after all the US payloads either located in the U.S. Lab or in 
any other element of the ISS (e.g., US payloads in COF). 

6.3 How to Gain Access to the Space Station 

A number of experiments can be performed during the assembly phase 
when the Space Shuttle and Russian launchers visit the Space Station and 
between flights when the on-board crew is available as experiment operators or 
as research subjects. A set of research hardware will be transported to the Space 
Station, primarily in dedicated Space Shuttle Utilization Flights (UFs). So far 
only seven of these flights have been scheduled, starting with UF1 in 2000 
through UF7 in 2003. From this point onward. Shuttle and additional logistic 




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flights from the Partners' mixed fleet are planned each year for exchanging the 
astronauts and re-supplying the payload items. 

Scientific Investigations- Through Announcements of Opportunity, the 
International Partners are already selecting scientific experiments for the ISS. 
The proposals undergo an evaluation and selection process through a peer- 
review system. The evaluation criteria applied by the different Partners are 
basically the same: 

• Scientific/ technical relevance and merits 

• Assessment of the technical feasibility of the proposed experiment 

• Appraisal of the proposal relevance to the program priorities of the 
sponsoring Partner Agency 

• Qualification of the team 

• Quality of the preparatory research on which the proposal is based 

• Probability of achieving the scientific /technical objectives. 

It is noteworthy that, in the effort to develop cooperation, the Space 
Agencies and then participants are meeting in an International Microgravity 
Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG). One of the objectives is to coordinate the 
development and use of research apparatus among microgravity research 
programs in areas of common interest to maximize the productivity of activity 
internationally. The group is presently discussing ways and means to intensify 
international co-operation in the context of utilization of the ISS. A first 
International Announcement of Opportunity in the field of Life Science 
Research (LSRA) was issued in December 1996 [Reference 76] and another is 
planned for 2000/2001. Internationally coordinated AO's are being prepared 
also for the disciplines of Physical Sciences and Biotechnology. 

6.4 NASA's Approach to Exploitation of the ISS 

Commercial Development and the Commercial Space Centers (CSC)- 
NASA is strongly committed to explore commercial exploitation of the ISS 
facilities. To this end, NASA has already committed 30% of the ISS's payload 
capacity for commercial development. Internal studies are being conducted to 
identify potential areas of commercial opportunity [Reference 78]. In addition, 
a Commercial Development Plan for the ISS [Reference 79] has been prepared. 
Its goals are, in the short term, to begin the transition to private investment and 
offset a share of the public cost, and, in the long term, to establish private sector 
demand for space products and services in LEO. 

Among the variety of methods used by NASA to solicit and select 
commercial projects for flight onboard the ISS, the best established is NASA's 




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designated Commercial Space Center (CSC) [Reference 79]. These Centers are a 
joint undertaking funded through NASA's Office for Life & Microgravity 
Science and Applications (OLMSA). They involve teams of industry, university 
and other non-NASA government organizations which were formed to provide 
a pathway for the US to develop new products, processes, markets and services. 
Each of the Centers has industry commitments in the form of cash and in-kind 
resources to carry out the programs. When a party has a proposal that is of 
potential economic benefit, it can approach a CSC with a proposal. This 
partnership generally begins with M expert-to-expert M discussion and progresses 
to an industrial commitment, the development of a research plan and its 
implementation. 

In the frame of NASA's commercial development program, the CSC's have 
been tasked to query their existing industrial affiliates and evaluate the prospect 
of the Space Station becoming a fee-for-service product development laboratory 
or production center. 

Table 6 presents a list of the current CSCs (approved or in process of 
obtaining NASA's approval): 




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CSC Name 


Location 


Field of Activity 


BioServe Space Technology 


University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Colorado 


- Bioprocessing/bioproduct 
development 

- Bio-molecular electronics 

- Physiological modeling 


Center for Commercial 
Applications of Combustion in 
Space 


Colorado School of Mines, 
Golden, Colorado 


- Combustors, fire safety, 
ceramic powder 


Center for Commercial 
Development of Space Power 
and Advanced Electronics 


Auburn University, Auburn, 
Alabama 


- Thermophysical properties of 
casting alloys 


Center for Macromolecular 
Crystallography 


University of Alabama, 
Birmingham, Alabama 


- Three-dimensional structure 
of protein crystals 


Consortium for Materials 
Development in Space 


University of Alabama, 
Huntsville, Alamba 


- Space materials 


NASA Langley 


Hampton, Virginia 


- Polymer materials 


Microgravity Automation 
Technology Center 


Environmental Research 
Institute of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 


- Laboratory automation 


Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center 


University of Houston, 
Texas 


- Ultra-pure, ultra-thin 
materials for electronics 


Center for Space Automation 
and Robotics 


University of Wisconsin- 
Madison, Wisconsin 


- Technologies for long 
duration space missions 


Worcester Polytechnic Institute 


Worcester, Massachusetts 


- Crystal growth 



Table 6. NASA's Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) 



New Concepts in ISS Utilization Management- NASA is aware that in 
order to make the ISS an effective and successful program, management must 
ensure its productivity and optimization of the results by the R&D and business 
communities. In order to achieve this, the establishment of a non-government 
organization (NGO) has been proposed in the United States by the year 2000 
[Reference 80]. The purposes of this new organization (see Table 7) are to 
coordinate the science and the engineering communities to "aggressively 
expand the scientific (...) and technological capability of the ISS" as well as 
"disperse information on the resulting scientific and technological 
achievements", and to stimulate "the commercial community to expand the 
global economy in space products and services". As far as customers 
("sponsors") are concerned the main distinction is made between public 
sponsors and private ones. The latter enjoy Proprietary Rights on the R&D 
results, that is, the results will not be disclosed and will remain the property of 
the funding sponsor. 





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Office of the Director 

- Selected by the Board of Directors 

- Utilization program development 

- Management and administration 


Operations Board 

- Select projects' scientists & engineers for residency 

- Approves visiting senior scientists & engineers 

- Assigns Mission Directors and R&D Working 
Groups 

- Approves payload integration plans & flight 
assignment 

- Assigns operating periods & accommodation sites 


Board of Directors 

- Annually reviews & extends research 
programs 

- Communicates policies of the sponsoring 
organizations 

- Approves Annual R&D Program Plan and 
Commercial Prospectus 


Science Program Office 

- Scientific research program management 

- Conducts nominal share of scientific research 

- Establishes science project queue 

- Defines requirements for flight instruments 

- Manages analytical, physical and operations 
integration 

- Manages science results archive 


Liaison Office 

- Staffed by national and international program 
sponsors 

- Represents sponsors and provides oversight 


Technologv Program Office 

- Technology development program management 

- Establishes technology project queue 

- Defines requirements for flight equipment 

- Procures /develops flight equipment 

- Manages analytical, physical and operations 
integration 

- Manages technological results archive 


Education Office 

- Develops collateral products for education 

- Communicates attributes of orbital 
environment and achievements of the R&D 
programs 


Bonded Commercial Program Office 

- Implements commercial policy of government 
sponsors 

- Liaises with private sector and commercial space 
network 

- Establishes commercial project queue 

- Manages analytical, physical and operations 
integration 

- Maintains proprietary procedures and protocols 


Operations Office 

- Strategic, tactical and contingency planning 

- Manages resource allocation and mission 
model 

- Manages mission support contract 

- Produces annual R&D Program Plan and 
annual Commercial Prospectus 


Space Trust Corporation 

- Manages private capital funds 

- Selects private ventures for funding with 
equivalent rigor to private capital markets 

- Finances qualified private ventures, if necessary 



Table 7. Proposed structure and duties of the NGO 





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6.5 The European Approach to Exploitation of the ISS 

Access to the ISS for European undertakings is mainly organized and 
managed by the European Space Agency. In addition to the overall European 
payload, nationally provided payloads must also be taken into account. Unlike 
NASA, Europe has devoted its attention mainly to scientific and technological 
utilization of the ISS. Access and charging policies addressing 
industrial/commercial users are still under development. 

Bearing in mind the ISS planning process, it is important that any Partner 
be able to make a long-term commitment toward the operation and utilization 
of the Space Station. To this aim, ESA is currently preparing an overall 
Exploitation Program for the period 2000-2013, as an optional program. 

Even though firm rules for user access are still under discussion at ESA, 
users can be defined in three main categories: Fundamental and Applied 
researchers from ESA Member States participating in the ISS exploitation 
program; Industrial/Commercial Users from Program participating Member 
States; and so called "Third party Users", which are all the undertakings of ESA 
Member States that are not participating in the ISS and/or non-Member States. 

A set of basic procedures will be applicable to all users: the AO process, a 
technical feasibility assessment by ESA, and review and recommendation by the 
ESA Program Board concerned (e.g. Microgravity, Space Science, etc.). The 
main difference in the ways in which different user categories will be treated 
lies in the charging policy. Third Party Users will, in most cases, bear the full 
mission cost or have to pay an access fee fixed by the ESA Executive on a case 
by case basis. It should also be possible for a National Space Agency to select, 
develop and fly an instrument and nominate the user for it according to its own 
criteria and outside the ESA selection loop. In this case, the cost will be borne by 
the proposing Agency. 

Even though the full operation of the Columbus facility will occur only in 
2003, through a dedicated MoU, NASA has arranged to provide ESA with early 
utilization opportunities [Reference 81]. In exchange for ESA's provision of so- 
called "Space Station utilization enhancement items" (the Microgravity 
Glovebox, three -80 Degree Celsius Freezers, the Hexapod Pointing System and 
the Mission Data Base system) NASA will provide ESA with the following: 
access to 50% of a NASA payload rack in the US Lab for two years; the 
equivalent of up to four mid-deck lockers to accommodate European-provided 
research facilities; the use of one-half of an attached payload accommodation 
site on the truss and payload participation on two Shuttle flights. 




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User Support Operations Centers- for payload flight operations 
management, Europe has opted for a decentralized approach. The focal point 
will be the Columbus Operations Control Center (COF-CC). The COF-CC has 
been assigned an overall monitoring and coordination task at the element level 
of the different Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC), such as Biolab, 
FSL, MSL, EPM and EDR. Preparation and in-flight operations for the MFC 
during each mission increment have been assigned to User Support Centers 
under the overall direction of the COF-CC. 

These centers are the link between the payload operations onboard the 
Space Station and the scientific user group. They are involved to a different 
extent in the preparation and mission execution function. A center appointed as 
a Facility Responsible Center (FRC) prepares and operates the facility assigned 
to it. Currently, the following European centers have been identified as possible 
FRC's: 

• Microgravity User Support Center (MUSC) in Cologne (EPM, MSL-SQF) 

• Microgravity Advanced Research and Support Center (MARS) in Naples 
(FSL) 

• Centre d'Aide au Developpment de la Micropesanteur et aux Operations 
Spatiales (CADMOS) in Toulouse (Biolab and MSL-LGF). 

6.6 The Canadian Approach to Exploitation of the ISS 

To help Canadians utilize Canada's share of the ISS, the Canadian Space 
Agency has formed the Microgravity Sciences Program (MSP). It assists 
scientists in taking advantage of the microgravity environment aboard the ISS to 
advance research. The MSP's Announcements of Opportunity (AO) are 
published to solicit proposals for experiments from Canadian researchers. 
These teams may include international scientists. 

Canada has also submitted a Partner Utilization Plan (PUP) that indicates it 
will start utilizing the ISS in 2001. The CSA is currently evaluating the ISS as a 
test-bed for on-orbit technologies. It may commercialize part of its ISS 
utilization share since it will not make use of all the resources available over the 
lifetime of the program [Reference 82]. 

6.7 The Japanese Approach to Exploitation of the ISS 

In addition to participating in the International Announcement of 
Opportunity for life science experiments on ISS, Japan has its own module 
(JEM) and a plan for utilizing it. There are two types of facilities on JEM, the 
Pressurized Module (PM) and the Exposed Module (EM). Proposed 




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experiments are selected through the AO process and there are currently fifty 
proposals in the PM and four in the EM. After experiments are selected, 
common facilities are developed for them and the next generation proposals are 
selected for these facilities. 

7. New Utilization Opportunities, and Recommendations for the Future 

A thorough examination of the literature on the International Space Station 
suggests a variety of possible utilization schemes. Although the possibilities 
are boundless, this overview examines future utilization in terms of current 
planned usage which is predominantly scientific experimentation. There are 
three areas of scientific research discussed: life sciences, physical sciences and 
observing sciences. 

There is a wealth of potential for life science research onboard the ISS. 
Space medicine in particular stands to be advanced significantly using the 
Russian tradition of studies on long duration missions as a base. There is much 
more significant work to be done in preparation for mass habitation and travel 
in the unforgiving outer space environment. 

7.2 Life Sciences 

Developmental Biology- Research in post-natal mammalian development 
should be a key area of research on the ISS. The elucidation of mammalian 
development is a preliminary stage to understanding human developmental 
processes. As mentioned previously, post-natal studies using rodents are 
hampered in microgravity due to poor maternal care and feeding of the 
offspring. If appropriate research is performed on this problem aboard the ISS, 
it is expected to yield key results, and bring in rich dividends for biomedical 
research. 

One of the main problems with studying the effects of microgravity on 
plant biology has been the lack of long duration spaceflights. The ISS provides 
a platform for long duration microgravity and should therefore be exploited for 
research into plant biology. Understanding the behavior of plants in 
microgravity is necessary to develop bio-regenerative life support systems and 
to understand fundamental processes applicable to agriculture on Earth. An 
area of plant research that has particular importance is cultivation through 
multiple generations. Such a process may be required in a bio-regenerative life 
support system and should build upon the successful cultivation techniques 
used on previous missions aboard Salyut and Mir. 




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Tissue culture- In microgravity, cell cultures may develop complex three- 
dimensional structures that closely resemble certain tissue structures. This 
"tissue engineering" has great potential in the area of organ transplantation. 

Protein Crystallization- The microgravity environment enables the 
production of highly regular crystal structures from protein solutions. These 
structures can be analyzed on Earth using X-ray diffraction or nuclear 
diffraction. The complete structures of many human proteins have not yet been 
elucidated. Given the immense benefit to the medical field offered by these 
studies, full advantage should be taken of the opportunities on ISS for protein 
crystallization studies. 

Radiation- The long term effects of space radiation on plants, animals and 
the human body are unknown. Although tumor induction, life shortening, cell 
transformation, and chromosomal mutations and translocations have been 
observed in some animal studies, other factors, such as stress and genetic 
background, may be involved. The ISS will provide a unique facility to study 
long term exposure to radiation. 

Space Medicine- In the field of space medicine, much research can be 
effectively carried out aboard ISS. 

Skeletal Muscle- Muscle atrophy (specifically loss of gravity-resistant 
Type 1 "slow” muscle fibres) is a significant problem for astronauts following 
long-term spaceflight. Treadmill and ergometric exercises are not effective at 
preventing this. To assist re-adaptation of ISS astronauts to lg following their 
return to Earth, an effective counter-measure must be developed on the ISS that 
prevents the loss of "slow fibres". Such a counter-measure may improve upon 
previous "constant-loading" suits (e.g. the "penguin-suit") worn by cosmonauts 
onboard Salyut and Mir. Such suits may assist the treatment of conditions 
experienced on Earth, such as cerebral palsy in children. 

Bone- The bone-weakening symptoms experienced by cosmonauts on 
long-term space flights are similar to those experienced by osteoporosis patients 
on Earth. Development of an effective counter-measure to bone weakening in 
astronauts may therefore benefit medical treatments on Earth. Such a counter- 
measure may require imparting shocks/vibrations to the gravity-resisting bones 
(e.g. femur) to induce osteoblast (bone-forming cell) activity. This measure 
could obviously disturb other microgravity experiments on ISS. To compensate, 
it is suggested that an important criterion for the assessment of ISS experimental 
proposals is the ability of an experiment to generate scientifically useful data 
and to retain all previous data during and following disturbances to the 




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microgravity environment. That is to say, experiments on the ISS should be 
relatively "resistant" to microgravity disturbances. 

Cardiovascular System- Important, but so far little studied, areas of the 
cardiovascular system are 1) coronary and 2) cerebral blood flow. Human 
studies on the ISS should include ground-based measurements from subjects 
not only in supine positions, but also in upright positions (with relative central 
hypo-volemia). This is essential for scientifically valid comparisons with 
measurements taken during the later stages of the mission when total blood 
volume is decreased. 

Nervous System- Measurement of inner eye pressure in space using a 'self- 
tonometer' has applications on Earth. The same is true for video-oculography; it 
can be used in the detection of disturbances in the vestibular, neurological or 
oculomotor domains. A refined version of the opthalmo-dynamometer could be 
used to measure raised intra-cranial pressure in astronauts which may be linked 
to space motion sickness. The investigation of this non-invasive method may 
benefit patients on Earth that require neuro-surgery. However, careful 
interpretation is required positively to correlate ocular pressure with intra- 
cranial pressure. 

Respiratory System- Closer investigations into the effects of long term 
microgravity on the mechanics of breathing and on the neuro-physiological 
adaption of the respiratory system (with changed bio-mechanical conditions) 
are needed. In addition, a sensitive respiratory sensing device should be 
developed for testing physical fitness in space (and assessing cardiovascular de- 
conditioning). 

Psychology-Previous reports demonstrate that social behaviour and mood 
changes are significant factors that affect the success of a space mission. This 
area of research should be given great importance on the ISS, considering the 
international nature of ISS crews, and their cultural diversity. In addition, 
crews should be given sufficient pre-flight time to work together as an effective 
team. 

Medical Care in Space- The ISS can be used as a test-bed for ambulatory 
monitoring devices, biomedical instrumentation, tele-medicine systems, life 
support, and environmental control systems. These systems will have direct 
benefits to people on Earth. 




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7.2 Physical Sciences 

Observation of Auroras-Human observations of such physical phenomena 
are particularly useful because real-time intelligent judgements of what is 
interesting and what is related to what can be made. Although the ISS orbit is 
not highly inclined, oblique observations of auroras in the polar regions will be 
possible. During particular periods of interest such as geomagnetic storms or in 
support of ground-based campaigns, astronauts could be asked to observe and 
film interesting auroral phenomena in response to specific requests from 
interested scientists. 

Sprites-These are lightning flashes, which originate at the tops of clouds 
and strike upward towards the ionosphere. They have been reported in the 
scientific literature only this decade and the mechanism for their generation is 
not yet fully understood. One of the factors hindering a fuller understanding is 
a lack of geo- and time-referenced optical data of these phenomena. Several 
features of the ISS make it an ideal platform from which to record sprites. 
Sprites typically occur over mesoscale convective systems (MCS), i.e. large 
thunderstorms. These conditions can be ascertained using existing ground- and 
space-based meteorological observation networks. Once an observation 
opportunity is identified and if an astronaut is available during such a period, 
he or she could use the cupola, if it were provided with an accurate pointing 
system, or an external camera, to record these observations. Finally, the 
program could also make use of ISS's long life by studying the effects of the 
eleven-year solar cycle on the occurrence of sprites. 

Quantum Computers- With the development of more precise atomic 
clocks on board ISS comes the opportunity to develop more powerful quantum 
computers. These computers are currently being developed on Earth and will 
be exponentially faster than conventional computers. The microgravity 
environment, which improves the accuracy of atomic clocks, might increase 
their computing power. With the development of these computers comes the 
opportunity to study the quantum principles that govern them, giving us an 
excellent laboratory on board the ISS. 

7.3 Observing Sciences 

In-Orbit Assembly- The ISS could be used to assemble very large 
structures. One obvious candidate for in-orbit assembly is a large, multi- 
aperture interferometer for astronomical observations, while removing the need 
for complex automatic assembly systems. Since the separation of these mirrors 
must be maintained to within a fraction of the wavelength of light, astronauts 
would be needed to make adjustments from the beginning. 




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Earth Environment Observations-NASA proposes payloads to research: 

• Land cover and land use 

• Climate change phenomena 

• Atmospheric dynamics. 

In such experiments, which should complement other satellite studies, 
information on the nature and extent of environmental conditions and 
consequences for sustained development in the tropics and mid-latitude regions 
should be obtained. Improved forecasts of precipitation and temperatures, on 
seasonal to inter-annual timeframes, to predict natural hazards and to mitigate 
natural disasters in the tropics and mid-latitudes should be obtained. 

8. The Future 

Now that future uses of the ISS for its original purpose, scientific 
experimentation, have been examined, it is time to consider some other ways to 
use the International Space Station that may not have been considered in the 
design. As a base for expanded operations in outer space, the ISS has great 
potential. Three possible activities touched upon in this overview merit special 
consideration for utilization: 1) as a base for other free-flying platforms, 2) as a 
jumping-off point for resource recovery and future missions of exploration, and 
3) as a construction platform. 

Other free-flying platforms will soon be needed in low Earth orbit. 
Microgravity labs are a possible first application. Throughout this paper, the 
unstable microgravity environment on the ISS has been described. Scientific 
users doing microgravity research seem more than willing to adjust their 
objectives to compensate; the quality of the science suffers. Certain areas of 
microgravity research like fluid dynamics are not worthwhile under these 
conditions. Because compelling microgravity research will certainly be one 
driver of Man's ventures beyond Earth, free-flying labs are necessary to ensure 
high quality experimentation. Additional free-flying platforms supported by 
the ISS might be engaged in manufacturing, satellite salvage and repair, or 
tourism. 

The ISS will likely be used as a staging point for a variety of future 
missions. Mining operations on the Moon and near Earth asteroids would 
provide immediate benefits. Because launch costs remain high, any raw 
material gathered in outer space is inherently cost effective. For the same 
reason, other missions originating from the Space Station instead of from Earth 
at the bottom of its gravity well [Reference 51] save precious resources. 




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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Although the ISS has not been designed as a construction platform and 
EVA resources are severely limited, this application is suggested by a variety of 
potential activities. Specifically mentioned in this overview is the construction 
of the next generation of large interferometric telescopes which will be too large 
to construct on Earth. Other possible construction projects include habitats, 
solar power and other satellites, and laboratory and manufacturing facilities. 

For extensive construction on-orbit to be feasible, however, several 
advances in thought and practice are necessary. First is the judicious use of pre- 
launch construction to offset EVA time. Second is the reduction of launch costs. 
Next is greater EVA efficiency through improved equipment and robotics. Last 
is the use of extra-terrestrial resources for the construction. In the light of 
current improvements in each of these areas, it makes sense to retrofit the ISS in 
ways that would serve the construction application. 

No business analysis has been included in this discussion of the 
International Space Station. It has been a struggle to integrate economics into 
an otherwise multidisciplinary document, bom in a moment of shifting values 
and expectations of the ISS. As commercialization takes hold, running the ISS 
in a more business-like fashion will be vital. Certain broad statements can be 
made, however. The International Space Station has been incredibly expensive 
to build. It will be incredibly expensive to maintain. Sound marketing of its 
unique benefits to the user must be presented to make profit a possibility. The 
overwhelming expense of the ISS suggests that utilization for science only will 
never pay the bills. But as a foothold for the expansion of mankind into outer 
space, it will be remembered as a bargain indeed. 

While commercialization has long been a favorite buzzword, it is only in 
recent months that the national space agencies have mobilized actual efforts to 
approach potential industrial users. Perhaps passage of the Commercial Space 
Act of 1998 in the USA has energized this. Still, no plan has been advanced that 
makes industrial profitablity attainable for Earth-bound businesses. The effort 
to package the qualities of the ISS in an attractive, marketable way is just 
beginning. Any of the Partners might consider developing a turn-key orbital 
manufacturing operation based on the specifications provided by the firm or 
firms that eventually assume ownership. By handling the development costs, 
one or more governments can ensure the success of the first space industry. The 
prospective plant should be so profitable that others want to get on the 
bandwagon of space commercialization. Only profit can drive Man's 
exploration into space in this time of reduced national budgets. 

Hand in hand with a more commercial approach for the ISS should go a 
feature that has been a struggle from the earliest conceptual stages of the ISS. 




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And that is comprehensive planning. It is amazing to discover, as more is learnt 
about the ISS, how incredible the interlocking problems become when planning 
is short-sighted (or non-existent). Although the COUP is a sound planning 
framework, its implementation raises as many questions as it answers. Is there 
suitable research to occupy the ISS after the early utilization phases? Is a long 
term overview plan, including commercialization, envisioned? Can the Space 
Station be run profitably by private interests? Have end of life considerations 
for the project been planned? Because the ISS has a projected life of 10-15 years 
and Mars missions are scheduled to begin in that time frame, is the ISS destined 
to twist Mir-like in the political wind in spite of its longer potential utilization? 
Now that parts of the ISS are actually on-orbit, a comprehensive planning 
scheme is needed which integrates the full range of economic, legal-political 
and human issues in with the engineering and scienc issues. 

One fact evident from the very beginning of this study is that there are 
really no new ideas concerning the International Space Station. A lot of the 
suggestions in the literature have been around for years. Perhaps an integrated, 
multi-disciplinary planning approach is the new idea. Only comprehensive 
planning can ensure that the ISS is maximized for the benefit of all. 



It is not difficult, living on the edge of the new millennium, to view Man's 
first steps into space in the way in which we look at the first of our remote 
ancestors crawling from the sea or the apes coming out of the trees to walk the 
savannah. We are witnessing and driving the evolution of Man. In this regard, 
the International Space Station is a foothold, a beachhead on the way to space. 
With a sound plan and full utilization of the ISS, Man can break out from the 
beachhead of low Earth orbit and reach the high frontier of human destiny. 



Acknowledgements 

As always, any edited work with multiple contributors requires a great deal of 
collaboration. The quick response by everyone involved is greatly appreciated. Several 
of our colleagues deserve special mention. Jean Pierre Bombled of Arianespace, Alain 
Gonfalone, head of ESA's Experiments Support Section, Oleg Atkov and Yoshinori 
Fujimori of ISU all gave particularly thoughtful reviews of the first draft. Ram Jakhu 
mother-henned the legal section marvellously. David Sylvester and Martha Milkeraitis 
gave yeoman service as proofing editors in the earliest stages. The original six editors 
of Literature Review 1 in the fall of 1998 gave liberally of their time and sanity. Jake 
Maule, Simone Garneau, Rob Alexander, Vaios Lappas, Karin Remeikis and Suparna 
Madhu will be forever changed by the experience. Dr. Michael Rycroft, ISU's editorial 
godfather, has provided a calming influence even at a distance. And Nikolai 
Tolyarenko, Director of the MSS Program, once again demonstrated a knowledge of 
ISS s technical detail that is truly astonishing. No closure to ISU's Fourth Annual 
Symposium would be possible without expressing thanks to Patrick French, the first 
representative of ISU to arrive in France. 




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Section Two-Historical and Political Development 

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Section Three-The Law Applicable to Utilization 

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4. Article 16.3 sub a of the Intergovernmental Agreement of 1998 

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6. Schwetje, F.K.: The Legal Regime of the U.S. Space Station, Proceedings of the 31 st 
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12. Lecture delivered by Andre Farand.: International Space University, International 
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Section Four- Technical Description of ISS 

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Dordrecht, 1996 




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Section Five- Utilization 

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25. Kijima, R., Fujimori, Y., Miyama, FI.: Perspective of JEM Utilization, Advances in the 
Astronautical Sciences Vol. 91, ppp. 665-674 

26. Lecture delivered by Professor Nikolai Tolyarenko.: International Space University, 
Lectures on the International Space Station, Strasbourg, France, 1998 

27. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: The International Space Station: 
Improving Life on Earth and in Space, The NASA Research Plan, An Overview, 
Washington, D.C., 1998 

28. Committee on the Space Station, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, 
Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council: 
The Capabilities of Space Stations, Washington, D.C, National Academy Press, 1995 

29. Taylor, Lawrence, A.: He-3 on the Moon: Model Assumptions and Abundances. 4 th 
Proceedings on Engineering, Construction and Operation in Space, Vol. 1, pp. 678- 
686, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1994 

30. Gazey, S., Kerstein, L. and Apel, U.: Vision and Long-term Goals for New Business 
Opportunities in Space, presented at the 48™ Congress of the International 
Astronautical Federation, Turin, Italy, 1997 

31. Toups, Y., and Ximines, S.: Adaptive Space Station Technologies and Systems for a 
Lunar Surface Return Mission. 4 th Proceedings on Engineering, Construction and 
Operation in Space, Vol. 1, pp. 678-686, New York: American Society of Civil 
Engineers, 1994 

32. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Potential Pathfinder Areas for 
Commercial Development of the International Space Station, 
http: / /www.hq.nasa.gov/ office/ codez/uhran/ppa.html 

33. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Commercial Space Transportation 
Study, 

http://stp.msfc.nasa.gov/stpweb/CommSpaceTrans/SpaceCommTransSe 
cl/CommSpacTransSecl.html, December 1998 




344 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



34. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: International Space Station: Open for 
Business , http://centauri.larc.nasa.gov/issvc97/material.html, December 1998 

35. Peacock, A.: Assembly of a Large X-ray Telescope , Presented at the Second European 

Symposium: Utilization of the International Space Station, Noordwijk, 

Netherlands, 1998 

Section Five (Continued)- Life Sciences 

36. Presented at the Second European Symposium: Utilization of the International 
Space Station, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998 

37. http: / /estec.esa.nl/spaceflight/ 

38. European Space Agency: Exploiting the International Space Station : ESA Publications 
Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands 

39. Ehrenfreund, P., et al.: Exposure of Organic Matter Onboard ISS. Presented at the 
Second European Symposium: Utilization of the International Space Station, edited 
by Andrew Wilson, ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 1998 

40. Vergne, ]., et al.: Adenine-Aldehyde Derivatives as Plausible Precursors of 
Ribonucleosides?" presented at the Second European Symposium: Utilization of the 
International Space Station, edited by Andrew Wilson, ESA Publications Division, 
Noordwijk, 1998 

41. Horneck, G.; Exobiology. Life Sciences Research in Space, edited by H. Oser and B. 
Battrick. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk , 1989 

42. Lecture delivered by Dr. Antonio Guell: International Space University, October 
1998 

43. Lecture delivered by Dr. Jason Hatten: International Space University, November, 
1998 

44. Pestov, I.D.: 11th Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Moscow, 
Russia. June 22-26, 1998 (Information supplied by Dr. Oleg Atkov) 

45. http://s2k.arc.nasa.gov/atgb/facts3.html 

46. Lecture delivered by Dr. Gerald Soffen: International Space University, The 
International Space Station: Improving Life on Earth and in Space, 1998 

47. Roberto, Marco: Clues From Drosophila To Solve The Paradox: 'Why Microgravity 
Affects Signal Transduction Pathways In Isolated Culture Cells While Complex 
Multicellular Organisms Are Able To Develop Unimpaired In The Space Environment? 
Presented at the Second European Symposium: Utilization of the International 
Space Station, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998 

48. McLaren, A.: Developmental Biology. Life Sciences Research in Space, edited by H. 
Oser and B. Battrick. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 1989 

49. Nechitailo, G. S., and Mashinsky, A. L.: Space Biology: Studies at Orbital Stations. 
Translated by Nikolai Lyubimov, MIR Publishers, Moscow, 1993 

50. Moore, D., Bie, P., and Oser, H.: Biological and Medical Research in Space, An Overview 
of Life Sciences Research in Microgravity, p.569. Springer, 1996 

Section Five (Continued)- Physical Sciences 

51. Houston, A. and Rycroft, M. (editors): Keys to Space: an Interdisciplinary Approach to 
Space Studies. McGraw Hill, New York, 1999 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



345 



52. Olthof, H.: Space Science Using the Space Station, presented at the Second European 

Symposium: Utilization of the International Space Station, Noordwijk, 

Netherlands, November 16-18, 1998 

53. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Space Station Research Payload 
Utilization Reference Guide , Houston, ISS Payloads Office, 1996 

54. Larter, N. and Gonfalone, A. (editors): The International Space Station: A Guide for 
European Users: Early Opportunities Issue. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 
Netherlands, 1996 

55. European Space Agency: The International Space Station Microgravity: A Tool for 
Industrial Research, 1998 

56. Salomon, C. et al.: Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space on Board the Space Station, 
presented at the Second European Symposium: Utilization of the International 
Space Station, Noordwijk, Netherlands, 1998 

57. Huber, F.: Precision Test of Einstein's Weak Equivalence Principle for Antimatter in 
Space, presented at the Second European Symposium: Utilization of the 
International Space Station, Noordwijk, Netherlands, 1998 

58. NASA Official Home Page: http://www.nas.edu/cets/aseb/ 

59. Microgravity Research Program: Microgravity News, Vol. 4, No. 4, Huntsville, 
Alabama: Marshall Space Flight Center, Winter 1997 

60. Personal communication: Alain Berinstain, of the Microgravity Sciences Program, 
Canadian Space Agency, e-mail of November 30, 1998 

61. Canadian Space Agency: http://www.science.sp-agency.ca/Kl-MSP(Eng).htm 

Section Five (Continued)- Observing Sciences 

62. Guyenne, T. D. (editor.): Space Station Utilization Symposium, ESA Publications 
Division, Noordwijk, Netherlands, 1996 

63. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Space Station Research Payload 
Utilization Reference Guide, Houston, ISS Payloads Office, 1996 

64. Oertel, D. et al.: FOCUS: Environmental Disaster Recognition System, presented at the 
ESA Symposium: Space Station Utilization, Darmstadt, Germany, 1996 

65. Mees, J. et al.: Doppler Wind ALADIN on the International Space Station, presented at 
the Second European Symposium. Utilization on the International Space Station, 
Noordwijk, Netherlands, 1998 

66. McCarthy, T.: Real-Time Mapping using Multispectral Spaceborne Videography 
Prototype Design for the ISS Encompassing Space and Ground Segment, presented at 
the Second European Symposium: Utilization of the International Space Station, 
Noordwijk, Netherlands, November 16-18, 1998 

67. Kaye, J. A.: NASA's Plans for Earth Science Research from the International Space 
Station, presented at the Second European Symposium. Utilization on the 
International Space Station, Noordwijk, Netherlands, November 16-18, 1998 

68. NASDA Official Home Page: 
http://jem.tksc.nasda.go.jp/JEM/jemmefc/english/smiles.html 

69. Kondo, Y.: (editor): Observatories in Earth Orbit and Beyond, Kluwer Academic 
Publishers, Dordrecht, 1990 

70. Wertz, J. R. and Larson, W. J. (editors): Reducing Space Mission Cost, Microcosm 
Press and Kluwer Academic Publishers, Torrance, USA, and Dordrecht, The 
Netherlands, 1996 




346 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Section Six- How to Utilize the ISS 

71. Leuttgens, R. and Volpp, J.: Operations Planning for the International Space 
Station, ESA Bulletin, pp.57-63, May 1998 

72. NASA JSC MOD Space Flight Training Division: International Space Station 
Familiarization, TD9702, December 1997 

73. cfr. NASA-ESA MoU art. 8.1.c 

74. cfr. NASA-ESA MoU art. 8.3.g.3 

75. European Space Agency: The International Space Station — European Users Guide, pp. 
49-54, November 1998 

76. European Space Agency: International Life Science Research Announcement 
(LSRA), SP-1210, December 1996 

77. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Potential Pathfinder Areas for 
Commercial Development of the International Space Station (Draft), Washington, D.C., 
October 1998 

78. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Commercial Development Plan for 
the International Space Station, Washington, D.C., November 1998 

79. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: ISS — The NASA Research Plan, an 
Overview 

80. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: A Non-Government Organization 
(NGO)for Space Utilization Management (Draft), Washington, D.C., October 1998 

81. NASA-ESA MoU, Early Utilization Opportunities of the International Space Station 

82. Wetter, B.L.: Canadian Programme and Research plans for International Space Station 
Utilization, Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on the Utilization of the 
International Space Station, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, November 16-18, 
1998, pp. 41-45 (ESA SP-433, February 1999) 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



347 



The information compiled within this User's Overview has been researched, 
analyzed and produced by the following individuals: 

The Class- MSS 4 (1998 - 1999) 

Rob Alexander, USA 

Youssef Attia, Libya 

Eugeniu Caisin, Moldova 

Lokman Dagli, Turkey 

Mosbah Elkhrad, Libya 

Simone Garneau, Canada 

Ivan Gracnar, Slovenia 

Ozgiir Giirtuna, Turkey 

Claire Jolly, France 

C.P. Karunaharan, England 

Udo Kugel, Germany 

Vaios Lappas, Greece / Canada 

Andre Larisma, South- Africa / Portugal 

Anders Lindskold, Sweden 

Suparna Madhu, India 

Tarek Melad, Libya 

Martha Milkeraitis, Canada 

Khalid Musa, Libya 

Tomofumi Ono, Japan 

Andrew Ray, Canada 

Karin Remeikis, Germany 

Claude Rousseau, Canada 

Yakov Sadchikov, Kazakhstan 

Marek Sadowski, Poland 

David Sylvester, USA 

Yoshimasa Tajima, Japan 

Munir Tarar, Pakistan 

Stella Tkatchova, Bulgaria 

Editorial Task Implementation Group 

Edoardo Benzi, Italy 
Bill Boardman, USA 
Tare Brisibe, Nigeria 
Ruofei Gao, China 
Laurance Higgs, England 
Caroline Maredza, Zimbabwe 
Jake Maule, England 
Piero Messina, Italy 
Raman Mittal, India 
Mehrdad Rezazad, Iran 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Appendix 1 Final Assembly ISS Exploded Diagram 



Decking 

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International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



349 



Appendix 2 Precis of Information on the ISS 

Comprehensive and useful data on the ISS facilities are provided on the 
web site: 

http: / / mssisunet.edu/~mss4web/tps/publications/fac table/ index.html 
These data consider the 

• Function 

• Location 

• Maximum workspace (volume or mass) available for experiments 

• Maximum and minimum microgravity level anticipated 

• Diagnostic or analysis tools available 

• Accuracy of positioning or orientation 

• Interfaces and operation modes 

• Crew time or experiment time 

• Available resources (power, data, communications, working fluids) 

• Assembly date 

• Announcement of Opportunity date 

• Priority level 

• Jurisdiction for patent filing and Intellectual Property Rights 

• Responsibility for access 

• Comments on compatibility with other payloads 

• Contact addresses 



for 

Standard Payload Accommodation Facilities 

• International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) 

• Express Pallets (EP) 

• Express Rack (ER) 

• European Drawer Rack (EDR) 

Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) 

• Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) 

• Combustion Rack 

• Fluids Rack 

• Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL) 




350 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Material Science Facilities 

• Gradient Heating Furnace (GHF) 

• Advanced Furnace for microgravity Experiment with X-ray radiography 
(AFEX) 

• Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) 

• Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility 

• Materials Sciences Research Facility (MSRF) 

• Materials Sciences Laboratory (MSL) 

• Advanced TEMPUS 

• Solution/Protein Crystal Growth Facility (SPCF) 

• Protein Crystal Diagnostic Facility (PCDF) 

• Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF) 

• Biotechnology Facility (BTF) 

Life Sciences Facilities 

• Human Research Facility (HRF 1 & 2) 

• Biolab 

• European Physiology Module (EPM) 

• Centrifuge Facility 

• Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) 

• Gravitational Biological Facility (GBF) 

• Modular Cultivation Systems (MCS) 

• Minus 80 degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) 

• Cryogenic Storage Freezer (CSF) 

• Quick/Snap Freezer (QSF) 

Exposed Facilities 

• Express Pallets (EP) 

• Technology Exposure Facility 

• JEM Exposure Facility (JEM-EF) 

• Space Exposure Biology Assembly (SEBA) 

Observation Facility 

• Cupolas 

• Windows Observation Research Facility 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



351 



Appendix 3 Acronyms List 



AAEF 


Aquatic Animal Experimental Facility (in JEM module) 


ABDM 


Advanced Bone DensitoMeter 


ACES 


Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space 


ACS 


Atmospheric Control and Supply 


ADAS 


Ambulatory Data Acquisition System 


AFEX 


Advanced Furnace for microgravity Experiment with X-ray radiography 


ALADIN 


Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument 


AMS 


Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 


AO 


Announcement of Opportunity 


APCF 


Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility 


APM 


Attached Pressurized Module 


AR 


Atmosphere Revitalization 


ARMS 


Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System 


ASCR 


Assured Safe Crew Return 


ASI 


Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency) 


ATV 


Automated Transfer Vehicle 


BDM 


Bone DensitoMeter 


BIOLAB 


Biological Laboratory 


BIOPAN 


(Exposure platform, shaped as a circular container) 


BIVOG 


Binocular VideoOculGraph 


BMAS 


Biomedical Analysis System 


BSMD 


Bone Stiffness Measurement Device 


CADMOS 


Centre d Aide au Developpement de la Micropesanteur et aux Operations 
Spatiales 


CAM 


Centrifuge Accommodation Module 


CB 


Clean Bench (in JEM module) 


CBEF 


Cell Biology Experimental Facility (in JEM module) 


CBPD 


Continuous Blood Pressure Device 


CCD 


Charge Coupled Device 


C&DH 


Command and Data Handling 


CdTe 


Cadmium Telluride 


CF 


Centrifuge Facility 


CFZF 


Commercial Float Zone Furnace 


CHeCS 


Crew Health Care System 


CNES 


Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales (France) 


COF 


Columbus Orbital Facility 


COF-CC 


COF Operation Center 


COUP 


Consolidated and Utilization Plan 


CRV 


Crew Return Vehicle 


CSA 


Canadian Space Agency 


CSF 


Cryogenic Storage Freezer 




352 



CSC 

C&TS 

CUP 

DARA 

DRTS 

EC 

ECG 

ECLSS 

EDR 

EEG 

EFA 

ELITE 

EMIR-2 

EMRS 

EPF 

EPM 

EPS 

EPS 

ERA 

ESA 

ESS 

EUB 

EVA 

FDS 

FGB 

FOCUS 

FRC 

FSL 

GASMAP 

GBF 

GHF 

GN&C 

GOJ 

GPS 

GTS 

HAB 

HGD 

HIPE 

HRD 

HRF 

HRMRB 

HTV 

IAS 

IDRD 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



Commercial Space Centers 
Communication and Tracking System 
Common Utilization Plan 

Deutsches Agentur fur Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (German Space Agency) 

Data Relay Test Satellite 

European Community 

Ambulatory Electrocardiogram 

Environmental Control and Life Support System 

European Drawer Rack 

Electroencephalogram 

Engineering Feasibility Assessments 

Motion analysis system in European Physiology Module 

European Microgravity Research 

Eye Movement Recording System 

External Payload Facility 

European Physiology Module 

Electrical Power System 

European Partner State 

Exobiology and Radiation Assembly 

European Space Agency 

Eye Stimulation System 

European Utilization Board 

Extra Vehicular Activity 

Fire Detection System 

Functional cargo Block (= "Zarya") 

Fire Detection Infrared Sensor System 
Facility Responsible Centers 
Fluid Science Lab 

Gas Analyzer for Metabolic Analysis of Physiology 

Gravitational Biology Facility 

Gradient Heating Furnace 

Guidance, Navigation and Control 

Government of Japan 

Global Positioning System 

Global Transmission Service 

U.S Habitation module 

Hand Grip Dynamometer 

High-resolution Photogrammetric Experiment 

High Rate Data 

Human Research Facility 

Human Research Multilateral Review Board 

H-IIA Transfer Vehicle 

Internal Audio Subsystem 

Increment Definition and Requirements Document 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



353 



IEPT 


International Executive Planning Team 


IGA 


Inter-Governmental Agreement 


IMBP 


Institute of Medical and Biomedical Problems 


IMSPG 


International Microgravity-science Strategic Planning Group 


IP 


Intellectual Property 


IPR 


Intellectual Property Rights 


ISPR 


International Standard Payload Racks 


ISS 


International Space Station 


ISSLSWG 


International Space Station Life Science Working Group 


ISU 


International Space University 


ITA 


Integrated Truss Assembly 


IV A 


Intra Vehicular Activity 


JEM 


Japanese Experiment Module 


JEM-EF 


Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility 


LAN 


Local Area Networks 


LBNP 


Lower Body Negative Pressure 


LEO 


Low Earth Orbit 


LSG 


Life Sciences Glovebox 


LSRA 


Life Science Research 


MAP 


Microgravity Applications Promotion 


MARS 


Microgravity Advanced Research and Support Center 


MBS 


Mobile remote service Base System 


MCB 


Multilateral Coordination Board 


MCC-H 


Mission Control Center - Houston 


MCC-M 


Mission Control Center - Moscow 


MELFI 


Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for the ISS (cryosystem) 


MFC 


Microgravity Facility for Columbus 


MIM 


Microgravity vibration Isolation Module 


MIP IPT 


Multi-Increment Planning Integrated Product Team 


MITI 


Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan) 


MOU 


Memorandum Of Understanding 


MPLM 


Multi Purpose Logistics Module 


MSFC 


Marshall Space Flight Center 


MSL 


Material Science Lab 


MSRRs 


Materials Science Research Racks 


MSS 


Master of Space Studies 


MUSC 


Microgravity User Support Center 


NASA 


National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) 


NASDA 


National Space Development Agency of Japan 


NGO 


Non-Governmental Organization 


OES 


Office of Earth Science 


OFA 


Operational Feasibility Assessment 


OLMSA 


Office of Life & Microgravity Science and Applications 


OOS 


On-orbit Operational Summary 




354 



International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



PCDF 


Protein Crystal Diagnostics Facility 


P/L 


Payload 


POIC 


Payload Operations Integration Center 


PP 


Planning Period 


PPS 


Planning Period Start 


PSOs 


Protected Space Operations 


PUP 


Partner Utilization Plan 


QSF 


Quick/Snap Freezer 


R&D 


Research and Development 


RKA 


Russian Space Agency 


ROS 


Russian Orbital Segment 


RSA 


Russian Space Agency 


SAGE 


Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 


SEBA 


Space Exposure Biology Assembly 


SECAM 


Sequential Couleur a Memoire 


SESAM 


Surface Effect Sample Monitor 


SIRs 


Stage Integration Reviews 


SLAMMD 


Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device 


SMILES 


Superconducting subMIllimeter Limb Emission Sounders 


SOAR 


Station Off-Axis Rotator 


SOP 


System Operations Panel 


SPOrt 


Sky Polarization Observatory 


SSCC 


Space Station Control Center 


SSRMS 


Space Station Remote Manipulator System 


STP 


Short-Term Plans 


STS 


Space Transportation System (e.g. Space Shuttle) 


TBD 


To Be Decided 


TCS 


Thermal Control System 


TDRS 


Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 


TDRSS 


Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System 


THC 


Temperature and Humidity Control 


UFs 


Utilization Flights 


UHF 


Ultra High Frequency 


ULC 


Unpressurized Logistics Carrier 


UOP 


User Operations Panel 


US 


United States 


USA 


United States of America 


USOS 


United States Orbital Segment 


USSR 


Union of the Soviet Socialistic Republics 


UTEF 


Ultraviolet Telescope Facility 


UV 


Ultra Violet 


VDS 


Video Distribution Subsystem 


VEG 


Virtual Environment Generator 


WEP 


Weak Equivalence Principle 




International Space Station • The Next Space Marketplace 



355 



WRM 

XEUS 

ZOE 



Water Recovery and Management 
X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy 
Zone of Exclusion 




SPACE STUDIES 



1 . G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.): Space of Service to Humanity Preserving Earth and Improv- 
ing Life. 1997 ISBN 0-7923-4344-1 

2. G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.): New Space Markets. 1998 ISBN 0-7923-5027-8 

3. G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.): Space and the Global Village: Tele-services for the 21st 

Century. 1999 ISBN 0-7923-5481-8 

4. G. Haskell and M. Rycroft (eds.): International Space Station: The Next Space Marketplace. 
2000 

ISBN 0-7923-6142-3 



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