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~ ^WEEKLY 
NEWSPAPER 
PUBLISHING 
ECONOMIES 
IN 1931 AND 

1932 * * * * * * 



An analysis based on a 
survey of 1 71 newspapers 
representative of the rural 
publishing business 



By 



THOMAS F. BARNHART 
Department of Journalism 
University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 



PUBLISHED AND DISTRIBUTED BY THE 
RESEARCH BUREAU 

OF THE 

NATIONAL EDITORIAL ASSOCIATION 
HERMAN ROE, DIRECTOR, 
NORTH FIELD, MINNESOTA 



. . . Foreword 

RADICAL CHANGES in our material prosperity 
have produced a set of influences affecting 
the press, along with other social institutions. 
Hard facts are producing hird thinking. This 
dynamic period is compelling resourceful publish- 
ers to re-evaluate their problems, inducing them 
to make economic adjustments which have their 
influence throughout the entire newspaper organ- 
ization. 

Professor Thomas F. Barnhart's study, "Week- 
ly Newspaper Economies in 1931 and 1932," is a 
first attempt to observe economic adjustments in 
the rural publishing field throughout the country 
as a whole. The problem has been brought be- 
fore several state press association meetings, how- 
ever, and is coming to be a fundamental topic of 
discussion. Professor Barnhart has made a be- 
ginning in a national study ; attempting a modest 
survey of economies through judicious sampling 
of key newspapers, with the expectation that it 
may be carried forward by others who will delve 
more intensively into separate problems in various 
geographic sections. 

The economic adjustments that are in process 
are not merely of business office routine, but af- 
fect the news and editorial aspects of the press. 
Just how vital these changes will be in the long 
run, is for the future to say, but the study has 
definite social implications. In the main it at- 
tempts a brass^tacks exposition of economies by 
individual newspapers at the present moment. 
Professor Barnhart confesses that much work re- 
mains to be done in the analysis of changes of 
news and editorial content as a result of economic 
readjustment. 

The study was prepared in furtherance of a 
function of the University of Minnesota in its co- 
operation with the professions represented by 
professional training in the various schools and 
departments of the University. The exploratory 
work was made possible by a grant from the 
Graduate School Research Fund of the Universi- 



ty. ^fofessbr-Batnhart, who undertook the work, 
is the former assistant field manager of the Wash- 
ington Press Association. Publication is under- 
taken by the National Editorial Association. Mr. 
Herman Roe, field director, expressed interest in 
the study from its inception. The Association is 
bringing it to the attention of publishers in the 
hope that it may be of some aid to those interested 
in the field of weekly journalism. 

RALPH D. CASEY, 
Chairman, Department of Journalism, 

University of Minnesota. 

Timely and Valuable 

This "economy" survey replete with "experi- 
ence" testimony from publishers of representative 
weekly newspapers is the type of study that the 
Research Bureau of the National Editorial Asso- 
ciation welcomes and is pleased to publish. 

The boiled down analysis of economies in all 
departments instituted by publishers confronted 
with a serious situation will bring many timely 
and valuable suggestions to other publishers. 

On behalf of the N.E.A. and of weekly pub- 
lishers generally I express appreciation to Mr. 
Barnhart for this important study. 

HERMAN ROE, 

Director, Research Bureau, 
National Editorial Association. 



. . . Editorial 

A NUMBER OF ECONOMIES involving the edit- 
ing and publishing of the weekly news- 
paper have been dictated by general busi- 
ness conditions during the past one and one-half 
years. In order that these economies might be 
studied and analyzed, questionnaires were sent to 
a select list of newspapers of varying sizes. 
Source material was obtained, also, by a more 
detailed correspondence with a number of pub- 
lishers. Each section of the country was repre- 
sented in the replies. A high percentage of 
questionnaire returns was received. Memoranda 
and notes from 171 publishers throughout the 
country serve as a basis for this exposition of 
newspaper economies and the conclusions em- 
bodied in this study. The writer has also checked 
over the files of several of the papers under ob- 
servation. 

The results of the survey indicate that new 
methods are being introduced in the editorial, 
business, advertising, circulation, mechanical, job 
printing and stock room departments of the week- 
ly newspaper publishing business. These are be- 
ing accompanied, necessarily, by a modification of 
the weekly newspaper. The most noticeable 
changes are in the editorial and news sections, in 
the selection and display of reading matter. 

Frills and furbelows in the editorial and repor- 
torial departments of many of the country's 
weekly newspapers are being discarded, with an 
almost complete return today to "bread-and- 
butter" news, editorial, and local feature copy. 
Economies of this sort have been effected by a 
large percentage of the replying papers. Publish- 
ers, for the most part, are discarding feature 
material because of the higher valuation being 
placed on the columns of their newspaper for 
straight news matter and advertising. 

The weekly newspaper publishing business, like 
many others, had developed several costly habits, 
mediocre methods, and unnecessary practices dur- 
ing prosperity years. Many papers assumed new 
and costly services and hundreds now find them- 
selves in positions which dictate drastic econo- 
mies. Profits have decreased to a point which 
compels many plants to close their doors. This 
withdrawal from the field leaves some communi- 
ties without newspapers. Students of the news- 
paper are pointing out that only the marginal 
newspapers are being eliminated. That is true. 
But it is apparent that the healthy newspapers, 



too, may be endangered unless they keep careful 
eye on the economies of publishing. 

The aim of most editors is to give as much as 
possible for the money, without cutting down the 
value of the paper. Thus the discriminatory bur- 
den of selection is increased. The trend is toward 
elimination of expensive features which were 
added in time of expansion. 

ELIMINATION OF FEATURES 

Of the newspapers that co-operated in this sur- 
vey 18 per cent state definitely that during the 
past two years, or for an even longer period, they 
have not used any of the following syndicated 
features : cross-word and other puzzles, editorials, 
hints to house-wives, farm columns, health col- 
umns, comic strips, poems, editorial page car- 
toons, humor columns, serial story, weekly news 
review, miscellany. 

Of the papers that have used features in the 
past two years, syndicated material has been 
eliminated in the following percentages : cross- 
word and other puzzles, 49 per cent; editorials, 
45 per cent; hints to house-wives, 41 per cent; 
farm columns, 39 per cent ; health columns, 38 per 
cent; comic strips, 37 per cent; poems, 36 per 
cent ; editorial page cartoons, 33 per cent ; humor 
columns, 33 per cent; serial story, 31 per cent; 
weekly news review, 26 per cent ; and miscellany, 
20 per cent. Three publishers have discontinued 
state news reviews; one, church news; and one 
has omitted the state capital news letter. 

The following is a graphic presentation of the 
amount of syndicated materials that has been 
eliminated : 

PRESENTED IN GRAPH FORM 

Per Cent 

Features Eliminated 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Crossword and 

Other Puzzles 49 

Editorials 45 

Hints to Housewives 41 

Farm Columns 39 

Health Columns 38 

Comic Strips 37 

Poems 36 

Editorial Page Cartoons 33 

Humor Columns 33 

Serial Story 31 

Weekly News Review 26 

Miscellany 20 

It is natural, too, that with the sharp curtail- 
ment in space, the publicity writers are having to 
exercise a good deal of ingenuity in order that 
their copy may pass through the type-setting 
machines. 

The selection and rejection of features appear 



to have been made on a basis of local reader in- 
terest and circulation value. The elimination of 
features has been undertaken, apparently, on a 
gradual basis. The first type of feature to dis- 
appear from the columns of the paper appears to 
have been the cross-word puzzle. Syndicated 
editorials have been the next to feel editorial 
scrutiny and elimination. Much of the syndicated 
material which has appeared in the weekly press 
is of a kind designed to divert, amuse, and enter- 
tain the reader. It is conceded that the news- 
paper has taken on the function of amusing the 
reader as well as of enlightening him with news 
information, of counselling him, and, finally, of 
interpreting the news of the day. What will be 
the effect of reducing syndicated materials that 
fall in the entertainment category ? 

Editors have realized that they run a risk of 
losing circulation by eliminating the feature alto- 
gether. They have in most cases, therefore, sub- 
stituted the local for the syndicated feature. More 
attention is being given to the development of 
local news coverage as an offset to the loss of the 
syndicated feature supplied from out of town. 
This is a good sign. It shows clearly that the 
home-town weekly is getting back to the earlier 
fundamentals of editing. Another interesting 
sign is that only those departments and features 
intended for special groups of marginal readers 
are being eliminated. 

It is clear, then, that newspapers which elimi- 
nate features from their pages should have a 
plan of developing local news to substitute for the 
loss. The survey shows that in many cases no 
provision has been made for reducing the size of 
the paper, or for the development of more local 
copy. What, then, has taken the place of the fea- 
tures? The files of many of the surveyed papers 
reveal that in place of feature material, expertly- 
prepared propaganda and publicity have crept in. 
Many large ''plugger" ads appear, too. The 
major part of the propaganda has been shipped to 
the newspaper in convenient form of mats and 
stereotypes. The material is plainly for the bene- 
fit of a few industries contriving the propaganda. 

Among the large assortment of two- and three- 
column illustrated feature articles of a subtle pub- 
licity nature that have appeared during- the past 
one and one-half years, readers have been made 
better acquainted with the uses of such products 
as tea, leather, rubber, pulp, lumber, soups, 
shingles, pineapple, coffee, soaps, perfumes, writ- 
ing paper, automobiles, wrought iron pipe, elec- 
tric rates, electric appliances, sugar, citrus fruit, 



wood and cement. Scores of other manufactured 
products for limited sectional sale have been "ad- 
vertised" through the medium of propaganda 
stories. 

One can readily visualize how this propaganda 
material gets into print. You are busily at work 
editing a weekly paper. Monday's mail brings a 
three-column mounted and illustrated stereotype 
of a number of persons of national importance, 
each bedecked with flowers in his coat lapel. It 
is scanned hastily and placed on the desk top, to 
give way to other mail. It acts as a paper weight 
for a few days. On Thursday afternoon it is 
picked up gingerly and transferred to a three- 
column eight-inch hole on the back page. When 
the edition is off and you study the lay-out in your 
paper more carefully, you find, alas, that it is pub- 
licity for orchids. 

But it saved the day by getting the paper to 
press on time. 

Propaganda is hardly a worthy substitute for 
syndicated feature material. 

WHAT OTHERS ARE DOING 

With this as an introduction, let us consider 
how editors have modified their editorial product 
for the sake of economy, and how they have in a 
number of concrete cases substituted neAv cate- 
gories of editorial material in place of syndicated 
features which they may have eliminated. The 
trend toward the elimination of features is a gen- 
eral one and evidence of this appeared in the fol- 
lowing quotations from answers to the question- 
naire : 

The Ladysmith (Wis.) News stresses local fea- 
tures and local news events. "We used a total of 
86 news pictures in 41 different issues during the 
year," writes the publisher. "We have never used 
any great amount of syndicated features of any 
kind, and with the exception of a serial story, 
have confined our space almost entirely to local 
news and features, editorial comments, and a 
farm department which we do eliminate for three 
months during the winter to cut cost." 

The Roy (N. M.) Record heads its reply as 
follows : "Have dispensed with all plate material 
and although it is necessary that we print but four 
to six pages occasionally, instead of the custom- 
ary eight as formerly, we endeavor to get all local 
copy, at least that of state interest. Have found 
that an item concerning the purchase of a new 
Ford by one of our farmers is of greater reader 
interest than an item telling that the Prince of 
Wales fell from the top of the Empire State 
Building." 



The Elkhart (Kans.) Tri-State News editor 
writes that he has never used extensive syndicated 
material, feeling that local touch should be used, 
even in farm and women's pages and certainly in 
editorial and news sections. 

"The Washington Bicentennial mats are pro- 
viding interesting feature material," writes the 
Chilton (Wis.) Times. The use of syndicated 
material is minimized, the editor preferring to 
write his own local features. 

The Grand Rapids (Minn.) Herald-Review 
writes: "We have cut news features in order to 
establish a satisfactory relationship of news and 
advertising." The Marshall (Minn.) News- 
Messenger has a home recipe column, substituting 
it for syndicated material. 

The Batesville (Ark.) Record reports that it 
has substituted home written features for several 
syndicated features. 

The Citizen Publishing Company, LaGrange, 
111., replies: "It has been our theory that the only 
policy for a suburban newspaper is to devote its 
space exclusively to local news, keeping away 
from features, departments and general news 
wherein it might be competing with Chicago 
papers. We believe in sticking to the field where 
the metropolitan dailies cannot compete with us." 

"We try to get out as many pages each issue as 
formerly," writes the Lodi (Calif.) Sentinel. 
"One of the big savings has been made in fea- 
tures. Previously we bought considerable plate 
material, and paid heavy transportation charges. 
Now we buy mats .of the same material, and al- 
ways keep several columns." 

Incidentally, included in the list of papers which 
are gradually substituting local copy for syndicat- 
ed feature material are The Richfield (Utah) 
Reaper, The Mountain Lake (Minn.) Observer, 
The Crystal Falls (Mich.) Diamond Drill, The 
Lakeland (Fla.) News, The Appleton (Minn.) 
Press, The Coif ax (Iowa) Tribune, The Sapulpa 
(Okla.) Democrat News, The Bloomington 
(Ind.) Star, The Pipestone (Minn.) Leader, The 
Rockdale (Texas) Reporter, The Junction City 
(Ore.) Times, The Peru (Ind.) Republican, The 
Burlington (Wash.) Journal, The Medford 
(Okla.) Patriot-Star and Journal, The Shakopee 
(Minn.) Argus-Tribune, The Tucumcari (N.M.) 
News, The Bonners Ferry (Idaho) Herald, The 
Fennimore (Wis.) News, The Clinton (Mo.) 
Eye, The Rice Lake (Wis.) Chronotype, The 
Cokato (Minn.) Enterprise, The Lake Crystal 
(Minn.) Tribune, The Vernonia (Ore.) Eagle, 
The Mount demons (Mich.) Monitor, The Mille 



Lacs (Milaca, Minn.) County Times, The Waba- 
sha (Minn.) Herald-Standard, The Askov 
(Minn.) American, and the Simcoe (Ontario, 
Canada) Reformer. 

Local copy is being substituted for syndicated 
material by the major part of the newspapers list- 
ed elsewhere in the different sections of the re- 
port. 

"We do not edit closely, rather we run more 
news than formerly. We have tried to keep up 
the editorial end and find that folks generally ap- 
preciate this. We have made a slight gain in cir- 
culation, due, we think, to more local news." 

The St. James (Minn.) Plaindealer has evolved 
a more elastic scheme of avoiding extra pages by 
getting away from the tradition of allocating de- 
partments and features on the same pages. Vari- 
ation and shifting of matter permits use of all 
copy, reduces machine hours, power bill, and costs 
generally. 

The Mott (N. D.) Pioneer Press has changed 
its format from a seven-column, 13-em width, 22 
inch depth to a seven-column, 12-em width, 20 
inch depth. It also records a change from a 
standard eight page edition to the four page 
standard, with additional pages only when busi- 
ness merits it. All features have been eliminated. 

The Breckenridge (Minn.) Gazette-Telegram 
replies: "Stories which resemble free advertis- 
ing from local merchants have been discontin- 
ued." 

The East Side Journal of Kirkland (Wash.) 
writes as follows: "We have recently combined 
all of our correspondents that can be reached 
through our local telephone exchange. This saves 
us about $20 per month and besides eliminates a 
lot of little petty items that we never should have 
carried anyway and which took the machine 
man's time. We have cut our working week from 
six to five days, stepping up our efficiency to make 
up for lost time. Our lost day is taken up at vari- 
ous intervals during the week, different hours for 
different men." 

"We have cut all features," the Kirkland pub- 
lisher concludes. 

The Waupun (Wis.) Leader-News has "gone 
tabloid" with its Monday issue, retaining its six- 
column makeup for the Thursday issues. Volume 
of correspondence was cut 30 per cent. 

The Waseca (Minn.) Journal points out a 
clean-cut economy in having all headlines machine 
set. The Foster County Independent (Carring- 
ton, N. D.) now sets all correspondence in smaller 



type, but pays the same rate an inch for corres- 
pondence. 

The present survey indicates that a large num- 
ber of the smaller weekly newspapers have adopt- 
ed the ready print method of reducing publica- 
tion costs. This procedure, editors point out, en- 
ables them to maintain the size of their papers ; to 
reduce very materially their production costs; to 
increase advertising effectiveness through a fairly 
complete paper; and to continue business in less 
lucrative fields. 

The Peru (Ind.) Republican has adopted a 
policy of close editing of copy ; The Delta Re- 
porter (Gladstone, Mich.) has combined corres- 
pondents' territories that seem to overlap ; the 
Owatonna (Minn.) Journal-Chronicle has cut off 
correspondents in sparsely settled sections where 
little news originates, and where few subscribers 
live; the Bonners Ferry (Idaho) Herald has 
simplified its head schedules, thus saving time all 
around. Most of the economies listed in the fore- 
going have been adopted in toto or slightly modi- 
fied form by scores of replying papers. 

COUNTRY CORRESPONDENCE 

Country correspondence, hitherto considered 
sacrosanct, is being watched with an eagle-eye. 
Several editors indicate they have adopted smaller 
body type, strict editing for non-timely items, 
omission of all quad-lines by using correspond- 
ence briefs in "run-in" paragraphs, with a 
machine dash to separate individual items. 

Correspondents of the Aurora (Nebr.) Repub- 
lican-Register have been placed on a weekly space 
quota, above which they are not paid. "Suggest- 
ed 'boiling' items and still giving essentials of live 
news." 

The Chehalis (Wash.) Bee-Nugget editor has 
purchased a "larger and bluer" blue pencil, edits 
copy closely, and cuts out much correspondence 
not strictly news, but heretofore allowed to go. 
"I've adopted the head style of the Linotype 
Nezvs, which saves time in writing, setting and 
reading," he writes. 

"We have 30 correspondents who write each 
week," reports the Freeport (Ohio) Press. "Find 
they are good holders of circulation. Strictly 
local news is the fundamental secret of a success- 
ful weekly. We run no free publicity of any kind 
and very little syndicated matter." 

The Custer County Chief, Broken Bow, Nebr., 
has increased its large staff of correspondents 
from 100 to 115. "Fifteen of these correspond- 
ents are resident in incorporated towns, 12 of 
which have local newspapers," the editor writes. 

d 11 > 



'The others are rural correspondents who receive 
no pay other than the usual courtesies extended 
a Christmas present, stamps and stationery and 
copy of the paper, yet more than $2000 was spent 
in 1931 for correspondence." 

This paper, admittedly unusual, has no editorial 
page, publishes no syndicated matter, serials, 
poems or similar features, but concentrates on 
county news. 

The Fallon (Nev.) Standard reports that a re- 
porter has been laid off and that the remainder of 
the staff "is working harder." 

"We are not editing copy more closely for the 
reason that with less display advertising we have 
more space to fill," the editor writes. "Rural 
correspondents are not paid." 

The Logan (W. Va.) Banner reports, "We 
have no paid correspondents, and we supply 
material and C.O.D. envelopes, thus eliminating 
use of firm's stamps on personal mail." This 
paper also offers its correspondents a 40 per cent 
commission on subs sent in from writer's terri- 
tory. 

Weekly papers are developing systematic plans 
for keeping records of stories, notes and filings 
for futures. Care of cuts, especially halftones, 
seems to be of increasing concern to many pub- 
lishers. 

THE MINNESOTA PLAN 

One hundred Minnesota weekly papers are at- 
tempting to aid 1600 rural correspondents in the 
more careful selection of news and its prepara- 
tion. The Minnesota Editorial Association cen- 
tral office is mailing a series of 16 lessons on the 
subject, prepared with a view to presenting in 
interesting fashion some of the do's and don't's 
arising in the collection and writing of this type 
of news. Frequent examples of good correspond- 
ence, taken from the files of Minnesota papers, 
are used for illustrative purposes in the lesson 
sheets. The course covers the fundamental rules 
of news writing, showing different types of leads 
and stories arising in the average Minnesota com- 
munity. Sources of news and timely stories are 
cited. Correspondents are privileged to send in 
carbon copies or clipped columns of their material 
for suggestions and criticism from the depart- 
ment of journalism at the University of Minne- 
sota, which is sponsoring and writing the series 
as a service to the weekly field. It is felt that 
some such service would be valuable for all week- 
lies because it teaches rural correspondents to 
eliminate unimportant "chatter" and inter- 
community visiting items. 



. . . Business Office 

NEARLY ALL REPLIES indicate a definite trend 
toward reduction in number of employees, 
shorter working hours, fewer working 
days and consolidation of jobs, especially on the 
mechanical side. Office workers are undergoing 
similar adjustments. The reportorial and adver- 
tising groups seem to have suffered least. Nearly 
all replies showed some payroll adjustment, but 
wage reductions are being made with reluctance. 

PLANS NOW WORKING 

The editor of the Okanogan (Wash.) Inde- 
pendent states that the principal economy on his 
paper was the reduction in the number of days 
for the mechanical department. Certain work- 
men are placed on a four-day basis. The Wadena 
(Minn.) Pioneer Journal has established a five- 
day week of 42 hours. 

The Belleville (Kan.) Telescope has curtailed 
the society reporter's time to three days instead of 
six. The Chewelah (Wash.) Independent has 
adopted a part-time "devil." The Ontonagan 
(Mich.) Herald requires each employee to take 
a week off under a job rotation plan with other 
employees. Many variations of these plans were 
revealed, each depending on the set-up in the 
particular office. It is worthwhile to point out 
that in several cases where an employee resigned, 
the remaining members of the staff absorbed his 
duties. 

The Harwich (Mass.) Independent has unfold- 
ed a plan whereby the entire shop is working on 
a percentage basis the more production, the 
higher the wages for the men. The foreman, in 
full charge of the plant, pays his own subordin- 
ates. He receives 35 per cent on all work per- 
formed, and the paper looks to him for produc- 
tion and that gets it for less, writes the editor. 

The Williston (N. D.) Herald has climbed in- 
to the seat of economic planning for its own em- 
ployees with the plan of a 40-hour week, giving 
employees credit for 44 hours and placing extra 
4 hours credit to sinking fund to draw 6 per cent 
interest. 

The Quakertown (Pa.) Free Press has evolved 
an unusual plan. "Employees are using about 15 
per cent of their wages in 'trade' orders and let- 
ting the 15 per cent stand until it reaches a draw- 
ing amount of $50 to $100." 

Marcy B. Darnall of the Florence (Ala.) Her- 
ald, reports: "Closer supervision of employees to 



increase production. Most employees on five-day 
week; others used as needed, minimum is three 
days. None laid off entirely." 

The Lodi (Calif.) Sentinel reports: "Econo- 
mies effected in the payroll have been worked out 
as follows: In the front office each employee 
lays off one day a week, taking a corresponding 
cut in pay. In the back room each man lays off 
one day a week, but distributes the time over the 
week. This averages slightly more than two hours 
a day on slack days. In this way we keep the 
whole staff intact and each member of it is taking 
his cut." 

"Have not yet cut wages, but have cut hours/' 
reports Clarence Ellington of the Chehalis 
(Wash.) Bee-Nugget. "In my shop the boys 
work on an hour basis of 48 hours, paid so much 
an hour. With decreased activity, have staggered 
the force so some of the boys work four days one 
week, others five days ; next week I give the two 
who had four days, five days; and the two with 
five days, four days." 

The Chiloquin (Ore.) Review editor indicates 
that the "biggest single saving, during the slack 
time in the shop, has been to rotate our crew. 
They understand that we are not trying to hurt 
them, but in order that the boss and crew can live, 
both must take their share of loss. In my main 
shop here, I have been able to get along with al- 
most a 50 per cent reduction in labor overhead. 
Proportionately I am making more money this 
way," 

The Fairbury (Nebr.) News has eliminated 
payment for overtime this year. "Payment for 
extra work to be made by allowing employees to 
take off a similar amount of time on Saturdays 
or quiet periods." 

Charles H. Miller of the Breckenridge (Minn.) 
Telegram has a happy solution of his problem. He 
says: "The publisher of the small town who 
knows the mechanical end of the business, knows 
that good men are hard to find in small towns. All 
of our employees have been trained in our office. 
Starting in while in high school, they are now 
married and know thejtrade from A to Z. These 
men draw less than those of the large cities, yet 
they are as good craftsmen. We never lay our 
men off during slack periods, and in this manner 
get the best they have. Each man produces a 
good profit for us month by month." 

The Utica (Ohio) Herald has reduced the 
number of hours of employees but retains same 
rate of pay; and the Elbow Lake (Minn.) Herald 



reports a five-day week policy except in busy 
times. 

CREATING NEW SALESMEN 

Efforts to employ the less essential and part- 
time workers in other tasks during their off-days 
has met with varying success, but all results seem 
worth while. 

The Wareham (Mass.) Courier reports: "We 
have not reduced employees and shall not do so. 
By extra effort we keep our force busy on pro- 
ductive work. No shorter week, no reductions 
in pay." 

Employees of the Ingham County News (Ma- 
son, Mich.) are spending their spare time in 
drumming up new business. 

Mechanical employees of the Waupun (Wis.) 
Leader-News are selling job printing on commis- 
sion. A city directory, not frequently found in 
small towns and cities, but nevertheless useful, 
was planned and published. The employee-plan 
has kept several printing jobs at home, the pub- 
lisher reports. 

Others are sending out mechanical workers, re- 
porters and office assistants to obtain new sub- 
scribers and to collect circulation accounts. A few 
report that they have uncovered latent sales abili- 
ty in reporters and pressmen, who were asked to 
try their hand at digging up classified, and to sell 
professional card ads to dentists, doctors, lawyers 
and small non-advertisers. 

CREDITS AND COLLECTIONS 

The Birmingham (Mich.) Eccentric places 
stress on careful granting of credit and persistent 
collections. <4 We have tried to re-adjust our atti- 
tude toward business conditions of today, by ad- 
mitting that today's 'business is normal, and ad- 
justing our efforts toward bringing about im- 
provements. If we continued to gaze back at 
1928-29, today would look bleaker than it really 
is." 

The Medford (Wis.) Star-News editor has 
availed himself of aid in the collection problem. 
He says, "We are using everyone in our force, 
back or front office, for collections when their 
work is slack. It has helped." 

MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 

Weekly publishers are casting an appraising 
eye at their telephone bills and unessential items 
for shop and office. The Greenwich (Conn.) 
Press reports it has inaugurated a plan of filling 
out a slip for every toll call. Results "It re- 
duced our telephone bill last, month $10 below the 



average." Others are accomplishing the same end 
by close checking on persons making calls, and 
similar procedures in the front office. The De 
Pere (Wis.) Journal-Democrat indicates that it 
has made a saving by cutting off one office phone. 
Others have done likewise. 

The Montevideo (Minn.) News reports a re- 
duction in space rates to rural correspondents 
from five to three cents an inch. 

The Logan (W. Va.) Banner writes, "We are 
adopting a schedule of rates whereby steady 
(each issue) advertiser is given better rate than 
even large space users." 

The Chiloquin (Ore.) Review editor says: 
"We have slashed our overhead to the bone. We 
are getting to be very careful in the buying of 
stock and supplies of all kinds. Where formerly 
we sent the orders to a certain firm, now we shop 
among a number of firms before buying stock or 
supplies. I firmly believe that this current busi- 
ness unpleasantness has made businessmen out of 
many publishers who were often too prone to fol- 
low the path of least resistance in their business 
dealings. We are sorry to say that there are 
some who were not cured, but put out of busi- 
ness." 

Other suggestions brought out in the survey 
for cutting costs are as follows : use of the reverse 
side of received letters as the office's copy or car- 
bon of the reply for one-page letters to save time 
in filing and eliminate use of second sheets ; pay- 
ment of accounts payable within discount period. 

EMPLOYEES' WAGES 

Of the papers studied, 34 per cent reported 
they had reduced the number of their employees. 

Of the total number of employees dismissed, 21 
per cent were removed because of reorganization 
in office staffs, 19 per cent were classed as 
mechanical workers, 18 per cent were composi- 
tors, 10 per cent were machine operators, 8 per 
cent were reporters, 6 per cent were pressmen, 4 
per cent were advertising solicitors, 3 per cent job 
printers, 3 per cent were bookkeepers, and the re- 
maining 8 per cent eliminated were divided equal- 
ly in the five positions of proof readers, circula- 
tion, editorial, apprentice, and janitor, making 
about \y^ per cent for each division. 

Fewer than 2 per cent of the replying papers 
indicate the addition of new employees during the 
period under study. With the exception of one 
case of a reporter, the new employees were all 
placed in circulation departments. 

f 16 $> 



r 



Although the questionnaire contained no speci- 
fic questions on wage reductions, it may be point- 
ed out that 4.6 per cent of the papers voluntarily 
reported reductions of from 10 per cent to 20 per 
cent- in salaries in all departments. 

The survey revealed that 28.5 per cent of those 
replying are using cost finding systems. 



417 + 



Advertising 



REPLIES IN THE ADVERTISING SECTION of the 
survey reveal a "tightening up" in every 
branch of the department. Pages show high- 
er percentages of paid space per page; papers 
eliminate extra pages where possible; expendi- 
tures for advertising services and features are be- 
ing pared to the bone in some cases and increased 
in others, and services to space-buyers are being 
curtailed. 

The Burlington (Wash.) Journal reports a 
"group use of cut service with neighboring 
papers, WNU sending each of us proof books, 
and cuts to the central shop." 

The Claremont (Calif.) Courier reports: "An 
arrangement with three other newspapers where- 
by we each solicit certain accounts and set certain 
ads, all of us using the same ad when it is to run 
in all three newspapers." 

The Wadena (Minn.) Pioneer Journal, to com- 
pete with ol' man depression, has set up a yard- 
stick for the number of pages it prints. Each 
must carry a 40 per cent advertising load. Con- 
densing of good news matter makes the task 
easier. 

The Belleville (Kan.) Telescope reports that it 
is having success with a plan of allowing a large 
space user a small discount to get copy in five 
days early. 

The Waseca (Minn.) Journal editor says: 'We 
buy a good mat service but have it shipped only 
six months a year, selecting the months we believe 
most desirable. By contracting for 12 months (or 
issues) we get regular contract price." 

The Roy (N. M.) Record and the Brockport 
(N. Y.) Republican-Democrat report they have 
found it possible to eliminate their cut and copy 
service entirely by using old mats. Many others 
reported they were using a less expensive and 
smaller service, for the time being at least, and 
several have re-arranged their schedules so that 
they now receive mats every other month, exclud- 
ing November and December. Other papers are 
arranging for mat services which are bought in 
trade for advertising. 

The Alexander City (Ala.) Outlook reports on 
a plan of writing ad copy complete enough to 
route almost entirely through the type-setting 
machine. Nearly all indicated the adoption of a 
plan to route ad copy through the shop to the end 
of obtaining maximum production during low- 
work hours in shop. 



The Plymouth (Mich.) Mail finds that one ad- 
vertising service diligently used now does the 
work of two services. 

The Forest Grove (Ore.) News-Times is using 
a more expensive cut and copy service than it 
formerly used. The editor explains that "with 
the falling off of national business we have had to 
work our local accounts harder to keep up a satis- 
factory volume. To do this we thought it advis- 
able to use a better and larger service at an in- 
crease of $2.50 per month/' A few others make 
similar reports. 

Instead of economies, more intensive advertis- 
ing solicitation plus the introduction of special ad- 
vertising features which increased linage are re- 
ported by the Northfield (Minn.) News. A "Food 
and Market Basket" page, carrying a "Favorite 
Recipe" feature, with a free copy of a "North- 
field News Cook Book" to subscribers in which to 
paste recipes, attracted new advertisers (grocery 
stores and meat markets) and also new subscrib- 
ers, as well as holding present subscribers. A 
Betty Lou visiting-the-shops chatty advertising 
feature brought added linage and new advertisers. 

The Aurora (Nebr.) Republican-Register 
writes that ''we bought a more expensive and bet- 
ter ad service, but get it only every other month, 
with the privilege of supplementing, at small cost, 
from months we do not buy at nominal cost. This 
completely meets our needs and effects a good 
saving." 

The Chiloquin (Ore.) Review reports that its 
''advertising department, more than ever before, 
is using the best of the methods in vogue on daily 
papers. One way in which we are keeping our 
volume of advertising up to near normal is to 
play up seasonal breaks and any big event in 
which we can make a county-wide tie-up. Here- 
tofore, only daily papers have attempted this serv- 
ice, but we are giving our merchants a chance to 
merchandise in the latest accepted methods. It 
sells copy." 

Advertising contract revisions show that large 
space buyers are being given slight reductions. 

PENNSYLVANIA PAPER ADDS OFFICE 

The Cambridge Springs (Pa.) Enterprise- 
News has taken the depression "devil" by the 
horns. "We have opened a full-time Erie (Pa.) 
office to solicit advertising in that large field for 
our two newspapers at Cambridge Springs and 
Union City; our theory being that if local adver- 
tisers will not justify a semi- weekly, we have a 



right to keep the paper up to standard by selling 
the space where it is more appreciated. On the 
theory that more selling time is necessary in the 
local field, our regular solicitor has been relieved 
of Erie City work, giving one more day in the 
local field. The solicitor also spends one day each 
week in the county seat." 



. . . Mechanical 

SHIFTING IN STAFFS AND HOURS 

THE MOST APPARENT DEDUCTION from replies in 
the mechanical section of the survey is that 
with a smaller force in shops, the hours of 
work are being shifted, juggled and alternated to 
accommodate peak-load hours on the machines 
and presses with the goal of eliminating over-time 
charges. 

The Exeter (Calif.) Sun, for example, inter- 
changes operator and compositors to keep the 
"mill" going during meal time and makeup time. 
The force works four hours on night before pub- 
lication day and takes Saturday afternoon off in 
exchange. 

The Daivson County Review of Glendive, 
Montana, has changed from eight 12-em columns 
to seven 12-em columns. Working schedules in 
the shop have been shifted to nine hours on Mon- 
day and Tuesday, ten hours on Wednesday, with 
Saturday afternoon off. 

The Greenwich (Conn.) Press reports that it 
has "started teaching the 'boy in the composing 
room to run the Intertype to take the place of the 
night operator we needed two or three nights a 
week. Now he divides his time between the floor 
and the machine during evenings, saving us $20 
a week. We have also re-arranged equipment to 
make composing room more efficient." 

Other plans, similar to that above, are summar- 
ized : staggered hours for shop workmen, for the 
purpose of keeping the type setting machine turn- 
ing over ; shifting of combined office girl and re- 
porter to machine on Monday to set early social 
and personal news; routing of "time" copy to 
shop as soon as the current issue is off the press ; 
shop employees sign off after 44 hours work. 

Many papers have revised their classifications 
of copy to the end that composition is speeded up 
by having editorials, humor columns, sports and 
features sent to the machine on Friday, Saturday 
and Monday. 

The Enumclaw (Wash.) Herald writes: "Close 
editing of copy makes it possible to cut down on 
composition, still giving all community news. This 
allows shorter week for compositors. We now 
operate on four and one-half day basis but have 
not reduced wage scale." 

NEW EQUIPMENT 

New labor-saving and time-conserving equip- 
ment has been added by many publishers as a 

( 21 & 



means of cutting expense, improving plant and 
preparing for an anticipated business. The Belle- 
ville (Kans.) Telescope has installed a new per- 
fecting press. New cylinder presses, capable of 
handling newspaper and catalog work, are being 
installed by several of the larger weeklies. 

The Livermore (Calif.) Herald, like many 
others, has traded in old stereo metal for machine 
metal and has swapped all old, worn and out-of- 
date type for new, modern fonts. Matrix straight- 
eners are being used by an increasingly large 
number of shops. The Cedar County (Nebr.) 
News relates that "use of Hancock foot-sticks 
enable us to give 22^ inch columns, a gain of 48 
inches when we print 12 pages or 32 inches when 
we print only 8 pages." 

The Aurora (Nebr.) Republican-Register, like 
scores of other papers in territory where natural 
gas is available, is finding that gas is an economy 
for type-setting machines and for other work 
where melting is needed. 

The Nebraska Signal of Geneva, Nebraska, re- 
sultant of a consolidation of thirteen weekly news- 
papers, writes of mechanical economies: "Our 
most recent economy of importance was made 
possible by the coming of natural gas to this city 
in recent months. For many years we had heated 
our type-setting machines, metal pots and our mat 
casting box with electricity. We converted our 
electric metal pots and electric casting box to 
natural gas. A type-setting machine company 
wrote us electric metal pots could not be convert- 
ed to natural gas pots, but this is possible if Mon- 
omelts are installed. We converted two of our 
type-setting machines to natural gas, experiment- 
ally, our third machine being only used part 
time." 

"Our operators say our natural gas heat con- 
trol is the most perfect they ever saw, and every 
operator knows what that means," the publisher 
adds. ''Our metal pot plungers keep much clean- 
er than ever before.'' 

Nearly all shops indicated they have enlisted 
the co-operation of employees in a drive to curtail 
electric lights, power and gas bills. A few write 
that they have printed up small signs as reminders 
to "Turn Off Lights While Not In Use," while 
many who have made their appeals verbally, ac- 
complished the same end. 

DOWN WITH "TRICK" ADS 

Concerted efforts are evident in the direction of 
cutting down printers' fancies and desires which 
formerly cost money and time. Initial letters are 

Gf 22 }> 



being subordinated to straight composition style 
by the Millersburg (Ohio) Farmer-Hub. More 
than one-half of the reports indicated a curtail- 
ment of hand-set heads ; while complicated lay- 
outs and borders are being avoided as much as 
possible. Tricky typography is on the wane. 

The Culver (Ind.) Citizen avoids complicated 
make-up as a means of lowering costs. 

"We use time-clocks in all the departments and 
our charges are based on fixed hour cost, revised 
to meet conditions," writes the Colorado Springs 
(Colo.) Farm-News. 

One enthusiastic publisher says his shop saves 
30 minutes each week by insisting upon a consci- 
entious use of a type-high gauge on casts and 
cuts. Three more are taking advantage of the lull 
in business to re-arrange equipment in order to 
save steps between stones and presses, between 
presses and drying rack and mailing table. A few 
are building new stock cabinets. Improved heat- 
ing and lighting facilities are saving time for 
many shops. 

PAGE SIZES AND COLUMN WIDTHS 

The Lindsay (Calif.) Publishing Company re- 
ports that it piles as much advertising space into 
a six-column 12-em page as the average seven 
column paper, and thus saves considerable compo- 
sition. The editor says : "Invariably only a small 
ad appears in the seventh column. If a small 

?aper had larger ads this would not toe true, but 
have measured many and find that we average 
as much as the ordinary seven column weekly." 

The Batesville (Ark.) Record has a plan of its 
own for saving time and work. Quoting the edi- 
tor: "Our regular issue is an 8 page 7-column 
paper. When advertising is too scarce we can 
easily re-adjust our press to print a 6-column 
paper, eliminating 8 columns of type-setting with- 
out materially affecting the looks or quality of 
the paper. We have never had a kick from a 
subscriber." 

The Wyoming State Journal (Lander, Wyo.) 
has ''lengthened columns 1^4 inches, cut to 12 
picas and added extra column to page, giving 256 
column inches extra or equivalent to about two 
pages, 7-column, 19^4 inches, which cut our runs 
from 10 to 8 pages, saving cost in print paper, 
press-work, folding and mailing." 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Buying economies for the mechanical depart- 
ment are rather limited because of the nature of 
the products and articles used. The Waupun 



(Wis.) Leader-News has "switched to cheaper 
but equal quality news ink." Others are experi- 
menting with different brands of soap, window 
cleaning compounds and incidentals used around 
presses. 

The Hastings (Minn.) Gazette rings up a vote 
for "a counter on every press," as a means of 
cutting costs. 

The Santa Paula (Calif.) Chronicle has solved 
its paper towel problem by using the butt end of 
rolls, sawed to size. Many shops are using news 
print as towels. 

The Cloquet (Minn.) Pine Knot has "effected 
an economy by casting type high instead of shell, 
saving time and cost of blocking. Better casts re- 
sult from the change." 

The Littleton (Colo.) Independent replies it 
"saved on electricity by painting woodwork 
white ; also got more favorable rate to which we 
were entitled. A clock turns on the Linotype an 
hour before working time ; so it is ready at 8 a.m. 
Formerly the operator stood around for an hour 
while waiting for the metal to become melted." 

Metal melting time is being adjusted to serve 
the shops in many cases, with co-ordination of 
melting and casting for the same day. 

The survey shows typography changes aside 
from the trend of a large number of papers which 
are changing from six 13-em column pages to 
seven 12-em size, and from seven 12-em to eight 
12-em. Scores of papers are changing their 
typography and dress from 8 point leaded to 8 
point solid. The reason: desire for "tighter" 
papers. 

A similar paragraph might be written to show 
a modified attitude concerning dashes of various 
kinds. Many papers are omitting dashes from 
news briefs and a few have adopted a thinner 
dash for use in briefs and head lines. 

One Southern publisher reports that he omits 
jim dashes after headings on smaller stories and 
eliminates cut-off rule over advertising to permit 
more actual space for news matter. 



. . . Circulation 

COLLECTIONS AND RENEWALS 

THREE TRENDS STAND OUT in the circulation de- 
partment. Papers are eliminating dead- 
heads; less attempt is being made to obtain 
circulation outside of trade territory, and closer 
attention is given to the collection of circulation 
accounts. Here's how they do it : 

The Medford (Okla.) Patriot-Star and Journal 
has employed a field man on a percentage basis, 
collecting accounts and writing human interest 
squibs about readers. 

The Fallen (Nev.) Eagle reports: "We know 
nearly all of our local people, but outside of this 
community, when a subscription expires we mail 
notice and send two more copies of the paper and 
if remittance does not come for renewal, the name 
is dropped. Then if the subscriber wants the 
paper he will renew, and if not, we are not out a 
year's subscription. This works well." 

Several papers report that they are using reput- 
able and ambitious unemployed persons in their 
communities to aid in collecting subscription ac- 
counts and to obtain new subs. The cash-in- 
advance system, in the opinion of the Wareham 
(Mass.) Courier "eliminates the dead-beats." 
"Circulation sufficient to cover trading area is 
sought and maintained, and further circulation is 
not profitable," the editor points out. 

The Northfield (Minn.) News reports: "The 
past year has required more concentrated atten- 
tion to subscription collections and circulation 
maintenance than ever before. We try everything 
personal solicitation, which has proven too cost- 
ly for the returns obtained ; sample copies to non- 
subs in trade area, followed by direct mail circu- 
lars with a bargain offer at the popular "one dol- 
lar" figure, giving a 9 months' introductory offer, 
plus a due bill good for 50 cents on classified ads. 
Cash-in-advance policy has been rigidly main- 
tained even if it results in some losses temporar- 
ily." 

The Littleton (Colo.) Independent offers "a 
three-year subscription for the price of two years 
for those living within 25 miles." 

The Brovverville (Minn.) Blade is using per- 
sonal solicitation methods, driving through rural 
sections, calling at every home, and concentrating 
on its own trade territory, a rural route at a time. 

Many weekly papers in farming territory re- 
port that while they watch circulation accounts 



closely, they have adopted a policy of extending 
all credit possible to farmers as long as present 
conditions exist. 

ELIMINATING FREE PAPERS 

The Lindsay (Calif.) Publishing Company 
sends no free mail copies to advertisers in city. 
"Either delivered or they can pick them up. This 
prevents getting name on list and allowing it to 
go to residence of store owner of sub he should 
pay for, or for years after he becomes a non- 
advertiser." 

Others report that they have started attempts 
to place correspondents, relatives, politicians and 
advertisers on the bona fide "pay" list as a meas- 
ure to offset legitimate losses through the inability 
of many to afford the expense. 

H. C. Hotaling, executive secretary of the Na- 
tional Editorial Association, writes: "I think 
there is one spot where some saving could be 
made in the average country office. It might not 
amount to much in some shops, but in others it 
would mean a good deal. I refer to the mail list. 
If publishers would go over this and check off the 
dead material there will be a reduction in copies 
they are mailing to people who have never sub- 
scribed, to exchanges of no benefit to them, to 
subscribers who will never pay. Each additional 
copy of this sort means more paper, more press 
work, more time and mailing. There are a lot of 
papers that I know of that could easily eliminate 
from 25 to 50 copies from their lists, which 
should mean a saving of $25 to $35 during the 
year." 

Other circulation savers mentioned in replies 
were : close count on press run, minimum number 
of office copies, refolding spoiled copies, checking 
carriers for extra copies, elimination of "useless" 
exchanges. *" 

The St. James (Minn.) Plaindealer "has in- 
creased its expense by putting one or two men in- 
to the field on a house-to-house canvass for subs 
and collections. This has enabled the Plaindealer 
to keep its circulation within 100 of what it was 
a year ago, but by paying 50 per cent commission 
it has added about $600 a year to our expense of 
circulation." 

The Livermore (Calif.) Herald has solved its 
collection problem by the installation of a system 
of regular monthly billing. 

Having two semi-weeklies, the Cambridge 
Springs (Pa.) Enterprise-News reports that it 
bought a Ford car and put out a full-time man to 



keep subscriptions paid to date, gather rural news, 
and contact the correspondents." 

The Batesville (Ark.) Record reports that it 
has "substituted wood for gas as a fuel, accepting 
heating wood as payment on subscription, thereby 
materially reducing our fuel bill and, at the same 
time, keeping a number of subscribers (farm) 
with us who would have otherwise been forced to 
discontinue, due to our strict pay-in-advance 
rule." One other paper indicated that it accepted 
farm produce on subscription accounts of farm 
readers. 

The Wyoming State Journal (Lander, Wyo.) 
has made a detailed study of office forms to elim- 
inate duplication and unnecessary work. ''In our 
subscription receipt the original goes to the cus- 
tomer and the duplicate serves to make office en- 
try credits, then goes to the machine for mailing 
galley changes and is finally filed as permanent 
record." 

OTHER PLANS USED 

Exchanges are being culled. One paper writes 
that it has adopted a policy of "exchange of 
checks" instead of courtesies, and only one repre- 
sentative paper is taken from each section of the 
state. 

The Nebraska Signal of Geneva, Nebraska, 
found that so many of its subscribers were send- 
ing the Signal to relatives and friends as birthday 
presents that it printed a special card that it sends 
with each subscription of this kind. Similar to its 
holiday gift card, the birthday present card gives 
the name of the person making the gift and ex- 
tends congratulations. 



Job Printing 



COLLECTIONS AND RENEWALS 

NINE MAJOR MOVES for economy in job print- 
ing departments are looming on the weekly 
newspaper horizon. Publishers of diverg- 
ent types and in different classes of shops write 
that the following economies are being effected : 

1. Group buying of news stock. 

2. Group buying of bond stock. 

3. Less hand composition in jobs. 

4. More care in maintenance of equipment. 

5. Careful preservation of ink and rollers. 

6. Installation of time-saving machinery. 

7. Re-arrangement of equipment. 

8. Closer supervision of employees. 

9. Plan for routing printing jobs. 

GROUP BUYING OF NEWS PRINT 

Publishers who have joined in groups for the 
purpose of buying news print are enthusiastic 
over the results. The survey indicates that the 
groups range in size from units of three and four 
in nearly every state in the Union to a purchasing 
unit of 100 in Missouri. Substantial savings have 
resulted in each instance. Group buying in bond 
stock and other fairly standardized papers is re- 
ceiving attention in a few states. 

JOB STOCK ECONOMIES 

The Newport (Vt.) Express and Democrat, by 
minimizing the brands and grades of stock on 
hand, has brought about economies through 
"twinning" forms in long press runs. Several 
other publishers emphasized this point. 

H. C. Hotaling, Executive Secretary of the Na- 
tional Editorial Association, writes: "More care 
could be taken in the purchasing of job stock by 
buying from one wholesale house rather than 
from several so that shops would not carry so 
many lines of paper stock. Broken reams could 
then be used up. Group buying would permit the 
placing of larger orders and securing of lower 
prices, provided stock could be shipped to one 
central point and picked up." 

COMPOSITION SAVINGS 

The Heron Lake (Minn.) News indicates a 
saving is made on composition and distribution by 
marking up more machine type on advertisements 
and jobs. More than 90 per cent of the survey 
questionnaires show this to be accepted policy in 
printing today. 

The Winslow (Ind.) Dispatch reports it uses 

428* 



machines more than ever before. "Have type- 
setting machine equipped with additional job 
fonts in place of handset. This keeps machine on 
full time and does away with one printer." 

The Wareham (Mass.) Courier replies that it 
is using machine composition almost wholly and 
an automatic press to reduce production costs. 

CARE OF EQUIPMENT 

The South Tacoma (Wash.) Star replies that 
it is taking "more care in maintenance of equip- 
ment. Tympan paper has undergone a similar 
sequence of use by being twisted, turned and re- 
versed on job presses." Careful preservation of 
ink and rollers is stressed by the Velva (N. D.) 
Journal. The Jordan (Minn.) Independent like- 
wise reports "keeping the shop more than ordin- 
arily tidy tends to prevent wastage and too rapid 
obsolescence." 

TAKING CARE OF MACHINE 

Stressing the importance of taking proper care 
of type-setting machines, one publisher has set 
forth his recipe for equipment maintenance. 

"Four hours a week should be spent in keeping 
a machine oiled and wiped clean. Besides, the 
spacebands and plunger should be cleaned daily. 
The metal should be skimmed when the plunger 
is cleaned. The front and the back of the mold 
should be cleaned daily, and the pot mouthpiece 
should be wiped off and the cross vents opened 
every day. The vise jaws should be wiped free 
of metal dust and scale every day. This takes 
about twenty minutes. 

"The general oiling and wiping of the machine 
and the occasional oiling of the keyboard cams, 
and the cleaning of the rubber rolls, need not be 
done except at week-end intervals. The cleaning 
of the magazine and matrices will also be an occa- 
sional treatment. If the foregoing points are per- 
sistently neglected there will be much time lost, 
aggregating much more than four hours a week." 

The Lander (Wyo.) State Journal has made a 
useful ink tube cabinet, putting all colors in small 
individual compartments slightly larger than the 
tubes ; thus insuring that a tube is finished before 
another is opened. This cuts waste and saves in- 
vestment in job inks. 

Another printer-publisher reports that he has 
solved the ink problem in his shop by purchasing 
several inexpensive putty knives. "Now," he 
says, "when using ink from a can, we scrape the 
top from the ink needed for the job." He advises 
"Don't dig into the ink and form a hole, as this 



causes the ink to dry into a covering scab, which 
is the source of most ink troubles and loss. Pour 
water into the top of your ink can when you are 
through with it, as this will protect the ink from 
the air and other dryness causes." 

NEW EQUIPMENT 

Very little new machinery has been added to 
the job printing shops of weekly papers during 
the past one and one-half years. Six per cent of 
the papers queried show additions to mechanical 
equipment. Most of this was for replacement of 
obsolete machinery, and not as an investment. 
Presses, new fonts for machines, feeders and 
metal saws form the major part of the new in- 
vestments being made by publishers. 

SHOP EFFICIENCY 

Many weekly publishers write that they are 
making good use of added spare time by re- 
arranging equipment to bring about a saving of 
time in their job printing plants. New drying 
racks, portable stones and mail-galley racks are 
frequently mentioned. 

SUPERVISION OF WORKERS 

Closer supervision of employees to curtail idle 
time, remove "soldiering" and to speed up the 
shop has been studied by several publishers. The 
Florence (Ala.) Herald requires a daily report of 
jobs finished. Cost-finding systems tend to lower 
non-productive time, publishers agree. One large 
shop which does a tremendous volume of job 
work reports that it has constructed a black-board 
in the middle of the shop, and uses it for direc- 
tions on jobs, memos to men and as a barometer 
of production of shop presses. 

PLANNING WORK 

Job printers follow the rule of ''run small jobs 
first" so we might as well adopt this as one of the 
fundamental rules for the management of our 
weekly offices, writes one printer-publisher. He 
continues, "It is usually only a matter of a few 
units of time in our shop until we have the type 
set and presses ready for one or two small jobs, 
but a large job which involves considerable com- 
position delays the presses for hours and at the 
same time holds up delivery on all orders, large 
and small." 



4 30 fr 



. . . Stock Room 

PRACTICES AND PROBLEMS 

FOUR STOCK ROOM PRACTICES stand out today in 
the job printing departments of weekly news- 
papers. The first, and perhaps the most im- 
portant, is the use of perpetual inventories of 
stock; the second is the practice of buying stand- 
ard stocks in quantities sufficiently large to enable 
buyer to obtain a discount, and close buying of 
infrequently used stock to avoid piling up a need- 
less investment and cluttering up the shelving 
space ; the third is the trend toward using every 
possible sheet of scrap stock for other printing 
jobs; the fourth is the plan of turning the less 
expensive grades of stock into scratch pads and 
other saleable forms or using this stock for self- 
promotion advertising purposes. 

Of the replies received, 14 per cent of the pub- 
lishers indicated use of stock inventories. 

One Pacific coast publisher writes "We have 
made a successful effort during the past few 
months to close out many kinds of slow moving 
stock, by making up special forms in which it 
could be used. Individual bridge score cards, or 
pads for the bridge fan hostess, gives you an idea 
of some of the jobs. Broken reams of colored 
stock sell in individual stationery sets." 

The St. James (Minn.) Plaindealer reports it 
made better use of its capital by increasing the 
job stock turn-over from 5.5 to 6.7 times during 
1931. The Enterprise (Ore.) Record-Chieftain 
reports it is using all scrap stock in other jobs or 
scratch pads, and ever since the war has utilized 
the heavy twine and wrapping paper which comes 
with bundles of stock for tying bundles and 
packages. Another weekly reports that larger 
sizes of package papers bring greater economy of 
both time and material; often can get one or two 
more pieces from larger sheet than from two 
smaller ones. The Claremont (Calif.) Courier 
writes that it sold $300 worth of scratch pads last 
year? The Duchesne (Utah) Record is making 
use of many stock room plans for saving. Scores 
of others indicated that they follow the economies 
suggested above. 

The Cambridge Spring (Pa.) Enterprise-News 
presents one view of a two-sided question: "In 
job printing, instead of cutting prices, we met 
competition with a higher grade of paper, adver- 
tising that fact, and maintained prices." The 
other side of this two-headed monster, presented 
by the Breckenridge (Minn.) Gazette-Telegram, 



I 



follows : "Four years ago we sold all letterheads 
on high grade bond, running about 25c per pound. 
Today we use lie per pound bond. The whole- 
sale houses of the cities, with their cheap prices, 
are our largest competitors. To meet these prices 
and make a profit, is the problem." 

As a suggestion for the solution of part of the 
difficulties arising in the stock department of the 
average weekly paper, the writer might point out 
from his own experience that it would be worth- 
while for each publisher and printer to make a 
real study of the common stocks. This should in- 
clude spoilage allowances, correct procedure for 
figuring stock, how to unpack, how to stack, how 
to determine right and wrong side, how to handle 
grains and water-marks, proper jogging and slip- 
sheeting, and how to combat the '"demon" static. 
Some national paper manufacturer could well af- 
ford to issue a useful booklet on this subject, and 
I am quite sure that it would meet with a hearty 
welcome by publishers, printers and apprentices. 






AN INITIAL FIpJ pF 25 CENTS 



WILL BE ASSESSED FjiRFfcllfat^ TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE" PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE 
DAY AND TO $t.OO ON THE SEVENT 
OVERDUE. 




9.1 t935 



27 



FE6 5 1043 



SENtONIL 



NOV 2 7 B95 



U.C. BERKELEY 



Photomount 

Pamphlet 

Binder 

Caylord Bros., I nc I 

Makers 
Stockton 




832025 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA UBRARY